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de executie. 3.DEFINITII 3.1. In conformitate cu SR EN-urile in vigoare. Defectoscopie cu pulberi magnetice. Terminologie1.SCOP 1.1. re!

enta procedura stabileste cerintele si responsabilitatile pentru examinarea nedistructiva cu pulberi magnetice a materialelor feromagnetice. 2.DOMENIUL DE APLICARE ".1. rocedura se aplica semifabricatelor# pieselor turnate# for$ate# placate# sudurilor si reparatiilor# in conformitate cu documentatia 3.". Indicatiile liniare sunt indicatiile a caror lungime depaseste latimea de 3 %trei& ori. 3.3. Indicatiile rotun$ite sunt indicatiile a caror lungime nu depasesc de 3 %trei& ori 3.'. ( ) pulberi magnetice. 3.*. +N+,N ) +omisia nationala de control al activitatilor nucleare 3.-. IS+IR ) Inspectia de Stat pentru controlul ca!anelor# recipientilor sub presiune# instalatiilor de ridicat si a aparatelor consumatoare de combustibili de u! industrial. 4.DOCUMENTE DE REFERINTA SR EN 133.-1-"..". Examinarea cu pulberi magnetice. Terminologie. SR EN 1"/.-".... Examinarea cu pulberi magnetice a imbinarilor sudate. SR EN IS0 //3'-1. Examinarea cu pulberi magnetice. SR EN 1"/1-"..". Niveluri de acceptare suduri. Niveluri de acceptare. SR EN 13-/-1//1. Examinarea cu pulberi magnetice turnate. SR EN *1123"..3# SR EN IS0 //3'-13".."# EN 1".-"31//2 SR EN '23-"..3. +alificarea si certificarea personalului pentru examinari nedistructive. +R11. ,utori!area personalului care executa examinari nedistructive la instalatiile mecanice sub presiune si instalatiile de ridicat. +R 1-"..3. +olectia rescriptii te4nice IS+IR. latimea.

+0D56 ,S(E. Sectiunile 7# editia 1//1. (anualul +alitatii rescriptii te4nice# colectia IS+IR pentru domeniul nuclear. SR EN *112 Imbinari sudate. 84id de acceptare a defectelor. 5.RESPONSABILITATI *.1. Societatile care solicita examinarea cu pulberi magnetice sunt responsabile de asigurarea conditiilor cerute de te4nicile de examinare mentionate in procedura si anume9 starea suprafetei# temperatura piesei# a !onei etc. *.". esonalul care efectuea!a examinari nedistructive cu pulberi magnetice trebuie sa fie calificat in conformitate cu standardul SR EN '23-"..3 si3sau cu prescriptiile te4nice +R 11# colectia IS+IR. *.3. entru personalul care executa examinarea# responsabilitatile sunt mentionate in SR EN '23"..3 sau in prescriptiile te4nice IS+IR# +R 11. *.'. 0peratorul de examinari nedistructive are obligatia ca inainte de a incepe activitatea propriu!isa# sa examine!e vi!ual fiecare componenta# pe intreaga !ona de examinare# at:t din punct de vedere al curatirii de impuritati# c:t si din punctul de vedere al rugo!itatii sau al existentei eventualelor discontinuitati vi!uale cu oc4iul liber. *.'.1.In ca!ul in care starea suprafetei nu e conforma cu te4nologiile aplicabile# componentele sunt trimise in !ona corespun!atoare pentru o noua curatire si eventual obtinerea unei noi rugo!itati sau stare a suprafetei. *.'.".In ca!ul existentei unor discontinuitati# operatorul le va mentiona pe buletinul de examinare si pe 4arta cu discontinuitati# in ca!ul c:nd acestea nu sunt acceptate# componenta se respinge. *.*. Seful de laborator raspunde de modul de efectuare si conducere al examinarilor nedistructive conform procedurilor avi!ate; de formarea si indrumarea personalului din subordine; de structurarea si redactarea rapoartelor de examinari nedistructive. *.-.6aboratorul +ND are obligatia sa documente!e valabilitatea informatiilor referitoare la fiecare specialist in examinari nedistructive# inclusiv atestatele privind educatia# formarea si experienta acestor persoane# conform pct. *.".'. si -.3. din SR EN '23-"..3 si3sau +R 11# fara a se implica in procedura de certificare si autori!are. *.-.1.+onducerea societatii va fi responsabila cu9 a& obtinerea autori!atiei de lucru %daca e ca!ul&;

b& trimiterea personalului la medic pentru verificarea acuitatii vi!uale# in mod special si a starii de sanatate in general. 6.PROCEDURA -.1. Starea suprafetelor supuse examinarilor cu pulberi magnetice -.1.1.In general re!ultate satisfacatoare se pot obtine si pentru ca!ul c:nd suprafata de examinare este asa cum re!ulta din turnare# for$are# laminare sau sudare. In ca!ul in care neregularitatile suprafetei pot masca indicatiile provenite de la discontinuitati neacceptabile# se impune prelucrarea suprafetei prin poli!are# asc4iere# sablare etc. -.1.".Suprafata de examinare# impreuna cu o !ona adiacenta cu o latime de minim "* mm# trebuie curatata de impuritati# cum ar fi !gura# nisip# rugina# grasimi# ulei etc.# impuritati ce ar putea sa impiedice examinarea corecta cu (. -.1.3. entru punerea in evidenta a discontinuitatilor fine# suprafata trebuie prelucrata la o rugo!itate de cel mult -.3 <m. -.1.'.+uratirea suprafetei poate fi efectuata cu a$utorul solutiilor de decapare# degresare cu vapori# sablare# alicare etc. -.1.*. entru degresarea suprafetelor supuse examinarii se vor utili!a solventi organici. -.1.-.In ca! ca benificiarul ec4ipamentelor impune limitarea continutului de 4alogeni si sulf in substantele utili!ate la examinare# restrictia se aplica si solventilor organici utili!ati ca degresanti. -.1.2.Se pot utili!a pentru curatire urmatorii solventi9 a& b& c& acetona; =4ite spirt; degresant folosit pentru lic4ide penetrante.

-.1.1.Dupa degresare este obligatorie operatia de uscare. Timpul de uscare este de minim * min. 5scarea se poate efectua fie prin evaporare naturala# fie cu aer comprimat filtrat. -.1./.Examinarea cu pulberi magnetice se poate efectua si pe suprafete pe care exista straturi de vopsea sau acoperiri de protectie aderente cu conditia ca grosimea acestora sa nu depaseasca *.<m. -.". (etoda de examinare cu (

-.".1. rin metoda de examinare cu ( se pun in evidenta discontinuitati de suprafata sau in imediata apropiere a suprafetei# in materiale cu proprietati magnetice. -.".".Deoarece aceasta metoda se ba!ea!a pe orientarea liniilor de forta ale c:mpului magnetic# sensibilitatea sa va depinde de orientarea acestora fata de orientarea discontinuitatilor. Sensibilitatea maxima se obtine atunci c:nd discontinuitatile sunt orientate perpendicular pe liniile de forta. entru detectarea tuturor discontinuitatilor# suprafata examinata se va magneti!a in cel putin doua directii perpendiculare %examinari succesive&. -.3. Te4nici de examinare -.3.1.6iniile de forta ale c:mpului magnetic pot fi puse in evidenta cu a$utorul pulberilor magnetice ce pot fi folosite fie sub forma de pulberi uscate %te4nica uscata&# fie sub forma de suspensie intr-un lic4id purtator %te4nica umeda&. -.3.". ulberile sunt de doua feluri9

pulberi colorate; pulberi fluorescente.

-.3.3.Te4nicile de examinare uscata-pulberi colorate. a& 5tili!area pulberilor colorate impune existenta unui contrast pronuntat de culoare intre pulbere si suprafata materialului examinat. b&

+ulorile cele mai folosite pentru pulberile magnetice sunt9 negru rosu gri desc4is galben

c& ulberile magnetice trebuie sa aiba o permeabilitate magnetica mare# astfel inc:t sa fie magneti!ate cu usurinta si o remanenta mica pentru a nu produce aglomerari de pulberi din cau!a atractiei dintre ele. d& ulberea se aplica pe suprafata de examinare prin prafuire usoara# av:nd gri$a ca depunerea sa fie uniforma. e& Excesul de pulbere se indepartea!a inainte de interpretarea indicatiilor# cu a$utorul unui $et de aer# nu prea puternic# astfel inc:t sa nu distruga eventualele indicatii. f& Temperatura piesei pe care se plica ( uscata nu va depasi valoarea de *2.+; daca instructiunile furni!orului de ( recomanda un anumit interval de temperatura in timpul examinarii# operatorul le va respecta pe acestea.

g& Examinarea se face in spectrul vi!ibil %lumina alba&# cu conditia ca pe suprafata de examinat sa fie 3*. lx %pentru produsele speciale# de exemplu9 nucleare# se respecta valoarea din documentatie&. 4& Temperatura piesei pe care se aplica ( umeda nu va depasi valoarea de *2.+.

,TENTIE9 Se inter!ice refolosirea pulberii uscate. ulberea magnetica se poate impurifica in timpul examinarii cu praf# nisip# pilitura# impurificare care >i proprietatile. -.3.'.Te4nica de examinare uscata ) pulberi fluorescente a& Se vor respecta afirmatiile de la pct. -.3.3.c p:na la pct. -.3.3.f inclusiv# de la pulberi colorate si in ca!ul folosirii pulberilor fluorescente. ,cestea au o stralucire galben ver!ui. b& Examinarea se face in spectrul ultraviolet %lumina neagra&. alterea!a

c& (asurarea intensitatii luminii ultraviolete de pe suprafata de examinat se face cu instrumentul centrat pe lungimea de unda de 3-*. ? la o distanta de 31. mm fata de suprafata de examinat. d& rima masuratoare se face fara filtru# a doua cu filtru de absorbtie ase!at peste elementul sensibil al instrumentului. Diferenta dintre cele doua citiri trebuie sa fie minim 1.. <m@3cm". 7alorile masurate vor fi monitori!ate. e& Examinarea propriu-!isa# precum si masuratorile de la pct. -.3.'.c la pct. -.3.'.d inclusiv# se vor face intr-un spatiu intunecos al carui fond luminos nu va depasi 1... lux3metru patrat. f& Intensitatea luminii ultraviolete de pe suprafata de examinare trebuie masurata cel putin la ' %patru& ore# ori de c:te ori se sc4imba locul de lucru sau in ca!ul c:nd se considera necesar. -.3.*.Te4nica de examinare umeda a& Si aceasta te4nica# ca si te4nica uscata# foloseste at:t pulberi colorate c:t si pulberi fluorescente. b& (ediul de suspensie poate fi apa sau Aerosenul %petrol lampant&.

c& ,firmatiile de la BTe4nica de examinare uscata-pulberi colorateC sunt valabile si in ca!ul BTe4nici de examinare umeda cu pulberi colorateC; la fel si in ca!ul pulberilor fluorescente. Dace exceptie pct.-.3.3.f. pentru pulberi colorate si in plus -.3.3.g. pentru pulberi fluorescente. d& ,plicarea pulberilor magnetice umede pe suprafetele de examinare ale piesei se poate face fie prin stropire# fie prin spraEere.

e& ulberile magnetice colorate sau fluorescente# folosite la te4nica umeda sunt livrate de fabricanti sub forma de pulbere# pasta concentrata sau spraE. f& ,mestecul pulberii magnetice cu mediul de suspensie# la concentratia recomandata va fi monitori!ata de laboratorul de examinari nedistructive. g& In ca!ul utili!arii buteliilor cu aerosoli pentru produse la care se impun anumite limitari privind 4alogenii si sulful# se va avea gri$a ca furni!orul de butelii sa pre!inte un certificat privind continutul de 4alogeni si sulf. 4& Se impune ca lic4idele de suspensie sa aiba o tensiune superficiala mica si sa nu faca spuma; se pot utili!a agenti antispumanti. i&

+oncentratia suspensiei se verifica o data pe !i# respect:nd urmatoarele etape9 se agita c:teva minute intreaga masa a suspensiei; se toarna intr-un tub centrifugal gradat# in forma de pana# 1..ml de suspensie; se centrifug4ea!a tubul mentin:nd nivelul amestecului la divi!iunea 1..ml; se asea!a tubul pe un stativ bine fixat# fara vibratii# mentin:ndu-l 3. minute# timp in care pulberea se va depune pe fundul tubului; dupa scurgerea celor 3. minute se va citi si nota nivelul pulberii depuse.

$& Se recomanda pentru pulberea colorata ca nivelul depunerii sa fie cuprins intre 1#"-"#' ml; pentru pulberea fluorescenta sa fie .#'-.#1 ml. ,TENTIE9 Daca furni!orul de pulberi recomanda alte valori# atunci laboratorul le va respecta intocmai. -.'. Te4nici de magneti!are -.'.1.Te4nica $ugului. a& Te4nica $ugului se aplica numai pentru detectarea discontinuitatilor de la suprafata sau in imediata apropiere a suprafetei de examinare. b& Se pot utili!a $uguri electromagnetice cu curent alternativ sau cu curent continuu# sau magneti permanenti. -.'.".Te4nica magneti!arii circulare cu conductor central. a& Se foloseste un conductor central %sub forma de ti$a# bara# cablu& pentru a examina suprafetele interioare ale pieselor de forma inelara sau cilindrica.

b& entru cilindrii cu diametre mari# conductorul se va po!itiona aproape de suprafata sa. In acest ca! conductorul nefiind centrat# circumferinta cilindrului va fi examinata pe portiuni; indicatorul de c:mp magnetic va permite determinarea !onei de examinare. c& Daca este necesar un curent de -.. , pentru examinare# in ca!ul utili!arii unui conductor# pentru doi conductori avem nevoie de 3.. ,# iar pentru * %cinci& conductori avem nevoie de 1". , pe conductor. -.'.3.Te4nica magneti!arii cu electro!i. a& Se utili!ea!a electro!i de contact portabili care se presea!a pe suprafata in !ona examinata.

b& Trecerea curentului va fi permisa numai dupa ce electro!ii vor fi po!itionati corect; acest lucru se face cu a$utorul unui comutator care are si rolul de a evita producerea arcului electric. c& Distanta dintre electro!i nu va depasi ".. mm. In ca!ul in care unele !one nu permit o astfel de distanta sau in ca!ul in care avem o sensibilitate mai mare# putem micsora distanta dintre electro!i p:na la 1. mm. ,TENTIE9 Distanta dintre electro!i nu trebuie sa fie mai mica de 1. mm; la distante mai mici pulberea magnetica se asea!a in $urul electro!ilor. d& Fonele de contact ale electro!ilor trebuie sa fie curate si acoperite cu plumb# otel sau aluminiu pentru a evita depuneri de cupru pe piesa examinata in ca!ul in care tensiunea in circuitul desc4is este mai mare de "* 7. e& Se foloseste curent continuu sau redresat# cu valori cuprinse intre 1.. , si 1"* , pentru fiecare inc4 de distanta dintre electro!i# pentru sectiuni ale grosimii de G inc4 %".mm& sau mai mari. entru sectiuni ale grosimii mai mici de G inc4# curentul va avea valori cuprinse intre /. -11. , pentru fiecare inc4 de distanta dintre electro!i %1 inc4H"*#'mm&. -.'.'.Te4nica magneti!arii longitudinale. a& (agneti!area se reali!ea!a fie cu a$utorul unei bobine# cu diametru# lungimea si numarul de spire fixate# fie cu a$utorul unui cablu infasurat in $urul piesei sau a unei sectiuni din piesa. ,TENTIE9 Daca bobina are diametrul interior mai mare de 1. ori dec:t sectiunea sau diametrul piesei# atunci piesa se va plasa nu in centrul bobinei# ci l:nga peretele bobinei# pentru a fi examinata. b& Iobina fixa sau reali!ata cu a$utorul unui cablu infasurat in $urul piesei produce un c:mp magnetic longitudinal paralel cu axa bobinei.

c& iesele lungi vor fi examinate pe sectiuni# ce nu vor depasi lungimea de 6H '-.mm. Diametrul exterior al piesei il notam cu D. d& 7aloarea curentului necesar magneti!arii pieselor# pentru aceasta te4nica# se calculea!a astfel9

iese cu raportul 63D egal sau mai mare ca ' %patru&.

