0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

157 (de) vizualizări35 paginiMay 16, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

157 (de) vizualizări

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- The Wright Brothers
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Black Swan
- Prince Caspian
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Last Battle
- The 6th Extinction
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategy (including featured article "What Is Strategy?" by Michael E. Porter)

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 35

moment and shear force that are developed in the beam. This criterion is known as the STRENGTH CRITERION of design . Another criterion for beam design is that the maximum deflection of the beam must not exceed a given permissible limit and the beam must be stiff enough to resist the deflection caused due to loading. This criterion is known as STIFFNESS CRITERION of design

DEFINITIONS:(i) DEFLECTION:-

The vertical distance in transverse direction between positions of axis before and after loading at the section of the beam, is defined as the deflection of beam at that section. (ii) ELASTIC CURVE(OR, DEFLECTION CURVE):The neutral axis in its deflected position after loading of the beam is known as its elastic curve or deflection curve

(iii) SLOPE:The slope of the beam at any section is defined as the angle (in radians) of inclination of the tangent drawn at that section to the axis in its deflected position after loading, measured w. r. t. The un-deformed axis.

(iv) FLEXURAL RIGIDITY (EI):The product of modulus of elasticity and Moment of Inertia is known as Flexural rigidity.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF ELASTIC CURVE:(SLOPE AND DEFLECTION) Differential equation of elastic curve is, d2y EI ASSUMPTIONS : dx2 =M

(ii) Deflection due to S.F. is negligible.

ASSUMPTIONS (CONTD..) : (iii) All the assumptions made in simple bending theory are valid. ( a) Simple Bending equation M/I=/y=E/R is applicable (b) Material of the beam is homogenous, isotropic and obey Hookes law.

(d) Plane section remain plane before and after bending.

y

C

d R

Q

dy dx

+d

7 Consider a piece of deflected curve of beam PQ of length ds. Let tangent at P and Q make angles and (+d) with x-axis at a point A and B respectively. Point C is the centre of curvature. The distance CP = CQ = R = radius of curvature

C

d

R

Q

dy

P

dx +d

8

ds

dy dx

ds dx dy

Then R=

dy

= sin

dx

= cos ds

dy

= tan

sec

ds ds

d

ds =

ds dx

dx d dx =

-------(1)

dx

dx

d

dx

d2y

dx2

Therefore,

d

dx

d 2y

dx2

sec

--(2)

dx2

1 =>

R =

dx2 sec3

=

1 +

dx2 dy 2 3/2 dx

In this, (dy/dx) is a small quantity (because curve is almost flat); hence dy/dx can be ignored. Hence, 2

dy

dx2

10

From relation ,

M I =

E R

1 R =

d2y dx2 =

M EI

d 2y

dx2

(a) Slope ( dy /dx )

(b) Deflection()

(c) The position and magnitude of maximum slope (d) The posititon and magnitude of maximum deflection.

11 SIGN CONVENTIONS: Linear horizontal distance x : positive when measured from left to right ( )

Vertical distance or deflection y is positive when measured above the axis and is negative when measured below the axis of beam.

(i) Double integration method (ii) Macaulays method

(iv) Conjugate beam method (v) Unit load method

(i)Simply

A

12

suported beams:

B

maximum at the middle of span; slope is maximum at A and B and zero at middle of span; A ( )-ve and B( )+ve.

free end and also at the centre of span . Slope is maximum at supports B and C.

13

(ii)Cantilever Beam: Deflection and slope both are zero at fixed support.

B A max ymax

We have from differential equation of flexure, EId2y/dx2=M

14

EI (dy /dx) =M dx +C1 Integrating again w .r .t. x both sides ,we get EI (y)=M dx. dx +C1(x)+C2 where C1 and C2 are constant of integration

Thus, integrating the differential equation w .r .t. x, we get the equation for slope (dy /dx) ,and integrating it twice w. r .t. x, we get

the equation for deflection ( y).

15

The two constants of integration can be determined using the known conditions of deflection and slope at the supports The method of double integration is convenient only in few cases of loadings. In general case of loading, where several loads are acting the B.M. expression for each of the different regions of loading is different .Then the method of double integration will become extremely lengthy and laborious. Therefore ,it is not generally used.

16

Case--1(i): Determine the slope and deflection equation for the beam loaded as shown in fig. (ii) Find the maximum deflection and maximum slope.

