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Analele Universit ii Constantin Brncu i din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

3/2010

SISTEM DE ACHIZIIE I DEZVOLTARE REALIZAT CU AJUTORUL MICROCONTROLERELOR PIC16F84 I PIC16F877 Ing. Nicolae ANTONIE, Universitatea Constantin Brncuidin Trgu Jiu Dr. Ing. Ilie BORCOI, Universitatea Constantin Brncuidin Trgu Jiu Ing. Marian IONESCU, Universitatea Constantin Brncuidin Trgu Jiu
Abstract: n aplicaiile industriale i nu numai, un rol important l au microcontrolerele care, din ce n ce mai performante nglobeaz o bun parte din tehnica de calcul necesar pentru comand i achiziie, simplificnd astfel dispozitivele de conducere a proceselor tehnologice pe care le deservesc.

ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM WITH PIC16F84 AND PIC16F877 MICROCONTROLLERS Eng. Antonie Nicolae, Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu PhD. Eng. Ilie BORCOI, Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu Eng. Marian IONESCU, Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu
ABSTRACT: In industrial applications (and not only), a very important role is played by microcontrollers which, more performat each day, gather a part of calculus technique necessary for control and acquisition, simplifying in this way the control devices for the technological processes they serve.

1.

Microcontrolerul PIC16F84. Descriere general

1. PIC16F84 microcontroller. General description


The PIC 16F8X microcontroller (C) is part of the microprocessor family PIC 16 CXX, C of low cost, special performances, CMOS technology, 8 bits. All types of C PIC microTM benefit of an advanced RISC architecture. The PIC 16F8X devices have an eight level stack and multiple internal/external interruption sources. Separate buses for data and instructions of the Harvard type architecture allow instruction words on 14 bits and separately, words of data on 8 bits. Instructions are executed in one cycle, excepting the program ramifications which need two cycles. A 35 instruction set is available. Plus, a set of registers is used to increase performance. PIC 16F8X microcontrollers have 68 bytes of RAM, 64 bytes of data EEPROM memory and 13 input/output pins and a timer/counter. They also have special

Microcontrolerul (C) PIC 16F8X face parte din familia de microprocesoare PIC 16 CXX, C de cost redus, performane deosebite, tehnologie CMOS, 8 bii. Toate tipurile de C PIC microTM beneficiaz de o arhitectur RISC avansat. Dispozitivele PIC 16F8X au o stiv pe 8 nivele i surse de ntrerupere interne i externe multiple. Magistralele separate pentru date i instruciuni ale arhitecturii de tip Harvard permit cuvinte de instruciuni pe 14 bii i separat cuvinte de date pe 8 bii. Instruciunile se execut ntr-un singur ciclu, exceptnd ramificaiile de program care necesit dou cicluri. Este disponibil un set de 35 de instruciuni. n plus, se folosete un set de registre pentru a realiza un nivel de performan ridicat. Microcontrolerele PIC 16F8X au 68 byte de RAM, 64 byte de memorie EEPROM de date i 13 pini de intrare/ieire precum i un timer/counter. Familia PIC 16F8X are faciliti speciale pentru a reduce componentele externe, reducnd astfel costurile, crescnd fiabilitatea i

