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TIMPURILE VERBELOR IN ENGLEZA

Pentru verbul in engleza timpurile difera fundamental fata de cele ale limbii romane.
De aceea nu trebuie cautate in permanenta echivalente exacte intre cele doua limbi.
Asa cum ne asteptam exista 3 timpuri de desfasurare a unei actiuni:
prezent(present),
trecut(past)
si
viitor(future).
Verbul la aceste timpuri il voi numi deocamdata simplu. Mai jos se observa ca la
randul lor aceste timpuri ale verbului in engleza (tenses) pot fi: propriu-zise sau
propriu-zis
perfecte.
Dar si timpurile propriu-zise si propriu-zis perfecte pot fi propriu-zise sau continui.
Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza anume: simplu, simplu
continuu, simplu perfect, simplu perfect continuu

Simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in


timp.

Continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent,


trecut sau viitor care in momentul acela se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune.
Simplu Perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment
dat prezent, trecut sau viitor
Continuu Perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat
prezent, trecut sau viitor si continuind sau nu in acel moment

In limba engleza nu exista conjugari ca in limbile latine (romana, franceza etc)


Verbul
in
engleza
este
fie
regulat
fie
Pentru ilustrarea timpurilor in engleza vom folosi un verb regulat
Ca si in romana, verbul in engleza are 2 diateze: activa si pasiva

neregulat.

Verbul in engleza la diateza activa


Actiunea e facuta de subiect
De exemplu luam verbul to work (a munci). In engleza verbul to work e regulat: work
worked
worked
Iar
verbul
to
fall(a
cadea)
e
neregulat: fall
fell
fallen
Desi doar Alice in tara minunilor poate cadea cu verbul la un timp continuu (pentru ca
dureaza in timp), chiar si acest verb are timpuri continui pentru ca apare in diferite
expresii:
I
am
falling
in
love
My life is falling apart = Mi se duce viata de rapa

Ma

indragostesc

Diferente intre timpurile verbelor regulate si neregulate nu exista. Ceea ce se poate


observa la verbul neregulat este modul cum se folosesc cele trei cuvinte care
definesc verbul adica: fall, fell si fallen. Pentru orice alt verb neregulat cele trei parti
se inlocuiesc fiecare in parte cu cele trei parti ale verbului considerat.

To work = A munci (verb regulat)


Present Tense
I work
You work
He works
She works
We work
You work
They work
Present Continuous
I am working
You are working
He is working
She is working
We are working
You are working
They are working
Present Perfect
I have worked
You have worked
He has worked
She has worked
We have worked
You have worked
They have worked
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been working
You have been working
He has been working
She has been working
We have been working
You have been working
They have been working
Past Tense
I worked
You worked
He worked

She worked
We worked
You worked
They worked
Past Continuous
I was working
You were working
He was working
She was working
We were working
You were working
They were working
Past Perfect
I had worked
You had worked
He had worked
She had worked
We had worked
You had worked
They had worked
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been working
You had been working
He had been working
She had been working
We had been working
You had been working
They had been working
Future Tense
I will work
You will work
He will work
She will work
We will work
You will work
They will work
Future Continuous

I will be working
You will be working
He will be working
She will be working
We will be working
You will be working
They will be working
Future Perfect
I will have worked
You will have worked
He will have worked
She will have worked
We will have worked
You will have worked
They will have
worked
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been working
You will have been working
He will have been working
She will have been working
We will have been working
You will have been working
They will have been working

Conjugarea pentru verbul neregulat to fall - a cadea e la lectia 'verbe


neregulate'.
Oricum timpurile verbelor si cand se folosesc este aceeasi si la verbe regulate
si la cele neregulate.
Numai modul in care se conjuga difera.

1.1. I work - Present Tense - Timpul Present


Verbul exprima o actiune prezenta nelimitata in timp.

Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane este echivalent cu present tense din engleza

O actiune prezenta in derulare (mereu, cateodata sau niciodata)


What do you do? I work at a bank.

Cu ce te ocupi? Lucrez la o banca

She never works so late

Ea niciodata nu lucreaza atat de tarziu

Un adevar absolut, chiar daca se desfasoara si in clipa asta (vezi prezentul


continuu, timpul urmator)
The earth spins around the sun.

Pamantul se invarteste in jurul soarelui.

Se poate folosi pe post de viitor


The store closes at 9:00pm

Magazinul se inchide la 9:00pm.

Viitorul limbii romana se traduce cu Prezent Tense in limba engleza dupa: after, before, when, as soon
as, while etc daca exprima o actiune viitoare

Someday when I am big and strong.

Candva, cand voi fi mare si puternic

Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu present tense din limba
engleza

Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiunea care se desfasoara acum (in clipa
dialogului) - atunci se foloseste prezentul continuu.
I am working in the garden

Lucrez in gradina

Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te referi la clipa asta.
I work in the garden - inseamna ca asta e ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti gradinar.

Sus
1.2. I am working - Present Continuous - Prezent Continuu
Verbul arata o actiune in derulare in prezent care se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Este legat de
actiuni concrete.

Situatii in care timpul prezent al limbii romane este echivalent cu present continuous
din engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune ce se petrece in clipa asta (simultana cu momentul


in care vorbesc)
I am working on my new book.

Lucrez la noua mea carte.

Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu o alta actiune


By the time the alarm goes off I am already
working.

Cand suna ceasul eu deja lucrez (am


inceput lucrul)

Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Continuous din
engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului prezent 1.1. I work


Sus
1.3. I have worked - Present Perfect - Prezent Perfect
Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent

Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu
Present Perfect al limbii engleze
Daca actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului prezent si e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul
ei se vede in prezent

I have worked all my adult life.

Am muncit toata viata mea adulta (si inca mai lucrez).

Sau daca e insotit de un adverb (mereu, cateodata, niciodata etc) adica:


I have never worked so late
before.

Niciodata nu am mai lucrat atat de tarziu (pana


acum).

Atentie: Fata de 1.1. exista urmatoarea diferenta: I never work so late. inseamna: Nu lucrez atat de
tarziu (ca si in romana) adica refuzi ideea pentru ca nu lucrezi niciodata atat de tarziu, pe cand I never
have worked so late before inseamna ca desi nu ai mai lucrat atat de tarziu, acum lucrezi (atat de
tarziu).

Situatii in care Perfectul Compus al limbii romana NU este echivalent cu Present


Perfect din limba engleza
1. Cand se foloseste Present Perfect Continuous 1.4 I have been working
2. Cand se foloseste Past Tense 1.5 I worked

Sus
1.4. I have been working - Present Perfect Continuous - Prezent Perfect Continuu
O actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor.

Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu
Present Perfect Continuous din limba engleza
Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa in trecut, continuata in prezent, si care poate continua si in viitor

I have been working on the railroad


All live long day
I've been working on the railroad
Just to while my time away.

Am muncit la calea ferata


Cat e ziua de lunga
Am muncit la calea ferata
Ca sa mai treaca timpul

E un binecunoscut cantec englezesc. Am muncit la calea ferata toata ziua si o voi face probabil si in
viitor.

Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu
Present Perfect Continuous din engleza
Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked
Vezi cazurile timpului Past Tense 1.5. I worked

Sus
1.5. I worked - Past Tense - Timpul Trecut
Past Tense reprezinta actiunea care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat.

Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu
Past Tense din engleza
verbul reprezinta actiune trecuta ce nu a fost intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune, nu
se continua in prezent folositi Past Tense.

I worked till my hands hurt

Am muncit pana ma dureau palmele.

Asta e usor de inteles, Am muncit dar acum m-am oprit.


