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# Hydropower

Pressure surge

## Friedrich Moser 16.02.2011

Crash test
O Please imagine o Driving a compact car (e.g. a VW Golf) o against a massive concrete wall! o Kinetic energy: 1,5 Mio. kg m/s O Please imagine o Shutting a 5 km long penstock DN 1000 (v = 2 m/s) o instantaneous! j o Kinetic energy: 7,8 Mio. kg m/s

5 x as much !
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Contents
O O Introduction: A crash test Pressure surge theoretical background

O
O O

## Pressure surge and hydro power plants

Measures to reduce pressure surge Summary

## Causes of pressure surge

O Penstocks Changes in flow velocity

## - Rigidity of pipe material

O Pressure surge cannot be totally avoided reduction!

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## Effects of pressure surge

O Destruction of pipes and fittings

## O The penstock can burst from overpressure

O Penstock can collapse if the pressures are reduced below atmospheric vacuum SN 10000

## Pressure surge: Theoretical approach

O A special case: Instantaneous closing of a valve

walls)

## Pressure surge: Theoretical approach

valve reservoir penstock (e.g. gate valve) tc

reservoir

valve

O What happens?

## - Valve closes, water collides with the

valve ( momentum is physically stopped)

## - Slight compression of the water

pressure wave is formed, which travels back the pipe

L tR a
tR runtime of wave L penstock length a wave velocity

cannot rise

## - Pressure wave is reflected and turns

around in direction of the valve

## Pressure surge: estimation

O Instantaneous Valve Closure

## - Definition: closure time is less

than or equal to 2L/a.

p Jou a v0
With a wave velocity density of fluid v0 flow velocity at t=0

## - Joukowski formula - Assumption for maximum

pressure surge, extreme case*)

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## Pressure surge: causes

O Wave velocity o Wave velocity has large impact on magnitude of pressure surge o Wave velocity depends on:

- modulus of elasticity of pipe material - bulk modulus of water - Fixation and bedding of pipe
o The lower the E-modulus The slower the pressure wave
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Wave velocity
O E-modulus / bulk modulus:
o Deformability of a material o Even water is deformable under pressure O Pressure wave velocity in a pipe o Bulk modulus fluid o Stiffness of the pipe
With a Wave velocity in a pipe density of fluid EF Bulk modulus fluid ER E-modulus pipe di inside diameter pipe s wall thickness ... Poisson number

## o Pipe zone bedding and backfill have an influence

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Wave velocity
Druckwellengeschwindigkeit a
1600

1400

1200

1000

800

## Min [m/s] Max [m/s]

600

400

200

0 Vollkommen starres Rohr Completely rigid pipe Rohre aus Guss, Stahl Faserzement

GRP, plastic

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## - Pressure wave travels more

slowly less pressure surge

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## Behaviour of different pipe materials Characteristics Penstock 1

O Comparative analysis: Joukowski- formula
Pipe material Discharge Q Nominal diameter DN Operating pressure p0 Wall thickness t E-modulus Ep Pressure wave velocity a Pressure surge p
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Penstock 2 GRP 3 m/s DN 1000 10 bar 21,2 mm (SN 10000) 7.000 15.000 N/mm (11.000) 363,3 m/s 11,2 bar

Ductile iron 3 m/s DN 1000 10 bar 13,5 mm 170.000 N/mm 741,1 m/s 22,6 bar

## Linear variation of flow

O Closure time tc O Case 1: Closure time tc = 0

## - not possible in practice; a mechanical valve requires

some time for total closure O Case 2: Closure time tc > tR

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## Linear variation of flow

O Example: Clousure of a valve

- Approximation by Micheaud
- Allievi

p M A

a v t R g tC

## - Assumption: linear closure

With a Pressure wave velocity v Change in flow velocity tR Reflection time (= 2*tL) tc Closure time

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## Why thinking on pressure surge

O Higher pressure in pipe O Higher PN classes necessary

O Costs safety

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## Reduction of Pressure surge turbine

O Adaption of closure time, O choice of the right valve closing law

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## Example: closure times of valve

