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Chapter 5

Motivation

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2011 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objectives

Define the key terms in expectancy theory Distinguish between inputs and outputs in equity theory Understand the different types of organizational justice

Identify the key steps in goal setting


Describe the concept of the psychological contract

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Learning Objectives

Describe the three determinants of job performance Identify the need levels in Maslow's hierarchy Explain Alderfer's ERG Theory Compare motivators with hygiene factors

Discuss the factors that reflect a high need for achievement

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Introduction

More than motivation plays a role in performance


Ability Instinct Aspiration level Personal factors (age, education, background)
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Determinants of Job Performance

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Determinants of Job Performance

Motivation components
Direction Intensity Persistence

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The Starting Point: The Individual

Most managers must motivate a diverse and unpredictable group of people

They have varying needs and goals

Needs

Deficiencies an individual experiences at a particular time May be physiological, psychological, or sociological

Those with deficiencies are more susceptible to motivational efforts


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The Starting Point: The Individual

Needs trigger tension and a search for ways to reduce it


A course of action is selected Goal-directed behavior occurs The behavior triggers either a reward or punishment The deficiencies are reassessed

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The Starting Point: The Individual

Three main areas affect employee motivation

Organizational issues

Leader issues

Job issues

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The Motivational Process: A General Model


I.

Need deficiencies
VI. II.

Need deficiencies reassessed by the employee

Search for ways to satisfy needs

The Employee
V. III.

Rewards or punishments
IV.

Goal-directed behavior Performance (evaluation of goals accomplished)


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Motivation Theories

Content theories focus on


Factors within the person The needs that motivate people

Process theories describe, explain, and analyze how behavior is

Energized
Directed Sustained Stopped
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Content Motivation Theories

Maslows need hierarchy

Alderfers ERG theory

Herzbergs two-factor theory

McClellands learned needs theory

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Maslows Need Hierarchy

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Maslows Need Hierarchy

The Need-Hierarchy Approach

A satisfied need ceases to motivate Unsatisfied needs can cause frustration, conflict, and stress People have a need to grow and develop; they strive to move up the hierarchy

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Maslows Need Hierarchy

Need-hierarchy issues

Little data proves that a needs hierarchy exists Only two needs levels exist: physiological and then all others Security needs decrease as managers advance

With a corresponding increase in need for social interaction, achievement, and self-actualization

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Alderfers ERG Theory

Alderfers ERG needs correspond to Maslows hierarchy


Existence = physiological and safety Relatedness = belongingness, social, love Growth = esteem and self-actualization

A frustration-regression process exists

If one continually fails to satisfy growth needs, relatedness needs reemerge

Efforts will be redirected toward satisfying a lower-order need


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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

A content theory with two motivation factors

Dissatisfiers-satisfiers (hygiene factors)

Salary, job security, working conditions, status, company procedures, interpersonal relations The job content, achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, possibility of growth

Satisfiers-motivators (intrinsic conditions)

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Traditional View Versus Herzberg

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Criticisms of Herzbergs Theory

Over-simplifies the nature of job satisfaction

Requires people to look at themselves retrospectively

Only self-reports of performance over long period of time were used in original study

Little testing of motivational and performance consequences of the theory

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

Job enrichment

Builds personal achievement, recognition, challenge, responsibility, and growth opportunities into a job Increases individual motivation by providing more discretion and accountability
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McClellands Learned Needs Theory

McClelland believes needs are acquired from culture


Need for achievement (n Ach) Need for affiliation (n Aff) Need for power (n Pow)

When a need is strong, there is motivation to use behavior that leads to its satisfaction

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McClellands Learned Needs Theory

Factors reflecting a high n Ach


Likes to take responsibility for solving problems Sets moderate achievement goals and takes calculated risks Desires feedback on performance
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McClellands Learned Needs Theory

Factors reflecting a high n Pow

Concentrates on obtaining and exercising power and authority Concerned with influencing others and winning arguments Power can be negative or positive
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McClellands Learned Needs Theory

Factors reflecting a high n Aff

Desires social interaction Concerned about the quality of personal relationships Social relationships take precedence over task accomplishment
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Criticisms of Learned Needs Theory

Supporting evidence was supplied by McClelland and his associates

Use of projective psychological personality tests is unscientific Claim that n Ach can be learned counters theory that motive acquisition occurs in childhood and is hard to alter

No proof that acquired needs are sustained over time

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Comparison of Content Theories

Maslow (need hierarchy)

Herzberg (two-factor theory)

Alderfer

McClelland

Self-actualization

Higher order needs

Esteem

Motivators

The work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth


Achievement Recognition Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, with supervisors, with subordinates Job security Working conditions Salary

Need for achievement


Growth Need for power

Belongingness, social, and love

Relatedness

Safety and security

Need for affiliation

Basic needs
Physiological

Hygiene conditions

Existence

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Process Theories of Motivation

Content theories focus primarily on the needs and incentives that cause behavior

They try to explain how behavior is energized, directed, maintained, and stopped
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Vrooms Expectancy Theory

Employees are more likely to be motivated when they perceive that effort = successful performance + desired rewards and outcomes

