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Human Aspects of Production Management

Production Management
Production management is the process, which combines and transforms various resources used in the production subsystem of the organization into value added products in a controlled manner as per the policies of the organization.

Ms of Production Management
Man Machine Material Money Method

Men
Human aspects in operating systems. People management is very important. Optimum utilization of human resources. Double role within the Production Management : Managed Resources Managing Resources

Manufacturing Enterprise
3 classes of activities
Decide what ME should do Decide how ME should operate Do those activities needed to realize products and services.

Requires the deployment of Human and Technical Systems. Human Systems - form ad hoc groups, teams, business units, departments and the complete ME.

Human Resource Planning


HRP is the process of forecasting the organizations future demand for and supply of, the right type of people in the right number.

Factors affecting HRP


Type and Strategy of Organization Time Horizons Type and quality of Forecasting Information Organizational Growth Cycle and Planning Environmental uncertainties

HRP

Outsourcing
Nature of jobs being Filled

Techniques
Managerial Judgment Ratio trend analysis Delphi technique

Job Analysis
The systematic process of gathering and examining and interpreting data regarding the specific tasks comprising a job. Competence required for the job should be analyzed.

Competence
For a ME to excel, the Human systems involved should be competent to ensure effective and efficient job performance. An individual or team is said to be competent if they satisfy prescribed requirements in a timely and cost effective manner. Can be trusted and relied upon to own an activity or process and to deliver the required products or services.

Employee Demotivation - Non-fulfillment of competence requirements as well as assignment contrary to employee preference. Workplace reqirements.
Hours of work per day Number of workdays in a week Operational Safety Building Safety Office Space

Competency
Activity Required Output Human Systems that come to work
Natural traits Acquired Competency Adaption Competency Performing Competency

ME need to define Required Competencies.

MPM
Multiple Process Modelling Method MSI Research Institute developed and tested a framework to match capabilities of Human Requirements of Engineering Processes. Number of stages of Model development and deployment. Groupings of activity for each level and constructs competency classes required for simple operation, skilled operation, tactical operation and strategic operation.

Job Rotation
Systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance and to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced role in with the company.

Change Management
3 elements : The content for the change programme The process of change programme The context in which changes occur.

Failures
Lack of time and effort required Lack of IT support Lack of accuracy and timeliness of information Lack of senior management drive and commitment.

Change Management
Provide necessary training for employees. Communicate perceived benefits to make people realize about the importance of the change. Up-to-date information presented in real time. Facilitating open communication. Overcome resistance. Initiate team culture. Empower people in making decisions.

Development of Human Resources


To cope up with technology and product changes. Changes demand a quick and flexible adaptation of machinery resources and existing work force. Development measures should be coordinated with the planned product and technology changes .

Continuous Process Technology Changes


Changes in process degree of automation. Decentralized manufacturing systems are used in order to improve flexibility and reactivity. Integration of indirect functions. Job Enlargement & Job enrichment.

Job Enlargement
Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.

Job Enrichment
Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the oppurtunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition.

Continuous Product Changes


To remain competitive further development of a MEs palette of available products. Quantitative personnel demands increases. More comlpex work requirements. Requirement of Qualitative personnal development.

Learning Organizations
Continually reconsiders its vision (goal, policy, strategy) Has internal advancement programmes. Applies teamwork Uses team developed sub-goals and measurables. Uses systematic, continuous education and direct application of learnt material within the team Relies on new leadership, coaching Stresses cross-functional work Applies multi-disciplinary problem solving Applies benchmarking

3 aspects of Human Issues


Proposed by Kjellberg as constituents of a better working organization for manufacturing systems.

Activation
Uses a physiological perspective. Refers to the amount of stimulation. Related to :
Level of activity Stress Ability to focus Vigilance Task variations

FREEDOM OF ACTION
Leads to the development of competence Related to : Increased authority Responsibility Increased capacity for improvement The level of freedom of action increases as the nature of the job changes respectively from very low to low, to moderate to very high.

TECHNICAL PREDICTABILITY
Level of unpredictability that exists in the manufacturing system in which the human is operating. Related to : attention understanding mental readiness flexibility creativity

Lean Production System


Emphasizes the elimination of waste in order to ensure optimum utilization of all available resources for the realization of optimum benefit 7 wastes + Intellectual resource waste. In Lean Production , people are viewed as a resource to be developed. Workers are well trained to meet the needs of flexibility and multifunctionality. Lean production by convention encourages the use of standardized work processes. This does not actually allow for employees personal contribution.

85% of the Quality problems in companies are related to poor organization and leadership. Apart from process capabilities, the bigger factor controlling quality in manufacturing systems depends on the Operators' competence, Motivation, Flexibility and on the Personnel Stability at the organization.

What Management Should do


Identifying weaknesses of the business. Facilitating continuous improvement. Facilitating pro- active decision making. Improving positive behavior of the people.

What Should be Done


The effective combination of human resource and automation is very important to ensure continuous qualitative improvement. The best fit is recruited or selected for employment. For the existing work force - their job performance should be well accessed, appreciated and celebrated. Human resource assembled as a work teams must be well built, capable, skilled, swiftly efficient, united, strategically autonomous, fully focused, brilliantly directed and adequately motivated.