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By Reuben Caven


Explain the terms vitamins and minerals

The first thing you need to know about vitamins and minerals is that they do not supply energy or enhance body mass. The human body only needs a specific amount of vitamins so that they can play there vital role within our body's. the only vitamin our body can produce is vitamin D, the rest need to be obtained by diets. You can get vitamins generally from any foods, there are vitamins in meats, fish, vegetables, fruit, tablets and even the sun. There are 13 types of vitamins , they are classified as water soluble or lipid soluble (fatty liquid) Lipid Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K.

Water Soluble Vitamins: C, B6, B1, B2, Niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, B12.


Explain water soluble vitamins

Water Soluble Vitamins:

The 9 water soluble vitamins are C, B6, B1, B2, Niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, B12. water soluble vitamins travel throughout our body water stores so the vitamins wouldnt get stored, any leftover vitamins will be disposed of though urine. Not to mention water soluble vitamins will be active in our body's from 8-14 hours, after digestion.
C B6 B1 B2 Niacin (B3) Biotin (B7) Folic Acid (B9) B12

Where Its Found

Citrus (Most fresh foods) Meat and dairy products Rice Bran Meat and eggs Meat, eggs and grains Meat, dairy products and eggs Leafy Green Vegetables Liver, eggs and animal products

Oranges Pigs (bacon), ice cream Oats Cattle, egg white, egg yolk Lamb, egg white/yolk, Rice Milk, Cheese, egg white/yolk Lettuce or spinach Liver pt, egg white/yolk
Examples of Water Soluble Food Sources


Explain Lipid Soluble Vitamins

Lipid Soluble Vitamins:

There are four different types of lipid soluble, vitamin A, D, E, Most the vitamins are stored as fatty tissues within the human body. Vitamins A and D are usually stored in the liver whereas vitamin E is scattered throughout the fatty tissue of the body, lastly vitamin K, this is a harmful vitamin IF you overdose, it can cause kidney damage, this vitamin is stored in tiny amounts in the liver.

Where Its Found

Cod Liver Oil
Cod Liver Oil Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils Leafy green vegetables

Cod liver oil capsules
Cod liver oil capsules Bread, pasta or crackers Lettuce or spinach
Cod Liver Oil Capsules


How Its Separated


Explain the terms essential and non essential vitamins

There is one vitamin that our body can produce itself, that is vitamin D, vitamin D is a lipid soluble vitamin. So this is a non essential vitamin we dont need to intake in our daily diets as our body's will produce it for us. We can get vitamin D from the sun (sunshine vitamin) So the other 12 vitamins we are going to have to intake them in our daily diets, so they are classed as essential. We need to make sure we have to right amount of vitamin intake everyday, if you do not take you regular vitamins daily it can lead to with lethargy and fatigue, dry skin, poor eyesight, higher cholesterol levels, raised blood pressure, Increased cancer and heart disease risks. By taking vitamins daily in can improve protection from diseases and illness, better vision, healthy skin and much more advantages!

Example: Benefits Of Taking Vitamin A


Do athletes require more vitamins than a normal person

Athletes wouldnt need more vitamins than a regular human, as your body can only absorb a certain amount of vitamins at one time, so it is not necessary for athletes to intake more vitamins than a normal person. However athletes would need more minerals than a normal person as they are losing important minerals through sweat whilst they are competing in sport and exercise. Sweat is a source of Sodium/Potassium/Chlorine which is salt, so these athletes are losing a lot of their salt resources when sweating. Athletes will also need minerals like calcium to help them build strong bones, not to mention it helps muscle action and nerve transmission. Also they would need more iron as it helps to increase the oxygen which is carrying capacity of blood, women will need more iron than men because they loss iron when they have periods. Also athletes will need phosphorus which participates in a major role in energy production. Most minerals come from plants, for example fruit and vegetables, minerals can also be found in drinking water but this depends on where you live and what type of water you drink, the same applies with the fruit & vegetables all due to the mineral content of the soil, this varies according to the location in which the plant was grown

Athlete Losing Minerals Through Sweat


Illnesses which can be cased by lack of vitamins/minerals

Muscle Cramps

Vitamin Needed

Where To Get It?

Wholegrain foods, dried fruit.


Bloodshot Eyes Urinary Tract Infections Cold Hands & Feet Heavy Periods

Vitamin B Vitamin C Selenium Vitamin K

Dairy, fish and meat Citrus fruit, broccoli, and red vegetables Nuts, seeds, lentils and shellfish Small quantities in most vegetables, vegetable oils, wholegrain cereals and meat. Citrus fruit, broccoli, and red vegetables Oily fish, eggs, dairy, and red and orange fruit and vegetables

For B12 is 1mcg 60mg Men need 0.075mg a day, women 0.06mg Our bodies make vitamin K

Bruises Dry Skin

Vitamin C Vitamin A

60mg 0.8mg a day

Bad Breath
Stress PMT Lethargy Pins & Needles

Vitamin C
Vitamin B Zinc Iron Potassium

Same as urinary tract infections

Same as Bloodshot Eyes and Muscle Cramps Shellfish, poultry, cashew nuts, chickpeas Red meat Almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, lentils, watercress, asparagus or kiwi fruit. Wholegrain foods, dried fruit.

For B12 is 1mcg 15mg a day 14mg 3,500mg




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