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POWER GENERATION PROCESS BASICS

BOILER / STEAM TURBO-GENERATOR UTILITY PLANT


Steam Condenser 40%

20%

Stack Lake Steam 6% Aux. Power + Losses 34% Electricity 100% Fuel Air

Boiler

Steam Turbine

Generator

Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 34%

BOILER / STEAM TURBINE-GENERATOR INDUSTRIAL CO-GENERATION


Process Steam 65% 15%

Process Plant Stack

Steam

5% Aux. Power + Losses 15% Electricity

Fuel 100% Air

Boiler

Steam Turbine

Generator

Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 80%

SIMPLE CYCLE COMBUSTION (GAS) TURBINE

57-62%

100% Fuel

Stack

Combuster

3% Aux Power + Losses

35-40% Electricity Air

Compressor

Turbine

Generator

Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 35-40%

GAS TURBINE INDUSTRIAL CO-GENERATION PLANT


20% Stack

Stack Supplementary/ Auxiliary Fuel (Optional) 100% Fuel

Process Steam
Process Plant

Combuster

Exhaust Gas

Air

Compressor

Turbine

Generator

Transmission

GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT


Steam Condenser 20% Stack Supplementary Fuel (Optional) 100% Fuel Steam Turbine Combuster Exhaust Gas Generator Stack Steam Lake

28%

Transmission 12-15% Electricity

Air

6% Aux. Power + Losses

35-40% Electricity

Compressor

Turbine

Generator

Transmission

Thermal Efficiency - 45-55%

UTILITY PLANT - FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM


Switch Yard System Ash Handling System Station Electrical System

Boiler Steam & Water System Air & Flue Gas System

BOILER

Fuel Preparation System Fuel Firing System Boiler Miscellaneous Systems Boiler Feed Pumps & Deaerator System Turbine Steam System

UNIT#2

TURBINEGENERATOR

HP & LP Heaters System Turbine Supervisory & Control System Generator & Electrical System Turbine Miscellaneous Systems Turbine Bypass System

DM Plant

Fuel Handling System

Station Miscellaneous Systems

CAPTIVE POWER PLANT - FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM


Switch Yard System Ash Handling System Station Electrical System

Steam & Water Air & Flue Gas BOILER Fuel Preparation Fuel Firing

Steam

UNIT#2

UNIT#3

TG

HP & LP Heaters
Supervisory & Control Generator & Electrical

Miscellaneous Systems

BFPs & Deaerator System Fuel Handling System

DM Plant

Station Miscellaneous Systems

BOILER FUNDAMENTALS

BASIC DIAGRAM OF A BOILER


Water Steam

Steam / Water System

Blowdown

Fuel Flue Gas

Mixing of Fuel & Air

Heat Transfer Surface Furnace

Air

Ash

SALIENT FEATURES OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL & UTILITY BOILER STEAM BOILER


WATER TUBE
SUPERHEATED STEAM

HIGH PRESSURE WATER COOLED FURNACE WATER CIRCULATION

COMBUSTION REQUIREMENTS

Sufficient Combustion Air

Fuel is Gasified

Mixing within Flammable Range

Temperature above Ignition Point

Combustion Time Temperature Turbulence 3 Ts of Combustion

BASIC COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY


Complete (Air) Oxygen Fuel

Heat
Flue Gas Products H2O CO2

O2

H2 C

Incomplete Oxygen Fuel H2 C

Heat
Flue Gas
Products H2O CO2 CO H2 C

O2

Other Combustibles - Sulphur to Sulphur Oxides Non-combustible - Nitrogen to Nitrogen+Nitrous Oxides Ash

BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM


Spray Water Drum Attemperator

Hot Reheat Steam Main Steam

Attemperator Platen Super Heater Down Comers Final Re Heater Primary Re Heater Final Super Heater Primary Super Heater Cold Reheat Steam Spray Water