De asemeni acest timp se foloseste foarte mult in povestiri (de exemplu vezi poeziile de
laLiteratura)

Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu
Past Tense din engleza
Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked
Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect Continuous 1.5. I have been working

Exista situatii in care Past Tense din limba engleza nu se traduce prin Perfectul
Compus (am muncit) din limba romana. Ca exemplu vedeti binecunoscutul cantec
pentru copii de mai jos.
All around the cobbler's bench
The monkey chased the weasel
The monkey thought it was all in fun
Pop! goes the weasel

In jurul mesei cizmarului


Maimuta fugarea nevastuica
Maimuta credea ca se joaca
Bum! face nevastuica

Dupa cum vedeti verbul to chase cu past tense chased (e verb regulat la fel ca to work) se traduce
prin fugarea (Imperfect) sau fugari (considerat timpul folosit in povestiri in romaneste) iar thought(Past
Tense de la to think) se traduce tot prin Imperfect.
Atentie: Daca aveti indoieli ce timp trecut al verbului sa folositi in propozitii alegeti acest timp - Past
Tense. Va fi mai putin deranjanta greseala.

Sus
1.6. I was working - Past Continuous - Trecut Continuu

Past Continuous se refera la un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan
cu un alt eveniment.

Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past


Continuous din limba engleza
Verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de altceva (ca si "munceam" pe
romaneste)

I was working when the meteorite fell/the


phone rang/you showed up.

Munceam cand meteoritul a cazut/a sunat


telefonul/ai aparut tu.

I was walking in the park one day


In the merry, merry month of May
I was taken by surprise
By a pair of pearly eyes
In the merry, merry month of May

Ma plimbam in parc intr-o zi


In vesela, vesela luna Mai
Am fost luat prin surprindere
De niste ochi perlati
In vesela, vesela luna Mai

Atentie:in cantecul de mai sus "was walking" este past continuous dar "was taken" nu este past
continuous. I was taken inseamna "am fost luat". Daca vrei sa exprimi verbul la past continuous zici 'I
was taking'.

Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past
Continuous din engleza
Verbul exprima o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat sau anterioara unei alte actiuni
tot in trecut - atunci se foloseste Past Perfect

I had worked as a goldminer for a long time


when I finally struck it rich.

Lucram de mult timp ca miner de aur cand


in sfarsit am dat de bogatii.

Sus
1.7. I had worked - Past Perfect - Trecut Perfect
Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni
trecute.

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) din limba romana este
echivalent cu Past Perfect din engleza
Verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se
raporteaza

Emily a spus (trecut) ca lucrase in gradina (si mai vechi) in dimineata aceea
Emily said she had worked in her garden that morning.
Atentie:La fel ca in romaneste aceste timpuri nu sunt batute in cuie.
Emily a spus ca a lucrat in gradina in dimineata aceea
Emily a spus ca lucra in gradina in dimineata aceea
Emily a spus ca lucrase in gradina in dimineata aceea
Toate aceste forme sunt des folosite iar folosirea lor depinde (oarecum) de context.
Traducerea acestor propozitii:
Emily said she worked in the garden that morning
Emily said she was working in the garden that morning, respectiv
Emily said she had worked in the garden that morning, plus
Emily said she had been working in the garden that morning
se folosesc in limbajul curent depinzand si ele (oarecum) de context

Sus
1.8. I had been working - Past Perfect Continuous - Trecut Perfect Continuu
Verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprit de o alta actiune a
carui urmari continua si azi.

Situatii in care imperfectul (munceam, lucram) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past
Perfect Continuous din engleza
Verbul exprima o actiune trecuta, ce se afla inca in desfasurare, in momentul cand s-a produs o alta
actiune tot din trecut.

They had been working on the new house


before the fire destroyed it

(Ei)lucrau la casa cea noua inainte sa


fie distrusa de foc

He had been working slowly before hearing of


the new deadline.

(El)muncea incet inainte sa afle de noul


termen limita.

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) limbii romane este
echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza

They had been working on the new house for


many months before the fire destroyed it

(Ei)lucrasera luni de zile la casa cea


noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul/imperfectul din limba romana NU este echivalent
cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza
Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.6. I was working
Vezi cazurile timpului Past Continuous 1.7. I had worked

Sus
1.9. I will work - Future Tense (I am going to work) - Timpul Viitor
Verbul reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp.

Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana este echivalent cu Future
Tense din engleza
Daca verbul reprezinta o actiune in viitor si nu va fi intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta
actiune folositi Future Tense.

I will work OK?

Am sa muncesc, BINE?

Someday when I am big and strong


I will walk that road and sing a song
I will sing of roads so green and wide
That turn and bend from side to side
I will sing of roads that turn and bend
That go from town to rainbow's end

Intr-o zi cand voi fi mare si puternic


Voi merge pe acel drum si voi canta un cantec
Voi canta despre drumuri verzi si late
Care se indoaie si serpuiesc dintr-o parte in alta
Voi canta despre drumuri serpuitoare
Care merg din oras pana la capatul curcubeului

Atentie: vezi (1.1 I work) pentru primul vers din poezia de mai sus

Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu
Future Tense din engleza

Cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor - atunci se foloseste Future
Continuous 1.10. I will be working
I will be working in Paris next year

Voi lucra la Paris la anul

Sus
1.10. I will be working - Future Conntinuous - Viitor Continuu
Verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor

She will be coming round the mountain when she


comes

Cand vine, (ea) va veni in jurul


muntelui

Sus
1.11. I will have worked - Future Perfect - Viitor Perfect

I will have worked for 20 years next month. Luna viitoare eu o sa fi lucrat de 20 de
ani. (alt timp clar)
Echivalentul lui "voi fi lucrat"
Sus
1.12. I will have been working - Future Perfect Continuous - Viitor Perfect Continuu
Acest timp nu prea se foloseste, pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lunga de timp decat 1.11 Future
Continuous
Se traduce tot prin "voi fi lucrat", si ca toate formele de timpuri continue implica o actiune in derulare

By 2010 he will have been working for 40 years

In 2010 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani

Sus

Verbul in engleza la diateza pasiva


Actiunea e suportata de subiect
De exemplu verbul to wash - a spala (alt verb regulat: wash - washed - washed)
2.1 The laundry is washed weekly - Rufele sunt spalate saptamanal.
Dar: I wash the laundry weekly - Eu spal rufele saptamanal
2.2 I am washing laundry now - The laundry is being washed now.
2.3 I have washed the laundry - The laundry has been washed.
2.4 I have been washing the laundry - The laundry has been washed.
2.5 I washed the laundry yesterday - The laundry was washed yesterday.
2.6 I was washing the laundry - The laundry was being washed
2.7 I had washed the laundry- The laundry had been washed

2.8 I had been washing the laundry - The laundry had been washed
2.9 I will wash the laundry- The laundry will be washed.
2.10 I will be washing the laundry - The laundry will be washed.
2.11 I will have washed the laundry - The laundry will have been washed
2.12 I will have been washing the laundry - The laundry will have been washed

MODUL CONDITIONAL

Conditionalul prezent continuu


I, you...would be flying.
They are flying a kite - Ei inalta un zmeu prezent continuu.
They would be flying a kite if there was wind - Ei ar inalta un zmeu daca ar avea
vant conditionalul la prezent continuu.

Conditionalul prezent continuu inlocuieste conditionalul prezent in aceleasi cazuri in care


prezentul continuu inlocuieste prezentul.
If he were here, he would be answering your questions, as we speak - Daca era aici, v-ar fi
raspuns la intrebari chiar acum (in timpul acesta in care va vorbesc). iar la prezent Because
he is here he is answeing questions, right now - Pentru ca e aici, el raspunde chiar acum la
intrebari

Si Conditionalul Prezent Continuu ca si consditionalul prezent ramane neschimbat la toate


persoanele.
I would be flying
You would be flying
He would be flying
She would be flying
We would be flying
You would be flying
They would be flying

Conditionalul Prezent Continuu nu are forma pasiva.

Conditionalul Trecut e de forma:

I would have asked - Eu as fi intrebat


sau
I should have asked - Ar fi trebuit sa intreb

Conjugarea Conditionalului trecut e neschimbata la toate persoanele


In cazul verbelor neregulate se foloseste forma a treia
I would have asked
You would have asked
He would have asked
She would have asked
We would have asked
You would have asked
They would have asked

Diateza pasiva - Conditionalul Trecut


Ca si pana acum nici aceasta forma nu se schimba in functie de persoana (You, he, she etc)
I would have been asked by my teacher - As fi fost intrebat de profesoara mea.