Motivation is a process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntary activity

Most behaviors are under the voluntary control of the individual and consequently are motivated

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Vrooms Expectancy Theory

First-level Outcomes Result from behavior associated with doing the job itself Productivity Absenteeism

Second-level Outcomes Result from the rewards and punishments that firstlevel outcomes produce Pay increases Group acceptance or rejection Promotion Termination

Turnover
Production quality

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Vrooms Expectancy Theory

Instrumentality

The perception that first-level outcomes (performance) are tied to second-level outcomes (rewards or punishment)

Valence

An individuals preferences for outcomes

Expectancy

Belief that a particular behavior will be followed by a particular outcome


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Expectancy Theory
E P EXPECTANCY E O EXPECTANCY Perceived probability of successful performance, given effort Perceived probability of receiving an outcome, given performance

First-level outcome

Second-level outcome

Second-level outcome

Effort

Performance

First-level outcome

Second-level outcome

Second-level outcome

First-level outcome

Second-level outcome Second-level outcome

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Equity Theory

Ones perception of being treated fairly in social exchanges can influence motivation

Equity exists when one perceives that the ratio of their inputs (efforts) to their outcomes (rewards) equals the ratios of other employees
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Important Equity Theory Terms

Person Comparison Other

The individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived

Any group or persons used as a referent by Person, regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes
The individual characteristics brought by Person to the job What Person received from the job

Inputs
Outcomes

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Equity Theory

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Change Procedures to Restore Equity

Ways to restore equity


Change the inputs or outcomes Change attitudes

Change the reference person


Leave the field Change the inputs or outcomes of the reference person
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Organizational Justice

The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated at the workplace

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Types of Organizational Justice

Organizational The degree to which individuals feel they are fairly treated at the workplace

Distributive The perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed throughout an organization

Procedural The perceived equity of the processes and procedures used to make resource allocation decisions

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Organizational Justice

Positive Reactions to Procedural Justice


Organizational commitment Organizational citizenship Intent to stay with the organization Trust in supervisor

Satisfaction with decision outcome

Work effort

Performance

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Procedural Justice

People are more inclined to interpret decisions as fair when


They have a voice in the decision Decision making is consistent The process and procedures conform to ethical and moral values

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Procedural Justice

Why does it work?

Self-interest Theory People want fair procedures because it enables them to obtain desired extrinsic outcomes

Group Theory
Fair group procedures are a sign of respect and an indication that group members are valued

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Procedural Justice

Interpersonal justice

Judgments made by employees as to whether they feel they are treated fairly Perceptions of justice are higher when employees are treated with dignity and respect Abusive supervisors are common Employees who experience bullying and incivility are more likely to quit

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Procedural Justice

Informational justice

Perceived fairness of the communication provided to employees from authorities Keep many channels open and communicate frequently Utilize informal chats Dont sugarcoat bad news

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Goal Setting

A goal is a result that a person or group is trying to accomplish through behavior and actions

Lockes view An individuals conscious goals and intentions are the primary determinants of behavior Once a person starts something, he/she pushes on until a goal is achieved Harder goals result in higher levels of performance if the goals are accepted by the individual
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Goal Setting Terms

Goal specificity

Degree of quantitative precision (clarity) of the goal Level of performance required to achieve the goal

Goal difficulty Goal intensity Goal commitment

Process of setting the goal or determining how to achieve it


The amount of effort used to achieve a goal

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Goal Setting Applied to Organizations

Goal Characteristics Clarity Meaningful Challenging

Performance Desired by Organization

Rewards Preferred by Individual or Team

Moderators Ability Commitment Feedback

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Implementing Goal Setting Programs

When implementing goal-setting programs, consider individual differences


Personality Career progression Training background Personal health


Monitor goalsetting programs for attitudinal and performance consequences

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Motivation and the Psychological Contract

Exchange theory

Organizational members engage in reasonably predictable give-and-take relationships

Per Schein, the degree to which employees exert effort, commit to goals, and derive satisfaction from work depends on

The extent to which employee expectations match the organizations expectations

The specific nature of what is exchanged

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The Psychological Contract

Mutual expectations constitute part of the psychological contract


An unwritten agreement between the individual and the organization Specifies what each expects to give and receive from the other Can change over time These implicit agreements may take precedence over written agreements

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The Psychological Agreement

These contracts may focus on


Satisfaction Challenging work Fair treatment Loyalty

An opportunity to be creative

Managing the psychological contract is a key aspect of most managers jobs


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Reviewing Motivation

Content Theories
Individualoriented

Expectancy Theory
Emphasizes individual, jobs, and environmental variables Recognizes differences in needs, perceptions, and beliefs

Equity Theory
Addresses the relationship between attitudes toward inputs and outputs and reward practices

Goal-Setting Theory
Emphasizes the cognitive processes and the role of intentional behavior in motivation

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Reviewing Motivation

Managers can influence the motivation state of employees Be sensitive to variations in employees needs, abilities, goals, reward preferences Provide jobs that offer task challenge, diversity, and need satisfaction

Responsibility is shared between managers and the HR dept

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