Flue Gas

Economiser

Feed Water

Furnace Flue Gas Out to Air Heater

Water Wall Risers

Bottom Ring Header

Simplified Process Diagram

BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM


Process Performance Highlights Heat Transfer by Radiation and Convection Boiler Water Circulation - Natural or Controlled Heat Transfer depends on Heat Transfer Area & Time Heat Transfer is affected by Fouling, Boiler Pressure, Boiler Water Quality and % MCR Load

BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM


Major Equipment Economiser - Pre-heats Boiler Feed water Boiler Drum - Separates water from steam and reduce solids in steam Water Walls - Absorb heat from flue gas to evaporate boiler water Superheaters - Heat up steam coming from boiler drum Reheaters - Heat up steam coming from High Pressure turbine Attemperators - Reduce superheat from steam

BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM

Process Regulation Drum Level - Regulation of Feed Water flow Drum Water Quality - Blow down / Chemical Dozing Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces - Blowdown / Soot Blowing Main Steam Temperature - Attemperation / Burner Tilt Hot Reheat Steam Temperature - Burner Tilt / Attemperation Main Steam Pressure - Regulation of Combustion

AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM


To Air Cooled Guns Scanner Air Fans

From FD Fans

To Hot PA Header

To Cold PA Header

PA FAN A

PA FAN B

WINDOX A AH A P T N S H R H F I N S H L T S H E C O ESP A ID Fan A Chimney ID Fan B ESP B AH B WINDBOX B FD FAN A

FURNACE

FD FAN B

Simplified Process Diagram

AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights Generation of Draft - Natural / Induced / Forced / Balanced Supply of Air for Transport of Pulverised Coal Pre-heating of Air Distribution of Air in Combustion Chamber Recirculation of Gas Fan capacity depends on Flow, Density & System Resistance Fan performance is affected by temperature, density, barometric pressure and speed Flue Gas Cleaning Gas flow is restricted by ash deposits on boiler surfaces

AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM

Major Equipment

Air Path - Forced Draft Fans, Steam Coil Air Pre-heater, Regenerative Air Pre-heater & Wind-box
Gas Path - Induced Draft Fans and Stack Gas Recirculation - Gas Recirculating Fans Flue Gas Cleaning - Mechanical Precipitator, Electrostatic Precipitator and Gas Scrubber Dampers

AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM

Process Regulation Furnace Draft - ID Fan Inlet Vane Control and/or Variable Speed Secondary Air Flow - FD Fan Variable Pitch Control PA Header Pressure - PA Fan Inlet Vane Control RAPH Cold End Temperature - SCAPH Control Gas Recirculation - Damper Control

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM - COAL


Raw Coal Bunker To Mill Discharge Valves To Other Mills Hot PA

Coal Feeder

Coal+Air to Burners

Mill A

To Other Mills

Cold PA

To Other Mills

Seal Air Fans

Simplified Process Diagram

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM - GAS/OIL


Fuel Gas Supply FCV PRVs FGTV To Burners

FUEL GAS
Atomising Steam/Air PCV Fuel Oil Return PCV Short Recirc Long Recirc

Fuel Oil Supply

Oil Heater FCV Steam FOTV

To Burners

Fuel Oil Pumps

FUEL OIL

Simplified Process Diagram

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights Coal Pulverizing - Direct / Indirect Firing Coal Transport and Drying Fuel Gas Pressure Regulation Fuel Oil Pumping & Filtering Fuel Oil Pressure & Viscosity Regulation Gas Pressure & Oil Pressure/Temperature affect Boiler Load

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM


Major Equipment Coal Mills - Tube Ball / Bowl / Impact Raw Coal Feeders - Chain / Belt / Rotary / Gravimetric Coal / Air Dampers, Gates & Discharge Valves Fuel Oil Pumps & Heaters Seal Air Fans Coal Bunkers Vapour Fans

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM


Process Regulation Coal Flow - Raw Coal Feeder Speed Coal/Air Temperature & Flow - Cold & Hot PA Flows

