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Imortana interfeei grafice pentru un sistem ERP

Authors Name/s per 1st Affiliation (Author) line 1 (of Affiliation): dept. name of organization line !name of organization" acron#ms accepta$le line %!&it#" &ountr# line '!e!mail address if desired Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) reprezint sisteme bazate pe arhitectura client/server dezvoltate pentru prelucrarea tranzaciilor i facilitatea integrrii tuturor proceselor, din faza planificrii proceselor, dezvoltrii produciei, pn la relaiile cu furnizorii, clienii sau ali parteneri de afacere. ERP este considerat( e)presia cea mai fidel( a interdependenei dintre economic i tehnologia informaional(.
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Authors Name/s per nd Affiliation (Author) line 1 (of Affiliation): dept. name of organization line !name of organization" acron#ms accepta$le line %!&it#" &ountr# line '!e!mail address if desired acti.itate de producie. Acelai studiu rele.( c( populariatea su$iectului de .a menine la aceleai cote ridicate" (n condiiile 1n care %'7 din firmele chestionate deruleaz( un proiect ERP ori sunt 1n faza incipient( a unui astfel de proiect. Proiectele ERP sunt adesea asociate cu modific(ri organizaionale importante" 1n sensul 1m$un(t(iri modulului de desf(urare a acti.it(ii" ceea ce literatura de specialitate a consacrat su$ numele 8usiness Process Reengineering (8PR)" adica Reproiectarea Proceselor Economice. ,eoarece sistemele ERP ofer( integrarea" este e.ident c( ele reprezint( mult mai mult dec5t proiecte soft9are. ,incolo de schim$(rile tehnologice" de infrastrutur(" $eneficiile importante ale sistemelor ERP deri.( tocmai din schim$(rile la ni.elul proceselor economice" ale structurii organizaionale" al rolurilor i deprinderilor mom$rilor organizaiei" ca i din acti.it(ile de management al cunotinelor. Produc(torilor soluiilor sunt de c5i.a ani 1ntr!un proces de cercetare i adoptare 1n soluiile proprii a platformelor e!$usiness. :ai e)act" din 1///" clasicele ERP!uri au 1m$r(cat o hain( nou(" fiind rescrise i transformate esenial" pentru a cuprinde toate a.anta2ele Internet i" implicit" pentru a furniza noi funcionalit(i pe Internet" 1n 000" au fost lansate suite e!$usiness ERP.
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IN*R+,-&ERE

Pachetele Enterprise Resource Planning au de.enit inanii 1//0 o prezent( o$inuit( 1n mariile corporaii i 1n companiile multinaionale. A doua 2um(tate a ultimului deceniu din secolul 33 a 1nsemnat deschiderea lor i pentru segmentul 1nterprinderilor medii i mici. Iniiati.a generliz(rii lor a determinat amplificarea popularit(ii i a discuiilor din literatura de specialitate" iar primii ani din secolul 33I confirm( importana acestui fenomen. 4istemele ERP sunt pachete de aplicaii formate din mai multe module care spri2in( toate ariile funcionale: planificare" producie" .5nzare" mar6eting" distri$uie" conta$ilitate" financiar" resurse umane" gestiunea proiectelor" stocuri" ser.ice i 1ntreinere" logistic( i e! $usiness. Arhitectura sistemului faciliteaz( integrarea transparent( a modulelor" asigur5nd flu)ul informaiilor 1n toate funciunile 1ntreprinderii 1ntr!o manier( e)trem de transparent(. Alegerea sistemului ERP potri.it permite $eneficiarului s( implementeze un sistem integrat unic" prin inlocuirea sau reproiectarea sistemelor functionale e)istente. -n stiudiu al pieei ERP indic( un procent de 07 pentru organizaiile care au de2a instalate suite integrate" 1n toate ramurile de ati.itate" predominante fiind cele cu

&-: ;-N&I+NEA<= -N 4I4*E: ERP

ERP const( din module sofr9are care acoper( toate ariile funcionale" structurate ca de e)emplu: mar6eting i .5nz(ri" ser.ice" proiectare i dez.oltare de produs" producie i controlul stocurilor" apro.izionare" distri$uite" resurse umane" finane i conta$ilitate" ser.icii informatice. Integrarea acestor module este realizat( far( duplicarea informaiilor" cu a2utorul noilor tehnologii de $aze de date i al reelelor de calculatoare.

atele reprezint( fundaia unui sistem ERP. 8aza de date reprezint( un depozit central pentru stocarea i organizarea datelor. +ferta de $aze de date comerciale este restr5ns( 1n comparaie cu oferta suitelor ERP: sunt 0 de platforme de $aze de date la sute de aplicaii de tip ERP. Puini sunt furnizori ERP care a a.ut succes 1n dez.oltarea propriilor platforme dez.oltate de firme specializate" de2a testate i cunoscute pe pia(. Programele realizeaz( leg(tura 1ntre $azele de date i funcionalit(ile deser.ite. Astfel spus" funcionalitatea este atins( prin interaciunea dintre programe si $aza de date. Programele asigur( culegerea datelor" .alidarea" prelucrarea i treansferul lor" ca i e)portul datelor c(tre alte medii.

