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CENTER PIVOT IRRIGATION SYSTEM

BSc. (Hons) Agriculture (Ssp. Aquaculture) Yr2 Agricultural Engineering and Applications to edit Master subtitle style Click (AGRI 2024)

Presented by: Sachin- 1010856 Prisha- 1014955 Ramonah1010211 James- 1019087 5/7/12

Introduction
Center Pivot Irrigation It is a form of overhead (sprinkler) irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe (usually galvanised steel oraluminium) joined together and supported bytrusses, mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along 5/7/12

Introduction Contd
The center pivot is the system of choice for agricultural irrigation:

low labor and requirements

maintenance

Convenience Flexibility Performance easy

operation
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Pivot Design Choices


When purchasing a center pivot system one must select:
mainline length,

size and outlet spacing

including the number of

towers
drive

mechanisms rate of the pivot


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application the

type of water applicator

Types Of Drive System


Electric

drive Has two reductions:

pivots gear Hydraulic drive pivots have one gear reduction. First gear reduction is in the drive shafts Two configurations connecting the are used: electric motor to a gear box 5/7/12 located at each A hydraulic motor

power

Hydraulic

drive

Types Of Drive System


Electric

In electric drive pivots, individual electric motors (usually 1.0 or 1.5 horsepower) power the two wheels at each tower.
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Types Of Drive System


Hydraulic

With oil hydraulic drive systems, all towers remain in continuous motion. The outermost tower speed is the greatest, and each succeeding tower moves continuously

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System Capacity
System irrigation capacity is determined by the gallons per minute (GPM) and the number of acres irrigated. System capacity is expressed in
Daily and seasonal irrigation capacity. GPM/ Inch/dInch/ Inches in irrigation days acre ay week 30 45 60 80 100 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 0.8 0.55 2.4 3.8 4.8 7.2 9.5 4.8 6.4 9.5 6.4 8.5 8.0 10.6

0.11 0.75 3.2 0.16 1.10 4.8 0.21 1.50 6.4 0.27 1.85 8.0 0.32 2.25 9.5

12.7 15.9

12.7 17.0 21.2

11.9 15.9 21.2 26.5 14.3 19.1 25.4 31.8

0.37 2.60 11.1 16.7 22.6 29.7 37.1 0.42 2.97 12.7 19.1 25.4 33.9 42.4

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Water Applicators in the System


Pads Impact Low

Sprinklers

Pressure Applicators

Mid Elevation Spray Application (MESA) Low Elevation Spray Application (LESA) Low Energy Precision Application (LEPA)

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Pads
Low-pressure

spray applicators:

flat, concave or convex pads that direct the

water spray pattern horizontally, upwards and downwards at minimum angles.

Spray

applicator pads:

vary in the number and depth of grooves

Fine droplets may reduce erosion and runoff, but are less efficient because of their susceptibility to evaporation and wind drift. 5/7/12

Impact Sprinklers
Impact

sprinklers:
and

Installed

directly on the mainline release water upward at 15 to 27.

Water pattern diameters ranges 50-100 ft. Water application losses average 25-35 %

or more.

Low

angle, 7 sprinklers:

reduce water loss and pattern diameter


5/7/12 somewhat, but do not significantly decrease

Low Pressure Applicators


Operate

with low water pressure and work well with current center pivot designs less energy 60 to 80 inches

Require

Spacing:

Nozzle operating pressure can be as low as

6 psi, but more applicators are required 5/7/12 than with wider spacing's (15-30 ft).

Low Pressure Applicators Mid Elevation Spray Applicators (MESA)


Water

application:

Above the crop canopy Rigid drops or flexible

drop hoses attached to the mainline gooseneck or furrow arm and extended down to the water applicator.

Nozzle pressure varies depending on the type of water applicator and pad

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Low Pressure Applicators Low Elevation Spray Applicators (LESA)


Position: 12-18 inches above ground level
Less crop foliage is wet less

water is evaporation. spacing

lost

to

LESA

60-80 inches apart, corresponding to two crop rows.


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Low Pressure Applicators Low Energy Precision Applicators (LEPA)


LEPA discharges water between alternate crop rows planted in a circle. Water application:1218 inches above ground level (bubble pattern or drag socks). Socks

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The Central Tower and The Control Panel Control System The central The CP Control
Tower:
pyramidal

System:

structure (3.5 4.5 m height) galvanized steel angular profiles and anchored on a concrete

Enables handling of the irrigation machine and the programming of irrigation (control of flow, pipeline movementoperation time and speed/time per lap).
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Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) Technology

VRI

technology uses computer maps, global positioning systems, soil sensors and software to control where and how much water the nozzles on acenter pivotspray on crops. 5/7/12

Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) Technology

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Irrigation Scheduling
ET-Based:

Maximum crop production and quality are achieved when crops are irrigated frequently with amounts that match their water use or ET 5/7/12 (evapotranspiration

Pivot Management
Pivot

management is centered around knowing how much water is applied in inches. precipitation chart that lists total inches applied for various speed settings on the central control panel is needed.
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Pivot Management
Calculations for length of pivots and 100% water application efficiency

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Runoff Control
Runoff

from center pivot irrigation can be controlled by changing the optional speed control setting to match water application to soil infiltration. methods:

Agronomic

furrow

diking (or chain diking for pastures), farming in a circular pattern, deep chiselling of clay sub-soils, maintaining 5/7/12

Chemigation
Chemigation:
Application

of an approved chemical with irrigation water through the center pivot.

Improved

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Chemigation
Advantages Disadvantages Uniformity

of

application.
Precise

Skill

and

application: chemicals can be applied where they are needed and in the correct

knowledge required: chemicals must always be applied correctly and safely. Chemigation requires skill in 5/7/12

Fertigation
Spoon-feeding

the crop. It is very common and has many benefits.


Uses

soluble

or of

liquid formulations 5/7/12 nitrogen,

Fertigation
Advantages disadvantages Nutrients

can be applied any time during the growing season based on crop need. nutrients such as nitrogen can be carefully

Fertilizer

distribution is only as uniform as the irrigation water distribution.


Lower

Mobile

cost such

fertilizer materials 5/7/12

Nelson

water applicator

Video Time

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Overview

of linear

Video Time

pivot

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Referencing
http://pivotirrigation.blogspot.com/ http://www.traxcoirrigation.com/comp

onents
http://www.youtube.com/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=1L0fGuLXYnA
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_pi

vot_irrigation
5/7/12 http://www.google.mu/url?

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