,TENTIE9 6ungimea 6 nu va depasi valoarea de '-. mm. +urentul de magneti!are va avea valoarea amperi spira egala cu9 %J 1.K&

iese cu raportul 63D cuprins intre " si '. +urentul de magneti!are va avea valoarea amperi spira egala cu9

%J 1.K&

iese cu raportul 63D mai mic ca ". Se va folosi o alta te4nica de magneti!are.

e& +urentul de magneti!are se va determina prin impartirea valorii amperi spira obtinuta cu una din cele doua formule de mai sus# la numarul de spire utili!at# adica9 -.'.*.Te4nica magneti!arii circulare prin contact direct. a& (agneti!area se reali!ea!a prin trecerea curentului prin piesa de examinat. Se obtine un c:mp magnetic circular# perpendicular pe directia curentului. b& c& +urentul de magneti!are poate fi cuntinuu sau redresat %semialternativ sau complet& 7aloarea curentului va fi determinata dupa urmatoarele criterii9

iese cu diametrul exterior p:na la 1"* mm. +urentul va avea valoarea cuprinsa intre 2.. si /.. ,3inc4 de diametru %"2#* ,3mm si 3*#* ,3mm&. iese cu diametrul exterior cuprins intre 1"* mm si "*. mm. +urentul va avea valoarea *.. si 2.. ,3inc4; diametru %". ,3mm si "2#* ,3mm&. iese cu diametrul exterior cuprins intre "*. mm si 31. mm. +urentul va avea valoarea cuprinsa intre 3.. si *.. ,3inc4; diametru %1" ,3mm si ". ,3mm&. iese cu diametrul exterior mai mare de 31. mm. +urentul va avea valoarea cuprinsa intre 1.. si 3.. ,3inc4; diametru %' ,3mm si 1" ,3mm&.

iese cu marimi diferite de forma cilindrica; se va lua in considerare diagonala celei mai mari sectiuni intr-un plan perpendicular pe directia curentului. In functie de marimea diagonalei se va alege valoarea curentului data de criteriile mai sus mentionate. ,TENTIE9 Se poate folosi indicatorul de c:mp magnetic pentru a determina ampera$ul necesar magneti!arii# ca o alternativa# dar numai piesele necilindrice. -.'.-.Te4nica de magneti!are multidirectionala. a& (agneti!area se reali!ea!a prin impulsuri de mare ampera$# pe trei circuite# folosite alternativ in succesiune rapida. b& Se obtine o magneti!are completa pe directiile celor trei circuite# si anume c:mpuri magnetice circulare# c:t si longitudinale# in orice combinatie# daca se folosesc te4nicile de magneti!are longitudinala %pct.-.'.'.& si3sau te4nica de magneti!are circulara %pct.-.'.". si -.'.*.&. c& Se va folosi curent trifa!at# complet redresat. +urentul de magneti!are# pentru fiecare circuit# se va stabili conform pct.-.'.'.# -.'.". si -.'.*. d& +u a$utorul indicatorului de c:mp magnetic se va verifica daca se obtin c:mpuri pe cel putin doua directii perpendiculare. In ca! ca sunt !one unde nu se obtin intensitati adecvate ale c:mpului magnetic sa se foloseasca te4nici suplimentare pentru doua directii perpendiculare. -.'.2.(agneti!area cu curent alternativ. a& b& Se poate reali!a magneti!area pieselor si cu a$utorul curentului alternativ. 0 astfel de magneti!are permite detectarea discontinuitatilor de suprafata.

-.*. ,paratura# ec4ipamente# instalatii -.*.1.Intensitatea c:mpului magnetic se va verifica cu indicatorul de c:mp magnetic %pre!entat in codul ,S(E# sectiunea 7# SE 2./&. -.*.".Daca liniile formate de pulberea magnetica formea!a o imagine bine definita pe suprafata de cupru a indicatorului# re!ulta ca intensitatea c:mpului magnetic a fost bine calculata. -.*.3.7erificarea si etalonarea ec4ipamentelor a& ,paratura# ec4ipamentele etc. de magneti!are trebuie verificate cel putin o data pe an# sau ori de c:te ori este necesar %reparatii# neutrali!are un timp de peste - luni etc.&. b& Se verifica aparatura electrica %ampermetre# voltmetre etc.& in conformitate cu Normele (etrologiei Nationale.

c&

Dorta de magneti!are a $ugului se verifica prin determinarea puterii de ridicare9 Lugul cu curent alternativ trebuie sa posede o forta portanta de cel putin '#* Ag# la distanta maxima intre poli. Lugul cu curent continuu sau cu magnet natural trebuie sa posede o forta portanta de cel putin 11#" Ag la distanta maxima intre poli.

d& In ca!ul in care piesa se magneti!ea!a prin te4nica trecerii curentului direct# elementele de contact sau electro!ii vor asigura o presiune suficienta a suprafetelor de contact astfel inc:t sa nu se produca arsuri pe suprafata piesei. e& In ca!ul te4nicii de magneti!are cu electro!i# tensiunea din circuit nu va depasi '"7.

f& Daca tensiunea in circuit depaseste valoarea de *7# se vor utili!a la electro!i v:rfuri din otel# plumb sau aluminiu. entru tensiuni cuprinse intre *7 si ".7# se pot utili!a si v:rfuri cu plasa de cupru. g&

entru iluminarea suprafetelor de examinare se poate folosi9 bec cu incandescenta de 1..@ ase!at la o distanta de .#"m; tub fluorescent de 1.@ ase!at la o distanta de 1m; la examinarea cu pulberi fluorescente se va utili!a o lampa de lumina fluorescenta %ce functionea!a in domeniul 33..-3/.. ?& care sa asigure pe suprafata de examinat o intensitate de 1.. <@3cm".

4& 6aboratorul de examinari nedistructive trebuie sa fie dotat cu o trusa cu anexe# cum ar fi indicatorul de c:mp magnetic %comform ,S(E# sectiunea 7&# etaloane cu fisuri si cu gauri# pulveri!ator# instrument de masura a c:mpului remanent# averti!or de tensiune# agitator pentru solutii# cilindru gradat pentru determinarea concentratiilor solutiilor# lampa ultravioleta# instrument de masura in 57 etc. i& Ec4ipamentele de protectie pentru operatori# oc4elari de protectie# ci!me de cauciuc# manusi de cauciuc. Se vor lua masuri de protectie in conformitate cu NTS( pentru utili!area instalatiilor sub tensiune. ,TENTIE9In ca!ul in care se lucrea!a in spatii inc4ise# este necesar ca lucrarile ec4ipei de operatori %minim " operatori& sa fie supraveg4eata de o persoana din exterior care sa poata intrerupe energia electrica si a interveni in ca! de necesitate in spri$inul operatorilor. -.-. Demagneti!area -.-.1.Demagneti!area pieselor examinate se efectuea!a numai in ca!ul in care este impusa de proiect sau de beneficiarul pieselor. ,TENTIE9In ca!ul in care produsele examinate cu pulberi magnetice sunt supuse ulterior unui tratament termic# demagneti!area nu mai este necesara.

-.-.".Te4nici de demagneti!are. a& iesa se introduce intr-o bobina prin care circula un curent alternativ de intensitate mare; piesa se scoate incet din interiorul bobinei. b& Se reduce curentul alternativ de magneti!are in pasi mici# p:na la valoarea !ero. Sunt necesari aproximativ "* de pasi de demagneti!are. c& Se trece prin piesa un curent continuu de magneti!are# reduc:nd marimea acestuia in pasi consecutivi si totodata sc4imb:nd sensul curentului pentru fiecare pas. d& (agneti!area remanenta a piesei nu trebuie sa depaseasca valoarea de " Me.

-.2. +uratirea produselor examinate -.2.1.Dupa examinarea nedistructiva se impune curatirea suprafetelor examinate folosind diverse te4nici# ca de exemplu9 a& cu un $et de aer comprimat

b& cu a$utorul unor perii confectionate din par de animale; in ca! ca nu exista restrictii de 4alogeni si sulf se pot folosi si perii cu fire din plastic. c& prin spalare cu substante care sa se incadre!e cu continutul de 4alogeni si sulf in limitele preva!ute de proiectant sau beneficiar. -.2.".Dupa ce produsele au fost curatate vor fi examinate vi!ual astfel inc:t sa nu pre!inte urme de pulberi. 7.MENTIUNI SI INREGISTRARI 2.1.Re!ultatele examinarii nedistructive cu ( vor fi mentionate in buletinele de examinare cu ( %ve!i ,nexa 1& care constituie inregistrari ale sistemului calitatii. 2.".Te4nica de examinare utili!ata u!ual este te4nica cu puberi fluorescente umede si $ug magnetic de curent continuu tip ,RNER INSTR5(ENTS 5.S.,. alimentat de la acumulatori portabili de 1"7 sau cu alimentare de le retea "..7# cu desc4iderea polilor reglabila functie de complexitatea suprafetei. 2.3.+alibrarea ec4ipamentelor se va face in conformitate cu art.2# pct.T 21.# sect.7# codul ,S(E. 8.CRITERII DE ACCEPTARE / RESPINGERE +riteriile de acceptare3respingere vor fi cele solicitate de client si3sau proiectant.

Exemple9 1.1. +riteriile de acceptare3respingere# dupa SR EN 1"/1-".." % T +R1-"..3& sunt9 Nr.crt. 1 Tipul indicatiilor Indicatii liniare 6Hlungimea indicatiilor Indicatii neliniare DHaxa cu dimensiunea maxima 1.".+riteriile de acceptare3respingere# dupa codul ,S(E# sectiunea III# ale materialelor si reparatiilor prin sudura %NI-"*'*&# inclusiv pentru turnate# sunt urmatoarele9 a& b&

Nivel de acceptare 1 " 3 6O1#*mm 6O3mm 6O-mm

"

DO"mm

DO3mm

DO'mm

0rice indicatie cu dimensiunea ma$ora mai mare de 1#- mm se considera relevanta. 5rmatoarele indicatii relevante se considera neacceptabile9 orice indicatie liniara cu dimensiunea ma$ora mai mare dec:t cele pre!entate in tabelul 1. Tabel 1

6ungimea indicatiei mm P 1#P 3#" H '#1

8rosimea materialului examinat t mm t O 11- O t O *1 *1 O t

Indicatiile liniare care sunt interpretate ca fisuri nu se accepta.

orice indicatie rotun$ita cu dimensiunea ma$ora mai mare dec:t cele pre!entate in tabelul ". Tabel "

DI(ENSI5NE, (,L0R, , INDI+,TIEI QmmR P 3#" P '#1

8R0SI(E, (,TERI,6565I %t& ES,(IN,T QmmR t O 1t P 1-

c& atru sau mai multe indicatii in linie# separate printr-un spatiu de 1#- mm sau mai putin# masurat margine la margine.

d& Fece sau mai multe indicatii incadrate intr-o !ona de 312. mm" cu dimensiunea ma$ora a !onei de maxim 1*" mm# amplasate in !ona cea mai nefavorabila pentru evaluarea indicatiilor. 1.3.+riteriile de acceptare3respingere %conform S,--1'& ale organelor de asamblare %suruburi# bolturi# pre!oane# piulite& cu dimensiunea nominala peste *1 mm. a& b& Nu se admit discontinuitati liniare neaxiale. Discontinuitatile axiale mai mici de "* mm sunt acceptate.

1.'.+riterii de acceptare3respingere in conformitate cu codul ,S(E# sectiunea 7III# pentru turnate. a& Indicatiile de suprafata se vor compara cu indicatiile din ,ST( E1"*-1/21 BDotografii standard de referinta pentru indicatiile puse in evidenta cu ( pe turnate feroaseC. Nu vor fi acceptate cele ce depasesc limitele din tabelul 3. Tabel 3 Tip 1. Discontinuitati liniare %fisuri sau crapaturi termice& ". Retasuri 3. Inclu!iuni '. icaturi datorate lipsei de topire sau depuneri reci *. oro!itate 8rad orice indicatie " 3 1 1

1.*.+riterii de acceptare3respingere pentru sanfrene si suduri. a& 6a sanfrenele pentru suduri ale materialelor de peste *1 mm se accepta discontinuitati de tip laminare cu o lungime de p:na la "* mm. Extinderea lor in material va fi determinata cu a$utorul metodei cu ultrasunete. b& Daca lungimea depaseste "* mm# aceasta se va repara prin sudura pe ad:ncimea indicatiei dar nu mai mult de 1. mm %NI-*13.&. c&

Sunt neacceptate urmatoarele indicatii9 fisurile si orice indicatie liniara; indicatiile rotun$ite cu dimensiunea ma$ora mai mare de '#1 mm; patru sau mai multe indicatii rotun$ite# in linie separate printr-un spatiu de 1#- mm sau mai putin# masurat de la margine la margine;

!ece sau mai multe indicatii rotun$ite incadrate intr-o !ona de 312. mm"# cu dimensiunea ma$ora a !onei de maxim 1*" mm# amplasate in !ona cae mai nefavorabila pentru evaluarea indicatiilor.