FUEL FIRING SYSTEM


OFA OFA FF F EF EA FA AA (2) (3) OFA EA DE D Front Wall CD C BC B AB A AA HEA Igniter HFO Burner Oil Flame Scanner (1) Plan (Corner Designation) (4) Coal Burner FA AA Air Damper Over Fire Air End Air Fuel Air Aux. Air

Fire Ball Scanner


LFO?HFO Burner

Typical Corner Arrangement for a Tangentially Fired System

FUEL FIRING SYSTEM


Process Performance Highlights

Fuel Firing - Front / Tangential


Fuel Oil Atomisation - Mechanical / Air / Steam Flame Ignition

Air Distribution
Fuel Combustion

FUEL FIRING SYSTEM

Major Equipment Burners Ignitors Flame Scanners Burner Tilt Mechanism Wind Box Dampers

FUEL FIRING SYSTEM

Process Regulation

Furnace to Wind Box Differential Pressure


Fuel Air Flows Fuel Firing

Emergency Shutdown
Flame Monitoring Oil Support for Coal Flame Stability

BOILER MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS

Boiler Auxiliary Cooling Water System Ensures continuous supply of cooling water to Boiler & its auxiliaries Consists of Overhead Tank, Pumps & Heat Exchangers Chemical Dosing System Prepares & supplies chemicals for treatment of Boiler Water Consists of Preparation Tanks, Mixers & Metering Pumps

DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM


Condensate from LP Heater HP Heater Drains Aux. Steam Deaerator Aux. Steam for Pegging CRH Steam IPT Extraction Steam Feed Storage Tank To HP Bypass Spray T o APRDS Spray Recirculation Valve

To HP Heaters

Hydrazine Dosing Ammonia Dosing

Discharge Valve

Boiler Feed Pumps

Simplified Process Diagram

DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights Boiler Water pre-heating & air removal Maintain positive Suction Pressure for Feed Pumps Feed Water Pumping to Boiler

DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM


Major Equipment Boiler Feed Pumps Hydraulic Coupling Deaerator

DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM

Process Regulation

Deaerator Pressure
Deaerator Level BFP Minimum Recirculation

Feed Pump Speed

STEAM TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS

LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

Conservation of Energy - Heat may be converted in to work and work may be converted in to heat, in accordance with a certain natural proportionality constant (ENERGY CAN NOT BE DESTROYED)
Not all of a given quantity of Heat can be converted in to useful Work, because of irreversbility in the process (ENTROPY OF THE UNIVERSE IS INCREASING)

BASIC RANKINE CYCLE

T
Heat Available for Work

Unavailable Heat

IMPROVING RANKINE CYCLE


Superheating Increased Pressure Decreased Exhaust Pressure Regenerative Feed Heating Reheating

STEAM TURBINE TYPES

Condensing Turbine Back Pressure Turbine Regenerative Turbine Controlled Extraction No. of Cylinders Speed - Constant / Variable Single / Double Flow

TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM


Main Steam ESV CV HP Turbine IP Turbine

LP

Turbine

Cold Reheat Steam Condenser Hot Reheat Steam IV CV Extraction Steam

Simplified Process Diagram

TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM

Major Equipment

Turbine - Casing, Rotor & Blades


Emergency Stop Valves Control Valves

Condenser

TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM

Process Regulation Steam Admission Emergency Shutdown

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM


CRH Steam To Deaerator To From BFP Boiler Discharge To Deaerator LPT Extraction Steam