Conditionalul trecut continuu


I, you...would have been flying.

They were flying a kite - Ei inaltau un zmeu - trecut continuu.


They would have been flying a kite if there had been wind - Ei ar fi inaltat un zmeu daca ar fi
avut vant -conditionalul la trecut continuu.

Conditionalul trecut continuu inlocuieste conditionalul trecut in aceleasi cazuri in care


trecutul continuu inlocuieste trecutul.
He would have been doing jail time if the law hadn't changed - Ar fi facut puscarie daca nu sar fi schimbat legea.

Conditionalul trecut continuu ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele


I would have been flying
You would have been flying
He would have been flying
She would have been flying
We would have been flying
You would have been flying
They would have been flying

Conditionalul Trecut Continuu nu are forma pasiva.

Propozitiile care contin conditionale contin deasemeni de multe ori prin natura lor conjunctia
daca.
Aceste propozitii au forma:
Daca A atunci B - If A then B
Daca A, B - If A, B
B daca A - B if A.

Aceste propozitii care contin o conditie se numesc conditionale.


In engleza, ele au anumite reguli pentru timpurile verbelor din cadrul lor.
Ele se numesc If Clauses
If I go to school then I will learn a lot - Daca ma duc la scoala atunci voi invata multe
sau
If I go to school, I will learn a lot
sau
I will learn a lot if I go to school - Voi invata multe daca ma duc la scoala).

If Clauses - Regula nr1


Daca B e la viitor dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune prezentul
If you let me in, I will give you a package - Daca ma lasi sa intru iti dau un pachet
sau
I will give you a package if you let me in - Iti dau un pachet daca ma lasi sa intru

If Clauses - Regula nr2


Daca B contine connditionalul prezent dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune past tense
If I met her I would tell her - Daca as intalni-o, i-as spune
I would tell her, if I met her - I-as spune, daca as intalni-o

Exceptie - Regula nr2


Verbul to be la toate persoanele devine were
If I were happy I would clap my hands - Daca as fi fericit as bate din palme

If Clauses - Regula nr3


Daca B contine connditionalul trecut dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune past perfect

If I had gone by ship I would have been shipwrecked too - Daca ma duceam cu vaporul as fi
fost si eu naufragiat.

Pentru aceste reguli valabile pentru IF clauses trebuie sa verificam ca fraza contine un if
clause adica contine daca...atunci - if...then.
Regulile se aplica numai atunci cand.daca introduce o propozitie conditionala.
Asa cum am vazut then poate sa lipseasca din propozitie dar existenta lui then trebuie sa se
subinteleaga, chiar daca nu exista in fraza.
I don't know if he will come - Nu stiu daca el va veni
Aceasta propozitie nu este echivalenta cu: Daca el va veni atunci nu stiu.
Deci nu este un if clause.

SUBJONCTIVUL

Modul subjonctiv (sau conjunctiv) exista si in engleza si in romana:


In engleza moderna modul subjonctiv nu este folosit mult.
Exemple de subjonctiv in romana:
Sa fiu eu acolo, acest lucru nu s-ar intampla - If I were there this would not happen
Sa fi fost eu acolo, acest lucru nu s-ar fi intamplat. - Had I been there this would not have
happened
Sa fiu este subjonctivul prezent al lui a fi.
Sa fi fost este subjonctivul trecut al lui a fi.

In engleza:
Subjonctivul prezent cere that in propozitia secundara.
Subjonctivul prezent in engleza pune la toate persoanele verbul la infinitiv.
It is required that he pass the exam - Se cere ca el sa ia examenul
si
It was required that he pass the exam - Se cerea ca el sa ia examenul
desi prezentul este: he passes the exam

Zicem insa
Everyone knows that he passes exams Toata lumea stie ca el ia examenele
Deci he passes si nu he pass deoarece dupa cum vom vedea aceasta propozitie in engleza
(sau romana) nu cere subjonctivul.

Subjonctivul in englezeste exprima dorinte sau cerinte prezente sau trecute.


I want that you come at 6 o'clock - Vreau ca tu sa vii la 6.
I would like that you come at 6 o'clock. - Mi-ar placea ca tu sa vii la ora sase.
Mult mai normal era insa
I would like you to come at six o'clock (Mi-ar placea tu a veni la 6.)

Subjonctivul trecut nu se deosebeste ca forma de past tense in majoritatea cazurilor, insa


el exprima prezentul.
El foloseste fie if - daca fie to wish.
Folosirea acestui subjonctiv urmeaza regula nr2 din if clause
If I owned a car, I would leave tommorow.- Sa am o masina as pleca maine.(Daca dorim sa
pastram subjonctivul in romana)
pe romaneste insa se zice mai mult
Daca as avea o masina as pleca maine.

Subjonctivul trecut urmeaza si exceptia regulii nr2 din if clause


If I were a singer I would sing all day - Daca as fi cantaret as canta toata ziua.
in ziua de azi insa veti auzi de multe ori:
If I was a singer - Daca as fi cantaret

Un alt caz pentru subjonctivul trecut este atunci cand se foloseste verbul to wish - a dori in
principala
I wish you were here - As vrea sa fii aici
I wish he were here - As vrea sa fie aici
dar se spune si
I wish he was here - As vrea sa fie aici
I wish I was a millionaire - As vrea sa fiu milionar.

Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfectexprima cu adevarat un timp trecut (spre deosebire de


subjonctivul trecut care am vazut ca exprima un eveniment prezent)
. Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect foloseste Mai mult ca perfectul(Past Perfect).
Sa ma fi dus ieri, cumparam bilete la spectacol. - If I had gone yesteday, I would've bought
tickets to the show

Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect se poate exprima si omitand if si inversand locul


pronumelui (subiectului) cu verbul auxiliar had
Sa ma fi dus ieri, cumparam bilete la spectacol. - Had I gone yesteday, I would've bought
tickets to the show
Had Farmer Jones known, he would've harvested sooner. - Sa fi stiut Fermierul Jones, ar fi
recoltat mai devreme.

Subjonctivul viitor se formeza astfel:


If I were to pass the exam I would be ecstatic - Sa trec examenul as fi in culmea fericirii.

In englezeste am vazut ca subjonctivul se foloseste daca verbul din principala exprima o


dorinta sau o cerere.
Insa constructia cu conjunctia that intre propozitii apare in multe alte situatii
In aceste situatii regulile pentru subjonctiv nu sunt valabile
Subjonctiv
I wish (that) he pass the class - Imi doresc ca el sa treaca clasa
I wish (that) he were more determined - Mi-as dori sa fie mai hotarat
Nu contine subjonctiv
I see (that) he studies nowadays - Vad ca el studiaza zilele astea
I think (that) in the past he was lazy - Cred ca in trecut era lenes

DIATEZA PASIVA

Toate timpurile invatate se refera la Diateza Activa, subiectul propozitiei efectueaza


actiunea.
I am eating a boa constrictor - Eu mananc un sarpe boa

In Diateza Pasiva actiunea se face asupra subiectului


I am being eaten by a boa constrictor. - Eu sunt mancat de un sarpe boa
The clothes have been rinsed in the washing machine - Hainele au fost clatite in masina de
spalat

Diateza Pasiva - Present Tense


I lift crates - Eu ridic lazi.
The crates are lifted by me - Lazile sunt ridicate de mine
I am lifed - Eu sunt ridicat
You are lifted - Tu esti ridicat
He is lifted - El este ridicat
She is lifted - Ea este ridicata

We are lifted - Noi suntem ridicati


You are lifted - Voi sunteti ridicati
They are lifted - Ei, Ele sunt ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Present Continuous I am lifting crates - The creates are being lifted by
me
I am being lifed
You are being lifted
He is being lifted
She is being lifted
We are being lifted
You are being lifted
They are being lifted

Diateza Pasiva - Past Tense I lifted crates - Eu am ridicat lazi.


