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Geotehnica 3

Aniculaesi M.

6 septembrie 2016
GEOTECHNICAL LABORATORY TESTING

Laboratory Test

Laboratory Test 1 - GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS


GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS
(SIEVE AND HYDROMETER ANALYSIS)
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Standard 1. STAS 1913/5-85, Teren de fundare. Determinarea granulozitii


Reference 2. SR EN ISO 14688-1:2004, Cercetri i ncercri geotehnice. Identificarea i
clasificarea pmnturilor. Partea 1: Principii pentru o clasificare.
3. SR EN ISO 14688-2:2004, Cercetri i ncercri geotehnice. Identificarea i
clasificarea pmnturilor. Partea 1: Identificare i descriere

Purpose1 This test is performed to determine the percentage of different grain sizes
contained within a soil. The mechanical or sieve analysis is performed to
determine the distribution of the coarser, larger-sized particles, and the
hydrometer method is used to determine the distribution of the finer particles.

Significance The distribution of different grain sizes affects the engineering properties of soil.
Grain size analysis provides the grain size distribution, and it is required in
classifying the soil1.
Some application of particle size analysis in geotechnology and construction
are2:
Selection of fill materials - soils used for the construction of embankments
and earth dams, in addition to other specifications, are required to be within
set limits as defined by particle size distribution curves;
Road sub-base materials each layer of a road or airfield runway sub-base
must comply to a particular grading specification in order to provide a
mechanically stable fundation;
Drainage fiters the grading specification for a filter layer must be related
in a certain way to the grading of the adjancet ground, or to the next filter
layer;

1
taken from prof. Krishna R. Reddy with approvel (1 oct 2015) http://www.uic.edu/ classes/cemm/cemmlab/
2
Head H.K., Manual of soil laboratory testing, Volume 1: Soil Classification and Compaction Tests, CRC Press,
Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, 1992
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Dynamic compaction in some situation poor ground condition can be


improved by dynamic compaction, and a particle size analysis can give an
indication of the feasibility of this process, etc.

Three numerical values were read directly from the particle-size distribution
curve; the diameters, D10, D30, and D60. The diameter D10 is generally referred
to as the effective size. From these values the Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) and
the Coefficient of Gradation (CC) can be calculated.
Laboratory Test 1 - GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

The Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) is a parameter which indicates the range of


distribution of grain sizes in a given soil sample. For well-graded soils (Cu) is
large, usually greater than 6 for sandy soils. Poorly graded soils have (Cu) that
is nearly equal to 1, which means that the soil particles are approximately equal
in size.
The Coefficient of Gradation (CC) is a parameter that is also referred to as the
coefficient of curvature. For soil to be considered well-graded (CC) is usually
between 1 and 3.
When designating the coarse fractions, a distinction may be drawn between well
graded, poorly graded and gap-graded particle size distributions. In this
connection the coefficient of curvature (CC) and the uniformity coefficient (Cu)
provide quantitative means for describing the shape of the grading curve. If
certain grain sizes are absent, the term gap-graded is used. The median D50 of
the grading curve, together with Cu and CC may also be used to indicate the
particle size grading (Table 1).

Table 1: Shape of grading curve


Shape of grading curve Cu CC
Multi-graded (Bine gradat) > 15 1 > CC > 3
Medium-graded (Mediu gradat) 6 to 15 <1
Even-graded (Ru gradat) <6 <1
Gap-graded (Discontinu) Usually high Any (usually < 0,5)

In general, coarse-grained soils have good load-bearing capacities and good drainage qualities,
and their strength and volume change characteristics are not significantly affected by change in
moisture conditions. They are practically incompressible when dense, but significant volume
changes can occur when they are loose. Vibrations accentuate volume changes in loose coarse-
grained soils by rearranging the soil fabric into a dense configuration.3
Fine-grained soils have poor load-bearing capacities compared with coarse-grained soils. Fine-
grained soils are practically impermeable. They change volume and strength with variations in
moisture conditions and are frost susceptible. The engineering properties of coarse-grained soils
are controlled mainly by the grain size of the particles and their structural arrangement.3

3
Budhu M., Foundations and earth retaining structures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008
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Foundation Design: Soil Condition

1. Gravel Non-cohesive soil

Field identification Field assessment of structure & Possible foundation


strength problems

Laboratory Test 1 - Foundation design: Soil condition


GRAVELS
Particle size 2mm to 60mm Loose, easily removed by shovel Loss of fine particles in
some dry strength indicates water bearing ground
presence of clay

2. Sand Non-cohesive soil


Field identification Field assessment of Possible foundation problems
structure & strength
Sands
Particle size 0.06mm to 2mm - when Compact, requires pick Frost heave, especially in fine
dry, clean sands break down. Sand for excavation. sands. Excavation below water
particles are just visible to the naked table can wash out sand and
eye and feel gritty between the cause runs and local collapse.
fingers. Soil liquefaction.

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3. Silt
Field identification Field assessment of Possible foundation
structure & strength problems
Silts
Particle size 0.002mm to 0.06mm - not A soft silt can easily be Frost heave, especially
Laboratory Test 1 - Foundation design: Soil condition

normally distinguishable to the naked eye. moulded with the in fine sands.
Silts feel slightly gritty; moist lumps can be fingers; a firm silt Excavation below water
moulded with the fingers but not rolled into requires strong finger table can wash out sand
threads. Shaking most lumps in the hand pressure. and cause runs and local
brings water to the surface. Silts also dry collapse.
rapidly.

4. Clay
Field identification Field assessment of Possible foundation
structure & strength problems
Clays
Smooth and plastic to the touch. 5 types: Shrinkage and swelling and
Sticky when moist. Hold together very soft - exudes between long term settlement by
when dry. Wet lumps immersed in fingers when squeezed consolidation. Some clays
water soften without disintegrating. soft - easily moulded with the contain sulfates which can
Soft clays either uniform or show fingers attack concrete.
horizontal laminations. firm - moulded with strong Drainage can be poor.
Harder clays often fissured, the finger pressure Movement down slopes, most
fissures opening slightly when the stiff - cannot be moulded by soft clays lose strength when
overburden is removed or a vertical the fingers disturbed.
surface is revealed, eg, by a trial pit. hard - brittle or tough

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GEOTECHNICAL LABORATORY TESTING

Laboratory Test 1 - SIEVE METHOD


1.1. Sieve Method

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Test Procedure:
Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - TEST PROCEDURE

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Example data
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Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - EXAMPLE DATA
Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - EXAMPLE DATA

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Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - EXAMPLE DATA
Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - EXAMPLE DATA

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Blank data sheets
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Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS
Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS

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Laboratory Test 1 - Sieve Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS
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Laboratory Test 1 - HYDROMETER METHOD

1.2. Hydrometer Method

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Test Procedure:
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Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - TEST PROCEDURE
Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - EXAMPLE DATA

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Example data
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Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - EXAMPLE DATA
Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - EXAMPLE DATA

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Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - EXAMPLE DATA
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Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - EXAMPLE DATA

Conclusion: Based on the above diagram, the studied soil is SILT

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Blank data sheets
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Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS
Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS

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Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS
Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS

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Laboratory Test 1 - Hydrometer Method - BLANK DATA SHEETS
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Laboratory Test 1 - Notes

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Laboratory Test 1 - Notes


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Laboratory Test 1 - Notes

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