HP HTR

LP HTR

IPT Extrn. Steam HP HTR

LPT Extraction Steam LP HTR

Condenser Gland Leakoff Steam Minimum Recirculation Makeup Hotwell

To Condenser HP Flash Tank To Condenser GSC LP Flash Tank

LPT Extraction LP HTR Drain CLR

Condensate Extraction Pump

Simplified Process Diagram

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

Pumping of Condensate from Hotwell to Deaerator


Gradual Heating of Feed Water Temperature Minimise Heat Loss from the Cycle

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM

Major Equipment HP Heaters LP Heaters Drain Cooler Condensate Extraction Pumps

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM


Process Regulation

Hotwell Level
Heater Level Minimum Flow through CEP & GSC

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM

Governing Oil System

Turning Gear

Jacking Oil System

Condenser Vacuum System

Lubricating Oil System

Gland Steam System


VACUUM SYSTEM

Turbine Drain System

OIL SYSTEMS

WARM UP SYSTEM

Functional Block Diagram

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM


Process Performance Highlights

Shaft & Bearing Protection


Electro-hydraulic Governing Maintain Vacuum in Condenser

Supply Steam to Turbine Glands


Warming up of Turbines and their Valves Emergency Shutdown in case of Unsafe Conditions

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM


Major Equipment

Oil Pumps, Turning Gear & Jacking Oil Pump


Hydraulic Actuators for Turbine Valves Vacuum Pumps

Gland Steam Pressure Regulator


Oil Coolers & Temperature Regulator

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM

Process Regulation

Speed / Load / Frequency Control


Gland Steam Pressure Control

TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS

Condenser Cooling Water System Supplies Cooling Water Condensation of Turbine Exhaust Steam Turbine Auxiliary Cooling Water System Ensures continuous supply of cooling water to Turbine & its auxiliaries Consists of Overhead Tank, Pumps & Heat Exchangers Chemical Dosing System Prepares & supplies chemicals for treatment of Condensate Consists of Preparation Tanks, Mixers & Metering Pumps

TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS Condenser Cooling Water System


CW Return Header

Cooling Tower CW Sump

To Unit#2

Condenser Waterbox A B

CW Makeup Water

CW Supply Header

Circulating Water Pumps

Simplified Process Diagram

TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS Condenser Cooling Water System


Major Equipment Cooling Towers CW Pumps

Process Performance Highlights Steam Condensation Cooling of Condenser CW - Cooling Tower / Lake Process Regulation

Condenser Tube Cleaning - Online / Back flushing

TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM


Main Steam To HPT Feed Water Block Valve CRH From HPT Spray Control Valve

PRV

HRH

To IPT

Condensate Condenser

Simplified Process Diagram

TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM


Process Performance Highlights

Enable Boiler Operation for Quick Re-start after Boiler Trip and during Turbine Start-up
Control MS Pressure after Turbine Trip or Sudden Load Throw-off

TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM


Process Regulation

MS Pressure Reduction & Desuperheating


HRH Steam Pressure Reduction & Desuperheating

GENERATOR FUNDAMENTALS

WORKING PRINCIPLE
Converts Mechanical Energy in to Electrical Energy Based on Electro-magnetic Induction E = 4.44 O FN volts E - e. m. f. O - Strength of Magnetic Field F - Frequency N - No. of Turns in a Stator Winding Coil F = Pn/120 P - No. of Poles n - Revolution per second of Rotor

GENERATOR EFFICIENCY & LOSSES

Efficiency = Output Electrical Energy Input Mechanical Energy

Losses - Bearing Loss, Copper Loss & Iron Loss Typically Efficiency is 90-97%

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Metering & Protective Relays

Generator Transformer

Seal Oil System Hydrogen Cooling System

Generator Synchronising Sceme

Unit Auxiliary Transformer

Field Excitation System

Stator Cooling Water System

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

Generator Functional Block Diagram

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Isolator 132 KV Bus I

132 KV Bus II

Circuit Breaker

GT

Unit Auxiliary Transformer From Station Bus From Station Bus 6.6 kV Unit Bus B

11 kV

Generator 6.6 kV Unit Bus A

Key One Line Diagram

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Process Performance Highlights Conversion of Mechanical Energy in to Electrical Energy Field Excitation Stator Winding Cooling by Distillate / Air Rotor Winding Cooling by Hydrogen / Air Hydrogen Sealing by Oil Synchronisation & Voltage Transformation Emergency Shutdown in case of Unsafe Conditions