The crates were lifted by me - Lazile au fost ridicate de mine
I was lifted - Eu am fost ridicat
You were lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat
He was lifted - El a fost ridicat
She was lifted - Ea a fost ridicata
We were lifted - Noi am fost ridicati
You were lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati
They were lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Present Perfect


I have lifted crates - The creates have been lifted by me

I have been lifted - Eu am fost ridicat


You have been lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat
He has been lifted - El a fost ridicat
She has been lifted - Ea a fost ridicata
We have been lifted - Noi am fost ridicati

You have been lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati


They have been lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Past Continuous


I was lifting crates - Eu ridicam lazi.
The crates were being lifted by me - Lazile erau ridicate de mine
I was being lifted - Eu eram ridicat
You were being lifted - Tu erai ridicat
He was being lifted - El era ridicat
She was being lifted - Ea era ridicata
We were being lifted - Noi eram ridicati
You were being lifted - Voi erati ridicati
They were being lifted - Ei, Ele erau ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Past Perfect


I had lifted crates - Eu ridicasem lazi.
The crates had been lifted by me - Lazile fusesera ridicate de mine
I had been lifted - Eu fusesem ridicat
You had been lifted - Tu fusesesi ridicat
He had been lifted - El fusesese ridicat
She had been lifted - Ea fusesese ridicata
We had been lifted - Noi fuseseram ridicati
You had been lifted - Voi fuseserati ridicati
They had been lifted - Ei, Ele fusesera ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Future Tense


I will lift crates - Eu voi ridica lazi.
The creates will be lifted by me - Lazile vor fi ridicate de mine
I will be lifted - Eu voi fi ridicat
You will be lifted - Tu vei fi ridicat
He will be lifted - El va fi ridicat
She will be lifted - Ea va fi ridicata

We will be lifted - Noi vom fi ridicati


You will be lifted - Voi veti fi ridicati
They will be lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Future Continuous


I will be lifting crates - The creates will be being lifted by me
Acest timp e prea complicat. Nu se foloseste

Diateza Pasiva - Future Perfect


I will have lifted crates - Eu voi fi ridicat lazi.
The creates will have been lifted by me - Lazile vor fi fost ridicate de mine
I will have been lifted - Eu voi fi fost ridicat
You will have been lifted - Tu vei fi fost ridicat
He will have been lifted - El va fi fost ridicat
She will have been lifted - Ea va fi fost ridicata
We will have been lifted - Noi vom fi fost ridicati
You will have been lifted - Voi veti fi fost ridicati
They will have been lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi fost ridicati

Diateza Pasiva - Perfect Continuous Tenses


I have been lifting crates
I had been lifting crates
I will have been lifting crates

Aceste timpuri devin foarte complicate la diateza pasiva, asa ca nu se folosesc.

Modul conditional exista si in engleza si in romana:

I would fly if I had wings. - As zbura daca as avea aripi.


As zbura (I would fly) e conditionalul prezent
As zbura - I would fly e conditionalul prezent

Conditionalul Prezent ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele:


I would fly - Eu as zbura
You would fly - Tu ai zbura
He would fly - El ar zbura
She would fly - Ea ar zbura
We would fly - Noi am zbura
You would fly - Voi ati zbura
They would fly - Ei, Ele ar zbura

I shall do this are la conditional echivalentul I should do this


iar
I will do this are la conditional echivalentul I would do this
would si should nu inseamna acelasi lucru:
shall implica o promisiune - should inseamna ar trebui
I would inseamna as vrea
Tom: I shall win the race! - Voi castiga cursa!
Bill: You should!- Ar trebui (ar fi cazul)
Tom: I will call you!- Am sa va sun!
Bill I know you would (like to call us), but... - Stiu ca ai vrea sa ne suni, dar...

La diateza pasiva ca si la diateza activa conditionalul nu se schimba in functie de persona


(You, he, she etc)

I would be asked by my teacher - As fi intrebat de profesoara.

VERBE NEREGULATE

Engleza este o limba foarte bine structurata care are niste reguli clare in multe
aspecte.
Structura

conjugarii

in

engleza

respecta

urmatoarea

regula:

Orice verb are 3 forme (to wash - washed - washed = a spala). Forma 1 este
totdeauna

infinitivul,

si

la

verbele

regulate

si

la

cele

neregulate.

Pentru verbele regulate formele 2 si 3 se obtin usor din forma 1 prin adaugarea unui
-ed.
Pentru verbele neregulate formele 2 si 3 pot fi foarte diferite de forma 1 si trebuiesc
invatate. Mai jos ca exemplu este verbul to fall - a cadea. Este verb neregulat.
Forma

1: fall

Forma

2: fell

Forma

3: fallen

Cele trei forme ale verbului neregulat le veti gasi scrise in carti asa: forma1 - forma2 forma3.
Mai jos vedeti conjugarea acestui verb la toate timpurile:

To Fall = A Cadea
Present
Tense
I fall
You fall
He falls
She falls
We fall
You fall

They fall
Present
Continuous
I am falling
You are falling
He is falling
She is falling
We are falling
You are falling
They are falling
Present Perfect
I have fallen
You have fallen
He has fallen
She has fallen
We have fallen
You have fallen
They have fallen
Present Perfect
Continuous
I have been falling
You have been falling
He has been falling
She has been falling
We have been falling
You have been falling

They have been falling


Past Tense
I fell
You fell
He fell
She fell
We fell
You fell
They fell
Past Continuous
I was falling
You were falling
He was falling
She was falling
We were falling
You were falling
They were falling
Past Perfect
I had fallen
You had fallen
He had fallen
She had fallen
We had fallen
You had fallen
They had fallen

Past Perfect
Continuous
I had been falling
You had been falling
He had been falling
She had been falling
We had been falling
You had been falling
They had been falling
Future Tense
I will fall
You will fall
He will fall
She will fall
We will fall
You will fall
They will fall
Future
Continuous
I will be falling
You will be falling
He will be falling
She will be falling
We will be falling
You will be falling
They will be falling

Future Perfect
I will have fallen
You will have fallen
He will have fallen
She will have fallen
We will have fallen
You will have fallen
They will have
fallen
Future Perfect
Continuous
I will have been falling
You will have been falling
He will have been falling
She will have been falling
We will have been falling
You will have been falling
They will have been
falling

Structura de conjugare a oricarui verb regulat sau neregulat este urmatoarea:


Notand:
Forma1 - x1; Forma2 - x2; Forma 3 - x3;
Avem:
Present
Tense
I x1

You x1
He x1+ 's'
She x1 + 's'
We x1
You x1
They x1
Present
Continuous
I am x1 + ing
You are x1 + ing
He is x1 + ing
She is x1 + ing
We are x1 + ing
You are x1 + ing
They are x1 + ing
Present Perfect
I have x3
You have x3
He has x3
She has x3
We have x3
You have x3
They have x3
Present Perfect
Continuous

I have been x1 + ing


You have been x1 + ing
He has been x1 + ing
She has been x1 + ing
We have been x1 + ing
You have been x1 + ing
They have been x1 + ing
Past Tense
I x2
You x2
He x2
She x2
We x2
You x2
They x2
Past Continuous
I was x1 + ing
You were x1 + ing
He was x1 + ing
She was x1 + ing
We were x1 + ing
You were x1 + ing
They were x1 +
ing
Past Perfect
I had x3

You had x3
He had x3
She had x3
We had x3
You had x3
They had x3
Past Perfect
Continuous
I had been x1 + ing
You had been x1 + ing
He had been x1 + ing
She had been x1 + ing
We had been x1 + ing
You had been x1 + ing
They had been x1 + ing
Future Tense
I will x1
You will x1
He will x1
She will x1
We will x1
You will x1
They will x1
Future
Continuous

I will be x1 + ing
You will be x1 +
ing
He will be x1 + ing
She will be x1 +
ing
We will be x1 + ing
You will be x1 +
ing
They will be x1 +
ing
Future Perfect
I will have x3
You will have x3
He will have x3
She will have x3
We will have x3
You will have x3
They will have x3
Future Perfect
Continuous
I will have been x1 + ing
You will have been x1 +
ing
He will have been x1 +
ing
She will have been x1 +
ing
We will have been x1 +

ing
You will have been x1 +
ing
They will have been x1 +
ing

Aceasta sintetizare poate fi usor verificata pe verbul neregulat 'to fall' de mai sus.
Ea poate fi verificata si pe verbul regulat 'to work' de la lectia 'timpurile verbelor'.
Modelul e valabil pentru orice verb

IMPERATIVUL IN ENGLEZA
Melc,
Scoate
Si
Si

melc
coane
du

te
bea

codobelc
bouresti
balta
calda

la
apa

Acestea
sunt
exemple
in
romaneste
de
verbe
Ii spui melcului ce sa faca: scoate coarne, du-te la balta, bea apa.

la

imperativ.