1.-. +riterii de acceptare3respingere conform SR EN *1123"..-.

Examinarea cu particule magnetice

1.Domeniul de aplicare
Se aplica semifabricatelor, pieselor turnate, forjate, placate, sudurilor si reparatiilor, in conformitate cu documentatia de executie. 2. Controlul nedistructiv cu pulberi magnetic Prin controlul nedistructiv cu pulberi magnetice sunt descoperite defecte de suprafa i sub suprafa n materiale feromagnetice. n materialul magnetizat n prealabil. Aeeaz fluxuri de dispersie, detectabile cu ajutorul particulelor feromagnetice fine aplicate pe suprafa. e! a lungul defectului aceste particule se dispun n aa fel nct si marc"eze o urm vizibil, care indic locul, aria, forma i adncimea acestuia.. Amprenta defectului este influenat de direcia i intensitatea einpului magnetic, de metoda de magnetizare ntrebuinat, de aria, forma i direcia discontinuitii, de caracteristicile pulberii magnetice i metoda de aplicare, de caracteristicile magnetice ale corpului ncercat, de starea suprafeei i forma obiectului. 3. Avantajele metodei Avantajele metodei snt numeroase i printre ele putem cita #

$ rapiditatea i simplitatea modului de operare% $ excelenta sensibilitate pentru defecte de suprafa% $ formarea operatorilor nu e dificil% $ se pot ncerca simultan suprafee mari din corp% $ se pot descoperi goluri umplute cu alte
Peste 50 de ani in NDT, mai mult de 50 in sisteme NDT! Englezul Saxby folosea inca din 1868 indicare cimpului magnetic de dispersie cu ajutorul busolei pentru detectarea fisurilor tevilor de tun. Ca in multe alte domenii ale dezvoltarii tehnologice tot problemele de tehnica militara au reprezentat motivul pentru care americanul !o"e imagina metode de detectare a fisurilor cu ajutorul piliturii de fier. #oi ani mai tirziu a fost acordat un patent pe baza caruia de $orest intemeietorul firmei %&'(&$)*+ din Chicago a obtinut licenta inainte ca sa se foloseasca prima oara in 1,-, metoda de magnetizare cu ajutorul fluxului de curent prin piesa. .rimul aparat european de control al fisurilor a fost construit in anul 1,/0 de italianul 'iraudi sub denumirea de %etalloscopio. 1storia controlului fisurilor cu pulbere magnetica 2 la 3&4) #E*5SC! Karl si Volker DEUTSCH au inceput in anul 1,66 productia paratelor pentru controlul fisurilor prin metoda "reci ientului cu !irte"" trecind in 1,67 la aparatele universale cu alimentare cu curenti alternativi defazati.

&stazi tehnica de control .% este statuata in nemumarate specificatii norme si directive incit noutatile se impun greu chiar daca se pot obtine avantaje tehnice clare. (ecesitatile dezvoltarii tehnice se refera in primul rind la prelucrarea automata a imaginilor indicatiilor de fisuri oferite de controlul .%. in prezent exista instalatii pilot ale fabficantilor renumiti de aparatura .%. .onderea in industrie a acestora s2ar putea realiza in ultima decada a mileniului .

Control nedistructi!
Control (#5 8n procesul de produc9ie

Cont o!"! n#$%&t "'t%( %engle!T nondestructive testing# prescurtat NDT& repre!intT modalitatea de control al re!isten:ei unei structuri# piese etc fTrT a fi necesarT demontarea# ori distrugerea acestora. Este un ansamblu de metode ce permite caracteri!area stTrii de integritate a pieselor# structurilor industriale# fTrT a le degrada# fie >n decursul produc:iei# fie pe parcursul utili!Trii prin efectuarea de teste nedistructive >n mod regulat pentru a detecta defecte ce prin alte metode este fie mai dificil# fie mai costisitor.

Cu rins
;ascunde<

1 #omenii de aplicare - Scurt istoric / %etode de control nedistructiv o /.1 4adia:ii penetrante /.1.1 Examinare cu raze + /.1.- Examinare cu raze gamma =gammagrafie> o /.- %agnetoscopie o /./ Curen:i turbionari o /.? *ltrasunete o /.7 )ichide penetrante o /.6 Controlul visual ? &lte metode 7 Simbolizare 6 Standarde @i norme 0 Aezi @i 8 )egBturi externe

Domenii de a licare
Domeniile de aplicare ale controlului nedestructiv sunt cele mai diverse sectoare ale industriei9

industria automobilelor =diferite piese> industria navalB =controlul corpului navei @i a structurilor sudate> conducte 8ngropate sau submerse sub apB supuse coroziunii platforme marine aeronauticB =aripile avioanelor diferite piese de motor etc> industria energeticB =reactoare turbine cazane de 8ncBlzire tubulaturB etc> industria aerospa:ialB @i militarB arheologie structuri feroviare industria petrochimicB construc:ii de ma@ini =piese turnate sau forjate ansamble @i subansamble>

Se poate afirma cT metodele NDT se aplicT >n toate sectoarele de produc:ie.

Scurt istoric
Un timpurile trecute# clopotarii @i fTurarii ascultau sunetele pe care le produceau obiectele create# astfel cT fiecTrui material >i corespundea un sunet.

187? 2 8n !artford Connecticut explozia unui boiler la firma $ales and 'ay 'ray Car se soldeazB cu moartea a -1 de lucrBtori @i rBnind al:i 76. #e atunci s2a impus o verificare anualB a boilerelor 18,7 2 Cilhelm Conrad 4Dntgen a descoperit prezen:a razelor +. En prima sa lucrare aratB despre posibilitatea detectBrii unui defect de structurB 1,-6 2 #r. !. !. )ester concepe dezvoltarea radiografiei industriale a metalelor apoi 8n 1,-? folose@te metoda pentru detectarea de fisuri 8n unele piese turnate la o termocentralB 1,-6 2 este realizat primul aparat electromagnetic cu curen:i turbionari 1,-0 2 1,-8 2 Elmer Sperry @i !.C. #ra"e concep un sistem cu induc:ie magneticB pentru detectarea defectelor din @inele de cale feratB 1,-, 2 &.A. #e$orest @i $.F. #oaneeste realizeazB primul aparat @i metoda de testare cu particule magnetice 1,/6 2 4obert $. %ehl demonstreazB realizarea de imagini radiografice folosind radia:iile gamma din izotopi de radiu ceeace permite examinarea de elemente cu grosimi mai mari 1,?6 2 1,?? 2 #r. $loyd $irestone dezvoltB 8n S.*.&. metoda de testare cu ultrasunet 1,76 2 G. 3aiser a introdus emisia acusticB 8n metoda (#5

#etode de control nedistructi!


,legerea metodei de control nedistructiv utili!atT se face >n func:ie de diferite criterii legate de utilitatea piesei de controlat# materialul din care este fabricatT piesa# amplasament# tipul de structurT# costuri etc. +ele mai utili!ate metode de control nedistructiv sunt9

penetrante
(etoda de examinare cu radia:ii penetrante sau radiograficT constT din interac:iunea radia:iilor penetrante cu pelicule fotosensibile. Se poate efectua cu ra!e S sau ra!e gamma.
Examinare cu raze X

'enerator de raze +

Examinarea cu ra!e S constT >n bombardarea piesei supuse controlului cu radia:ii S# ob:in:nduse pe filmul radiografic imaginea structurii macroscopice interne a piesei. 8eneratoarele de ra!e S# >n func:ie de energia ce o furni!ea!T @i de domeniul lor de utili!are pot fi9

generatoare de energii mici =tensiuni H /66 "A> pentru controlul pieselor din o:el de grosime micB =H 06 mm> generatoare de energii medii =tensiuni de /66...?66 "A> pentru controlul pieselor din o:el de grosime mijlocie =166...1-7 mm> generatoare de energii mari =tensiuni de peste 1...- %A @i betatroane de 17.../6 %A> pentru controlul pieselor din o:el de grosime mare =-66.../66 mm>.

Examinare cu raze gamma (gammagrafie)

8ammagrafia constT >n iradierea piesei supuse controlului cu radia:ii gamma# dupT care se ob:ine pe filmul radiografic imaginea structurii macroscopice interne a piesei respective# prin ac:ionarea asupra emulsiei fotogafice. +re@terea permanentT a parametrilor func:ionali ai instala:iilor industriale moderne %presiune# temperaturT# solicitTri mecanice# re!isten:T la coro!iune&# au impus examinarea cu ra!e gamma ca o metodT modernT de control cu grad ridicat de certitudine. Elementul de ba!T al gammagrafiei este sursa de radia:ii gamma care datoritT proprietT:ilor sale %energie ridicatT# masT de repaus nulT# sarcinT electricT nulT&# o fac deosebit de penetrantT. rincipala sursT de radia:ii folositT >n gammagrafie o constituie i!otopii radioactivi de +obalt--.# Iridiu-1/"# +esiu-132# +esiu-13'# Tuliu-12. @i Seleniu-2*# ob:inu:i prin activare deoarece au un pre: de cost mai scT!ut @i avanta$ul ob:inerii unor activitT:i mari. ,ce@ti i!otopi sunt utili!a:i astfel9 +obalt--. pentru o:eluri cu grosime mare %P1. mm&# Iridiu1/" pentru o:eluri cu grosime mi$locie %1.-1. mm&# iar Tuliu-12. pentru o:eluri cu grosime micT %O1. mm&.

(agnetoscopie
(etoda permite detectarea defectelor materialelor feromagnetice. 5n material este considerat ca fiind feromagnetic atata timp cat este supus la un camp continuu de "'.. ,3m si pre!inta o inductie de cel putin 1 tesla. oate fi efectuatT cu pulberi magnetice sau bandT magnetograficT.

controlul cu pulberi =particule> magnetice constB 8n supunerea zonei de controlat la ac:iunea unui cImp magnetic continuu sau alternativ. Se creazB astfel un flux magnetic intens 8n interiorul materialului feromagnetic. #efectele 8ntIlnite 8n calea sa determinB devierea fluxului magnetic generInd un cImp magnetic de dispersie la suprafa:a piesei. CImpul de dispersie generat este materializat prin intermediul unei pulberi feromagnetice =particule colorate sau fluorescente> uscate sau 8n suspensie liuchidB foarte fine pulverizate pe suprafa:a de examinare @i atrasB 8n dreptul defectelor de cBtre for:ele magnetice. &ceasta furnizeazB o semnaturB particularB ce caracterizeazB defectul. .rincipalul avantaj al acestei metode este ob:inerea de rezultate immediate. metoda magnetograficB utilizeazB o bandB feromagneticB flexibilB care se a@eazB peste sudura ce trebuie examinatB. .rin aplicarea unui scurt puls magnetic de aproximativ 17 ms prin intermediul unui acumulator ce magnetizeazB un jug cImpurile de distorsiuni sunt puse 8n eviden:B prin imprimarea lor pe bandB. Fanda este examinatB cu ajutorul unui traductor magneto2electric dupB forma indica:iilor putIndu2se aprecia natura defectelor din 8mbinarea sudatB. Echipamentul constB din jugurile pentru diferite geometrii ale 8mbinBrilor sudate sursa de curent banda feromagneticB magne:ii de fixare ai benzii @i traductorii magnetoelectrici.

turbionari
(etoda curen:ilor turbionari este folositT ca o alternativT sau extensie a controlului nedistructiv cu particule magnetice# fiind utili!atT# >n special# pentru controlul :evilor cu diametrul exterior de maximum 1'. mm. Sensibilitatea metodei este maximT la grosimi de perete de p:nT la * mm. 0 datT cu cre@terea grosimii pere:ilor# scade eficien:a metodei de eviden:iere a defectelor interne# ea rTm:n:nd eficace pentru eviden:ierea defectelor de suprafa:T @i din imediata apropiere a acesteia. (etoda constT >n inducerea unor curen:i turbionari >n pere:ii :evii controlate. +:mpul magnetic al curen:ilor turbionari indu@i# datoritT pre!en:ei unor discontinuitT:i @i neomogenitT:i >n material# modificT impedan:a bobinei de mTsurare# ceea ce afectea!T amplitudinea @i fa!a curen:ilor turbionari. ,mplitudinea# defa!a$ul @i ad:ncimea de pTtrundere a curen:ilor turbionari# depind de amplitudinea @i frecven:a curentului de excita:ie# de conductibilitatea electricT# de permeabilitatea magneticT a materialului# de forma piesei controlate# de po!i:ia relativT a bobinelor fa:T de piesT# precum @i de omogenitatea materialului controlat. (etoda mai este denumitT @i a curen:ilor Doucault dupT numele fi!icianului france! 6Von Doucault care a descoperit fenomenul >n anul 11*1.

&parat cu ultrasunet

(etoda este ba!atT pe undele mecanice %ultrasunetele& generate de un element pie!o-magnetic excitat la o frecven:T cuprinsT de regulT >ntre " @i * (4!. +ontrolul presupune transmiterea# reflexia# absorb:ia unei unde ultrasonore ce se propagT >n piesa de controlat. Dasciculul de unde emis se reflectT >n interiorul piesei @i pe defecte# dupT care revine cTtre defectoscop ce poate fi >n acela@i timp emi:Ttor @i receptor. o!i:ionarea defectului se face prin interpretarea semnalelor. (etoda pre!intT avanta$ul de a gTsi defectele >n profun!ime datoritT unei re!olu:ii ridicate# >nsT este lentT datoritT necesitT:ii de scanare multiplT a piesei. 5neori este necesarT executarea controlului pe mai multe suprafe:e ale piesei. (etoda de control prin ultrasunete este foarte sensibilT la detectarea defectelor netede.

penetrante

Examinare cu lichide penetrante. 12#efect nevizibilJ -2&plicarea penetrantuluiJ /2 EndepBrtarea excesului de penetrantJ ?2#efect vizibil

+onstT >n aplicarea unui lic4id capilar activ penetrant pe suprafa:a de examinat# >ndepTrtarea penetrantului rTmas >n afara discontinuitT:ilor @i aplicarea unui material absorbant# ce absoarbe penetrantul aflat >n discontinuitT:i pun:nd astfel >n eviden:T# prin contrast# defectele existente; aceastT metodT se aplicT pentru depistarea defectelor de suprafa:T. Se pot pune de asemenea >n eviden:T fisurile de obosealT @i de coro!iune. entru control trebuie curTtatT @i pregatitT suprafa:a de examinare.

(etoda este aplicatT cu success >mbinTrilor sudate# dar se poate face @i >nainte de sudurT %pentru efectuarea unui control al tuturor suprafe:elor >nainte de a fi sudate&.