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Major Equipment

Generator - Stator, Rotor, Armature Windings, Field Windings


Field Excitation - Exciter (DC/AC), Static Rectifying Unit & AVR Bus Ducts & Transformers

Circuit Breakers & Protective Relays


H2 Cooling - Fans, Dryers & Coolers Stator Water Cooling - Pumps, Coolers & Overhead Tank

Seal Oil - Pumps, Coolers & Differential Pressure Regulator

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM


Process Regulation

Field Excitation
Generator Synchrinisation Voltage Regulation

POWER PLANT OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


Efficiency Calculations Boiler Efficiency - Direct / Heat Loss Method Turbine Heat Rate - Total Heat Supplied/ KWHR Plant Heat Rate - Heat Supplied/ KWHR

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


Factors Affecting Plant Performance Flue Gas Exit Temperature Excess Air Unburnt Fuel Steam Temperature Condenser Back Pressure FW Temperature at Eco Inlet Auxiliary Power Consumption Make up Water Flow Optimum Loading

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE


Start-up & Shutdown Monitoring Trip Analysis - Boiler / Turbine / Generator Equipment Run-Hour Monitoring History Trending Alarm Management Division of Operational Responsibilities Economic Load Allocation & Load Shedding (CPP)

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL


Burner Management System Furnace Purge Supervision Secondary Air Damper Modulation, On/Off Control and Supervision Light/Heavy Oil On/Off Control and Supervision Pulveriser and Feeder On/Off Control and Supervision Flame Scanning Overall Boiler Flame Failure Protection Boiler Trip Protection

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Soot Blower Sequential Control

Wall Blowers
Long Retractable Blowers Air Heater Blowers

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Automatic Turbine Run-up System Oil Supply Control - Turning Gear, Auxiliary Oil Pumps, Emergency Oil Pump, Jacking Oil Pump and Lube Oil Temperature Condensate & Evacuation Control - Condensate Extraction Pumps, Gland Steam Pressure, Vacuum Pumps and Vacuum Breaker Valve Turbine Control - Steam & Metal Temperature Matching, Warming up of HP ESV & CV, Steam Rolling & Acceleration and Auto Synchroniser

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL


Turbine Stress Evaluator Calculation of Actual and Permissible Thermal Stress Values Comparison of Actual with Permissible Stress Values and Computation of Available Margin Optimize Start up, Operation and Shut down

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL


Automatic Turbine Tester Safety Devices - Remote Trip, Over-speed, Low Vacuum and Thrust Bearing HP/IP Valves - HP Stop and Control Valves, and IP Stop and Control Valves

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL


Electro-hydraulic Governing System Speed Control Load Control Load Shedding Initial Pressure Control

AUTOMATION & CONTROL


CRITICAL CLOSED LOOPS CMC - Boiler Follow / Turbine follow / Coordinated (Utility) Header Pressure Control (CPP) Combustion - Fuel / Air Flow Steam Temperature Drum Level Furnace Draft

AUTOMATION & CONTROL


OPEN LOOP CONTROL Interlocking - Safe Startup / Shutdown Protection - Emergency Shutdown (Trip) Sequencial Control - Efficient Startup / Shutdown

CRITICAL OPEN LOOPS


ID/FD /PA Fans BFP

POWER PLANT INSTRUMENTATION

POWER PLANT INSTRUMENTATION


Temperature - T/C & RTD Pressure Level - DP / Displacement / Hydra Step Drum Level Indicator Flow - DP / Annubar / Mag-flow Turbine Supervisory - Vibration/ Expansion/ Axial Shift/ Eccentricity Steam & Water Analysers - Conductivity/ pH/ DO2/ Silica Gas Analysers - O2/ CO2/ CO (in Flue Gas) Pollution Monitor H2 Purity (in Generator)