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SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND NARCOTICS

Adviser : Prof. Dr. dr. H. A. Prayitno, Sp.KJ (K)

Sphatika Ekakarttika 030.05.211

Definition
Narcotics

Psycotropics

Substanse Abuse

ETIOLOGY
Psychosocial and psychodynamic theory Behaviour theory
Psychodynamic: a childhood non-stable, more likely to self-medicate with substances and more likely to benefit from psychotherapy. Psychosocial: relationships with family & society

Substance abuse has focused on substance-seeking behavior rather than on the symptoms of physical dependence

Genetics theory

Strong evidence from research on twins, adopted children, and siblings have created a clear indication that the abuse of alcohol has a genetic component

Neurochemical theory

For most substances of abuse, with the exception of alcohol, researchers have found certain neurotransmitters or neurotransmitter receptors in which the substance causing the effect

CAUSE OF SUBSTANCE DEPENDANCE


Individual
Great curiosity to try just for fun being accept runaway from problems fashionable couldns say no to drugs

Environment

STAGE OF DRUG USER


Experimental Users once or several times tried to use drugs in a relatively short time and then stop The motive : high sense of curiosity and wanted to get an amazing experience as told by his friends Recreational Users

Use more often and use one or several kinds of drugs alone or together in one group They usually have a very close relationship with the group
Situational Users usage in certain situations, usually in a state of stress Risk for addiction is more likely to occur at this stage Intensified Users already in use for long periods The main motive is usually to reduce unpleasant feelings, especially anxiety, disappointment, sadness and melancholy

Compulsive Dependence Users


patient was difficult to stop using drugs because it happened a long lasting addiction

TYPES OF DRUG AND SUBSTANCE THAT often misused

Other additives

Narcotics

Psycotropics

NARCOTICS
I Scientific purposes Heroin/ putaw, cocaine, marijuana II Therapy or scientific purposes Morphine, pethidine III Therapy or scientific purposes (low dependance) Codein

PSYCOTROPICS
I Scientific purposes High LSD II Therapy or scientific purposes High Amphetami n, metilfenidat III Therapy or scientific purposes (low dependance) Phenobarbital, flunitrazepam IV Therapy Low Diazepam, Nitrazepa,

OTHER ADDITIVES
Alcohol Consist of etil alcohol A : 1-5% (Beer) B: 5-20% (wine) C: 20-45% (vodca, etc) Inhalant & Solvent Household purposes Thinner, glue Tobacco

Types of Drugs

Depresant (Downer)
Reduce activity Calm, quiet, asleep

Opioid (Morfin, heroin) Sedatif Hipnotik

Stimulant
Stimulate nervous system increase the excitement or pleasure
MDMA (Methylene dioxy methamphetamin)

Amphetamin Methamfetamin ice Cocain Shabu-shabu, crystal Cafein increase the excitement or pleasure

Ecstacy, fantasy pils, snow white

Hallucinogen
Hallucinogenic effect Kanabis (mary jane, hasish, pot, tea, hasish, gelek, ganja) Mushroom Mescalin LSD

In society
OPIOIDA COCAIN KANABIS AMPHETAMINES LSD HIPNOTIC SEDATIF INHALAN ALCOHOL

SIGN
Physical changes Attitude and behavious changes

DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
According to DSM-IV - substance dependence - substance abuse - substance intoxication - substance withdrawal

Communication, information, educaation National strategy High risk strategy

Indirect prevention

Prevention & promotion

Society strategy

Relaps prevention

Abstinensia

function of psychological and social adaptation

Curative & Rehabilitative

PROGNOSIS
the duration of the activity of substance abuse possible complications that could arise from substance abuse prospects for recovery the duration required for recovery levels of mortality and recovery

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