Urmatoarele doua versuri ilustreaza folosirea imperativului in limba engleza


Jack be nimble, Jack be quick
Jack jump over the candlestick

Jack fii sprinten, Jack fii iute


Jack, sari peste sfesnic!

Timpul verbului

Romaneste

Englezeste

Prezent persoana a 3-a

Jack sare peste sfesnic

Jack jumps over the candlestick

Prezent persoana a 2-a

Tu sari peste sfesnic

You jump over the candlestick

Imperativ

Jack, sari peste sfesnic!

Jack, jump over the candlestick!

Imperativ

Sari peste sfesnic!

Jump over the candlestick!

Deci concluzia este ca in ambele limbi imperativul se formeaza folosind verbul la


persoana a 2-a (tu, you) in locul persoanei a 3-a (el, ea - he, she)
Alte exemple pentru imperativul in engleza
Oh, beat the drums slowly and play the
pipes
lowly
Play the death march as you take
me along
Take me to the valley there lay the sun
only
I'm a young cowboy and I know I've done
wrong
1,
Buckle
my
3,
Lock
the
5,
Pick
up
7,
Lay
them
9,
A big fat hen

2
shoe!
4
door!
6
sticks
8
straight
10

O, bateti tobele incet si cantati in surdina


din
fluier
Cantati marsul mortii in timp ce ma duceti
Duceti-ma in valea unde numai soarele
apune
Sunt un tanar cowboy si stiu ca am gresit

1,
Incheie-mi
catarama
3,
Incuie
5,
Aduna
7,
Pune-le
9,
O gaina mare si grasa

la

2
pantof!
4
usa!
6
bete!
8
drept!
10

Exemple cunoscute de propozitii/fraze in limba engleza care folosesc imperativul

Don't
worry
be
happy!
(cantec)
Nu
fii
ingrijorat,
fii
fericit!
Have a break have a KitKAT (reclama ciocolatelelor KitKAT) - Ia-ti o pauza, ia-ti un
KitKat
Yankee
go
home!
Yankeule
(americanule),
du-te
acasa!
Don't cry for me Argentina! (cantec) - Nu plange dupa mine Argentina!
Let it be! (cantec) - Ia viata usor!
Proverbe in limba engleza care folosesc imperativul

Don't cry over spilt milk - Nu plange dupa laptele varsat (adica nu plange dupa ceva
ireparabil).
Don't look a gift horse in the mouth - Calul de dar nu se cauta la dinti (nu e imperativ
decat
in
engleza).
Let sleeping dogs lie! - Lasa cainii care dorm in pace!(nu-ti crea probleme daca nu e
nevoie).
Expresii in limba engleza care folosesc imperativul

Go
for
it!
Incearca!
Mind
your
own
business
Vezi-ti
de
treaba
Keep your fingers crossed! - Tine-ti degetele incrucisate! (pentru noroc)
Forgive
me!
Iarta-ma!
Help
me!
Ajuta-ma!
Leave
me
alone!
Lasa-ma
in
pace!
Don't
push
me!
Nu
ma
forta!
(ca
ai
sa
regreti)
Take
it
easy!
Ia-o
usor!
Watch out! - Fereste!

IMPERATIVUL IN ENGLEZA (CONT)

Imperativul in limba engleza


Acest timp se foloseste in comenzi, sugestii, instructiuni, invitatii.
Daca nu e insotitt de Please - te rog ca si in romana de multe ori e nepoliicos
Subiectul imperativului e subinteles, si se foloseste rar.
Cand persoana e specificata prin nume, acesta se pune sau la inceputul sau (de preferinta)
la sfarsitul propozitiei.
Nepoliticos:
Shut up! Taci din gura!
Get out! - Iesi afara!
Politicos!
Please be quiet!
Please, leave! - Te rog pleaca!
Se zice:
Come on! - Haide!
Andrew! Come on! - Andrew!Hide!
Come on, Andrew! - Haide, Andrew

Cazurile de imperativ din engleza sunt asemenea limbii romane, anume se foloseste
persoana a 2a la toate verbele in afara lui to be
In cazul verbului to be - a fi la imperativ< se pastreaza forma de infinitiv.
Andrew merge. - Andrew walks. (pers.a 3a)
Andrew, mergi! - Andrew walk!(pers.a 2a)
dar
Andrew este atent. - Andrew is careful.
Andrew fii atent! - Andrew be careful!
Observatie:
Be careful! inseamna Fii atent la ce faci. Fii atent! la lectie se zice Pay attention!

Alta construcitie a imperativului des intalnita, este folosind verbul to let - a lasa
Pentru orice verb care accepta o asemenea constructie Let'ssau Let us inseamna Hai sa
Open the door and let me come in! - Deschide usa si lasa-ma sa intru!
Let me in! - lasa-ma sa intru!
Let me go! - Da-mi drumul!
Let us pray - Sa ne rugam
Let's play! - Hai sa ne jucam
Let's eat! - Hai sa mancam
Let's dance! - Hai sa dansam!
Ok, let's! - Bine, hai!

Cateodata se pune Do in fata infinitivului pentru a il face mai politicos.


Cand punem Do nu mai punem Please - Te rog
Do nu se foloseste decat in contexte deja politicoase.
Daca se spune cuiva: Sweep the floor! atunci e mai bine sa se foloseasca Please! - Please,
sweep the floor!

Do, come in! - Intrati!


Do, be quiet - Te rog liniste!
Do, sit down - Te rog, ia loc!
Do, come see me!- Te rog, mai treci pe la mine!

Alte exemple de imperativ:


Take the first turn right. - Ia-o pe prima la dreapta.
Hurry up!- Grabeste-te!
Watch out! - Pazea!
Watch it! - Vezi cum vorbesti!
Have a good time! - Distractie placuta!
Have fun! - Distractie placuta
Sleep well! - Dormi bine (Somn usor)
Brace yourself - Imbarbateaza-te!
Get a grip - Aduna-te!
Hang in there! - Rezista!

FORMA NEGATIVA A VERBELOR

Negativul verbului to be la present tense se formeaza astfel:

I am not - Nu sunt
You are not - Nu esti
He is not - El nu e
She is not - Ea nu e!
We are not - Nu suntem
You are not - Nu sunteti
They are not - Nu sunt

Negativul verbului to be la past tense se formeaza astfel:

I was not - Nu eram


You were not - Nu erai
He was not - El nu era
She was not - Ea nu era
We were not - Nu eram
You were not - Nu erati
They were not - Nu erau

Negativul unui verb care nu e la un timp compus Acesta se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului
auxiliar to do:
Nu lucrez noaptea - I do not work at night
Nu stiu unde e - I do not know where it is
Nu m-a intrebat pe mine - He did not ask me.

Daca timpul este compus se foloseste numai not


Nu lucrez acum - I am not working now
I will not work tommorow - Nu voi lucra maine
I haven't been working for weeks - Nu am nai lucrat de saptamani.
I have not been to Australia - Nu am fost in Australia

Atunci cand folosim Past Tense care nu e un timp compus si deci negatia contine do, do se
pune la trecut nu verbul.
Deasemenea do la prezent devine does la persoana a 3a singular
I did not wash my hands - Nu m-am spalat pe maini.
He does not know me - Nu ma cunoaste
We did not see him there - Nu l-am vazut acolo.