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reducnd puterea consumat. Exist patru opiuni pentru oscilator: oscilator RC care este o soluie pentru cost redus, oscilator LP care minimizeaz puterea consumat, oscilator XT care folosete un cristal de cuar standard i oscilator HS pentru cristale de vitez mare. Modul de funcionare SLEEP ofer posibilitatea economiei de energie. Utilizatorul poate determina scoaterea dispozitivului din modul SLEEP prin cteva ntreruperi interne sau externe sau prin resetare. Timer-ul Watchdog, mpreun cu propriul oscilator din cip, asigur protecia mpotriva blocrilor software. Dispozitivele cu memorie de program Flash permit folosirea aceluiai cip s fie folosit ca prototip i ca produs de serie. Reprogramarea n circuit permite programului s fie modificat fr ca dispozitivul s fie scos din aplicaia final. Acest lucru este folositor n dezvoltarea multor aplicaii unde dispozitivul nu este uor accesibil, dar programul de aplicaie necesit modificri. Microcontrolerul PIC 16F84 dispune de dou porturi pentru comunicaia cu exteriorul; unul de 5 pini (RA0..RA4) i unul de 8 pini (RB0...RB7). Att portul A ct i portul B sunt bidirecionale, adic pot fi setate s funcioneze ca porturi de intrare ct i ca porturi de ieire; toi pinii portului (A sau B) pot fi definii ca intrare sau ieire conform cu cerinele unui montaj ce este n dezvoltare. Fiecare port are propriul regisru TRIS, astfel portul A are TRISA la adresa 85h iar portul B are TRISB la adresa 86h. Portul B are 8 pini legai la el; fiecare pin al portului B are un rezistor slab intern pull-up (scoatere), rezistor care definete o linie la unu logic. Patru pini ai portului B (RB4..RB7) pot provoca o ntrerupere la trecerea lor dintr-o stare n alta adic de la unu logic la zero logic i invers. Pentru a putea provoca o ntrerupere aceti pini trebuiesc configurai ca intrare. Daca vreunul dintre aceti pini nu este configurat ca intrare atunci acel pin nu poate provoca o ntrerupere la schimbarea strii logice. innd cont de aceste considerente putem utiliza foarte uor acest microcontroler n aplicaii practice dintre cele mai diverse.

facilities to reduce the external components, thus reducing the costs and consumed power and increasing the reliability. There are four options for the oscillator: RC which is a solution for reduced cost LP which minimizes the consumed power, XT which uses a standard quartz crystal and HS for high speed crystals. SLEEP mode offers the possibility of energy saving. User can determine the device to exit the SLEEP mode by internal or external interruptions or through reset. The watchdog timer with its own chip oscillator ensures the protection against software blocking. The devices with Flash program memory allow the use of the same chip as prototype and series product. Reprogramming in circuit allows the program to be modified without detaching the device from the final application. This is useful in many applications development where the device isnt easily accessible and where the application program needs changes. The PIC 16F84 microcontroller has two ports for exterior communication, one of 5 pins (RA0 to RA4) and one of 8 (RB0 to RB7). Both ports A and B are bidirectional (can be set to act as input and also output ports); all ports pins (A or B) can be defined as input or output, as a development assembly requires. Each port has its own TRIS register, so port A has TRISA at the address 85h and port B has TRISB at address 86h. Port B has 8 pins connected to itself; each pin of the port B has a weak internal pull-up, which defines a line to logical 1. Four pins of port B (RB4 to RB7) may cause a interruption at their transition from one state to another (from logical 1 to logical 0 and vice versa). To cause an interruption, these pins must be configured as input. If one of them isnt, that pin cant cause an interruption at the change of logical state. Taking into account these reasons, we may use this microcontroller in the most various practical applications. PIC 16F8X C can be serial programmed

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Programare serial in-circuit Microcontrolerele PIC 16F8X pot fi programate serial chiar n circuitul de aplicaie. Acest lucru este fcut cu dou linii pentru date i ceas i alte trei linii pentru alimentare, mas i tensiunea de programare.

even in the application circuit (this technique is called in-circuit serial programming). It is done with two lines for data and clock and other three lines for charging, ground and programming voltage.

Figure 1. Programming module Aceas facilitate de programare prezint avantajul c microcontrolerul nu trebuie scos din circuitul de aplicaie ci doar trecut n modul de programare. Trecerea n modul de programare presupune ca pinul 4 al microcontrolerului s fie conectat la tensiunea de programare iar pinii RB6 i RB7 s fie deconectai din circuitul aplicaiei deoarece pot aprea erori n timpul programrii. This programming facility has the advantage that the C doesnt have to be detached from the application circuit. It just has to be switched on programming mode by connecting pin 4 to the programming voltage and by disconnecting pins RB6 and RB7 from the application circuit because errors may appear during programming.