devenit posibil odat cu generalizarea interfeelor grafice i se com$in( cu programarea .izual( i cea diri2at( de e.enimente" n acest mod a fost mbuntit flexibilitatea aplicaiilor" nu numai pentru ieiri ci i pentru intr(ri i prelucr(ri de date: acelai program poate fi operat 1n mod diferit de c(tre utilizatori diferii. >n ceea ce pri.ete rapoartele" pe l5ng( posi$ilitatea de parametrizare a acestora" sistemele ERP au un generator de rapoarte" cu a2utorul c(reia pot fi construite noi rapoarte" ce nu au fost pre.(zute 1n cerinele iniiale. &el mai des 1nt5lnit este formatul ta$elar (E)cel" ?otus 1! !%" etc.)" care poate fi sal.at i e)ploatat mai apoi cu a2utorul spreadsheet!ului (pentru analize compe)e asupra datelor" calcule similare" grafice). Aceast( opiune de e)port este deose$it de important( 1n sporirea funcionalit(ii de ansam$lu a sistemelor ERP" deoarece elimin( cererile de modificare ulterioar( a aplicaiilor din partea $eneficiarilor. ,ac( 1n primele sisteme ERP" nu era posi$il( configurarea documentelor de ieire 1n form( dorit(" sistemele actuale ofer( di.erse soluii pentru o$inerea ieirilor 1n formatul dorit. 4unt utilizate instrumente de proiectare third!part# pentru fle)i$ilitate 1n definirea ieirilor. Majoritatea ofer faciliti grafice" pentru utilizarea 1nsemnelor firmei (logo/antet specific). ;inall#" complete content and organizational editing $efore formatting. Please ta6e note of the follo9ing items 9hen proofreading spelling and grammar:
A. Abbreviations and Acron ms

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!"P#R$%"% &R%'!(% % )")! *!*$E+ ERP

Pentru a o$ine informaiile cerute" programele preiau date di $azele de date prin alte programe" dar i din alte surse. Astfel" datele pot fi introduse de operatori" de la tastatur( ori prin preluare direct( ( de e)emplu: scanarea codurilor $ar(). !nterfeele grafice devin tot mai importante " o data cu dez.olt(rile tehnologice" deoarece asugur( comunicarea mai uoar( 1ntre diferite medii. Prin interfee adecvate" programele pot prelua date i din alte surse: Internet" E,I (Electronic ,ata Interchange)" echipamentele de producie" alte programe de aplicaii. Rezultatele prelucr(rii sunt oferite utilizatorilor su$ form( de rapoarte" fie afiate pe ecranul monitorului (displa#!uri)" fie tip(rite la imprimant(" dar i su$ form( de fiiere" care pot fi e)portate i prelucrate cu a2utorul altor medii de lucru. Prima modalitate de furnizare a rezultatelor" pe ecran" are a.anta2ul interacti.it(ii: actualele sisteme ERP au do$5ndit tot mai mult( fle)i$ilitate. Informaiile afiate pe ecran sunt diferite 1n funie de tipul de utilizator care le solicit( i pot fi chiar personalizate pentru fiecare utilizator 1n parte. Astfel" dup( delimitarea c5mpurilor de date solicitate" pot fi operate selecii asupra acestora" sunt posi$ile sort(ri dup( criterii diferite i pot fi sta$ilite ni.eluri de sumarizare (totaluri sau alte calcule). Pe de alt( parte" afiarea difereniat( a informaiilor pe categorii de utilizatori este un aspect impus de politica de securitate a datelor 1n cadrul organizaiei" 1n sistemele ERP de ultim( generaie sunt incluse formulare care afieaz( informaiile 1ntr!o interfa grafic cu un mod simplu i intuitiv de operare. ,in punct de .edere tehnic" este .or$a 1n primul r(nd este .or$a de programarea soft" care a 1nlocuit programarea hard. Aceasta permitea scrierea de programe fi)e ca i funcionalitate" 1n care opiunile sunt limitate la cele a.ute 1n .edere iniial. Programarea soft a

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A. Eason" 8. No$le" and I.N. 4neddon" B+n certain integrals of ?ipschitz!Gan6el t#pe in.ol.ing products of 8essel functions"D Phil. *rans. Ro#. 4oc. ?ondon" .ol. A 'Q" pp. C /!CC1" April 1/CC. (references) Y. &ler6 :a)9ell" A *reatise on Electricit# and :agnetism" %rd ed." .ol. . +)ford: &larendon" 1T/ " pp.XT!Q%.

I.4. Yaco$s and &.P. 8ean" B;ine particles" thin films and e)change anisotrop#"D in :agnetism" .ol. III" A.*. Rado and G. 4uhl" Eds. Ne9 Hor6: Academic" 1/X%" pp. Q1!%C0. @. Elissa" B*itle of paper if 6no9n"D unpu$lished. R. Nicole" B*itle of paper 9ith onl# first 9ord capitalized"D Y. Name 4tand. A$$re.." in press. H. Horozu" :. Girano" @. +6a" and H. *aga9a" BElectron spectroscop# studies on magneto!optical media and plastic su$strate interface"D IEEE *ransl. Y. :agn. Yapan" .ol. " pp. Q'0!Q'1" August 1/TQ P,igests /th Annual &onf. :agnetics Yapan" p. %01" 1/T R.
:. Houng" *he *echnical FriterVs Gand$oo6. :ill Salle#" &A: -ni.ersit# 4cience" 1/T/.

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