Solution: B.M. at section 1-1 M=- P( x) EI d y/dx =M=- P (x) EI (dy /dx ) =-P(x /2) +C1

2 2 2

1 P x A yA A l 1 B

EIy=-P(x3/2*3) + C1x+ C2

At fixed end, when x= L (x=0, at free end)

17

(dy /dx) =0 Therefore, -(PL2/2)+C1=0 C1=PL2/2 At x=L,y=0, -PL3/6+(PL2/2)l+C2=0 or,C2=PL3/6-PL3/2

=PL3/6[1-3]=-PL3/3

Therefore ,C2=-PL3/3

18

Maximum deflection :

When x=0 (at free end) ,then from equation (2), EI(y)=-0+0-PL /3 ymax= -PL3/3EI Maximum Slope: Slope is maximum at free end (at x=0).hence from equation (1), EI (dy/ dx)=-0+PL2/2 (dy /dx) max=PL2/2EI

3

19

at free end when P=6kN, L=3m, E=210GPa, I=16x104cm4. Solution: I =16x104cm4=16x104x(10-2)4m4

=16x10-4m4. A=PL2/2EI slope A=(dy/dx) at A=[1/(210x106x16x10-4)]x[6x(3)2/2] A=8.036*10-5 radian =0.460 Deflection at free end (i.e; at A):= yA=PL3/3EI

=(6*3 ) /3 (210*10 *16*10 ) 3 6 -4

=>

yA=0.161mm

Case (2) : When cantilever is subjected to an u .d. L. of intensity w unit/m run over entire span

w unit /m X

20

A

x L X

Integrating once,

EI (dy/dx) =-wx3/6+C1 ------------------------(1) where C1 is constant of integration

21 Applying boundary conditions:at x=L, dy/dx=0 from equation(1) 0=-wL3/6+C1 therefore, EI dy/dx = -wx /6+wL /6---------(2) Integrating once again, EI y=-wx4/24 +wL3.x/6 +C2

---------------3 3

C1=wL3/6

(3)

Applying boundary condition; at x=L, y=0

22

0=-wL4/24+wL4/6+C2

Therefore, C2=wL4/24-wL4/6

C2=-wL4/8.

Therefore, equation (3) becomes, EI(y)=-wx /24 + wL .x/6 wL /8--------(4) Maximum deflection It occurs at free end where x=0

4 3 4

From (4),EIy=-0+0-wL4/8

23

EI (dy/dx) =-0+wL3/6

(dy/dx )max=wL3/6EI

24

subjected to a single concentrated load at mid-span.

P

L/2

L/2 X RB=P/2 P C B

Slope max. at the ends=-PL2/16EI ]

A RA=P/2 x X

25

Case 4:-Simply supported beam of span l carrying a uniformly distributed load of intensity w per unit run over the whole span.

X

W unit / run

A

RA=WL/2 x

B

RB=WL/2

MACAULAYS METHOD

26

For a general case of loading on the beam ,though the expression for B.M. varies from region to region ,the constants of integration remain the same for all regions. Macaulay recognized this fact and proposed an ARTIFICE (a method )which is known as the Macaulays method to obtain the slope and deflection equations. It is essentially modified method of double integration of the B.M. expression but following a set of rules given below:-

27

(1)Assuming origin of the beam at extreme left end, take a section in the last region of the beam at a distance x from the origin and write the expression for B.M. at that section considering all the force on the left of section. (2)Integrate the term of the form (x-a) using the formula

n

(x-a) dx=(x-a)

n+1

/n+1

n

where a=distance of load from origin. (3)While finding slope and deflection in the form (x-a) ,if (x-a) becomes negative on substituting the value of x, n neglect the term containing the factor (x a) .

28

(4)If a couple (moment) of magnitude c is acting at a distance a from the origin of the beam, then write the BM due to couple in the form c (x-a). (5)If the beam carries a U.D.L, extend it up to the extreme right end and superimpose an UDL equal and opposite to that which has been added while extending the given UDL on the beam.

45

Practice problems:(Q-1)

A cantilever beam of span L carries a udl of intensity w/unit length for half of its span as shown in figure. If E is the modulus of elasticity and I is moment of inertia, determine the following in terms of w, L, E and I. (i) A expression for slope (dy/dx) at free end (ii) An expression for deflection( y ) at free end

(iii) The magnitude of upward vertical force to be applied at free end in order to resume this end to the same horizontal level as built in end. w/m A

L/2

3 4

B

L/2

47

the beam as shown in figure. Take E=2*105MPa ; I= 60 *108 mm4

20kN

10kN/m

A

1m

C

2m

D

1m

30kN E 1m

48

the beam loaded as shown in fig. Take E=200GPa ,I=7500cm4 .

X B 4m X 4m X 3KN/m C

20 KN A 4m D

49

for the beam loaded as shown in fig. Take EI=800Nm2 80kN

B D 1m 1m 1m

120kNm

A C 1m

20kN

E

50

Q-(5) Find the deflection and slope at free end for loaded

beam shown in fig.

