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Fiber Optics For Broadcast Video Applications

Eric Fankhauser V.P. Advanced Product Development

Fiber Optics

Need for Fiber Optics technology is constantly increasing

Driven by increasing data rates Declining implementation cost Extremely High Data Carrying Capacity Low signal attenuation Free From Electromagnetic Interference Lightweight

Many advantages

Presentation Overview

Technologies / Building blocks available


Lasers Receivers Fiber Multiplexing Switching

System Design Considerations Application Examples

Technologies Available
Transmitters (Light Sources)

LEDs - 850/1310nm

Used with MMF up to 250Mb/s Short distances <1 Km VCSELs, Fabry Perot and DFB 1310/1550 can be used with MMF or SMF Short to long distances Low to High data rates (Mb/s to Gb/s)

Semiconductor Lasers 850/1310/1550nm


FP and DFB Laser Spectrum


FP Laser Output A B DFB Laser Output

Optical Output Power (mW)

FWHM=4nm

Optical Output Power (mW)

FWHM=0.1nm

Wavelength (nm)

Wavelength (nm)

FP laser

Emits multiple evenly spaced wavelengths Spectral width = 4nm Tuned cavity to limit output to single oscillation / wavelength Spectral width = 0.1nm

DFB laser

Which Laser Type is Better?

Fabry Perot

Distributed Feed Back

Ideal for low cost pt-pt MMF or SMF Not suitable for WDM due to +/- 30nm variation Dispersion is a serious issue at Gb/s rates

Used in wavelength division multiplexing systems Less susceptible to dispersion than FP laser Used for medium and long haul applications

Technologies Available
Receivers (Detectors)

PIN Photodiodes

Silicon for shorter s (eg 850nm) InGaAs for longer s (eg 1310/1550nm) Good optical sensitivity Up to 50% more sensitivity than PIN diodes Primarily for extended distances in Gb/s rates Much higher cost than PIN diodes

Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs)

Fiber Types
Cladding Core

LED Laser Muliti Mode

Cross section

Cladding Core

Laser Single Mode

Multi-Mode Single-Mode 50/62.5um core, 125um clad 9um core, 125um cladding Atten-MHz/km: 200 MHz/km Atten-dB/km: 0.4/0.3dB Atten-dB/km: 3dB @ 850nm 1310nm/1550nm MMF has an orange jacket SMF has a yellow jacket

Degradation In Fiber Optic Cable

Attenuation

Loss of light power as the signal travels through optical cable Spreading of signal pulses as they travel through optical cable

Dispersion

Attenuation Vs. Wavelength

Light Propagation

Light propagates due to total internal reflection Light > critical angle will be confined to the core Light < critical angle will be lost in the cladding

Bending Loss

Bends introduce an interruption in the path of light causing some of the optical power to leak into the cladding where it is lost Always keep a minimum bending radius of 5cm on all corners When bundling fibers with tie wraps keep them loose to avoid introducing micro bending into the fiber

Dispersion - Single-Mode
Transmitter Receiver

Time

FP and DFB lasers have finite spectral widths and transmit multiple wavelengths Different wavelengths travel at different speeds over fiber A pulse of light spreads as it travels through an optical fiber eventually overlapping the neighboring pulse Narrower sources (e.g DFB vs. FP) yield less dispersion Issue at high rates (>1Ghz) for longer distances (>50Km)

Dispersion - Multi-Mode Fiber

Modal Dispersion The larger the core of the fiber, the more rays can propagate making the dispersion more noticeable Dispersion determines the distance a signal can travel on a multi mode fiber

Advances in Fiber Optic cable

SMF

Reduction in the water peak Reduction in loss per Km Corning SMF28e Lucent AllWave
Higher bandwidths Most manus going to 50um, graded index fiber