O Gross Head H = 80 m O Rated discharge QA = 2,5 m/s

## O Penstock, type DN 1000 GRP (SN 10.000, PN10)

O Lenght: LR = 3.000 m O Flow velocity v = 3,18 m/s

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## Example: closure times of valve

O Var A: linear closure in 10 s O Var B: linear closure in 60 s

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Var. A: tc = 10s
Druckhhen- und Durchflussverlauf am Knoten K20 Pressure and discharge vs. time
250 10,00 8,00 200 6,00 4,00 150 2,00 0,00 100 -2,00 -4,00 50 -6,00 -8,00 0 0 200 400 600 Zeit t [s] H20 Q20 800 1000 -10,00 1200
Durchfluss Q [m3/s] Druckhhe H [m]

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Discharge Q [m/s]

Pressure H [m]

Var. A: tc = 10s
Energiehhendiagramm und Bemessungsdrucklinien Pressure and discharge vs. position
250 Erdverlegte Druckrohrleitung DN1000, SN 10.000 PN10 200
Energiehhe [m]
167,81 160,66 170,26 170,74 171,22 171,70 172,18 172,66 173,14 173,62 174,10 174,58

150
136,73 127,99 118,91 109,53

153,09 145,11

100
90,03 80,00 79,01

99,88

78,03

Wasserfassung

77,04

76,05

75,07

74,08

73,09

72,11

71,12

70,13

69,14

68,16

67,17

66,18

65,20

64,21

63,22

62,24

61,25

60,26

50

## 0 0 500 1000 1500 Stationierung [m]

Hmax, c Hstat Hdyn

2000

2500

3000

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Turbine

O Closure time 60 s

Example B
Pressure andDurchflussverlauf am Knoten K20 Druckhhen- und discharge vs. time
250 10,00 8,00 200 6,00 4,00 150 2,00 0,00 100 -2,00 -4,00 50 -6,00 -8,00 0 0 200 400 600 Zeit t [s] H20 Q20 800 1000 -10,00 1200

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Discharge Q [m/s]

Pressure H [m]

Durchfluss Q [m3/s]

Druckhhe H [m]

O Closure time 60 s

Var. B: tc = 60s
Pressure and discharge vs. position Energiehhendiagramm und Bemessungsdrucklinien
250 Erdverlegte Druckrohrleitung DN1000, SN 10.000 PN10 200
Energiehhe [m]

150

100
80,00 81,45 79,01 82,89 78,03 84,30 77,04 85,69 76,05 87,06 75,07 88,41 74,08 89,73 91,03

92,30

93,55

94,77

95,97

97,14

98,29

99,41

100,50

101,57

102,61

103,63

104,62

Wasserfassung

73,09

72,11

71,12

70,13

69,14

68,16

67,17

66,18

65,20

64,21

63,22

62,24

61,25

60,26

50

## 0 0 500 1000 1500 Stationierung [m]

Hmax, c Hstat Hdyn

2000

2500

3000

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Turbine

## Reduction of Pressure surge pipe

O Bigger penstock diameter

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## Reduction of Pressure surge option

O Surge tank

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Surge tank

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Surge tank
O Medium or high head plants wirth long headrace pipelines O HPP producing peak time energy O Surge tank shortens the distance between turbine and open surface (hydraulic separation)

## faster opening/closure possible Less water hammer

O Reliable system (take care of serial opening/closure operations when dimensioning)
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## mass oscillation (water)

Close Open

Pressure oscillation

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## Worst case: Power breakdown

O Behaviour of Pelton turbines

## - In general unproblematic (deflectors will be activated)

O Behaviour of Francis turbines

## - Flow-passing capability decreases with increasing

rotational speed pressure surge O Behaviour of Kaplan turbines

## - Flow-passing capability increases with increasing

rotational speed pressure surge

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## Reduction of Pressure surge turbine

O Pelton deflectors, (bypass) O Francis bypass, flywheel

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## Pressure surge in hydro power plants (HPP)

O Flow regulation O Load removal and plant start

O Emergency shutoff
O Power breakdown

## Discussion pressure surge

O O Cannot be avoided during HPP control operations Depends on equipment (valves, etc) and turbine type

O
O

## Various options to reduce pressure surge

In general, HOBAS - GRP pipes are able to reduce pressure surge to a certain degree

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