Qvisual
0rice tip de investigare trebuie sT fie precedatT de o examinare vi!ualT a supafe:ei. rocedeul este simplu dar indispensabil# examinarea vi!ualT presupune respectarea condi:iilor de claritate satisfTcTtoare a suprafe:elor materialelor# ec4ipamentelor @i sudurilor lu:nd >n considerare caracteristicile @i proprietT:ile acestora. entru control vi!ual se folosesc diferite ustensile optice cum ar fi endoscop# lupe# lTmpi etc. rin control visual sunt furni!ate o serie de indicii legate de aspectul suprafe:ei metalului precum @i estimarea unor defecte interne %recipiente metalice# butelii de ga!e# conducte# tuburi etc& 0datT cu controlul visual se pot determina @i dimensiuile defectelor de >mbinare# grosimile recipientului sudat# dimensiunile cordonului sudat etc.

$lte metode

#etoda radiosco ic% sau &luorosco ic% se bazeazB pe interac:iunea radia:iilor penetrante cu substan:e fluorescente. #etoda radio'ra&ic% (n tim real combinB tehnica fluoroscopicB cu posibilitB:ile de microfocalizare a radia:iei +. #etoda sondelor de oten)ial func:ioneazB pe principiul varia:iei reluctan:ei magnetice. #etoda &erosondelor discrimineazB varia:iile de inductan:B din piesB. #etodele ima'ineriei rocesate.

Sim*oli+are
(etodelor u!uale de control nedistructiv le corespunde o serie de simboluri reglementate de norma europeanT EN 473 @i EN 417) examinare nedistructivT END.
#etoda END Sim*o l

Emisie acusticB &5 Curen:i Doucault Etan@eitate %agnetoscopie )ichide penetrante 4adiografie E5 )5 %5 .5 45

*ltrasunet Examen vizual Spec"le 5ermografie

*5 A5 S5 145

Standarde ,i norme Ve+i ,i


Sudare Sudare subacvaticB

-e'%turi e.terne

Ci"imedia Commons con:ine materiale multimedia legate de Control nedistructi!


en (#5.org en (#5 Encyclopedia en Fritish 1nstitute of (on2#estructive 5esting


In-Situ etallograp!"
&n!situ metallograp"' is performed as ( ) on actual site *it" a team comprising of expert metallograp"ers and metallurgists. &t is used to find out in!service degradation of critical components of process plants operating under "ig" temperature+ "ig" pressure+ corrosive atmosp"ere. &t provide damage assessments of fire affected e,uipment of plants. -icrostructure surve' for critical components viz., .oilers, Pipelines, /eactors and 0essels for condition monitoring and "ealt" assessments. )1/ can also develop a data ban2 of critical components of e,uipment of process plant b' periodical monitoring for preventive maintenance and planning for inventor' control. )1/ can provide suggestions on repair *elding of used components of process plants. &n!situ metallograp"' c"ec2s t"e microstructure of component for intended service prior to being put in use. &n!situ metallograp"' is used for remaining life assessment studies.

#ltrasonic Inspection
3ltrasonic met"ods of ( ) use beams of sound *aves 4vibrations5 of s"ort *avelengt" and "ig" fre,uenc', transmitted from a probe and detected b' t"e same or ot"er probes. 3suall', pulsed beams of ultrasound are used and in t"e simplest instruments a single probe, "and "eld, is placed on t"e specimen surface. An oscilloscope displa' *it" a time base s"o*s t"e time it ta2es for an ultrasonic pulse to travel to a reflector 4a fla*, t"e bac2 surface or ot"er free surface5 in terms of distance traveled across t"e oscilloscope screen. )"e "eig"t of t"e reflected pulse is related to t"e fla* size as seen from t"e transmitter probe. )"e relations"ip of fla* size, distance and reflectivit' are complex, and a considerable s2ill is re,uired to interpret t"e displa'. 1omplex mutiprobe s'stems are also used *it" mec"anical probe movement and digitization of signals, follo*ed b' computer interpretation are developing rapidl'. 3ltrasonic examinations are performed for t"e detection and sizing of internal defects, fla*s or discontinuities in piping, castings, forgings, *eldments or ot"er components. 6xact sizing tec"ni,ues "ave been developed to detect and monitor progressive crac2ing in a variet' of e,uipment.

)1/ can also underta2e Automated 3) using 5ime of $light #iffraction tec"ni,ue 4)o7 5 in &ndia as per code case 898 for piping, code case ::;< for pressure vessels and AP& =<> appendix 3 for storage tan2s.

D"e $enetrant
)"is met"od emplo's a penetrating li,uid, *"ic" is applied over t"e surface of t"e component and enters t"e discontinuit' or crac2. Subse,uentl', after t"e excess penetrant "as been cleared from t"e surface, t"e penetrant exudes or is dra*n bac2 out of t"e crac2 is observed. ?i,uid penetrant testing can be applied to an' non!porous clean material, metallic or non!metallic, but is unsuitable for dirt' or ver' roug" surfaces. Penetrants can contain a d'e to ma2e t"e indication visible under *"ite lig"t, or a fluorescent material t"at fluoresces under suitable ultra! violet lig"t. 7luorescent penetrants are usuall' used *"en t"e maximum fla* sensitivit' is re,uired. 1rac2s as narro* as 8<> nanometers can be detected.

agnetic $article %esting


)"e -agnetic Particle &nspection met"od of (on! estructive testing is a met"od for locating surface and sub! surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic material. &t depends for its operation on t"e face t"at *"en t"e material or part under test is magnetized, discontinuities t"at lie in a direction generall' transverse to t"e direction of t"e magnetic field, *ill cause a lea2age field, and t"erefore, t"e presence of t"e discontinuit', is detected b' use of finel' divided ferromagnetic particles applied over t"e surface, some of t"ese particles being gat"ered and "eld b' t"e lea2age field, t"is magneticall' "eld collection of particles forms an outline of t"e discontinuit' and indicates its location, size, s"ape and extent. r' magnetic particle examinations and *et fluorescent magnetic particle examinations are performed on ferromagnetic materials to detect surface and slig"t subsurface discontinuities. Specialized *et fluorescent magnetic particle tec"ni,ues are available for blac2 lig"t internal examinations of e,uipment t"roug" borescopes.

&i'uid $enetrant Examination ($%)


0arious t'pes of li,uid penetrant examination met"ods are utilized to detect open or surface crac2s or defects in materials. /ed d'e or fluorescent penetrants are utilized as *ell as various t'pes of *et and dr' developers.

Edd" Current %esting (E%)


6dd' current testing is a rapid and accurate tec"ni,ue used to detect discontinuities in tubing, "eat exc"angers, condensers, *ires, plates, etc. 6dd' current testing is also performed for allo' separation and for t"e determination of treatment conditions. )"e location of repair *elds, girt" *elds and seam *elds ma' also be detected on ground mac"ined surfaces.

&ea* %esting

!elium )ea" testing in 1ndia


Certi+ied ,eld Inspectors (C,I)

is performed to detect and locate lea2s in pressure containment parts and structures. )"is includes *elded, brazed, ad"esion bonded and ot"er assemblies.

)1/@s team of Certified Celding 1nspectors in 1ndia 41A&5 can pinpoint exactl' *"at testing is necessar' to ,ualif' a *eld, *eld procedure, or individual *elders. 6ac" *elding code follo*s t"ree main categories of Aelding Bualification% Aelding Procedure Specification 4APS5, Aelding Procedure Bualification /ecord 4APB/5, and Aelder Performance Bualification 4APB5.

-isual Inspection Services


(on! estructive visual inspections can be preformed on!site or at t"e laborator' facilit', and are based upon t"e re,uirements of t"e client or specification. &ndustries utilizing t"is service include 7abrication, 1onstruction, Automotive, Po*er Ceneration and )ransportation. &nspections can be performed at t"e laborator' facilit' or onsite. )"ese inspections are performed to &S, .S, AS)-, AAS, AS-6 4American Societ' for -ec"anical 6ngineers5 and man' ot"ers.

.adiograp!"

Ait" )1/@s state!of!t"e!art e,uipment suc" as laser alignment devices, microprocessor controlled x!ra' mac"ines and automatic film processors, *e are able to increase t"e speed, ,ualit' and efficienc' of our radiograp"ic services.

$ortable /ardness
Per AS)- 688>, t"is testing is normall' used for on!site applications or on ver' large samples. )"e )1/ portable "ardness unit performs t"e "ardness testing b' appl'ing a < 2g. 0ic2ers load indenter and electronicall' converts t"e values in t"e preferred scale.

#a'netic/ article ins ection


M*+n#t%' ,* t%'!# %n&,#'t%on %MPI& is a non-destructive testing %NDT& process for detecting surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferrous materials. T4e process puts a magnetic field into t4e part. T4e piece can be magneti!ed bE direct or indirect magneti!ation. Direct magneti!ation occurs =4en t4e electric current is passed t4roug4 t4e test ob$ect and a magnetic field is formed in t4e material. Indirect magneti!ation occurs =4en no electric current is passed t4roug4 t4e test ob$ect# but a magnetic field is applied from an outside source. T4e magnetic lines of force are perpendicular to t4e direction of t4e electric current =4ic4 maE be eit4er alternating current %,+& or some form of direct current %D+& %rectified ,+&. T4e presence of a surface or subsurface discontinuitE in t4e material allo=s t4e magnetic flux to leaA. Derrous iron particles are applied to t4e part. T4e particles maE be drE or in a =et suspension. If an area of flux leaAage is present t4e particles =ill be attracted to t4is area. T4e particles =ill build up at t4e area of leaAage and form =4at is Ano=n as an indication. T4e indication can t4en be evaluated to determine =4at it is# =4at maE 4ave caused it# and =4at action s4ould be taAen if anE.

Contents
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1 5ypes of electrical currents used - EKuipment / #emagnetizing parts ? %agnetic particle poLder o ?.1 %agnetic particle carriers 7 1nspection 6 Standards 0 4eferences

T0 es o& electrical currents used


T4ere are several tEpes of electrical currents used in ( I. Dor a proper current to be selected one needs to consider t4e part geometrE# material# t4e tEpe of discontinuitE EouWre looAing for# and 4o= far t4e magnetic field needs to penetrate into t4e part.

&lternating current =&C> commonly used to detect surface discontinuities. *sing &C to detect subsurface discontinuities is limited due to Lhat is "noLn as the s"in effect Lhere the current runs along the surface of the part. Fecause the current alternates in polarity at 76 to 66 cycles per second it does not penetrate much past the surface of the test object. 5his means the magnetic domains Lill only be aligned eKual to the distance &C current penetration into the part. 5he $reKuency of the &lternating Current decides hoL deep the penetration. #irect current =#C full Lave #C> *sed to detect sub surface discontinuities Lhere &C can not penetrate deep enough to magnetize the part at the depth needed. 5he amount of magnetic penetration depends on the amount of current passed through the part.;1< #C is also limited on very large cross sectional parts hoL effective it Lill magnetize the part. !alf Lave #C =!C#C pulsating #C> Lor" similar to full Lave #C Lith sightly more magnetic penetration into the part. !C#C is "noLn to have the most penetrating ability in magnetic particle testing.;1< !C#C is advantageous for inspection process because it actually helps move the magnetic particles over the test object so that they have the opportunity to come in contact Lith areas of magnetic flux lea"age. 5he increase in particle mobility is caused by the pulsating current Lhich vibrates the test piece and particles.

Eac4 met4od of magneti!ing 4as its pros and cons. ,+ is generallE al=aEs best for discontinuities open to t4e surface and some form of D+ for subsurface.

E1ui ment

& Let horizontal %.1 machine Lith a /6 in =,16 mm> coil

&n automatic Let horizontal %.1 machine Lith an external poLer supply conveyor and demagnetizing systemJ its used to inspect engine cran"s.

& Let horizontal %.1 machine is the most commonly used mass production inspection machine. 5he machine has a head and tail stoc" Lhere the part is placed to magnetize it. 1n betLeen the head and tail stoc" is typically an induction coil Lhich is used to change the orientation of the magnetic field by ,6M from head stoc". %ost of the eKuipment is customized and built for a specific application. %obile poLer pac"sN &re custom built magnetizing poLer supplies used in Lire Lrapping applications. %agnetic yo"eN is a hand held devices that induces a magnetic field betLeen tLo poles. Common applications are for outdoor use remote locations and Leld inspection. 5he draL bac" of magnetic yo"es are they only induce a magnetic field betLeen the poles so inspection is time consuming are on large parts. $or proper inspection the yo"e needs to be rotated ,6 degrees for every inspection area to detect horizontal and vertical discontinuities. Oo"es subsurface detection is limited. 5hese systems used dry magnetic poLders Let poLders or aerosol cans.

2edit3 Dema'neti+in'

arts

& pull through &C demagnetizing unit

,fter t4e part 4as been magneti!ed its needs to be demagneti!ed. T4is reXuires special eXuipment t4at =orAs t4e opposite of magneti!ing eXuipment. (agneti!ing is normallE done =it4 4ig4 current pulse t4at verE XuicAlE reac4es a peaA current and instantaneouslE turns off leaving t4e part magneti!ed. To demagneti!e a part t4e current or magnetic field needed# 4as to be eXual or greater t4an t4e current or magnetic field used to magneti!ed t4e part# t4e current or magnetic field t4en is slo=lE reduced to !ero leaving t4e part demagneti!ed.

&C demagnetizing o .ull through &C demagnetizing coilsN seen in $ig / are &C poLered devices that generate a high magnetic field Lhere the part is sloLly pulled through by hand or on a conveyor. 5he act of pulling the part through and aLay from coilPs magnetic field sloLs drops the magnetic field in the part. (ote many &C demagnetizing coils have poLer cycles of several seconds so the part must be passed through the coil and be several feet =meters> aLay before the demagnetizing cycle finishes or the part Lill have residue magnetism. o &C step doLn demagnetizingN 5his is built in only a feL %.1 eKuipment the process is Lhere the part is subjected to eKual or greater &C current the current is reduced by + amps in several seKuential pulses till zero current is reached. 5he number of steps reKuired to demagnetizing a part is a function of amount current to magnetize the part. 4eversing #C demagnetizingN 5he simply reverses the current floL of magnetizing pulse canceling the magnetic floL. (oteN 5his is built in the %.1 eKuipment by the manufacturer.

2edit3 #a'netic

article

o4der

T4e particles used to detect cracAs is commonlE iron oxide for bot4 drE and =et sEstems.

