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Gas Turbine Fuels

May 24, 2012

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Fuel Flexibility
Types of Fuel Gaseous Fuels Natural Gas Low BTU Gas LPGs Propanes,Butanes Synthetic Gases ( High Hydrogen Content) Liquid Fuels Light Distillates Heavy Distillates Heavy Oils Residuals and Blends Mixed Fules Distillates and Gas ( 10/90 & 30/70 )
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Fuel Flexibility
Viscosity Criterion Low Viscosity < 1.8 cst 2 - 10 cst > 20 cst

Naphtha , Kerosene Medium Viscosity High Viscosity Distillate #2 , HSD Crudes, Residuals

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Fuel Flexibility
Low Viscosity Solutions Lubricity additive PFD PCFD

Heavy Oil Treatment Vanadium Inhibition


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Water Washing
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What is Natural Gas


Oil and gas are mixtures of compounds of carbon and hydrogen, known as hydrocarbons. In its raw form natural gas it is made up of: Methane Propane Ethane Butane Hexane Other hydrocarbons hydrogen sulfide (H S) 2 Nitrogen Natural gas was considered a nuisance byproduct of oil extraction process.
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Natural Gas Composition


MethaneCH4 72-90% EthaneC2H6 0-20% PropaneC3H8ButaneC4H10Carbon DioxideCO2 0-8% OxygenO2 0-0.2% NitrogenN2 0-5% Hydrogen sulphideH2S 0-5% Rare gases, He, Ne, Xetrace

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Natural Gas Composition-Processed


MethaneCH4 77% EthaneC2H6 9% PropaneC3H8ButaneC4H10 10% Carbon DioxideCO2 2% NitrogenN2 2%

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Natural Gas Receiving Terminal


PCV Knock Out Drum Filter-2 Cold Flare FM-1 Filter-1

FM-2

Drain

GT-1
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GT-2

GT-3

GT-4
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Natural Gas Firing in Gas Turbine


GT-1

Comb Stop Valve Control Valve Comp Turb Gen

Drain GT-1

Air

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Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)


Natural gas condenses at 2 2C 2o LNG contains no water, CO 2 sulfur compounds, , etc. Like boiling water only 222 colder. C Vapor/liquid volume ratio = 666 :6 . It is light specific gravity = ~ 666 . Flammable when vaporized Open (unconfined) pool of LNG CANNOT EXPLODE Flame speed ~ 2 fps (22 . mps)
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TERMINOLOGY AND CONSTITUENTS OF NATURAL GAS


METHANE ETHANE PROPANE BUTANES LPG PENTANES & heavier = C5+ = PENTANES PLUS = NATURAL GASOLINE = CONDENSATE

LNG

NGL

NATURAL GAS

NON HYDROCARBONS e.g. N2, H2O, CO2, H2S, COS, Hg, etc.

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Liquid Fuel- Naphtha


Highly

Volatile,

Highly Inflammable Low Lubricity

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Liquid Fuel Process Flow


Naptha Naphtha Storg NTPC-Kawas ONGC

GT-1 Skid

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GT-2 Skid

Filter
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Forwarding Pump
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Liquid Fuel Firing in Gas Turbine


GT-1

Comb Stop Valve Fuel Pump Comp Turb Gen

Air Control Valve

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Liquid Fuel System Schematic


Purge air

Stop valve Transfer Valve Distillate supply Fuel filter Naphtha supply Stop valve To recirculation Pressure compensate fuel delivery unit 18 Combustion chamber Fuel Pump (VFD)

Fuel Selection Skid

Liquid fuel Module

Turbine compartment

Liquid Fuel Flow from Fuel selection skid to combustion chamber

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THANK YOU

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