MMF

Optimizing Fiber Usage


Multiplexing

TDM Time Division Multiplexing WDM Wave Division Multiplexing

Multiplexing - TDM
Signal 1 Signal 2 Signal 3 Signal 4

TDM Multiplexed signal


Time Division Multiplex
Single-mode Fiber

Signal 1

Time Division De-multiplex

Signal 2 Signal 3 Signal 4

Done in the electrical domain Can TDM Video+Audio+Data OR Many Videos, Audios, Datas Increases efficiency of each wavelength Max # of signals based on max link rate

Multiplexing - TDM

Latest developments in TDM

No synchronization required between signals All signals 100% independent Low latency (<10us) Small form factor (4/8 Ch in 1/2, 3RU card slot) 8 Ch SDI TDM mux

128 SDI per fiber (CWDM), 320 SDI per fiber (DWDM)

2 Ch HDSDI TDM mux

32 HD per fiber (CWDM), 80 HD per fiber (DWDM)

256 AES per fiber (CWDM), 640 AES (DWDM) RGBHV over 1 fiber/1 wavelength vs 3 fibers

Multiplexing - WDM
Signal 1 Signal 2

WDM Multiplexed signal MUX


DEMUX

Signal 1 Signal 2 Signal 3

Signal 3 Single-mode Fiber Signal 4

Signal 4

Wavelengths travel independently Data rate and signal format on each wavelength is completely independent Designed for SMF fiber

Multiplexing - WDM
WDM Wave Division Multiplexing Earliest technology Mux/Demux of two optical wavelengths (1310nm/1550nm) Wide wavelength spacing means

Low cost, uncooled lasers can be used Low cost, filters can be used

Limited usefulness due to low mux count

Multiplexing - DWDM
DWDM Dense Wave Division Multiplexing Mux/Demux of narrowly spaced wavelengths

400 / 200 / 100 / 50 GHz Channel spacing 3.2 / 1.6 / 0.8 / 0.4 nm wavelength spacing

Up to 160 wavelengths per fiber Narrow spacing = higher cost implementation

More expensive lasers and filters to separate s

Primarily for Telco backbone Distance Means to add uncompressed Video signals to existing fiber

Multiplexing - CWDM
CWDM Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing Newest technology (ITU Std G.694.2) Based on DWDM but simpler and more robust Wider wavelength spacing (20 nm) Up to 18 wavelengths per fiber Uses un-cooled lasers and simpler filters Significant system cost savings over DWDM DWDM can be used with CWDM to increase channel count or link budget

CWDM Optical Spectrum

20nm spaced wavelengths

DWDM vs. CWDM Spectrum


1.6nm Spacing

dB

1470

1490

1510

1530

1550

1570

1590

1610

Wavelength

Optical Routing - Definitions

Optical Routers Optical IN , Optical OUT Photonic Routers Optical IN & OUT but 100% photonic path OOO- Optical to Optical to Optical switching

Optical switch fabric

OEO- Optical to Electrical to Optical conversion


Electrical switch fabric Regenerative input and outputs

Photonic Technologies

MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) Liquid Crystal MASS (Micro-Actuation and Sensing System )

MEMS Technology

Steer the Mirror Tilted mirrors shunt light in various directions 2D MEMS

Mirrors arrayed on a single level, or plane Off or On state: Either deployed (on), not deployed (off) Mirrors arrayed on two or more planes, allowing light to be shaped in a broader range of ways

3D MEMS

Fast switching speed (ns) Photonic switch is 1:1 IN to OUT (i.e. no broadcast mode)

Liquid Crystal Technology

Gate the light No Moving Parts Slow switch speed Small sizes (32x32) Operation based on polarization:

One polarization component reflects off surfaces Second polarization component transmits through surface

MASS Technology

Steer the fiber Opto-mechanics uses piezoelectric actuators Same technology as Hard Disk Readers and Ink Jet Printer Heads Small-scale opt mechanics: no sliding parts Longer switch time (<10msec)

OEO Technology
Fiber Inputs
OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE OE EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO EO

