Sunteți pe pagina 1din 35

Hydropower

Pressure surge

Friedrich Moser 16.02.2011

Crash test
O Please imagine o Driving a compact car (e.g. a VW Golf) o against a massive concrete wall! o Kinetic energy: 1,5 Mio. kg m/s O Please imagine o Shutting a 5 km long penstock DN 1000 (v = 2 m/s) o instantaneous! j o Kinetic energy: 7,8 Mio. kg m/s

5 x as much !
2

Contents
O O Introduction: A crash test Pressure surge theoretical background

O
O O

Pressure surge and hydro power plants


Measures to reduce pressure surge Summary

Causes of pressure surge


O Penstocks Changes in flow velocity

- Inertia - Elasticity of the fluid

- Rigidity of pipe material


O Pressure surge cannot be totally avoided reduction!

- Valves, pump breakdowns, HPP operation


4

Effects of pressure surge


O Destruction of pipes and fittings

O The penstock can burst from overpressure


O Penstock can collapse if the pressures are reduced below atmospheric vacuum SN 10000

Pressure surge: Theoretical approach


O A special case: Instantaneous closing of a valve

- Assumption 1: tc = 0 (valve closes instantaneous)

- Assumption 2: no head losses due to friction (smooth pipe


walls)

- Assumption 3: total closure of valve

Pressure surge: Theoretical approach


valve reservoir penstock (e.g. gate valve) tc

Velocity of the water column v0

Where will the kinetic energy of the water column end up ?

reservoir

Pressure surge: sequence

valve

overpressure Negative pressure

TR (or tc): reflection time or critical time

Pressure surge: sequence


O What happens?

- Valve closes, water collides with the


valve ( momentum is physically stopped)

- Slight compression of the water


pressure wave is formed, which travels back the pipe

L tR a
tR runtime of wave L penstock length a wave velocity

- At the reservoir, p = 0 Pressure


cannot rise

- Pressure wave is reflected and turns


around in direction of the valve

Pressure surge: estimation


O Instantaneous Valve Closure

- Definition: closure time is less


than or equal to 2L/a.

p Jou a v0
With a wave velocity density of fluid v0 flow velocity at t=0

- Joukowski formula - Assumption for maximum


pressure surge, extreme case*)

*) be aware of multiple opening/ closing or very long pipelines


10

Pressure surge: causes


O Wave velocity o Wave velocity has large impact on magnitude of pressure surge o Wave velocity depends on:

- modulus of elasticity of pipe material - bulk modulus of water - Fixation and bedding of pipe
o The lower the E-modulus The slower the pressure wave
11

Wave velocity
O E-modulus / bulk modulus:
o Deformability of a material o Even water is deformable under pressure O Pressure wave velocity in a pipe o Bulk modulus fluid o Stiffness of the pipe
With a Wave velocity in a pipe density of fluid EF Bulk modulus fluid ER E-modulus pipe di inside diameter pipe s wall thickness ... Poisson number

o Pipe zone bedding and backfill have an influence


12

Wave velocity
Druckwellengeschwindigkeit a
1600

Pressure wave velocity a [m/s] Druckwellengeschwindigkeit a [m/s]

1400

1200

1000

800

Min [m/s] Max [m/s]

600

400

200

0 Vollkommen starres Rohr Completely rigid pipe Rohre aus Guss, Stahl Faserzement

Steel, Rohrtyp [-] iron, ductile fibre cement

Rohre aus Kunststoff und GFK

GRP, plastic

13

Behaviour of different pipe materials


O Advantage of GRP pipes:

- Pressure wave travels more


slowly less pressure surge

14

Behaviour of different pipe materials Characteristics Penstock 1


O Comparative analysis: Joukowski- formula
Pipe material Discharge Q Nominal diameter DN Operating pressure p0 Wall thickness t E-modulus Ep Pressure wave velocity a Pressure surge p
15

Penstock 2 GRP 3 m/s DN 1000 10 bar 21,2 mm (SN 10000) 7.000 15.000 N/mm (11.000) 363,3 m/s 11,2 bar

Ductile iron 3 m/s DN 1000 10 bar 13,5 mm 170.000 N/mm 741,1 m/s 22,6 bar

Linear variation of flow


O Closure time tc O Case 1: Closure time tc = 0

- not possible in practice; a mechanical valve requires


some time for total closure O Case 2: Closure time tc > tR

- Gate valves, pumps, turbines, butterfly and ball valves

16

Linear variation of flow


O Example: Clousure of a valve

- Approximation by Micheaud
- Allievi

p M A

a v t R g tC

- Assumption: linear closure

With a Pressure wave velocity v Change in flow velocity tR Reflection time (= 2*tL) tc Closure time