2. Descriere sistem de achiziie dezvoltare cu PIC16F84

2. Description of the acquisition and development system built with PIC16F84


The development system with PIC16F84, besides the C, it contains a network of LEDs connected to port B of the microcontroller. At the same port are connected the LEDs of the display with four digits, display which is commanded through multiplexer with the help of four transistors connected to the common anode of each digit. Such a display can be replaced, in more complex applications, with a liquid

Sistemul de dezvoltare cu microcontrolerul PIC16F84 are n componen, pe lng microcontroler, o reea de leduri conectate la portul B al microcontrolerului. Tot la portul B al microcontrolerului se conecteaz i ledurile afiajului cu patru digii, afiaj ce este comandat prin multiplexare cu ajutorul a patru tranzistoare conectate la anodul comul al fiecrui digit. Un astfel de afiaj poate fi nlocuit, n

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aplicaii mai complexe, cu un afiaj cu cristale lichide. Tot pe placa de dezvoltare se mai afl dispuse un releu i un buzzer piezo pentru a putea dezvolta aplicaii cu astfel de dispozitive. n componena sistemului de dezvoltare mai intr i o tastatur format din patru butoane conectate la cei patru pini ai portului B care permit ntrerpere la schimbarea strii logice pentru a putea dezvolta aplicaii ce necesit ntrerupere. ntreg sistemul de dezvoltare este alimentat de la o surs de tensiune stabilizat de 5Vcc. n figura 2 se prezint schema electronic a sistemului de dezvoltare n jurul unui microcontroler de tip PIC16F84. Trecerea microcontrolerului din modul de lucru n modul de programare se realizeaz prin modificarea poziiei comutatoarelor conectate la pinii 4, 12 i 13 ai microcontrolerului. Odat trecut n modul de programare, n microcontroler se poate memora programul modificat fr al deconecta de pe placa de dezvoltare. Trecut n modul de programare microcontrolerul rmne alimentat de la sursa de alimentare a montajului i prin intermediul conectorului DB9 primete serial datele de programat de la un calculator pe care ruleaz un program specializat (ICPROG).

crystals display. On the development board is also a relay and a piezo buzzer to be used in various applications In the constitution of the development system there is also a keyboard of four buttons connected to the four pins of the port B which allow interruption at the switch of logical state in order to be able to develop applications which need interruptions. The whole development system is supplied from a stabilized voltage source of 5Vcc. In figure 2 is the electronic scheme of the development system around a PIC16F84 C. Switching from the working mode in the programming mode is made by modifying the position of the switches connected to the pins 4, 12, and 13 of the C. Once in the programming mode, the modified program can be saved in the C without disconnecting it from the development board, and also the C remains connected to the supply source of the assembly, and through connector DB9 it receives programming serial data from a computer on which a specialized program runs (ICPROG).

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J4 SW3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 5 J1 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 1N4148 3 1 2 BC547 RELEU 3 2 1

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Figure 2. Electronic scheme of the development system built with PIC16F84

4*270

3. Descriere sistem de dezvoltare cu PIC16F877


Microcontrolerul PIC16F877 face parte tot din familia de microcontrolere pe 8 bii, are o structur intern mult mai complex dect PIC16F84, este capabil de a achiziiona semnale analogice avnd n componena sa convertoare analog-numerice pe 10 bii, poate genera semnale PWM, etc; ceea ce l face mult superior fa de PIC16F84 i se preteaz foarte bine n aplicaii industriale. Prezint 5 porturi bidirecionale configurabile n funcie de montajul de utilizare, putnd fi folosit n aplicaii destul de complexe. n figura urmtoare este prezentat schema electronic a sistemului de dezvoltare cu microcontroler de tipul PIC16F877, unde anumite componente sunt prezentate sub form de bloc din considerente de complexitate.

3.

Description of the development system built with PIC16F877

The PIC16F877 microcontroller is part of 8 bit microcontroller family, has a much more complex internal structure compared to PIC16F84. It is able to take over analogical signals, because it includes analog to digital converters on 10 bits, can generate PWM, things which make it superior to PIC16F84. Also, it is very adequate for industrial applications. It has 5 configurable bidirectional ports, function of the used assembly, thus able to be used in complex applications. In figure 3 is the electronic scheme of the development system with PIC16F877 microcontroller, where some components are presented as blocks because of complexity reasons.