Cet system particle range in size from H6.7 to 16 micrometres for use Lith Later or oil carriers. .articles used in Let systems have pigments applied that fluoresce at /67 nm = *ltraviolet &> reKuiring 1666 QCRcm- =16 CRm-> at the surface of the part for proper inspection. 1f the particles do not have the correct light applied in a Dark 5oom the particles can not be detectedRseen. 1ts industry practices to use *A gogglesRglasses to filter the *A light and amplify the visible light spectrum normally 'reen and OelloL created by the fluorescing particles. 'reen and OelloL fluorescence Las chosen because the human eye reacts best to these colors. #ry particle poLders range in size from 7 to 106 micrometres designed to be seen in Lhite light conditions. 5he particles are not designed to be used in Let environments. #ry poLders are normally applied using hand operated air poLder applicators &erosol applied particles are similar to Let systems sold in premixed aerosol cans similar to hair spray.

QeditR (agnetic particle carriers


It is common industrE practices to use specificallE designed oil and =ater-based carriers for magnetic particles. Deodori!ed Aerosene# and mineral spirits 4ave not been commonlE used in t4e industrE for '. Eears. It is verE dangerous to use Aerosene or mineral spirits as a carrier to due to t4eir lo= flas4 points# and in4alation of fumes bE t4e operators.

2edit3 6ns ection


T4e follo=ing are general steps for inspecting on a =et 4ori!ontal mac4ine9
1. .art is cleaned of oil and other contaminants -. (ecessary calculations done to "noL the amount of current reKuired to magnetize the part. See &S5% E1???267 for formulas. /. 5he magnetizing pulse is applied for 7 seconds during Lhich the operator Lashes the part Lith the particle stopping before the magnetic pulse is completed. $ailure to Stop prior to end of the magnetic pulse Lill Lash aLay indications. ?. *A light is applied the operator loo"s for indications of defects that are 6 to SR2 ?7 degrees from path the current floLed through the part. #efects only appear that are ?7 to ,6 degrees the magnetic field. 5he easiest Lay to Kuic"ly figure out Lhich Lay the magnetic field is running is grab the part Lith either hand betLeen the head stoc"s laying your thumb against the part =do not Lrap your thumb around the part> this is called either left or right thumb rule or right hand grip rule. 5he direction thumb points tell us the direction current is floLing the %agnetic field Lill be running ,6 degrees from the current path. Tn complex geometry li"e a engine cran" the operator needs to visualize the changing direction of the current and magnetic field created. 5he current starts at 6 degrees then ?7 degrees to ,6 degree bac" to ?7 degrees to 6 then 2?7 to 2,6 to 2?7 to 6 and repeats this for cran"pin. So inspection can be time consuming to carefully loo" for indications that are only ?7 to ,6 degrees from the magnetic field.

7. 5he part is either accepted or rejected based on pre2defined accept and reject criteria 6. 5he part is demagnetized 0. #epending on reKuirements the orientation of the magnetic field may need to be changed ,6 degrees to inspect for defects that can not be detected from steps / to 7. 5he most common Lay is change magnetic field orientation is to a use Coil Shot. in $ig 1 a /6 inch Coil can be seen then steps ? 7 and 6 are repeated

2edit3 Standards
1nternational Trganization for Standardization =1ST>

1ST /67, Non-destructive testing - Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing - Viewing conditions 1ST ,,/?21 Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing - Part 1: General principles 1ST ,,/?2- Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing - Part 2: Detection media 1ST ,,/?2/ Non-destructive testing - Magnetic particle testing - Part 3: Equipment 1ST 106/8 Non-destructive testing o welds - Magnetic particle testing 1ST -/-0, Non-destructive testing o welds - Magnetic particle testing o welds - !cceptance levels

European Committee for Standardization =CE(>


E( 1//620 Non-destructive testing - "erminolog# - Part $: "erms used in magnetic particle testing E( 1/6, %ounding - Magnetic particle inspection E( 16--821 Non-destructive testing o steel orgings - Part 1: Magnetic particle inspection E( 16-?621- Non-destructive testing o steel tu&es - Part 12: Magnetic particle inspection o seamless and welded erromagnetic steel tu&es or t'e detection o sur ace imper ections E( 16-?6218 Non-destructive testing o steel tu&es - Part 1(: Magnetic particle inspection o t'e tu&e ends o seamless and welded erromagnetic steel tu&es or t'e detection o laminar imper ections

&merican Society of 5esting and %aterials =&S5%>


&S5% E1???267 &S5% & -07R& -07% 5est %ethod for %agnetic .article Examination of Steel $orgings &S5% &?76 Specification for %agnetic .article 1nspection of )arge Cran"shaft $orgings &S5% E7?/ .ractice Standard Specification for Evaluating &gencies that .erforming (ondestructive 5esting &S5% E 06, 'uide for %agnetic .article 5esting Examination &S5% E 1/16 5erminology for (ondestructive Examinations

&S5% E --,0 Standard 'uide for *se of *A2& and Aisible )ight Sources and %eters used in the )iKuid .enetrant and %agnetic .article %ethods

Canadian Standards &ssociation =CS&>

CS& C7,

Society of &utomotive Engineers =S&E>


&%S -6?1 %agnetic .article 1nspection Aehicle &%S /6?6 %agnetic .articles (onfluorescent #ry %ethod &%S /6?1 %agnetic .articles (onfluorescent Cet %ethod Til Aehicle 4eady2 5o2*se &%S /6?- %agnetic .articles (onfluorescent Cet %ethod #ry .oLder &%S /6?/ %agnetic .articles (onfluorescent Cet %ethod Til Aehicle &erosol .ac"aged &%S 6?? %agnetic .articles $luorescent Cet %ethod #ry .oLder &%S /6?7 %agnetic .articles $luorescent Cet %ethod Til Aehicle 4eady2 5o2*se &%S /6?6 %agnetic .articles $luorescent Cet %ethod Til Aehicle &erosol .ac"aged7 &%S 766- Steel )oL Carbon Fars $orgings 5ubing Sheet Strip and .late 6.-7 Carbon %aximum &%S 7/77 1nvestment Castings &%S 128//80 1nspection .rocess %agnetic 4ubber &%S2S5#2-107 Castings Classification and 1nspection of &S ?0,- Cater Conditioning &gents for &Kueous %agnetic .article 1nspection &S 7-8- 5ool Steel 4ing Standard for %agnetic .article 1nspection &S7/01 4eference Standards (otched Shims for %agnetic .article 1nspection

*nited States %ilitary Standard

&2&27,-/6 $luid %agnetic .article 1nspection Suspension

2edit3 5e&erences
1. U a b Fetz C. E. =1,87> Principles o Magnetic Particle "esting &merican Society for (ondestructive 5esting p. -/? 1SF( ,086/18-1?876 httpNRRLi"i.magLer"s.comRLi"iRimagesRcRc6RCaveformVtoV#epthVComparison. pdf.

2. Introduction to Magnetic Particle Inspection


3. (agnetic particle inspection %( I& is a nondestructive testing met4od used for defect detection. ( I is fast and relativelE easE to applE# and part surface preparation is not as critical as it is for some ot4er NDT met4ods. T4ese c4aracteristics maAe ( I one of t4e most =idelE utili!ed nondestructive testing met4ods. '. ( I uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles %i.e.iron filings& to detect fla=s in components. T4e onlE reXuirement from an inspectabilitE standpoint is t4at t4e component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material suc4 as iron#

nicAel# cobalt# or some of t4eir alloEs. Derromagnetic materials are materials t4at can be magneti!ed to a level t4at =ill allo= t4e inspection to be effective. *. T4e met4od is used to inspect a varietE of product forms including castings# forgings# and =eldments. (anE different industries use magnetic particle inspection for determining a componentWs fitness-for-use. Some examples of industries t4at use magnetic particle inspection are t4e structural steel# automotive# petroc4emical# po=er generation# and aerospace industries. 5nder=ater inspection is anot4er area =4ere magnetic particle inspection maE be used to test items suc4 as offs4ore structures and under=ater pipelines.

6.

7. Basic Principles
8. In t4eorE# magnetic particle inspection %( I& is a relativelE simple concept. It can be

considered as a combination of t=o nondestructive testing met4ods9 magnetic flux leaAage testing and visual testing. +onsider t4e case of a bar magnet. It 4as a magnetic field in and around t4e magnet. ,nE place t4at a magnetic line of force exits or enters t4e magnet is called a pole. , pole =4ere a magnetic line of force exits t4e magnet is called a nort4 pole and a pole =4ere a line of force enters t4e magnet is called a sout4 pole. ,. @4en a bar magnet is broAen in t4e center of its lengt4# t=o complete bar magnets =it4 magnetic poles on eac4 end of eac4 piece =ill result. If t4e magnet is $ust cracAed but not broAen completelE in t=o# a nort4 and sout4 pole =ill form at eac4 edge of t4e cracA. T4e magnetic field exits t4e nort4 pole and reenters at t4e sout4 pole. T4e magnetic field spreads out =4en it encounters t4e small air gap created bE t4e cracA because t4e air cannot support as muc4 magnetic field per unit volume as t4e magnet can. @4en t4e field spreads out# it appears to leaA out of t4e material and# t4us is called a flux leaAage field. 1.. If iron particles are sprinAled on a cracAed magnet# t4e particles =ill be attracted to and cluster not onlE at t4e poles at t4e ends of t4e magnet# but also at t4e poles at t4e edges of t4e cracA. T4is cluster of particles is muc4 easier to see t4an t4e actual cracA and t4is is t4e basis for magnetic particle inspection.

11.

1". T4e first step in a magnetic particle inspection is to magneti!e t4e component t4at is to be inspected. If anE defects on or near t4e surface are present# t4e defects =ill create a leaAage field. ,fter t4e component 4as been magneti!ed# iron particles# eit4er in a drE or =et suspended form# are applied to t4e surface of t4e magneti!ed part. T4e particles =ill be attracted and cluster at t4e flux leaAage fields# t4us forming a visible indication t4at t4e inspector can detect.

History of Magnetic Particle Inspection


(agnetism is t4e abilitE of matter to attract ot4er matter to itself. T4e ancient 8reeAs =ere t4e first to discover t4is p4enomenon in a mineral t4eE named magnetite. 6ater on Iergmann# IecXuerel# and DaradaE discovered t4at all matter including liXuids and gasses =ere affected bE magnetism# but onlE a fe= responded to a noticeable extent. T4e earliest Ano=n use of magnetism to inspect an ob$ect tooA place as earlE as 11-1. +annon barrels =ere c4ecAed for defects bE magneti!ing t4e barrel t4en sliding a magnetic compass along t4e barrelWs lengt4. T4ese earlE inspectors =ere able to locate fla=s in t4e barrels bE monitoring t4e needle of t4e compass. T4is =as a form of nondestructive testing but t4e term =as not commonlE used until some time after @orld @ar I. In t4e earlE 1/".Ys# @illiam ZoAe reali!ed t4at magnetic particles %colored metal s4avings& could be used =it4 magnetism as a means of locating defects. ZoAe discovered t4at a surface or subsurface fla= in a magneti!ed material caused t4e magnetic field to distort and extend beEond t4e part. T4is discoverE =as broug4t to 4is attention in t4e mac4ine s4op. Ze noticed t4at t4e metallic grindings from 4ard steel parts %4eld bE a magnetic c4ucA =4ile being ground& formed patterns on t4e face of t4e parts =4ic4 corresponded to t4e cracAs in t4e surface. ,pplEing a fine ferromagnetic po=der to t4e parts caused a build up of po=der over fla=s and formed a visible indication. T4e image s4o=s a 1/"1 ElectEro-(agnetic Steel Testing

Device %( I& made bE t4e EXuipment and Engineering +ompanE 6td. %E+0& of Strand# England. In t4e earlE 1/3.Ys# magnetic particle inspection =as XuicAlE replacing t4e oil-and-=4iting met4od %an earlE form of t4e liXuid penetrant inspection& as t4e met4od of c4oice bE t4e railroad industrE to inspect steam engine boilers# =4eels# axles# and tracAs. TodaE# t4e ( I inspection met4od is used extensivelE to c4ecA for fla=s in a large varietE of manufactured materials and components. ( I is used to c4ecA materials suc4 as steel bar stocA for seams and ot4er fla=s prior to investing mac4ining time during t4e manufacturing of a component. +ritical automotive components are inspected for fla=s after fabrication to ensure t4at defective parts are not placed into service. ( I is used to inspect some 4ig4lE loaded components t4at 4ave been in-service for a period of time. Dor example# manE components of 4ig4 performance racecars are inspected =4enever t4e engine# drive train or anot4er sEstem undergoes an over4aul. ( I is also used to evaluate t4e integritE of structural =elds on bridges# storage tanAs# and ot4er safetE critical structures.

Magnetism
(agnets are verE common items in t4e =orAplace and 4ouse4old. 5ses of magnets range from 4olding pictures on t4e refrigerator to causing torXue in electric motors. (ost people are familiar =it4 t4e general properties of magnets but are less familiar =it4 t4e source of magnetism. T4e traditional concept of magnetism centers around t4e magnetic field and =4at is Ano= as a dipole. T4e term [-*+n#t%' .%#!$[ simplE describes a volume of space =4ere t4ere is a c4ange in energE =it4in t4at volume. T4is c4ange in energE can be detected and measured. T4e location =4ere a magnetic field can be detected exiting or entering a material is called a magnetic pole. (agnetic poles 4ave never been detected in isolation but al=aEs occur in pairs# 4ence t4e name dipole. T4erefore# a $%,o!# is an ob$ect t4at 4as a magnetic pole on one end and a second# eXual but opposite# magnetic pole on t4e ot4er. , bar magnet can be considered a dipole =it4 a nort4 pole at one end and sout4 pole at t4e ot4er. , magnetic field can be measured leaving t4e dipole at t4e nort4 pole and returning t4e magnet at t4e sout4 pole. If a magnet is cut in t=o# t=o magnets or dipoles are created out of one. T4is sectioning and creation of dipoles can continue to t4e atomic level. T4erefore# t4e source of magnetism lies in t4e basic building blocA of all matter...t4e atom. T/# So" '# o. M*+n#t%&,ll matter is composed of atoms# and atoms are composed of protons# neutrons and electrons. T4e protons and neutrons are located in t4e atomWs nucleus and t4e electrons are in constant motion around t4e nucleus. Electrons carrE a negative electrical c4arge and produce a magnetic field as t4eE move t4roug4

space. , magnetic field is produced =4enever an electrical c4arge is in motion. T4e strengt4 of t4is field is called t4e -*+n#t%' -o-#nt. T4is maE be 4ard to visuali!e on a subatomic scale but consider electric current flo=ing t4roug4 a conductor. @4en t4e electrons %electric current& are flo=ing t4roug4 t4e conductor# a magnetic field forms around t4e conductor. T4e magnetic field can be detected using a compass. T4e magnetic field =ill place a force on t4e compass needle# =4ic4 is anot4er example of a dipole. Since all matter is comprised of atoms# all materials are affected in some =aE bE a magnetic field. Zo=ever# not all materials react t4e same =aE. T4is =ill be explored more in t4e next section.

Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, and Ferromagnetic Materials


@4en a material is placed =it4in a magnetic field# t4e magnetic forces of t4e materialWs electrons =ill be affected. T4is effect is Ano=n as DaradaEWs 6a= of (agnetic Induction. Zo=ever# materials can react Xuite differentlE to t4e presence of an external magnetic field. T4is reaction is dependent on a number of factors# suc4 as t4e atomic and molecular structure of t4e material# and t4e net magnetic field associated =it4 t4e atoms. T4e magnetic moments associated =it4 atoms 4ave t4ree origins. T4ese are t4e electron motion# t4e c4ange in motion caused bE an external magnetic field# and t4e spin of t4e electrons. In most atoms# electrons occur in pairs. Electrons in a pair spin in opposite directions. So# =4en electrons are paired toget4er# t4eir opposite spins cause t4eir magnetic fields to cancel eac4 ot4er. T4erefore# no net magnetic field exists. ,lternatelE# materials =it4 some unpaired electrons =ill 4ave a net magnetic field and =ill react more to an external field. (ost materials can be classified as diamagnetic# paramagnetic or ferromagnetic. D%*-*+n#t%' materials 4ave a =eaA# negative susceptibilitE to magnetic fields. Diamagnetic materials are slig4tlE repelled bE a magnetic field and t4e material does not retain t4e magnetic properties =4en t4e external field is removed. In diamagnetic materials all t4e electron are paired so t4ere is no permanent net magnetic moment per atom. Diamagnetic properties arise from t4e realignment of t4e electron pat4s under t4e influence of an external magnetic field. (ost elements in t4e periodic table# including copper# silver# and gold# are diamagnetic. P* *-*+n#t%' materials 4ave a small# positive susceptibilitE to magnetic fields. T4ese materials are slig4tlE attracted bE a magnetic field and t4e material does not retain t4e magnetic properties =4en t4e external field is removed. aramagnetic properties are due to t4e presence of some unpaired electrons# and from t4e realignment of t4e electron pat4s caused bE t4e external magnetic field. aramagnetic materials include magnesium# molEbdenum# lit4ium# and tantalum.

F# o-*+n#t%' materials 4ave a large# positive susceptibilitE to an external magnetic field. T4eE ex4ibit a strong attraction to magnetic fields and are able to retain t4eir magnetic properties after t4e external field 4as been removed. Derromagnetic materials 4ave some unpaired electrons so t4eir atoms 4ave a net magnetic moment. T4eE get t4eir strong magnetic properties due to t4e presence of magnetic domains. In t4ese domains# large numbers of atomWs moments %1.1" to 1.1*& are aligned parallel so t4at t4e magnetic force =it4in t4e domain is strong. @4en a ferromagnetic material is in t4e unmagniti!ed state# t4e domains are nearlE randomlE organi!ed and t4e net magnetic field for t4e part as a =4ole is !ero. @4en a magneti!ing force is applied# t4e domains become aligned to produce a strong magnetic field =it4in t4e part. Iron# nicAel# and cobalt are examples of ferromagnetic materials. +omponents =it4 t4ese materials are commonlE inspected using t4e magnetic particle met4od.

Magnetic Domains
Derromagnetic materials get t4eir magnetic properties not onlE because t4eir atoms carrE a magnetic moment but also because t4e material is made up of small regions Ano=n as magnetic domains. In eac4 domain# all of t4e atomic dipoles are coupled toget4er in a preferential direction. T4is alignment develops as t4e material develops its crEstalline structure during solidification from t4e molten state. (agnetic domains can be detected using (agnetic Dorce (icroscopE %(D(& and images of t4e domains liAe t4e one s4o=n belo= can be constructed.

(agnetic Dorce (icroscopE %(D(& image s4o=ing t4e magnetic domains in a piece of 4eat treated carbon steel.

During solidification# a trillion or more atom moments are aligned parallel so t4at t4e magnetic force =it4in t4e domain is strong in one direction. Derromagnetic materials are said to be c4aracteri!ed bE [spontaneous magneti!ation[ since t4eE obtain saturation magneti!ation in eac4 of t4e domains =it4out an external magnetic field being applied. Even t4oug4 t4e domains are magneticallE saturated# t4e bulA material maE not s4o= anE signs of magnetism because t4e domains develop t4emselves and are randomlE oriented relative to eac4 ot4er. Derromagnetic materials become magneti!ed =4en t4e magnetic domains =it4in t4e material are aligned. T4is can be done bE placing t4e material in a strong external magnetic field or bE passing electrical current t4roug4 t4e material. Some or all of t4e domains can become aligned. T4e more domains t4at are aligned# t4e stronger t4e magnetic field in t4e material. @4en all of t4e domains are aligned# t4e material is said to be magneticallE saturated. @4en a material is

magneticallE saturated# no additional amount of external magneti!ation force =ill cause an increase in its internal level of magneti!ation.

5nmagneti!ed (aterial

(agneti!ed (aterial

Magnetic Field Characteristics


M*+n#t%' F%#!$ In *n$ A o"n$ * B* M*+n#t ,s discussed previouslE# a magnetic field is a c4ange in energE =it4in a volume of space. T4e magnetic field surrounding a bar magnet can be seen in t4e magnetograp4 belo=. , magnetograp4 can be created bE placing a piece of paper over a magnet and sprinAling t4e paper =it4 iron filings. T4e particles align t4emselves =it4 t4e lines of magnetic force produced bE t4e magnet. T4e magnetic lines of force s4o= =4ere t4e magnetic field exits t4e material at one pole and reenters t4e material at anot4er pole along t4e lengt4 of t4e magnet. It s4ould be noted t4at t4e magnetic lines of force exist in t4ree dimensions but are onlE seen in t=o dimensions in t4e image.

It can be seen in t4e magnetograp4 t4at t4ere are poles all along t4e lengt4 of t4e magnet but t4at t4e poles are concentrated at t4e ends of t4e magnet. T4e area =4ere t4e exit poles are concentrated is called t4e magnetWs nort4 pole and t4e area =4ere t4e entrance poles are concentrated is called t4e magnetWs sout4 pole. M*+n#t%' F%#!$& %n *n$ * o"n$ 0o &#&/o# *n$ R%n+ M*+n#t& (agnets come in a varietE of s4apes and one of t4e more common is t4e 4orses4oe %5& magnet. T4e 4orses4oe magnet 4as nort4 and sout4 poles $ust liAe a bar magnet but t4e magnet is curved so t4e poles lie in t4e same

plane. T4e magnetic lines of force flo= from pole to pole $ust liAe in t4e bar magnet. Zo=ever# since t4e poles are located closer toget4er and a more direct pat4 exists for t4e lines of flux to travel bet=een t4e poles# t4e magnetic field is concentrated bet=een t4e poles.

If a bar magnet =as placed across t4e end of a 4orses4oe magnet or if a magnet =as formed in t4e s4ape of a ring# t4e lines of magnetic force =ould not even need to enter t4e air. T4e value of suc4 a magnet =4ere t4e magnetic field is completelE contained =it4 t4e material probablE 4as limited use. Zo=ever# it is important to understand t4at t4e magnetic field can flo= in loop =it4in a material. %See section on circular magnetism for more information&.

G#n# *! P o,# t%#& o. M*+n#t%' L%n#& o. Fo '# (agnetic lines of important

force 4ave a number of properties# =4ic4 include9 t4e pat4 of least resistance opposite magnetic poles. In a magnet as s4o=n to t4e rig4t# attempt to form closed loops to pole. cross one anot4er. 4ave t4e same strengt4. densitE decreases %t4eE spread t4eE move from an area of permeabilitE to an area of permeabilitE. densitE decreases =it4 distance from t4e poles. considered to 4ave direction as t4oug4 no actual movement from t4e sout4 pole to t4e =it4in a material and nort4 sout4 pole in air.

T4eE seeA bet=een single bar t4eE from pole T4eE never T4eE all T4eir out& =4en 4ig4er lo=er T4eir increasing T4eE are if flo=ing# occurs. T4eE flo= nort4 pole pole to

lectromagnetic Fields
(agnets are not t4e onlE source of magnetic fields. In 11".# Zans +4ristian 0ersted discovered t4at an electric current flo=ing t4roug4 a =ire caused a nearbE compass to deflect. T4is indicated t4at t4e current in t4e =ire =as generating a magnetic field. 0ersted studied t4e nature of t4e magnetic field around t4e long straig4t =ire. Ze found t4at t4e magnetic field existed in circular form around t4e =ire and t4at t4e intensitE of t4e field =as directlE proportional to t4e amount of current carried bE t4e =ire. Ze also found t4at t4e strengt4 of t4e field =as strongest next to t4e =ire and diminis4ed =it4 distance from t4e conductor until it could no longer be detected. In most conductors# t4e magnetic field exists onlE as long as t4e current is flo=ing %i.e. an electrical c4arge is in motion&. Zo=ever# in ferromagnetic materials t4e electric current =ill cause some or all of t4e magnetic domains to align and a residual magnetic field =ill remain. 0ersted also noticed t4at t4e direction of t4e magnetic field =as dependent on t4e direction of t4e electrical current in t4e =ire. , t4ree-dimensional representation of t4e magnetic field is s4o=n belo=. T4ere is a simple rule for remembering t4e direction of t4e magnetic field around a conductor. It is called t4e %+/t1/*n$ '!*&, "!#. If a person grasps a conductor in oneWs rig4t 4and =it4 t4e t4umb pointing in t4e direction of t4e current# t4e fingers =ill circle t4e conductor in t4e direction of t4e magnetic field. A 2o $ o. '*"t%on *3o"t t/# %+/t1/*n$ '!*&, "!# Dor t4e rig4t-4and rule to =orA# one important t4ing t4at must be remembered about t4e direction of current flo=. Standard convention 4as current flo=ing from t4e positive terminal to t4e negative terminal. T4is convention is credited to Ien$amin DranAlin =4o t4eori!ed t4at electric current =as due to a positive c4arge moving from t4e positive terminal to t4e negative terminal. Zo=ever# it =as later discovered t4at it is t4e movement of t4e negativelE c4arged electron t4at is responsible for electrical current. Rat4er t4an c4anging several centuries of t4eorE and eXuations# DranAlinWs convention is still used todaE.

Magnetic Field Produced !y a Coil


@4en a current carrEing conductor is formed into a loop or several loops to form a coil# a magnetic field develops t4at flo=s t4roug4 t4e center of t4e loop or coil along its longitudinal axis and circles bacA around t4e outside of t4e loop or coil. T4e magnetic field circling eac4 loop of =ire combines =it4 t4e fields from t4e ot4er loops to produce a concentrated field do=n t4e center of t4e coil. , looselE =ound coil is illustrated belo= to s4o= t4e interaction of t4e magnetic field. T4e magnetic field is essentiallE uniform do=n t4e lengt4 of t4e coil =4en it is =ound tig4ter.

T4e strengt4 of a coilWs magnetic field increases not onlE =it4 increasing current but also =it4 eac4 loop t4at is added to t4e coil. , long# straig4t coil of =ire is called a solenoid and can be used to generate a nearlE uniform magnetic field similar to t4at of a bar magnet. T4e concentrated magnetic field inside a coil is verE useful in magneti!ing ferromagnetic materials for inspection using t4e magnetic particle testing met4od. lease be a=are t4at t4e field outside t4e coil is =eaA and is not suitable for magneti!ing ferromagnetic materials.

"uantifying Magnetic Properties


#Magnetic Field $trength, Flu% Density, &otal Flu% and Magneti'ation( 5ntil no=# onlE t4e Xualitative features of t4e magnetic field 4ave been discussed. Zo=ever# it is necessarE to be able to measure and express XuantitativelE t4e various c4aracteristics of magnetism. 5nfortunatelE# a number of unit conventions are used %as s4o=n in t4e table belo=&. SI units =ill be used in t4is material. T4e advantage of using SI units is t4at t4eE are traceable bacA to an agreed set of four base units - meter# Ailogram# second# and ,mpere.

\uantitE Dield Dlux DensitE %(agnetic Induction& Dlux (agneti!ation 0 M

SI 5nits %Sommerfeld& ,3m tesla =eber ,3m

SI 5nits %NennellE& ,3m tesla =eber -

+8S 5nits %8aussian& oersteds gauss max=ell erg30e-cm3

T4e units for magnetic field strengt4 0 are ampere3meter. , magnetic field strengt4 of 1 ampere3meter is produced at t4e center of a single circular conductor =it4 a one meter diameter carrEing a steadE current of 1 ampere. T4e number of magnetic lines of force cutting t4roug4 a plane of a given area at a rig4t angle is Ano=n as t4e -*+n#t%' .!"4 $#n&%t56 B. T4e flux densitE or magnetic induction 4as t4e tesla as its unit. 0ne tesla is eXual to 1 Ne=ton3%,3m&. Drom t4ese units# it can be seen t4at t4e flux densitE is a measure of t4e force applied to a particle bE t4e magnetic field. T4e 8auss is t4e +8S unit for flux densitE and is commonlE used bE 5S industrE. 0ne gauss represents one line of flux passing t4roug4 one sXuare centimeter of air oriented /. degrees to t4e flux flo=. T4e total number of lines of magnetic force in a material is called -*+n#t%' .!"46 . T4e strengt4 of t4e flux is determined bE t4e number of magnetic domains t4at are aligned =it4in a material. T4e total flux is simplE t4e flux densitE applied over an area. Dlux carries t4e unit of a =eber# =4ic4 is simplE a tesla- meter". T4e magneti!ation is a measure of t4e extent to =4ic4 an ob$ect is magneti!ed. It is a measure of t4e magnetic dipole moment per unit volume of t4e ob$ect. (agneti!ation carries t4e same units as a magnetic field9 amperes3meter. Con(# &%on 3#t2##n CGS *n$ SI -*+n#t%' "n%t&.

&he Hysteresis )oop and Magnetic Properties

, great deal of information can be learned about t4e magnetic properties of a material bE studEing its 4Esteresis loop. , 4Esteresis loop s4o=s t4e relations4ip bet=een t4e induced magnetic flux densitE %B7 and t4e magneti!ing force 807. It is often referred to as t4e I-Z loop. ,n example 4Esteresis loop is s4o=n belo=.

