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# A Machine Learning Approach to

## the Stabilization of Emotional

Dynamics in Emotion-Logic
Encounter
1
Aruna Chakraborty,
2
Amit Konar,
1
Amit K. Siromoni
and
3
Atulya Nagar
1
St. Thomas College of Engg. & Tech.,

2
3
Liverpool Hope University
What is Emotion-Logic
Encounter?
Example 1: A person is suffering from cancer,
and is at deaths door. Logic favors the patients
death to relieve him from pain, but emotionally
people wish him to survive, so as not to miss
him for ever.
Example 2: Suppose, a girl wants to marry her
lover, but friends and relatives for certain social
reasons ask her not to marry her beloved. The
girl is in confrontation of emotion and logic.

Pre-assumptions for Solving
Emotion-Logic Encounter Problem
Pre-assumption 1: Emotional and Logical Reasoning
both share common information resources of the same
context.

Contextual Information
Resources
Reasoning
with
Emotion
Reasoning
without
Emotion
(Classical)
Inferences guided by Emotion
(Pure) Logical Inferences
Pre-assumptions for Solving
Emotion-Logic Encounter Problem
Pre-assumption 2: Changes in external/cognitive influences cause
state transition in one or more co-existing emotions.
Anger
t

Anxiety
t

Happiness
t

t

Fear
t

Disgust
t

[X]
t
=
[X]
0
[X]
1
[X]
2

Let [X]
t
= Emotional state at time t.
[X]
3

External/cognitive influence at
different time
Emotion transition from state [X]
0
through [X]
3.

Strategy Used for Solving
Emotion-Logic Encounter Problem
Strategies Used for Solving the Problem
1. Design a formal scheme to represent emotional and
logical reasoning dynamics (methodology).
2. Determine conditions for stability of these two dynamic
systems, and hence stabilize both the dynamics by realizing
the condition for stability.
3. Design strategies to control emotion using logic (or logic
using emotion), depending on personality and desire of the
subject.

dx
i

Representation of Emotional
State Transition by Dynamics
x
j

-c
ki

+b
ji

dt
dx
i

dt
=a
ii
(1- x
i
/k) + b
ji
(x
i
x
j
)
j
- c
ki
(x
i
x
k
)
k

Let x
i
= i-th element of the emotional state vector X.
x
i

x
k

a
ii
(1- x
i
/k)
x
j

An Example Illustrating Emotion
Transition
Mother
Happy
Mother
Angry
Mother
Anxious
Mother
Child victim
of thalasamia
Child under treatment
Discovers wrong
treatment of doctor
Treatment successful
Treatment failure
Treatment failure
x
1

x
2

x
3

x
4

Stable, Unstable and Limit Cyclic
Response of Emotional Dynamics

Emotional
Dynamics of
two states x
1

and x
2

Initial
states:
x
1
(0) and
x
2
(0)
States: x
1
(t) and
x
2
(t) at time t
Stable
Limit Cyclic
Unstable
x
1

x
2

X
i

Steps of Stability Analysis of the
Emotional Dynamics
Select a suitable Lyapunov
function for the dynamics.
Determine the condition for
stability of the dynamics
using Lyapunov function.
Realize the condition of
stability by selecting
suitable weights of the
transition graph.

dx
i

dt
0< W< (a
ii
k/2) (1- x
i
/k)
2

=W,
say
Find a
ii

satisfying
above
condition.
Stable
Lyapunov: L(x
i
, x
j
, x
k
)= [-(a
ii
k/2) x
i
(1- x
i
/k)
2
+ } (b
ji
x
j
- c
ki
x
k
) x
i
dx
i

Representation of the Psychological State
Transition by Fuzzy Temporal Rules Resembling
Emotion Transition Dynamics
Given Dynamics of
Emotional state x
1

Corresponding Rule 1:
If x
1
(t) is LARGE
and x
1
(t) is SMALLER
than K, and the contact
between x
1
(t) and x
2
(t)
is SMALL
Then X
x
1
(t+1) is LARGE
dx
i
dt

