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REVERSE OSMOSIS

SUBMITED BY

BALIRAM PANDHARE
BE CHEMICAL ENGINEERING MGMCET
2

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS OSMOSIS AND REVERSE OSMOSIS

OPERATION

Key Terms in RO Systems


Permeate The purified product water exiting the system.
Concentrate The concentrated salt solution exiting the

system. In some system designs this outflow is returned to the aquarium for salt recovery.
Feed Flow The total flow rate of the source water pumped in

the system.
Recovery - The percentage of permeate achieved in a system,

% Recovery = permeate flow/feed flow x 100.


Rejection The percentage of dissolved solids removed from

the source water by the membrane

MEMBRANE
Definition : Membrane can be defined as essentially as a barrier; which separates two phases and restricts transport of various chemicals in a selective manner.
Material used for membranes in RO 1. Cellulose acetate. 2. Aromatic polyamide 3. Polyamide 4. Polyphyenylene oxides

MEMBRANE MODULE

DEFINE MEMBRANE MODULE

TYPES OF MEMBRANE MODULE

a) Spiral wound b) Tubular c) Plate and frame d)hollow module membrane

Low cost
Good Control on concentration polarization Membrane area per unit volume 800-1200 m2 m-3

Medium cost Good Control of concentration polarization Membrane area per unit volume 400-800 m2 m-3
permeate channel spacer feed channelspacer permeate feed solution retentate

permeate

Very High cost Good Control of concentration polarization Membrane area per unit volume 20-100 m2 m-3
f eed perm eate

concent rat e

f eed solut ion

perm eate mem brane porous tube

Very low cost Good Control of concentration polarization Membrane area per unit volume 20005000 m2 m-3
feed soluti on shel l tube c oncentrate

permeate

hollow fiber

epoxy resi n

MEMBRANE FOULING
The main reasons of fouling are: 1. Membrane scaling 2. Metal oxide ppt. 3. Device plugging 4. Biological growth inside device. 5. Colloidal fouling.

APPLICATION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS TECHNIQUE


a. The most wide use of RO is in the desalination of sea water. b. RO is also used in sewage water treatment plants for the removal

of nitrates phosphates or the non-biodegradable surfractants. c. RO is used in the treatment of hard water. d. Paper and pulp industry also use this technique for the treatment of waste water. e. Electroplating and electro painting industries also needs RO. f. RO is used in the removal of common water pollutants like nitrates, borate, fluorides, phosphates, alkyl benzene sulphonate. g. RO is used in pharmaceutical and electronic industries

Factors Influencing Reverse Osmosis Performance


Permeate Flux and Salt Rejection are the key performance parameters of a reverseosmosis process.They are mainly influenced by variable parameters which are as follows: Pressure Temperature Recovery Feed water salt concentration

CONCLUSION
1. Reverse osmosis is most efficient and convenient hyper filtration process of water purification. 2. Reverse osmosis process gives more promising result. 3. Reverse osmosis is simple and effective method than any other purification method. 4. Organic matter removal and particle colloidal reduction are effectively controlled by RO.

Thank You