T4e loop is generated bE measuring t4e magnetic flux of a ferromagnetic material =4ile t4e magneti!ing force is c4anged. , ferromagnetic material t4at 4as never been previouslE magneti!ed or 4as been t4oroug4lE demagneti!ed =ill follo= t4e das4ed line as 0 is increased. ,s t4e line demonstrates# t4e greater t4e amount of current applied 8097# t4e stronger t4e magnetic field in t4e component 8B97. ,t point [a[ almost all of t4e magnetic domains are aligned and an additional increase in t4e magneti!ing force =ill produce verE little increase in magnetic flux. T4e material 4as reac4ed t4e point of magnetic saturation. @4en 0 is reduced to !ero# t4e curve =ill move from point [a[ to point [b.[ ,t t4is point# it can be seen t4at some magnetic flux remains in t4e material even t4oug4 t4e magneti!ing force is !ero. T4is is referred to as t4e point of retentivitE on t4e grap4 and indicates t4e remanence or level of residual magnetism in t4e material. %Some of t4e magnetic domains remain aligned but some 4ave lost t4eir alignment.& ,s t4e magneti!ing force is reversed# t4e curve moves to point [c[# =4ere t4e flux 4as been reduced to !ero. T4is is called t4e point of coercivitE on t4e curve. %T4e reversed magneti!ing force 4as flipped enoug4 of t4e domains so t4at t4e net flux =it4in t4e material is !ero.& T4e force reXuired to remove t4e residual magnetism from t4e material is called t4e coercive force or coercivitE of t4e material. ,s t4e magneti!ing force is increased in t4e negative direction# t4e material =ill again become magneticallE saturated but in t4e opposite direction %point [d[&. Reducing 0 to !ero brings t4e curve to point [e.[ It =ill 4ave a level of residual magnetism eXual to t4at ac4ieved in t4e ot4er direction. Increasing 0 bacA in t4e positive direction =ill return B to !ero. Notice t4at t4e curve

did not return to t4e origin of t4e grap4 because some force is reXuired to remove t4e residual magnetism. T4e curve =ill taAe a different pat4 from point [f[ bacA to t4e saturation point =4ere it =it4 complete t4e loop. Drom t4e 4Esteresis loop# a number of primarE magnetic properties of a material can be determined.
1. R#t#nt%(%t5 - , measure of t4e residual flux densitE corresponding to t4e saturation

-.

/.

?. 7.

induction of a magnetic material. In ot4er =ords# it is a materialWs abilitE to retain a certain amount of residual magnetic field =4en t4e magneti!ing force is removed after ac4ieving saturation. %T4e value of B at point b on t4e 4Esteresis curve.& R#&%$"*! M*+n#t%&- or R#&%$"*! F!"4 - t4e magnetic flux densitE t4at remains in a material =4en t4e magneti!ing force is !ero. Note t4at residual magnetism and retentivitE are t4e same =4en t4e material 4as been magneti!ed to t4e saturation point. Zo=ever# t4e level of residual magnetism maE be lo=er t4an t4e retentivitE value =4en t4e magneti!ing force did not reac4 t4e saturation level. Co# '%(# Fo '# - T4e amount of reverse magnetic field =4ic4 must be applied to a magnetic material to maAe t4e magnetic flux return to !ero. %T4e value of 0 at point c on t4e 4Esteresis curve.& P# -#*3%!%t56 1 , propertE of a material t4at describes t4e ease =it4 =4ic4 a magnetic flux is establis4ed in t4e component. R#!"'t*n'# - Is t4e opposition t4at a ferromagnetic material s4o=s to t4e establis4ment of a magnetic field. Reluctance is analogous to t4e resistance in an electrical circuit.

Permea!ility
,s previouslE mentioned# permeabilitE is a material propertE t4at describes t4e ease =it4 =4ic4 a magnetic flux is establis4ed in a component. It is t4e ratio of t4e flux densitE to t4e magneti!ing force and is represented bE t4e follo=ing eXuation9

= /
1t is clear that this eKuation describes the slope of the curve at any point on the hysteresis loop. 5he permeability value given in papers and reference materials is usually the maximum permeability or the maximum relative permeability. 5he maximum permeability is the point Lhere the slope of the FR! curve for the unmagnetized material is the greatest. 5his point is often ta"en as the point Lhere a straight line from the origin is tangent to the FR! curve.

5he relative permeability is arrived at by ta"ing the ratio of the materialPs permeability to the permeability in free space =air>.

%relative&

%material&

( air)

=4ere9

( air)

H 1."*- x 1.-- Z3m

T4e s4ape of t4e 4Esteresis loop tells a great deal about t4e material being magneti!ed. T4e 4Esteresis curves of t=o different materials are s4o=n in t4e grap4. Relative to ot4er materials# a material =it4 a =ider 4Esteresis loop 4as9

)oLer .ermeability !igher 4etentivity !igher Coercivity !igher 4eluctance !igher 4esidual %agnetism

Relative to ot4er materials# a material =it4 t4e narro=er 4Esteresis loop 4as9

!igher .ermeability )oLer 4etentivity )oLer Coercivity )oLer 4eluctance )oLer 4esidual %agnetism.

In magnetic particle testing# t4e level of residual magnetism is important. Residual magnetic fields are affected bE t4e permeabilitE# =4ic4 can be related to t4e carbon content and alloEing of t4e material. , component =it4 4ig4 carbon content =ill 4ave lo= permeabilitE and =ill retain more magnetic flux t4an a material =it4 lo= carbon content. In t4e t=o I-Z loops above# =4ic4 one =ould indicative of a lo= carbon steel] ,ns=er

Magnetic Field *rientation and Fla+ Detecta!ility


To properlE inspect a component for cracAs or ot4er defects# it is important to understand t4at t4e orientation bet=een t4e magnetic lines of force and t4e fla= is verE important. T4ere are t=o general tEpes of magnetic fields t4at can be establis4ed =it4in a component.

& longitudinal magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run parallel to the long axis of the part. )ongitudinal magnetization of a component can be accomplished using the longitudinal field set up by a coil or solenoid. 1t can also be accomplished using permanent magnets or electromagnets. & circular magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run circumferentially around the perimeter of a part. & circular magnetic field is induced in an article by either passing current through the component or by passing current through a conductor surrounded by the component.

T4e tEpe of magnetic field establis4ed is determined bE t4e met4od used to magneti!e t4e specimen. Ieing able to magneti!e t4e part in t=o directions is important because t4e best detection of defects occurs =4en t4e lines of magnetic force are establis4ed at rig4t angles to t4e longest dimension of t4e defect. T4is orientation creates t4e largest disruption of t4e magnetic field =it4in t4e part and t4e greatest flux leaAage at t4e surface of t4e part. ,s can be seen in t4e image belo=# if t4e magnetic field is parallel to t4e defect# t4e field =ill see little disruption and no flux leaAage field =ill be produced.

,n orientation of '* to /. degrees bet=een t4e magnetic field and t4e defect is necessarE to form an indication. Since defects maE occur in various and unAno=n directions# eac4 part is normallE magneti!ed in t=o directions at rig4t angles to eac4 ot4er. If t4e component belo= is considered# it is Ano=n t4at passing current t4roug4 t4e part from end to end =ill establis4 a circular magnetic field t4at =ill be /. degrees to t4e direction of t4e current. T4erefore# defects t4at 4ave a significant dimension in t4e direction of t4e current %longitudinal defects& s4ould be detectable. ,lternatelE# transverse-tEpe defects =ill not be detectable =it4 circular magneti!ation.

@atc4 t4is s4ort movie s4o=ing t4e effect of field direction on indication visibilitE. %22* NI mov&

Magneti'ation of Ferromagnetic Materials


T4ere are a varietE of met4ods t4at can be used to establis4 a magnetic field in a component for evaluation using magnetic particle inspection. It is common to classifE t4e magneti!ing met4ods as eit4er direct or indirect. M*+n#t%:*t%on U&%n+ D% #'t In$"'t%on 8D% #'t M*+n#t%:*t%on7 @it4 direct magneti!ation# current is passed directlE t4roug4 t4e component. Recall t4at =4enever current flo=s# a magnetic field is produced. 5sing t4e rig4t-4and rule# =4ic4 =as introduced earlier# it is Ano=n t4at t4e magnetic lines of flux form normal to t4e direction of t4e current and form a circular field in and around t4e conductor. @4en using t4e direct magneti!ation met4od# care must be taAen to ensure t4at good electrical contact is establis4ed and maintained bet=een t4e test eXuipment and t4e test component. Improper contact can result in arcing t4at maE damage t4e component. It is also possible to over4eat components in areas of 4ig4 resistance suc4 as t4e contact points and in areas of small cross-sectional area.

T4ere are several =aEs t4at direct magneti!ation is commonlE accomplis4ed. 0ne =aE involves clamping t4e component bet=een t=o electrical contacts in a special piece of eXuipment. +urrent is passed t4roug4 t4e component and a circular magnetic field is establis4ed in and around t4e component. @4en t4e magneti!ing current is stopped# a residual field =ill remain =it4in t4e component. T4e t4e induced magnetic field is proportional to of current passed t4roug4 t4e component.

magnetic strengt4 of t4e amount

, second tec4niXue involves using clamps or prods# =4ic4 are attac4ed or placed in contact =it4 t4e component. Electrical current flo=s t4roug4 t4e component from contact to contact. T4e current sets up a circular magnetic field around t4e pat4 of t4e current.

M*+n#t%:*t%on U&%n+ In$% #'t In$"'t%on 8In$% #'t M*+n#t%:*t%on7 Indirect magneti!ation is accomplis4ed bE using a strong external magnetic field to establis4 a magnetic field =it4in t4e component. ,s =it4 direct magneti!ation# t4ere are several =aEs t4at indirect magneti!ation can be accomplis4ed. T4e use of ,# -*n#nt -*+n#t& is a lo= cost met4od of establis4ing a magnetic field. Zo=ever# t4eir use is limited due to lacA of control of t4e field strengt4 and t4e difficultE of placing and removing strong permanent magnets from t4e component. E!#'t o-*+n#t& in t4e form of an ad$ustable 4orses4oe magnet %called a EoAe& eliminate t4e problems associated =it4 permanent magnets and are used extensivelE in industrE. Electromagnets onlE ex4ibit a magnetic flux =4en electric current is flo=ing around t4e soft iron core. @4en t4e magnet is placed on t4e component# a magnetic field is establis4ed bet=een t4e nort4 and sout4 poles of t4e

magnet. ,not4er =aE of indirectlE inducting a magnetic field in a material is bE using t4e magnetic field of a current carrEing conductor. , circular magnetic field can be establis4ed in cElindrical components bE using a '#nt *! 'on$"'to . TEpicallE# one or more cElindrical components are 4ung from a solid copper bar running t4roug4 t4e inside diameter. +urrent is passed t4roug4 t4e copper bar and t4e resulting circular magnetic field establis4es a magnetic field =it4in t4e test components. T4e use of 'o%!& and &o!#no%$& is a t4ird met4od of indirect magneti!ation. @4en t4e lengt4 of a component is several times larger t4an its diameter# a longitudinal magnetic field can be establis4ed in t4e component. T4e component is placed longitudinallE in t4e concentrated magnetic field t4at fills t4e center of a coil or solenoid. T4is magneti!ation tec4niXue is often referred to as a [coil s4ot.[

Magneti'ing Current
,s seen in t4e previous pages# electric current is often used to establis4 t4e magnetic field in components during magnetic particle inspection. ,lternating current and direct current are t4e t=o basic tEpes of current commonlE used. +urrent from single p4ase 11. volts# to t4ree p4ase ''. volts# are used =4en generating an electric field in a component. +urrent flo= is often modified to provide t4e appropriate field =it4in t4e part. T4e tEpe of current used can 4ave an effect on t4e inspection results# so t4e tEpes of currents commonlE used =ill be brieflE revie=ed. D% #'t C" #nt Direct current %D+& flo=s continuouslE in one direction at a constant voltage. , batterE is t4e most common source of direct current. ,s previouslE mentioned# current is said to flo= from t4e positive to t4e negative terminal. In actualitE# t4e electrons flo= in t4e opposite direction. D+ is verE desirable =4en inspecting for subsurface defects because D+ generates a magnetic field t4at penetrates deeper into t4e material. In ferromagnetic materials# t4e magnetic field produced bE D+ generallE penetrates t4e entire cross-section of t4e component. +onverselE# t4e field produced using alternating current is concentrated in a t4in laEer at t4e surface of t4e component. A!t# n*t%n+ C" #nt ,lternating current %,+& reverses in direction at a rate of *. or -. cEcles per second. In t4e 5nited States# -. cEcle current is t4e commercial norm but *. cEcle current is common in manE countries. Since ,+ is readilE available in most facilities# it is convenient to maAe use of it for magnetic particle inspection. Zo=ever# =4en ,+ is used to induce a magnetic field in ferromagnetic materials# t4e magnetic field =ill be limited to narro= region at t4e surface of t4e component. T4is p4enomenon is Ano=n as t4e [sAin effect[ and occurs because t4e c4anging magnetic field generates eddE currents in t4e test ob$ect. T4e eddE currents produce a magnetic field t4at opposes t4e primarE field# t4us reducing t4e net magnetic flux belo= t4e surface.

T4erefore# it is recommended t4at ,+ be used onlE =4en t4e inspection is limited to surface defects. 7ie= a s4ort video on t4e ,+ versus D+. %1/* NI mov& R#'t%.%#$ A!t# n*t%n+ C" #nt +learlE# t4e sAin effect limits t4e use of ,+ since manE inspection applications call for t4e detection of subsurface defects. Zo=ever# t4e convenient access to ,+# drives its use beEond surface fla= inspections. 6ucAilE# ,+ can be converted to current t4at is verE muc4 liAe D+ t4roug4 t4e process of rectification. @it4 t4e use of rectifiers# t4e reversing ,+ can be converted to a one directional current. T4e t4ree commonlE used tEpes of rectified current are described belo=.