= ax
1
(1-x
1
/k) b (x
1
x
2
)
p

x
1
, x
2
:

Competitive emotional
states.
a: intrinsic growth rate;
k: largest value of x
1
that keeps
growth rate in x
1
positive
p: competition index

Representation of the Psychological State
Transition by Fuzzy Temporal Rules Conveying
Emotion Transition (Contd.)
Given Dynamics of
Emotional state x
2

Corresponding Rule 2:

If x
2
(t) is LARGE
and contact between
x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) is SMALL
Then x
2
(t+1) is LARGE.
= -c (x
1
x
2
)
p
+ d x
2

dx
2
dt
Fuzzy Dynamics
Corresponding to Rule 1
Rule 1: If x
1
(t) is LARGE
and x
1
(t) is SMALLER
than K, and the contact
between x
1
(t) and x
2
(t)
is SMALL Then X
1
(t+1)
is LARGE.

LARGE
(x
1
, t+1)
=a.
LARGE
(x
1
, t).
NEG
(x
1
-k, t)
- b
SMALL
(x
1
, t).
SMALL
(x
2
, t).

Fuzzy Dynamics
Corresponding to Rule 2
Rule 2: If x
2
(t) is LARGE
and contact between
x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) is SMALL
Then x
2
(t+1) is LARGE.

LARGE
(x
2
, t+1)
= a.
LARGE
(x
2
, t)
c.
SMALL
(x
1
, t).
SMALL
(x
2
,t)

Results of Stability Analysis of
Fuzzy Temporal Dynamics
Let V(
L
(x
1
, t+1),
L
(x
2
, t+1))
= (b
L
(x
2
, t+1) - c
L
(x
1
, t+1))
2

= (-ac
L
(x
1
, t)
NEG
(x
1
-k, t) + ab
L
(x
2
, t))
2

AV= V(
L
(x
1
, t+1),
L
(x
2
, t+1)) V(
L
(x
1
, t),

L
(x
2
, t))
< 0, if

L
(x
2
, t)/
L
(x
1
, t) < c/b.

Stabilization of Emotional
Dynamics
Condition of Stability: 0< dx
i
/dt < a
ii
x
i
(2x
i
/k 1).
Let
e= a
ii
x
i
(2x
i
/k 1) - dx
i
/dt
If e <0,
set a) either c
ki
= c
ki
+ |. e
or b) o o - k. e
ob
ij
= - ob
ij
+ f(x
i
). f(x
j
),
b
ij
= b
ij
- ob
ij

Hebbian Learning
Stabilization of Emotional Dynamics

Emotional
Dynamics
D
a
ii
x
i
(2x
i
/k -1)
+
-
Error<0
C
ki
C
ki
+ | |e|
C
ki

k |e|
ob
ij
= - b
ij
+ f(x
i
) fx
j
)
b
ij
b
ij
- obij
b
ji

X
i
(0)
X
J
(0)
dx
i
/dt
X
i
(t)
X
k
(0)
error
Hebbian Learning

f(x
i
) (Sigmoid Fn.)
= 1/ (1 + exp (-x
i
))
Controlling Emotional Response by
Fuzzy Temporal Logic
Stabilized
Emotional
Dynamics
Stabilized
Fuzzy
Temporal
System
G
Controller
Emotional
states at time 0
Emotional
states at time t
Controlling Response of Fuzzy
Temporal Logic Using Emotion
Stabilized
Fuzzy
Temporal
System
Stabilized
Emotional
Dynamics
G
Controller
Emotional
states at time 0
Emotional
states at time t
Conclusions
1. The paper, to the best of the authors knowledge, is a first
successful model to study emotion-logic encounter.
2. Conditions for stability for both emotional dynamics and
fuzzy temporal reasoning dynamics have been derived, and
the dynamics is stabilized by setting appropriate values of
the parameters, satisfying the conditions.
3. A scheme for controlling the response of emotional
dynamics by fuzzy temporal system (and vice-versa) is
presented.
4. The proposed system can be used to model emotional
response of intelligent agents in the next generation human-
computer interfaces.
Thank you.