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VCC R B4 R B5 R B6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 R B7

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SISTEM DE DEZVOLTARE CU PIC16F877


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Realizator: Antonie Nicolae


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Figure 3. Development system with PIC 16 F 877

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Prezentarea unei metode practice de msurare a distanei dintre dou role


M S S RM CE R R CE M S S

Presenting a practical method for measuring the distance between two rollers
Sursa de alimentare

Senzor de proximitate

Circuit cu microcontroler

Afiaj

BT

Intrri digitale

Tastatura

Ieiri digitale

RF

Figure 4.

Electromechanical actuation system of rollers and electronic circuit block diagram of measurement In figure 4 presents a practical method for measuring the distance between two rollers, a method used in the manufacture of conveyor belts and electronic circuit block diagram of measurement. The manufacturing process requires a system of conveyor belts electromechanical whose kinematic scheme is shown in the previous figure. This system consists of two rollers, one fixed and one mobile. The moving to the mobile roller is fixed by means of a system consisting of an electric motor, an electromechanical coupling, a gear and a screw drive, one for each side. Thus knowing the gear ratio and step processing thread can determine the distance between the two rollers. For this, the shaft coupling on the side is placed a mechanical device with 2 cams and a proximity sensor, each sensor providing two pulses during each rotation axis. Microcontroller takes pulses for each sensor, it counts, determine the movement and displayed on the display with four digits, of which two digits represent the integer and the other two represent the decimal. The device can display values between 0.00 and 99.99 mm, thus obtaining accuracies of hundredths of mm. In practice, require precision of tenths of mm, so the proposed system meets the practical requirements of conveyor belts.

n figura 4 este prezentata o metod practic de msurare a distanei dintre dou role, metod utilizat n procesul de fabricare al benzilor transportoare ct i schema bloc a circuitului electronic de msur. Procesul tehnologic de fabricare a benzilor transportoare necesit un sistem electromecanic a crui schem cinematic este prezentat n figura anterioar. Acest sistem este format din dou role , una fixa i una mobil. Deplasarea rolei mobile fa de cea fix se realizeaz cu ajutorul unui sistem format dintr-un motor electric, un cuplaj electromecanic, un reductor i un urub de acionare; cte unul pentru fiecare parte. Astfel cunoscnd raportul de transformare al reductorului ct i pasul filetului se poate determina distana dintre cele dou role. Pentru aceasta, pe axul cuplajului, pe partea dinspre reductor se plaseaz un dispozitiv mecanic cu 2 came i un senzor de proximitate, senzor ce furnizeaz cte 2 impulsuri la fiecare rotaie a axului. Microcontrolerul preia impulsurile corespunztoare fiecrui senzor, le contorizeaz, determin deplasarea i o afieaz pe dispozitivul de afiare cu patru digii, dintre care 2 digii reprezint partea intreag iar ceilali 2 reprezint partea zecimal. Dispozitivul poate afia valori cuprinse ntre 0,00 i 99,99 mm, obinnd astfel precizii de sutimi de mm. n practic se cer precizii de

