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Environment is the sum total of all external factors, substances, living beings and conditions that surround an organism and influence the same without becoming its part.

What happens when we add our waste to the environment

Wastes are useless leftover or discarded materials. These are divided into two

Biodegradable Wastes

These are biological in These are commonly man origin. made. These wastes are These wastes are not degraded by degraded by microorganisms. microorganisms. These do not accumulate These pile up and in nature. accumulate in nature. These wastes do not show These enter food chains biomagnifications. and undergo biomagnifications. For example: garbage, For Example: plastics , livestock wastes, sewage. polythene , glass , nickel.

Non Biodegradable Wastes


a self contained ecological system which consist biotic community and the physical environment , both i ging materials between them. ural and functional unit of biosphere. an be natural or artificial. ystem These ecosystem develop in nature without hu system These are created and maintained by human b so called man made or anthropogenic ecosystems. em is the largest man made ecosystem. another example of system.

Ecosystem consists of two types of components, biotic and abiotic. BIOTIC COMPONENTS: It includes all the living organisms present in the ecosystem. For example-all plants and animals. ABIOTIC COMPONENTS: It includes non-living substances and factors of the ecosystem. For example-climatic factors, edaphic factors, topographic factors, etc.

Food chain is a sequence of organisms in a biotic community through which food passes with members of a step becoming food of the members of the next step of the sequence. in other words it is a list of who eats whom' in a biotic community. It consists of producers, Various levels of consumers and decomposers. Each step or division in food chain which is characterized by a particular method of obtaining food is called trophic level.


ecological pyramid is a graphic representation of an ecological parameter, sequencewise present in various trophic levels of a food chain with producers forming the base, herbivores above them, followed by first order carnivores and so on with top carnivores forming the tip. pyramids are of three types:

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Food web is a network of food chains operating in an ecosystem which get connected at various trophic levels so as to form a no. of feeding connections amongst different organisms of the biotic community. Importance of food web: It does not allow any population to starve when members of lower trophic level decrease in no. It does not allow a species to overgrow. It allows endangered population to grow in size. It provides stability to ecosystems.

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Ozone is a molecule formed by three atoms of oxygen. Ozone is a deadly poison. However at the higher levels of atmosphere, ozone performs an essential function. It shields the surface of the earth from UV radiation from the sun. This radiation is highly damaging to organisms, like it is known to cause skin cancer in human beings. Ozone at higher levels of the atmosphere is a product of UV radiation acting on oxygen molecule. The higher energy UV radiations split apart some molecular oxygen into free oxygen atoms. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere began to drop sharply in the 1980s. This decrease has been linked to synthetic chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are used as refrigerants and in fire extinguishers. Effects of ozone depletion: Skin Cancer 4. Mutations may occur Cataract 5. Decline in photosynthesis Death of young ones 6. Global Warming

Managing the Garbage we Produce

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Garbage is refuse of food, vegetables and fruit articles along with other domestic wastes. Garbage management is the non pollutant disposal of the waste. It consists of three steps: Collection of garbage Transport of garbage from collection site to disposal site. Disposal of garbage Prior to disposal, components of garbage are separated into decomposable, recyclable, combustible and non combustible components. Decomposable wastes are eaten up by pigs and stray animals or they are composted. Recyclable wastes are taken up by rag pickers. Combustible components are disposed by burning and non combustible wastes are used in landfill. Like this garbage is managed and disposed in a proper way.