17

Why thinking on pressure surge


O Higher pressure in pipe O Higher PN classes necessary

O Costs safety

18

Reduction of Pressure surge turbine


O Adaption of closure time, O choice of the right valve closing law

19

Example: closure times of valve


O Gross Head H = 80 m O Rated discharge QA = 2,5 m/s

O Penstock, type DN 1000 GRP (SN 10.000, PN10)


O Lenght: LR = 3.000 m O Flow velocity v = 3,18 m/s

20

Example: closure times of valve


O Var A: linear closure in 10 s O Var B: linear closure in 60 s

21

Var. A: tc = 10s
Druckhhen- und Durchflussverlauf am Knoten K20 Pressure and discharge vs. time
250 10,00 8,00 200 6,00 4,00 150 2,00 0,00 100 -2,00 -4,00 50 -6,00 -8,00 0 0 200 400 600 Zeit t [s] H20 Q20 800 1000 -10,00 1200
Durchfluss Q [m3/s] Druckhhe H [m]

22

Discharge Q [m/s]

Pressure H [m]

Var. A: tc = 10s
Energiehhendiagramm und Bemessungsdrucklinien Pressure and discharge vs. position
250 Erdverlegte Druckrohrleitung DN1000, SN 10.000 PN10 200
Energiehhe [m]
167,81 160,66 170,26 170,74 171,22 171,70 172,18 172,66 173,14 173,62 174,10 174,58

150
136,73 127,99 118,91 109,53

153,09 145,11

100
90,03 80,00 79,01

99,88

78,03

Wasserfassung

77,04

76,05

75,07

74,08

73,09

72,11

71,12

70,13

69,14

68,16

67,17

66,18

65,20

64,21

63,22

62,24

61,25

60,26

50

0 0 500 1000 1500 Stationierung [m]


Hmax, c Hstat Hdyn

2000

2500

3000

23

Turbine

O Closure time 60 s

Example B
Pressure andDurchflussverlauf am Knoten K20 Druckhhen- und discharge vs. time
250 10,00 8,00 200 6,00 4,00 150 2,00 0,00 100 -2,00 -4,00 50 -6,00 -8,00 0 0 200 400 600 Zeit t [s] H20 Q20 800 1000 -10,00 1200

24

Discharge Q [m/s]

Pressure H [m]

Durchfluss Q [m3/s]

Druckhhe H [m]

O Closure time 60 s

Var. B: tc = 60s
Pressure and discharge vs. position Energiehhendiagramm und Bemessungsdrucklinien
250 Erdverlegte Druckrohrleitung DN1000, SN 10.000 PN10 200
Energiehhe [m]

150

100
80,00 81,45 79,01 82,89 78,03 84,30 77,04 85,69 76,05 87,06 75,07 88,41 74,08 89,73 91,03

92,30

93,55

94,77

95,97

97,14

98,29

99,41

100,50

101,57

102,61

103,63

104,62

Wasserfassung

73,09

72,11

71,12

70,13

69,14

68,16

67,17

66,18

65,20

64,21

63,22

62,24

61,25

60,26

50

0 0 500 1000 1500 Stationierung [m]


Hmax, c Hstat Hdyn

2000

2500

3000

25

Turbine

Reduction of Pressure surge pipe


O Bigger penstock diameter

26

Reduction of Pressure surge option


O Surge tank

27

Surge tank

28

Surge tank
O Medium or high head plants wirth long headrace pipelines O HPP producing peak time energy O Surge tank shortens the distance between turbine and open surface (hydraulic separation)

faster opening/closure possible Less water hammer


O Reliable system (take care of serial opening/closure operations when dimensioning)
29

Headrace tunnel

Headrace tunnel Headrace tunnel

How a surge tower works

mass oscillation (water)

Close Open

Pressure oscillation

30

Worst case: Power breakdown


O Behaviour of Pelton turbines

- In general unproblematic (deflectors will be activated)


O Behaviour of Francis turbines

- Flow-passing capability decreases with increasing


rotational speed pressure surge O Behaviour of Kaplan turbines

- Flow-passing capability increases with increasing


rotational speed pressure surge

31

Reduction of Pressure surge turbine


O Pelton deflectors, (bypass) O Francis bypass, flywheel

O Kaplan heavy flywheel

32

Pressure surge in hydro power plants (HPP)


O Flow regulation O Load removal and plant start

O Emergency shutoff
O Power breakdown

Discussion pressure surge


O O Cannot be avoided during HPP control operations Depends on equipment (valves, etc) and turbine type

O
O

Various options to reduce pressure surge


In general, HOBAS - GRP pipes are able to reduce pressure surge to a certain degree

34

Headrace tunnel

Headrace tunnel Headrace tunnel

How a surge tower works

mass oscillation (water)

Close Open

Pressure oscillation

35