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zecimi de mm; astfel sistemul propus ndeplinete CONCLUSIONS cerinele practice de realizare a benzilor The complexity of this development transportoare. system doesnt stop here. It can be extended function of the requirements and complexities of the technological installations which are to be CONCLUZII Complexitatea unui astfel de sistem de controlled. dezvoltare nu se oprete aici, el putnd fi extins n By a simple extension for the microcontroller funcie de cerinele i complexitatea instalaiilor ports to the exterior with the help of some tehnologice ce trebuiesc conduse. Prin simpla connectors, also we may extend the applications scoatere n exterior cu ajutorul unor conectori a which can be made with the help of the porturilor microcontrolerului, putem extinde platform. The serial communication possibilities aplicaiile ce se pot realiza cu ajutorul platformei of these microcontrollers with a process i datorit posibilitilor de comunicare serial i computer or with other devices of this type, nu numai a unor astfel de microcontrolere cu un makes them more and more useful in very calculator de proces sau cu alte dispozitive de complex industrial applications. acest gen le face tot mai folosite n aplicaii In practice, measuring errors can occur because industriale foarte complexe, etc. n practic pot of the games in the mechanical structure of the aprea erori de msur din cauza jocurilor din plant. The device successfully measured the structura mecanic a instalaiei. Aparatul msoar distance between the two rollers is a flexible cu succes distana dintre cele dou role fiind o structure can be used in other applications. structur flexibil cu posibilitatea utilizrii i n An important advantage of the application alte aplicaii. submitted is the discounted price of Un avantaj important al aplicaiei prezentate este achievement. reprezentat de preul redus de realizare. Bibliography
Referine: [1]. Borcosi I, Olaru O, Popescu M.C., Antonie N., "Method to Protect from no Pulse for a ThreePhase Rectifier Bridge", International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, January 2009, pp.473-482. [2]. Borcosi I., Onisifor O., Popescu M.C., Antonie N., "A Method to Protect from no Pulse for a Three-Phase Rectifier Bridge Connected with the Resistive-Inductive Load", Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS International Conference on Mathematical and Computational Methods in Science and Engineering, Bucharest, November 2008, pp.146-152. [3]. Borcoi Ilie, Olaru Onisifor, Popescu MariusConstantin, Dinc Alina, Device with Analogical Circuits for Protection to the Lack of the Pulse for the Three-Phase Rectifiers in Bridge, Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS International Conference on MATHEMATICAL and COMPUTATIONAL METHODS in SCIENCE and ENGINEERING (MACMESE 08), Bucharest, Romania, Nov. 7-9, 2008, Part I, ISSN: 1790-2769, ISBN:978-960-474019-2, pp. 152-157. [4]. Borcoi Ilie, Olaru Onisifor, Popescu MariusConstantin, Dinca Alina, Antonie Nicolae, Ionescu Marian, Device with Analogical Circuits for [1]. Borcosi I, Olaru O, Popescu M.C., Antonie N., "Method to Protect from no Pulse for a ThreePhase Rectifier Bridge", International Journal of Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences, January 2009, pp.473-482. [2]. Borcosi I., Onisifor O., Popescu M.C., Antonie N., "A Method to Protect from no Pulse for a Three-Phase Rectifier Bridge Connected with the Resistive-Inductive Load", Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS International Conference on Mathematical and Computational Methods in Science and Engineering, Bucharest, November 2008, pp.146152. [3]. Borcoi Ilie, Olaru Onisifor, Popescu Marius-Constantin, Dinc Alina, Device with Analogical Circuits for Protection to the Lack of the Pulse for the Three-Phase Rectifiers in Bridge, Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS International Conference on MATHEMATICAL and COMPUTATIONAL METHODS in SCIENCE and ENGINEERING (MACMESE 08), Bucharest, Romania, Nov. 7-9, 2008, Part I, ISSN: 1790-2769, ISBN:978-960-474-019-2, pp. 152-157. [4]. Borcoi Ilie, Olaru Onisifor, Popescu Marius-Constantin, Dinca Alina, Antonie Nicolae, Ionescu Marian, Device with Analogical Circuits for