Do not se contracta in don't. Did not in didn't


I do not smoke - Nu fumez
She does not teach anymore - Ea nu mai preda
We do not do that - Nu facem asta
devin
I don't smoke

She doesn't teach anymore


We don't do that

Present Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I do not wash - I don't wash
You do not wash - You don't wash
He does not wash - He doesn't wash
She do not wash - She doesn't wash
We do not wash - We don't wash
You do not wash - You don't wash
They do not wash - They don't wash

Present Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I am not washing - I'm not washing
You are not washing - You're not washing
He is not washing - He's not washing
She's not washing - She's not washing
We are not washing - We're not washing
You are not washing - You aren't washing
They are not washing - They aren't washing

Past Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I did not wash - I didn't wash
You did not wash - You didn't wash
He did not wash - He didn't wash
She did not wash - She didn't wash
We did not wash - We didn't wash
You did not wash - You didn't wash
They did not wash - They didn't wash

Present Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I have not washed - I haven't washed
You have not washed - You haven't washed
He has not washed - He hasn't washed
She has not washed - She hasn't washed
We have not washed - We haven't washed
You have not washed - You haven't washed
They have not washed - They haven't washed

Past Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I was not washing - I wasn't washing
You were not washing - You weren't washing
He was not washing - Hewasn't washing
She was not washing - Shewasn't washing
We were not washing - We weren't washing
You were not washing - You weren't washing
They were not washing - They weren't washing

Past Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I hadnot washed - I hadn't washed
You hadnot washed - You hadn't washed
He hadnot washed - He hadn't washed
She hadnot washed - She hadn't washed
We hadnot washed - We hadn't washed
You hadnot washed - You hadn't washed
They hadnot washed - They hadn't washed

Future Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I will not wash - I won't wash


You will not wash - You won't wash
He will not wash - He won't wash
She will not wash - She won't wash
We will not wash - We won't wash
You willnot wash - You won't wash
They willnot wash - They won't wash

Future Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I will not be washing - I won't be washing
You will not be washing - You won't be washing
He will not be washing - He won't be washing
She will not be washing - She won't be washing
We will not be washing - We won't be washing
You willnot be washing - You won't be washing
They willnot be washing - They won't be washing

Future Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I will not have washed - I won't have washed
You will not have washed - You won't have washed
He will not have washed - He won't have washed
She will not have washed - She won't have washed
We will not have washed - We won't have washed
You will not have washed - You won't have washed
They will not have washed - They won't have washed

Present Perfect Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


I have not been washing - I've not been washing
You have not been washing - You haven't been washing
He has not been washing - He hasn't been washing
She has not been washing - She hasn't been washing
We have not have washing - We haven't been washing

You have not been washing - You haven't been washing


They have not been washing - They havn't been washing

Diateza Pasiva - Present Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.
I am not washed - I'm not washed
You are not washed - You're not washed
He is not washed - He's not washed
She is not washed - She's not washed
We are not washed - We're not washed
You are not washed - You're not washed
They are not washed - They're not washed

Diateza Pasiva - Present Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a


spala.
I am not being washed - I'm not being washed
You are not being washed - You're not being washed
He is not being washed - He's not being washed
She is not being washed - She's not being washed
We are not being washed - We're not being washed
You are not being washed - You're not being washed
They are not being washed - They're not being washed

Diateza Pasiva - Past Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.
I was not washed - I wasn't washed
You were not washed - You weren't washed
He was not washed - He wasn't washed
She was not washed - She wasn't washed
We were not washed - We weren't washed
You were not washed - You weren't washed
They were not washed - They were'nt washed

Diateza Pasiva - Present Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.
I have not been washed - I've not been washed
You have not been washed - You haven't been washed
He has not been washed - He hasn't been washed
She has not been washed - She hasn't been washed
We have not have washed - We haven't been washed
You have not been washed - You haven't been washed
They have not been washed - They havn't been washed

Diateza Pasiva - Past Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a


spala.
I was not being washed - I wasn't being washed
You were not being washed - You weren't being washed
He was not being washed - He wasn't being washed
She was not being washed - She wasn't being washed
We were not being washed - We weren't being washed
You were not being washed - You weren't being washed
They were not being washed - They were'nt being washed

Diateza Pasiva - Past Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.
I had not been washed - I hadn't been washed
You had not been washed - You hadn't been washed
He had not been washed - He hadn't been washed
She had not been washed - She hadn't been washed
We had not have washed - We hadn't been washed
You had not been washed - You hadn't been washed
They had not been washed - They hadn't been washed

Diateza Pasiva - Future Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

I will not be washed - I won't be washed


You will not be washed - You won't be washed
He will not be washed - He won't be washed
She will not be washed - She won't be washed
We will not be washed - We won't be washed
You will not be washed - You won't be washed
They will not be washed - They won't be washed

Diateza Pasiva - Future Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a


spala.
Acest timp e prea complicat. Nu se foloseste

Diateza Pasiva - Future Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.
I will not have been washed - I won't have been washed
You will not have been washed - You won't have been washed
He will not have been washed - He won't have been washed
She will not have been washed - She won't have been washed
We will not have been washed - We won't have been washed
You will not have been washed - You won't have been washed
They will not have been washed - They won't have been washed

Diateza Pasiva - Perfect Continuous Tenses- Forma negativa si contractia verbului to


wash - a spala.
Present Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect Continuous
Future Perfect Continuous
Aceste timpuri devin foarte complicate la diateza pasiva, asa ca nu se folosesc.

Conditionalul - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.


Formele de conditional would si should provin de la forma de viitor will asa ca negativul in
aceste cazuri se formeaza la fel ca pentru will
I would not tell him if I were you.
I wouldn't tell him if I were you
Nu i-as spune sa fiu in locul tau
They should not buy a new car
They shouldn't buy a new car
Nu e nevoie sa-si cumpere o masina noua

FORMA INTEROGATIVA A VERBELOR

Forma interogativa a verbului to be


Se formeaza prin inversarea verbului cu subiectul, ca si in romaneste.
I am happy - Eu sunt fericit(a)
Am I happy? - Sunt eu fericita?
Are you a teacher> - Esti profesor?
Is he your friend? - Este el prietenul tau?
Are they late for work? - Au intarziat ei la serviciu>
Are you Swedish? - Esti suedez?
Am I right? - Am dreptate?
Were you tired? - Ai fost obosit?

Spre deosebire de romana, in engleza se poate zice Am I? sau chiar I am?.


Dar cele doua au intelesuri diferite.
I am? exprima mirare si bucurie.
Am I? exprima indoiala.
De exemplu:
You are in the top ten. - Esti intre primii zece.
I am? - Da?
You are not in the top ten. - Nu esti intre primii zece.
Oh, I'm not? - O, nu?
You are so happy! - Esti asa de fericit!

Am I? - Zau?
You are not smart! - Nu esti destept!
I'm not, am I? - Nu sunt, nu? (ironic)

Raspunsul la o intrebare de genul Are you happy> poate fi


Yes - Da
Yes, I am - Da, sunt
No - Nu
No, I am not - Nu, nu sunt

Are you a farmer? - No.


You are not a farmer? - No, I am not.
Are you?
Yes!
Esti fermier? - Nu.
Nu esti fermier> - Nu, nu sunt.
Tu esti? Da!

Interogativul in cazul timpurilor necompuse (Present Tense si Past Tense) Atunci cand
propozitia contine alt verb decat to be (si nu contine un verb modal) iar verbul nu e la o forma
compusa, interogativul se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do NU se face inversarea
verbului cu subiectul ca in cazul lui to be.
You work at night - Lucrezi noaptea.
You drive - Conduci.
I know you - Te cunosc
They all live in a yellow submarine - Ei locuiesc toti intr-un submarin galben.

Lucrezi noaptea? - Do you work at night?


Do you drive? - Conduci?
Do I know you? - Te cunosc?
Do they all live in a yellow submarine?- Locuiesc ei toti intr-un submarin galben?