4kN/m B A 1m 2m C

10 KN

D 1m

[Ans:D=62.33/EI, y=-191/EI ]

deflection. Take EI=40MN-m2

1m

200KN B

4m C

2m

- Slope Deflection ExamplesÎncărcat deJosé Manuel Lozano Gonzales
- 9 beam deflectionÎncărcat detigin
- IngenieriaÎncărcat deGabriel
- Me a Chapter 5Încărcat detrulyyours
- SBD Beam Deflection Calculations-02-UK.pdfÎncărcat dehepcomotion
- Lecture31 ActualÎncărcat deaahtago
- Double Integration Method 605-621Încărcat deEirol Gomez
- lecture05.pdfÎncărcat deKhushbakht Khushi
- GRATING1_1Încărcat deamachmouchi
- Parameter ListÎncărcat deZoebair
- Modulus of Subgrade Reaction and DeflectionÎncărcat decharaf247
- 8beamdeflection-151017152844-lva1-app6892Încărcat dehaysam
- Module 1_3_1D Distributed Load.pdfÎncărcat deSHAIK SADIKBASHA
- Cours - Temperature gradient.pdfÎncărcat detarekhocine
- Short Term Deflection Calculation (Subramanyam Example 12.4)Încărcat deSaugat Thapa
- Tse 1992 Beam DeflectionsÎncărcat deRoberto Carlos
- Mae 243 Lec28Încărcat deHarikumar Andem
- LE4 Handouts 21-26Încărcat deJay Vee Estrada
- Civl311 Civl911 2018 Week 6 Design of One Way Slab Student 1Încărcat dejohan.hafiz6926
- Structural Analysis-I-Winter-12Încărcat deharnishtanna21285
- unaÎncărcat dehafinia
- Deflections of BeamsÎncărcat deaap1
- StrcÎncărcat deChrysler Duaso
- Beam49 User's ManualÎncărcat dethedevilsdue9420
- Supplementary ProblemsÎncărcat deSheryl Viceda
- Lecture 30 and 31Încărcat dearjun505
- Beam MomentsÎncărcat deArif Uddin
- 9_Deflection of BeamsÎncărcat deMujtaba Rizvi
- how to build a billion dollar appÎncărcat deraveesh champ
- 10.1.1.6.6654.pdfÎncărcat deSufian Abusnina

- 5-Art-11Încărcat deJorge David Vallejo Espinoza
- Advanced Mechanics of Solids (4)Încărcat deIbmWasuser
- MechanicsÎncărcat dehitesh81
- Offshore Pipeline Hydraulic and Mechanical AnalysesÎncărcat deEslam Reda
- Thermodynamic Properties of the Fluids - Josué MuthreÎncărcat deJosué Muthre
- FM & F Machines 2013Încărcat deAJITH
- 282345792 APhO Theoretical Problems 2000 2013Încărcat deAnonymous iYU9pd
- 02_Clicker_Questions.pptÎncărcat deBryan Tong
- motion testÎncărcat deAriel Villarroel Romano
- (NIST Technical Note 1665) DongHun Yeo - Database-Assisted Design for Wind_ Concepts, Software, and Example for High-Rise Reinforced Concrete Structures-National Institute of Standards and Technology .pdfÎncărcat deGovind Gaurav
- Lecture 3Încărcat deSuvrasoumya Mohanty
- Physics Question Paper 2015Încărcat deArsh Gupta
- fhsstphy.pdfÎncărcat deKlo
- A Thesaurus of MechanismsÎncărcat deafit666
- General Relativity - J.L.F.BarbónÎncărcat deatboria
- 2008_Part C_Final.pdfÎncărcat deSuvash Acharya
- Saouma v.E. Matrix Structural Analysis and Introduction to Finite Elements (Lecture Notes, Colorado, sÎncărcat debaska14
- htÎncărcat deapi-279049687
- Turning Moment PresentationÎncărcat devinoth
- 2 3 2 a sim tensiletestingÎncărcat deapi-256165085
- The SIAM method for applying.pdfÎncărcat dekjyeom_258083906
- LATERAL BUCKLING OF SUBSEA PIPELINES.pdfÎncărcat deMukil Dev
- Plate 1Încărcat deAngelo Aguinaldo
- 1986. Bakhtar, K. and Barton, N. in Situ Rock Deformability Tests at Rocky Mt Pumped Hydro. ARMA, AlamamaÎncărcat deSen Hu
- CFX-Intro 14.5 WS08 Electronics-CoolingÎncărcat deShaheen S. Ratnani
- UntitledÎncărcat deapi-233604231
- Physics I Problems (38).pdfÎncărcat debosschellen
- Esci342 Lesson07 Continuity EquationÎncărcat deMohamed Abd El-Moniem
- Presentacion Robert Tremblay Marzo 2014Încărcat deJowel Díaz
- AC - MotorsÎncărcat deAung San Htwe

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.