Electrical Inputs EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ EQ

High BW Electrical XPNT

Fiber Outputs

Electrical Outputs
Monitoring Interface

CPU

Local Indication

OEO Routing

Optical <> Electrical conversion at inputs/outputs

Provides optical gain (e.g. 23 dB)


SD, HD, Analog Video (digitized), RGBHV, DVI

High BW, rate agnostic electrical switching at core

Fast switching (<10us) Full broadcast mode

One IN to ANY/Many outputs Save converter costs

Build-in EO / OE to interface with coax plant

Regeneration - Optical vs Photonic

Photonic is a lossy device that provide no re-amplification or regeneration

Signal coming in at 23dBm leaves at 25dBm

OEO router provides 2R or 3R (re-amplify, reclock, regenerate)

Signals come in at any level to 25dBm Leave at 7dBm (1310nm) or 0dBm (CWDM)

Applications - Design Considerations

Types of signals Signal associations Fiber infrastructure Distance/Loss Redundancy Remote Monitoring

Types of Signals
FacilityLINK - Fiber Optics Platform
VIDEO
SDI HDSDI ANALOG DVB-ASI RGB AES ANALOG DOLBY E
INTERCOM

MULTI WAVELENGTH OR

MULTI FIBER

AUDIO

OPTICAL CONTROL
RS232/422/485 GPI/GPO 10/100 ETHERNET GBE FIBER CHANNEL
70/140 MHz I/F L-BAND CATV SONET OC3/12 T1/E1 DS3/E3

WDM CWDM DWDM ROUTING

SPLITTERS + PROTECTION SWITCHING

DATACOM

RF

TELECOM

Design Considerations

Signal associations

Video, audio, data Together or separate - Issues MMFor SMF Many fibers or one fiber Single clean run for your use (e.g. put in for you) Leased fiber (multiple patches, fusion splices) Total path loss = (fiber+connectors+passives) Distance can be deceiving - patches, connections, fusion splices

Fiber infrastructure

Distance/Loss

Design Considerations
Fault Protection Protection against fiber breaks Important in CWDM and DWDM systems Need 2:1 Auto-changeover function with switching intelligence

Measurement of optical power levels on fiber Ability to set optical thresholds Revert functions to control restoration

Design Considerations

Remote monitoring is key due to distance issues Monitor


Input signal presence and validity Laser functionality and bias Optical Link status and link errors Pre-emptive Monitoring

Input cable equalization level CRC errors on coax or fiber interface Optical power monitoring

Data logging of all errord events Error tracking and acknowledgment

Diagnostics Interface

Design Examples Single Link


-7dBm @ 1310nm SDI @ 270Mb/s SD EO 40 Kms -32dBm SD OE SDI @ 270Mb/s

-7dBm @ 1310nm HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s HD EO 40 Kms

-23dBm HD OE

HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s

Loss Budget
SD HD FP TX Power (dBm) RX Sens (dBm) Available Budget Distance (Km) Fiber Loss (0.35dB/km@1310) Connectors Connector Loss Total Loss Headroom -7 -32 25 40 14 4 1 15 10 -7 -23 16 40 14 4 1 15 1 HD DFB 0 -23 23 40 14 4 1 15 8

Dispersion
SD HD FP FP Line width (nm) Dispersion (ps/nm.km) Distance (km) Dispersion (ps) 4 2 40 320 4 2 40 320 HD DFP 0.2 2 40 16

RX Jitter Tolerance (UI)


RX Jitter Tolerance (ps) Headroom (ps)

0.4
1480 1160

0.4
270 -50

0.4
270 254

Post House Facility link - Legacy


Location #1
SDI @ 270Mb/s 1310 E to O 1530 E to O 1550 O to O 1570 O to O 1530 O to E 1510 1510 O to E