Aunci cand in intrebari se cere folosirea verbului to do acesta preia persoana si timpul
verbului de baza.
Astfel persoana a treia a verbului pierde litera s si la orice persoana verbul ramane la
infinitiv.
He plays cards - El joaca carti
She rides horses - Ea calareste cai.
My green parrot flies well - Papagalul meu verde zboara bine.
You did my homework - Ti-ai facut temele.
Does he play cards? - El joaca carti?
Does she ride horses? - Ea calareste?
Does your green parrot fly well? - Zboara bine papagalul tau verde?
Did you play cards? - Tu ai jucat carti?
Did she play cards? - Ea a jucat carti?
Did they ride horses - Au calarit ei cai? Did your geen parrot fly well? - Zbura bine papagalul
tau verde?
Did you do your homework - Ti-ai facut temele?

La interogatii daca timpul este compus do nu se foloseste dar se schimba ordinea


pronumelui cuprimul auxiliar.
You had eaten enough. - Mancasei destul.
She has always come home for Christmas.- Totdeauna a venit acasa de Craciun.
You have been jogging lately - Ai facut jogging in ultimul timp.
We will overcome - Vom invinge.
. The cowboy is riding in the moonlight. - Cowboyul calareste in lumina lunii.

Had you eaten enough? - Mancasei destul?


Has she always come home for Christmas? - A venit ea totdeauna acasa de Craciun?
Have you been jogging lately? - Ai facut jogging in ultimul timp?
Will we overcome? - Vom invinge?
Is he riging in the moonlight? - Calareste cowboyul la lumina lunii?

Propozitii interogative fara inversare You work tonight - Lucrezi diseara


Do you work tonight - Lucrezi diseara?
Se poate spune si

You are working tonight? (deci fara inversare, dar nu este propriu-zis o intrebare, exprima
mirarea (You work tonight !?!)
I like to eat grapefruit. - Imi place sa mananc grep.
Do you like to eat grapefruit? - Iti place sa mananci grep?
You like to eat grapefruit?!? - Iti place sa mananci grep?!?
He has gone to hunt lions.- S-a dus sa vaneze lei.
Has he gone to hunt lions? - S-a dus sa vaneze lei?
He has gone to hunt lions?- S-a dus sa vaneze lei?!?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Present Tense


I am happy - Eu sunt fericit
I watch a movie every night - Ma uit la un film in fiare seara.
Are you happy? - Tu esti fericit?
Is he happy? - E el fericit?
Do you watch a movie every night? - Te uiti la un film in fiecare seara?
Does he watch a movie every night? - Se uita el la un film in fiecare seara?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Present Continuous


I am watch a movie. - Ma uit la un film.
Are you watching a movie? - Te uiti la un film?
Is she watching a movie? - Ea se uita la un film?
Are they watching a movie? - Ei se uita la un film?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Past Tense


I was happy - Eu eram fericit
I watched a movie - M-am uitat la un film.
Was I happy - Eram fericit

Were you happy? - Erai fericit


Was she happy? - Era fricita?
Did you watch a movie? - Te-ai uitat la un film?
Did they watch a movie - S-au uitat ei la film?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Present Perfect


I have been happy in the past - Eu eram fericit
I have watched a movie - M-am uitat la un film.
Have I been happy in the past? - Am fost eu fericit in trecut?
Has he been happy in the past? - A fost el fericit in trecut?
Have they been happy in the past? - Au fost ei fericiti in trecut?
Have you watched a movie? - Te-ai uitat la un film?
Has she watched a movie? - S-a uitat ea la un film?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Past Continuous


I was watching a movie when the lights went off - Ma uitam la un film cand s-au stins
luminile.

Were you watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Te uitai la un film cand s-au stins
luminile.
Was he watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Se uita el la un film cand s-au stins
luminile?.
Were they watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Se uitaU ei la un film cand s-au stins
luminile?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Past Perfect


I had been happy until then - Pana atunci fusesem fericit(a).
I had watched a movie already - Ma uitasem deja la un film.

Had you been happy untill then? - Pana atunci fusesei fericit?
Had we been happy untill then? - Pana atunci fusesem noi fericit?
Had you watched a movie already? - Te uitasei tu deja la un film?
Had they watched a movie already? - Se uitasera ei deja la un film?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbelor to watch si to be la Future Tense


Someday, I will be happy - Intr-o zi voi fi fericit(a).
I will watch a movie - Ma voi uita la un film.

Someday, will I be happy? - Voi fi fericit(a) intr-o zi?


Someday, will they be happy - Voi fi ei(ele) fericiti(e) intr-o zi?
Will I watch a movie? - Ma voi uita eu la un film? (vezi verbe modale)
Will they watch a movie? - Se vor uita ei la un film? (vezi verbe modale)

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Future Continuous


I will be watching a movie at that time - Ma voi uita la un film, la acea ora.
Will you be watching a movie at that time? - Te vei uita la un film la acea ora?
Will we be watching a movie at that time? - Ne vom uita la un film la acea ora?

Forma interogativa a verbelor to watch si to be la Future Perfect


I will have been happy - Voi fi fost fericit(a).
When this movie is over I will have watched 3 movies - Cand se termina acest film ma voi fi
uitat la 3 filme.
Will you have been happy> - Vei fi fost tu fericit?
When this movie is over will you have watched 3 movies ?- Cand se termina acest film te vei
fi uitat la 3 filme?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Present Perfect Continuous


I have been watching a movie all afternoon - M-am uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza.
Have you been watching a movie all afternoon? - Te-ai uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza?
Has she been watching a movie all afternoon? - S-a uitat ea la un film toata dupa amiaza?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Past Perfect Continuous


I had been watching a movie all afternoon before you came over.- Ma uitasem la un film
toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vii tu.
Had you been watching a movie all afternoon before I came over? - Te uitasei la un film toata
dupa amiaza inainte sa vin eu? Had he been watching a movie all afternoon before I came
over? - Se uitase la un film toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vin eu?

Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Future Perfect Continuous


I will have been watching a movie all afternoon by the time it is 5 o'clock.- Ma voi fi uitat la un
film toata dupa amiaza pana sa se faca ora 5.
Will you have been watching a movie all afternoon by the time it is 5 o'clock?- Te vei fi uitat la
un film toata dupa amiaza pana sa se faca ora 5?

Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa


Are + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in aren't + pronume
Is + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in isn't + pronume
Do + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in don't + pronume
Will + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in won't
Have + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in haven't
Was + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in wasn't + pronume
Were + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in weren't + pronume
Did + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in didn't + pronume
Had + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in hadn't + pronume

Would + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in wouldn't + pronume


Should + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in shouldn't + pronume
Puteti sa procedati astfel:
Luati interogativul pozitiv si inlocuiti dupa caz, auxiliarul inversat cu una din contractiile de
mai sus.
Altfel porniti de la negatie si faceti inversiunea.
You are 20 - Ai 20 de ani.
You are not 20 - Nu ai 20 de ani.
Are you 20? - Ai 20 de ani?
Aren't you 20? - N-ai 20 de ani?
You saw him - L-ai vazut.
You did not see him - Nu l-ai vazut.
Did you see him? - L-ai vazut?
Didn't you see him? - Nu l-ai vazut?

Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa in cazul verbului to be.


In cazul verbului to be, interogativul negativ se face tot prin inversarea subiectului cu primul
dintre verbele auxiliare.
Am I not - NU se contracta.

Am I going to Paris? - Merg la Paris?


Are you hungry? - Ti-e foame?
Aren't you hungry? - Nu ti-e foame?
Were you hungry? - Ti-era foame?
Weren't you hungry? - Nu ti-era foame?
Have you been hungry? - Ti-a fost foame?
Haven't you been hungry? - Nu ti-a fost foame?
Was I quick? - Am fost iute?
Wasn't I quick? - N-am fost iute?
Will he be there? - Va fi acolo?

Won't he be there? - Nu va fi acolo?

Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa in cazul altui verb


decat to be.
Do you like cheese? - Iti place branza?
Don't you like cheese - Nu iti place branza?
Will he paint your portrait? - Iti va picta portretul?
Won't he paint your portrait? - Nu iti va picta portretul?
Have you planted your garden? - Ti-ai plantat gradina?
Haven't you planted your garden? - Nu ti-ai plantat gradina?
Have you been talking on the phone? - Ai vorbit la telefon? Haven't you been
talking on the phone?