0*!. ;*(# R#'t%.%#$ A!t# n*t%n+ C" #nt 80;AC7 @4en single p4ase alternating current is passed t4roug4 a rectifier# current is allo=ed to flo= in onlE one direction. T4e reverse 4alf of eac4 cEcle is blocAed out so t4at a one directional# pulsating current is produced. T4e current rises from !ero to a maximum and t4en returns to !ero. No current flo=s during t4e time =4en t4e reverse cEcle is blocAed out. T4e Z@,+ repeats at same rate as t4e unrectified current %-. 4ert! tEpical&. Since 4alf of t4e current is blocAed out# t4e amperage is 4alf of t4e unaltered ,+. T4is tEpe of current is often referred to as 4alf =ave D+ or pulsating D+. T4e pulsation of t4e Z@,+ 4elps magnetic particle indications form bE vibrating t4e particles and giving t4em added mobilitE. T4is added mobilitE is especiallE important =4en using drE particles. T4e

pulsation is reported to significantlE improve inspection sensitivitE. Z@,+ is most often used to po=er electromagnetic EoAes. F"!! ;*(# R#'t%.%#$ A!t# n*t%n+ C" #nt 8F;AC7 8S%n+!# P/*&#7 Dull =ave rectification inverts t4e negative current to positive current rat4er t4an blocAing it out. T4is produces a pulsating D+ =it4 no interval bet=een t4e pulses. Diltering is usuallE performed to soften t4e s4arp polaritE s=itc4ing in t4e rectified current. @4ile particle mobilitE is not as good as 4alf-=ave ,+ due to t4e reduction in pulsation# t4e dept4 of t4e subsurface magnetic field is improved. T/ ## P/*&# F"!! ;*(# R#'t%.%#$ A!t# n*t%n+ C" #nt T4ree p4ase current is often used to po=er industrial eXuipment because it 4as more favorable po=er transmission and line loading c4aracteristics. T4is tEpe of electrical current is also 4ig4lE desirable for magnetic particle testing because =4en it is rectified and filtered# t4e resulting current verE closelE resembles direct current. StationarE magnetic particle eXuipment =ired =it4 t4ree p4ase ,+ =ill usuallE 4ave t4e abilitE to magneti!e =it4 ,+ or D+ %t4ree p4ase full =ave rectified&# providing t4e inspector =it4 t4e advantages of eac4 current form.

)ongitudinal Magnetic Fields Distri!ution and Intensity


@4en t4e lengt4 of a component is several times larger t4an its diameter# a longitudinal magnetic field can be establis4ed in t4e component. T4e component is often placed longitudinallE in t4e concentrated magnetic field t4at fills t4e center of a coil or solenoid. T4is magneti!ation tec4niXue is often referred to as a [coil s4ot.[ T4e magnetic field travels t4roug4 t4e component from end to end =it4 some flux loss along its lengt4 as s4o=n in t4e image to t4e rig4t. Neep in mind t4at t4e magnetic lines of flux occur in t4ree dimensions and are onlE s4o=n in "D in t4e image. T4e magnetic lines of flux are muc4 more dense inside t4e ferromagnetic material t4an in air because ferromagnetic materials 4ave muc4 4ig4er permeabilitE t4an does air. @4en t4e concentrated flux =it4in t4e material comes to t4e air at t4e end of t4e component# it must spread out since t4e air can not support as manE lines of flux per unit volume. To Aeep from crossing as t4eE spread out# some of t4e magnetic lines of flux are forced out t4e side of t4e component.

@4en a component is magneti!ed along its complete lengt4# t4e flux loss is small along its lengt4. T4erefore# =4en a component is uniform in cross section and magnetic permeabilitE# t4e flux densitE =ill be relativelE uniform t4roug4out t4e component. Dla=s t4at run normal to t4e magnetic lines of flux =ill disturb t4e flux lines and often cause a leaAage field at t4e surface of t4e component.

@4en a component =it4 considerable lengt4 is magneti!ed using a solenoid# it is possible to magneti!e onlE a portion of t4e component. 0nlE t4e material =it4in t4e solenoid and about t4e same =idt4 on eac4 side of t4e solenoid =ill be stronglE magneti!ed. ,t some distance from t4e solenoid# t4e magnetic lines of force =ill abandon t4eir longitudinal direction# leave t4e part at a pole on one side of t4e solenoid and return to t4e part at a opposite pole on t4e ot4er side of t4e solenoid. T4is occurs because t4e magneti!ing force diminis4es =it4 increasing distance from t4e solenoid. ,s a result# t4e magneti!ing force maE onlE be strong enoug4 to align t4e magnetic domains =it4in and verE near t4e solenoid. T4e unmagneti!ed portion of t4e component =ill not support as muc4 magnetic flux as t4e magneti!ed portion and some of t4e flux =ill be forced out of t4e part as illustrated in t4e image belo=. T4erefore# a long component must be magneti!ed and inspected at several locations along its lengt4 for complete inspection coverage.

Circular Magnetic Fields Distri!ution and Intensity


,s discussed previouslE# =4en current is passed t4roug4 a solid conductor# a magnetic field forms in and around t4e conductor. T4e follo=ing statements can be made about t4e distribution and intensitE of t4e magnetic field.

T4e field strengt4 varies from !ero at t4e center of t4e component to a maximum at t4e surface. T4e field strengt4 at t4e surface of t4e conductor decreases as t4e radius of t4e conductor increases =4en t4e current strengt4 is 4eld constant. %Zo=ever# a larger

conductor is capable of carrEing more current.& T4e field strengt4 outside t4e conductor is directlE proportional to t4e current strengt4. Inside t4e conductor# t4e field strengt4 is dependent on t4e current strengt4# magnetic permeabilitE of t4e material# and if magnetic# t4e location on t4e I-Z curve. T4e field strengt4 outside t4e conductor decreases =it4 distance from t4e conductor.

In t4e images belo=# t4e magnetic field strengt4 is grap4ed versus distance from t4e center of t4e conductor. It can be seen t4at in a nonmagnetic conductor carrEing D+# t4e internal field strengt4 rises from !ero at t4e center to a maximum value at t4e surface of t4e conductor. T4e external field strengt4 decrease =it4 distance from t4e surface of t4e conductor. @4en t4e conductor is a magnetic material# t4e field strengt4 =it4in t4e conductor is muc4 greater t4an it is in t4e nonmagnetic conductor. T4is is due to t4e permeabilitE of t4e magnetic material. T4e external field is exactlE t4e same for t4e t=o materials provided t4e current level and conductor radius are t4e same.

T4e magnetic field distribution in and T4e magnetic field distribution in and around a solid conductor of a around a solid conductor of a magnetic nonmagnetic material carrEing direct material carrEing direct current. current.

@4en t4e conductor is carrEing alternating current# t4e internal magnetic field strengt4 rises from !ero at t4e center to a maximum at t4e surface. Zo=ever# t4e field is concentrated in a t4in laEer near t4e surface of t4e conductor. T4is is Ano=n as t4e [sAin effect.[ T4e sAin effect is evident in t4e field strengt4 versus distance grap4 for a magnetic conductor s4o=n to t4e rig4t. T4e external field decreases =it4 increasing distance from t4e surface as it does =it4 D+. It s4ould be remembered t4at =it4 ,+ t4e field is constantlE varEing in strengt4 and direction. T4e magnetic field distribution in and around a solid conductor of a magnetic material carrEing alternating current.

In a 4ollo= circular conductor t4ere is no magnetic field in t4e void area. T4e magnetic field is !ero at t4e inside =all surface and rises until it reac4es a maximum at t4e outside =all surface. ,s =it4 a solid conductor# =4en t4e conductor is a magnetic material# t4e field strengt4 =it4in t4e conductor is muc4 greater t4an it =as in t4e nonmagnetic conductor due to t4e permeabilitE of t4e magnetic material. T4e external field strengt4 decreases =it4 distance from t4e surface of t4e conductor. T4e external field is exactlE t4e same for t4e t=o materials provided t4e current level and conductor radius are t4e same.

T4e magnetic field distribution in and T4e magnetic field distribution in and around a 4ollo= conductor of a around a 4ollo= conductor of a magnetic nonmagnetic material carrEing direct material carrEing direct current. current.

@4en ,+ is passed t4roug4 a 4ollo= circular conductor# t4e sAin effect concentrates t4e magnetic field at t4e outside diameter of t4e component. ,s can be learned from t4ese t4ree field distribution images# t4e field strengt4 at t4e inside surface of 4ollo= conductor is verE lo= =4en a circular magnetic field =as establis4ed bE direct magneti!ation. T4erefore# t4e direct met4od of magneti!ation is not recommended =4en inspecting t4e inside diameter =all of a 4ollo= component for s4allo= defects. T4e field strengt4 T4e magnetic field distribution in and increases rapidlE as one moves out %into t4e around a 4ollo= conductor of a magnetic material& from t4e ID# so if t4e defect 4as material carrEing alternating current. significant dept4# it maE be detectable. Zo=ever# a muc4 better met4od of magneti!ing 4ollo= components for inspection of t4e ID and 0D surfaces is =it4 t4e use of a central conductor. ,s can be seen in t4e field distribution image to t4e rig4t# =4en current is passed t4roug4 a nonmagnetic central conductor %copper bar&# t4e magnetic field produced on t4e inside diameter surface of a magnetic tube is T4e magnetic field distribution in and muc4 greater and t4e field is still strong enoug4 for around a nonmagnetic central conductor defect detection on t4e 0D surface. carrEing D+ inside a 4ollo= conductor of a magnetic material .

Demagneti'ation
,fter conducting a magnetic particle inspection# it is usuallE necessarE to demagneti!e t4e component. Remanent magnetic fields can9

affect mac4ining bE causing cuttings to cling to a component. interfere =it4 electronic eXuipment suc4 as a compass. create a condition Ano=n as [arc blo=[ in t4e =elding process. ,rc blo= maE cause t4e =eld arc to =onder or filler metal to be repelled from t4e =eld. cause abrasive particles to cling to bearing or faEing surfaces and increase =ear.

Removal of a field maE be accomplis4ed in several =aEs. T4is random orientation of t4e magnetic domains can be ac4ieved most effectivelE bE 4eating t4e material above its curie temperature. T4e curie temperature for a lo= carbon steel is 22.o+ or 13/.oD. @4en steel is 4eated above its curie temperature# it =ill become austenitic and loses its magnetic properties.

@4en it is cooled bacA do=n# it =ill go t4roug4 a reverse transformation and =ill contain no residual magnetic field. T4e material s4ould also be placed =it4 it long axis in an east-=est orientation to avoid anE influence of t4e Eart4Ws magnetic field. It is often inconvenient to 4eat a material above its curie temperature to demagneti!e it# so anot4er met4od t4at returns t4e material to a nearlE unmagneti!ed state is commonlE used. Sub$ecting t4e component to a reversing and decreasing magnetic field =ill return t4e dipoles to a nearlE random orientation t4roug4out t4e material. T4is can be accomplis4ed bE pulling a component out and a=aE from a coil =it4 ,+ passing t4roug4 it. T4e same can also be accomplis4ed using an electromagnetic EoAe =it4 ,+ selected. ,lso# manE stationarE magnetic particle inspection units come =it4 a demagneti!ation feature t4at slo=lE reduces t4e ,+ in a coil in =4ic4 t4e component is placed. , field meter is often used to verifE t4at t4e residual flux 4as been removed from a component. IndustrE standards usuallE reXuire t4at t4e magnetic flux be reduced to less t4an 3 gauss after completing a magnetic particle inspection.

So!#no%$ - ,n electricallE energi!ed coil of insulated =ire# =4ic4 produces a magnetic field =it4in t4e coil.

Measuring Magnetic Fields

@4en performing a magnetic particle inspection# it is verE important to be able to determine t4e direction and intensitE of t4e magnetic field. ,s discussed previouslE# t4e direction of t4e magnetic field s4ould be bet=een '* and /. degrees to t4e longest dimension of t4e fla= for best detectabilitE. T4e field intensitE must be 4ig4 enoug4 to cause an indication to form# but not too 4ig4 to cause nonrelevant indications to masA relevant indications. To cause an indication to form# t4e field strengt4 in t4e ob$ect must produce a flux leaAage field t4at is strong enoug4 to 4old t4e magnetic particles in place over a discontinuitE. Dlux measurement devices can provide important information about t4e field strengt4. Since it is impractical to measure t4e actual field strengt4 =it4in t4e material# all t4e devices measure t4e magnetic field t4at is outside of t4e material. T4ere are a number of different devices t4at can be used to detect and measure an external magnetic field. T4e t=o devices commonlE used in magnetic particle inspection are t4e field indicator and t4e Zall-effect meter# =4ic4 is also called a gauss meter. ie gauges and s4ims are devices t4at are often used to provide an indication of t4e field direction and strengt4 but do not actuallE Eield a Xuantitative measure. T4eE =ill be discussed in a later section. F%#!$ In$%'*to & Dield indicators are small mec4anical devices t4at utili!e a soft iron vane t4at is deflected bE a magnetic field. T4e S-raE image belo= s4o=s t4e inside =orAing of a field meter looAing in from t4e side. T4e vane is attac4ed to a needle t4at rotates and moves t4e pointer for t4e scale. Dield indicators can be ad$usted and calibrated so t4at Xuantitative information can be obtained. Zo=ever# t4e measurement range of field indicators is usuallE small due to t4e mec4anics of t4e device. T4e one s4o=n to t4e rig4t 4as a range from plus ". gauss to minus ". gauss. T4is limited range maAes t4em best suited for measuring t4e residual magnetic field after demagneti!ation. , field indicator is s4o=n c4ecAing for residual magnetism in t4is movie. %1/' (I mov&

0*!!1E..#'t 8G*"&&/T#&!*7 M#t# , Zall-effect meter is an electronic device t4at provides a digital readout of t4e magnetic field strengt4 in gauss or tesla units. T4e meters use a verE small conductor or semiconductor element at t4e tip of t4e probe. Electric current is passed t4roug4 t4e conductor. In a magnetic field# a force is exerted on t4e moving electrons =4ic4 tends to pus4 t4em to one side of t4e conductor. , buildup

of c4arge at t4e sides of t4e conductors =ill balance t4is magnetic influence# producing a measurable voltage bet=een t4e t=o sides of t4e conductor. T4e presence of t4is measurable transverse voltage is called t4e Zall-effect after Ed=in Z. Zall# =4o discovered it in 112/.

T4e voltage generated </ can be related to t4e external magnetic field bE t4e follo=ing eXuation. </ = I B R/ / 3 @4ere9 </ is t4e voltage generated. I is t4e applied direct current. B is t4e component of t4e magnetic field t4at is at a rig4t angle to t4e direct current in t4e Zall element. R/ is t4e Zall +oefficient of t4e Zall element. 3 is t4e t4icAness of t4e Zall element. robes are available =it4 eit4er tangential %transverse& or axial sensing elements. robes can be purc4ased in a =ide varietE of si!es and configurations and =it4 different measurement ranges. T4e probe is placed in t4e magnetic field suc4 t4at t4e magnetic lines of force intersect t4e ma$or dimensions of t4e sensing element at a rig4t angle. lacement and orientation of t4e probe is verE important and =ill be discussed in a later section.