Location #2
SDI @ 270Mb/s

HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s

HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s

CWDM M4
2 Kms

SONET OC3 @155Mb/s

ATM Switch

1310

CWDM D4 1550

ATM Switch
1570

SONET OC3 @155Mb/s HIPPI @ 1.2Gb/s

HIPPI @ 1.2Gb/s

1310

1510 SDI @ 270Mb/s HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s SONET OC3 @155Mb/s HIPPI @ 1.2Gb/s O to E 1530

1510 E to O 1530

1310

SDI @ 270Mb/s

O to E
CWDM M4 1550 WDM WDM CWDM D4 1550

E to O

HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s

1310 O to O

ATM Switch
1570 1570

ATM Switch
1310

SONET OC3 @155Mb/s

HIPPI @

O to O

1.2Gb/s

RS422

1310
E to O

1310 O to E

RS422

Post House Facility Link New


Location #1
SDI @ 270Mb/s 1310 E to O O to E

Location #2
O to E E to O SDI @ 270Mb/s

HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s

E to O O to E

O to E E to O

HDSDI @ 1.485Gb/s

Analog Video Analog Audio

Mux + EO OE+Demux

Demux+OE EO + Mux

Analog Video Analog Audio

Analog Video Analog Audio

Mux + EO OE+Demux CWDM M16 2 Kms

Demux+OE

CWDM D16

Analog Video Analog Audio

EO + Mux

GBE 10/100 Mb/s Ethernet RS422

Gbe

Gbe

GBE 10/100 Mb/s Ethernet RS422

10/100

10/100

RS422

RS422

Mux +EO AES Demux +OE

Demux +OE Mux + EO AES

Fiber STL
BROADCAST CENTER CH 1 CH 2
Fiber to Coax

Monitoring Points

CN TOWER

Coax to Fiber

Fiber to Coax

NTSC Enc NTSC Enc NTSC Enc NTSC Enc

SDI Video with Embedd ed Audio

Coax to Fiber Coax to Fiber Coax to Fiber

CH 3
Fiber to Coax

CH 4
Fiber to Coax

Analog Video and Audio

Audio Demux

Audio Mux

6 AES Audio for Radio

6 AES Audio for Radio

Monitorin g and Control

Cat 5 to Fiber

Fiber to Cat 5

RF Over fiber optics -Applications


Typical Satellite Application With SNMP Monitoring
L-Band Downlink (950Mhz 2250Mhz)
Vertical LB EO Horizontal LB EO LNB Power
Ethernet / SNMP

LB OE
Router LB OE

BPX-RF BPX-RF

DA8-RF

Remote Ethernet SNMP / SNMP Monitoring & Control

Ethernet / SNMP

Satellite Receiver Satellite Receiver Satellite Receiver Satellite Receiver Satellite Receiver Satellite Receiver Satellite Receiver

HPA C or Ku
Up Conv IF OE IF EO DA-RF BPX-RF DA-RF Video Mod Video Mod

IF Uplink (70/140Mhz)

Large Video MAN Fully protected


VideoMan Nodes Layout
KNBC KABC 2.3 Circle seven 7.3 Extra 25 mi 25 mi
2.3

KRCA
2.9

KVEA
2.3 5.75

LA Zoo KABC Prospect

RSE

KCBS KTLA Ent .. Tonight


4 mi 1.1 1.5

CNN
1.1

1.1

9 Net Australia
2.7

TV Gaming Fox Sports KSCI KTTV


1.5

Fox
7.25

2.1

CBS Dodger Stadium VYVX Fiber


0 2.5

11 mi

RSH RSK
5.5 mi 5.5 mi
0.8

Intelsat
0.5

0.5 0.5

8 mi 8 mi 9.8 mi

One Wilshire
7.5

6.2

E!
0.7

NCTC

7.25

Pac TV
0.75

KMEX Globesat
10.5

Japan Telecom 13.5 mi


10.5

Direct TV

BT

DT 11/17/03

Summary
Fiber is an ideal transport medium No magic involved in using fiber optics Many solution options available Proper upfront system design upfront prevents many headaches

Questions
Eric Fankhauser ericf@evertz.com www.evertz.com