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Protection to the Lack of the Pulse for the ThreePhase Rectifiers in Electrical Drive, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES, Issue 4, Volume 2, December 2008, ISSN: 1998-0140, pp. 483-492. [5]. Ilie Borcoi, Onisifor Olaru, Nicolae Antonie, Device for Protection to the Lack of the Pulse for the Tri-Phase Rectifiers in Bridge, International Journal of Coputers, Communications& Control, ISSN 18419836, E-ISSN 1841-9844, Vol. III, 2008, pp. 196-200. [6]. Marius-Constantin Popescu , Ilie Borcoi, Onisifor Olaru, Luminia Popescu, Florin Grofu, Simulation Hybrid Fuzzz Control of SCARA Robot, 2007, Proceedings of the 3rd WSEAS International Conference on Applied and THEORETICAL MECHANICS (Mechanics '07), Tenerife, Spain, December 14-16, 2007, pag. 175-180 Published by WSEAS Press, ISBN: 978-960-6766-19-0, ISSN: 1790-2769; [7]. Marius-Constantin Popescu , Ilie Borcoi, Onisifor Olaru, Luminia Popescu, Florin Grofu,The Simulation Hybrid Fuzzy Control of Scara Robot, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on SYSTEMS AND CONTROL, Issue 2, Volume 3, February 2008, ISSN: 1991-8763. [8] Popescu M.C., Onisifor O., I. Borcosi Simulation of n-r Robots, Journal WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on SYSTEMS AND CONTROL, Volume 3, March 2008, ISSN: 1991-8763. [9] Popescu M.C., Mastorakis N., Borcosi I., Popescu L., Asynchronous Motors Drive Systems Command with Digital Signal Processor, International Journal of Systems Applications, Engineering & Development, Issue 2, Vol.3, pp.64-73, 2009. [10]. Borcoi, I., Dinc, A., Nebunu, D.L., Antonie N., A., High performance digital control system of AC Machines, Annual of University of Mining and Geology ,,St. Ivan Rilski Sofia, vol. 51, Part III, Mechanization, electrification and automation in mines, 2008, ISSN 1312-1820, pp. 23-26. [11]. Antonie, N., Borcoi, I., Dinc, A., Ionescu, M., FOC Control System of AC Machines, Analele Universitatii Constantin Brancusi din Tg. Jiu, Seria Inginerie, no.2/2008,ISSN 1844 4856, pag. 307-312. [12]. PIC 16F84 Data Sheet, PIC 16F877 Data Sheet 28/40-Pin CMOS FLASH Microcontrollers.

Protection to the Lack of the Pulse for the ThreePhase Rectifiers in Electrical Drive, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES, Issue 4, Volume 2, December 2008, ISSN: 1998-0140, pp. 483-492. [5]. Ilie Borcoi, Onisifor Olaru, Nicolae Antonie, Device for Protection to the Lack of the Pulse for the Tri-Phase Rectifiers in Bridge, International Journal of Coputers, Communications& Control, ISSN 1841-9836, E-ISSN 1841-9844, Vol. III, 2008, pp. 196-200. [6]. Marius-Constantin Popescu , Ilie Borcoi, Onisifor Olaru, Luminia Popescu, Florin Grofu, Simulation Hybrid Fuzzz Control of SCARA Robot, 2007, Proceedings of the 3rd WSEAS International Conference on Applied and THEORETICAL MECHANICS (Mechanics '07), Tenerife, Spain, December 14-16, 2007, pag. 175180 Published by WSEAS Press, ISBN: 978-9606766-19-0, ISSN: 1790-2769; [7]. Marius-Constantin Popescu , Ilie Borcoi, Onisifor Olaru, Luminia Popescu, Florin Grofu,The Simulation Hybrid Fuzzy Control of Scara Robot, WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on SYSTEMS AND CONTROL, Issue 2, Volume 3, February 2008, ISSN: 1991-8763. [8] Popescu M.C., Onisifor O., I. Borcosi Simulation of n-r Robots, Journal WSEAS TRANSACTIONS on SYSTEMS AND CONTROL, Volume 3, March 2008, ISSN: 19918763. [9] Popescu M.C., Mastorakis N., Borcosi I., Popescu L., Asynchronous Motors Drive Systems Command with Digital Signal Processor, International Journal of Systems Applications, Engineering & Development, Issue 2, Vol.3, pp.6473, 2009. [10]. Borcoi, I., Dinc, A., Nebunu, D.L., Antonie N., A., High performance digital control system of AC Machines, Annual of University of Mining and Geology ,,St. Ivan Rilski Sofia, vol. 51, Part III, Mechanization, electrification and automation in mines, 2008, ISSN 1312-1820, pp. 2326. [11]. Antonie, N., Borcoi, I., Dinc, A., Ionescu, M., FOC Control System of AC Machines, Analele Universitatii Constantin Brancusi din Tg. Jiu, Seria Inginerie, no.2/2008,ISSN 1844 4856, pag. 307312. [12]. PIC 16F84 Data Sheet, PIC 16F877 Data Sheet 28/40-Pin CMOS FLASH Microcontrollers.

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