Formularea raspunsului DA/NU la intrebarile fara negatie.


Se face in functie de formularea intrebarii.
La intrebari formulate cu verbul to be, se raspunde tot prin verbul to be.
La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul to do, se raspunde tot prin to do.
La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul to have, se raspunde tot to have.
La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul will, se raspunde tot cu will.
Daca mai multe din aceste auxiliare apar intr-o intrebare, se raspunde cu
auxiliarul inversat. (Cel din fata subiectului).
Do you play the trombone? - Canti la trombon?
Da - yes
Da cant - Yes I do (si nu yes I play)
Da cant la trombon - Yes I do play the trombone
Nu - No
Nu, nu cant - No I don't
No I don't play the trombone
Are you Romanian? - Yes, I am
Esti roman(ca) - Da, sunt.
Am I smart? - Yes, you are
Sunt destept/desteapta? - Da esti.
Are we late? - No, we are not
Am intarziat? - Nu, nu am intarziat
Did you have a good time? - Yes I did

Te-ai distrat - Da.


Do you like ships? - No, I get seasick.
Iti plac vapoarele? - Nu, am rau de mare.
Have I offended him? - Yes, you have.
L-am jignit? Da.
Had you known about this? - No, I hadn't
Stiai asta? - Nu, nu stiam
Will you be telling the teacher? - No I won't
Ii vei spune profesoarei? - Nu.

Formularea raspunsului DA/NU la intrebarile cu negatie.


Ca si in romaneste, la aceste intrebari este cateodata greu de raspuns clar.
Noi zicem Ba da.
Ei nu au ceva echivalent.
Se poate zice: Of course! - Sigur!
sau se poate repeta toata propozitia, accentuand, pentru emfaza (in cazul ca
raspunsul e da), auxiliarul.

Don't you play the piano? - Nu canti la pian? Yes, I DO play the piano.
No, I do not play the piano.

Alte raspunsuri la intrebari

Of course - Sigur.
A little - Putin
A lot - Mult
Sort of - Intr-un fel
Not really - Nu prea
Maybe - Poate

Exista ca si romaneste cuvinte specifice pentru intrebari pentru care regulile de


formare a interogatiei se schimba

Acest lucru e adevarat numai daca aceste cuvinte formeaza subiectul propozitiei.
In acest caz aceste cuvine reprezinta interogatia si nu e nevoie de alt mod de
formare a interogatiei.
Who - Cine
What - Ce
Where - Unde
When - Cand
How - Cum
How - Cat
Which - Care

Who - Cine

Who are you? - Cine esti?


Who won the race? - Cine a castigat cursa? (Raspuns: X won the race - deci who e
subiectul)
Who do you think won? - Tu cine crezi ca a castigat? Aici do you think e intercalat
in propozitia Who won?

What - Ce

What is this? - Ce e asta?


What is your name - Cum te cheama?(Ce nume ai?)
What happened? - Ce s-a intamplat?
What did you say? (aici subiectul e you - Ce ai spus (tu)?
What time do they open? - La ce ora deschid? (aici subiectul e they - Cine deschid
- ei)?
What is the king like? - Cum este regele (Ca ce este regele)?
What do you think? - Ce crezi?
What...like? - Cum...este?
What was it like - Cum a fost?
What is the weather like in Katmandu? - Cum e vremea in Katmandu?

Where - Unde
Where do you live? - Unde locuiesti?

Where
Where
Where
Where

is it? - Unde este asta?


is Djibouti? - Unde e Djibouti?
are you going? - Unde te duci?
did you go on vacation? - Unde ai fost in vacanta?

When - Cand
When
When
When
When

was that? - Cand a fost asta?


was World Wae 2? - Cand a fost Al Doilea Razboi Mondial?
will they be here? - Cand sosesc?
will the universe die out? - Cand va muri universul?

How - Cum
How
How
How
How
How
How

are you? - Ce mai faci?


is granny? - Ce mai face (Cum e) bunica?
about that? - Ce zici de asta?
did you do that? Cum ai facut?
do you get there? - Cum ai ajuns acolo?
do I look? - Cum arat?

How - Cat
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How
How

much is it? - Cat costa?


often do you go to the movies? Cat de des mergi la film?
hot is it? - Cat de cald e?
cold is it? - Cat e de frig (de rece)?
long is it? - Cat de lung e?
short is it? - Cat e de scurt?
big is it? - Cat e de mare?
small is it? - Cat e de mic?
far away is it? - Cat e de departe?
close is it? - Cat e de aproape?
old is he? - Cati ani are?
fat is he? - Cat e de gras?
thin is he? - Cat e de slab?
tall is he? - Cat e de inalt?
short is he? - Cat e de scund?

Observatie:
Daca vroiam sa zicem: Cat e de gras! nu mai era intrebare, si ziceam How tall he
is!

How
How
How
How

fat he is! - Cat e de gras!


thin he is! - Cat e de slab!
tall he is! - Cat e de inalt!
short he is! - Cat e de scund!

Which - Care
Which one is better? - Care e mai bun?
Which should I choose? - Pe care sa il aleg?
Which is yours? - Care e al tau?

TO BE = A FI (VERB NEREGULAT SI AUXILIAR)


Verbul to be e unul din verbele care nu au forma continua.
Formele de baza: to be - was - been
Present Tense
I am - Eu sunt
You are - Tu esti
He is - El este
She is - Ea este
We are - Noi
suntem
You are - Voi

sunteti
They are - Ei sunt
Forma Contrasa
I'm
You're
He's
She's
We're
You're
They're
Forma Negativa
I'm not
You're not
He's not
She's not
We're not
You're not
They're not
Forma
Interogativa
Am I?
Are you?
Is he?
Is she?
Are we?
Are you?

Are they?
Past Tense
I was - Eu eram
You were - Tu erai
He was - El era
She was - Ea era
We were - Noi
eram
You were - Voi erati
They were - Ei erau
Forma Contrasa
NU EXISTA
Forma Negativa
I wasn't
You weren't
He wasn't
She wasn't
We weren't
You weren't

They weren't
Forma
Interogativa
Was I?
Were you?
Was he?
Was she?
Were we?
Were you?
Were they?
Future Tense
I will be - Eu voi fi
You will be - Tu vei
fi
He will be - El va fi
She will be - Ea va
fi
We will be - Noi
vom fi
You will be - Voi
veti fi
They will be - Ei
vor fi
Forma Contrasa
I'll be
You'll be
He'll be

She'll be
We'll be
You'll be
They'll be
Forma Negativa
I won't be
You won't be
He won't be
She won't be
We won't be
You won't be
They won't be
Forma
Interogativa
Will I be?
Will you be?
Will he be?
Will she be?
Will we be?
Will you be?
Will they be?
Present Perfect
I have been
You have been
He has been
She has been

We have been
You have been
They have been
Forma Contrasa
I've been
You've been
He's been
She's been
We've been
You've been
They've been
Forma Negativa
I haven't been
You haven't been
He hasn't been
She hasn't been
We haven't been
You haven't been
They haven't been
Forma
Interogativa
Have I been?
Have you been?
Has he been?
Has she been?

Have we been?
Have you been?
Have they been?
Past Perfect
I had been
You had been
He had been
She had been
We had been
You had been
They had been
Forma Contrasa
I'd been
You'd been
He'd been
She'd been
We'd been
You'd been
They'd been
Forma Negativa
I hadn't been
You hadn't been
He hadn't been
She hadn't been

We hadn't been
You hadn't been
They hadn't been
Forma
Interogativa
Had I been?
Had you been?
Had he been?
Had she been?
Had we been?
Had you been?
Had they been?
Future Perfect
I will have been
You will have been
He will have been
She will have been
We will have been
You will have been
They will have
been
Forma Contrasa
I'll have been
You'll have been
He'll have been
She'll have been

We'll have been


You'll have been
They'll have been
Forma Negativa
I won't have been
You won't have
been
He won't have
been
She won't have
been
We won't have
been
You won't have
been
They won't have
been
been?