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SCURTE CONSIDERAII PRIVIND BRIEF CONSIDERATIONS


INFLUENA CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF
MEDIULUI SOCIAL-POLITIC NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
NAIONAL I INTERNAIONAL SOCIO-POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT ON
ASUPRA ACTULUI DE LEGIFERARE THE ACT OF LAWMAKING

Ramona DUMINIC Ramona DUMINIC


Andreea DRGHICI Carmina ALECA

Abstract: Mediul social-politic naional constituie Abstract: National socio-political environment is an


o for activ n elaborarea i modificarea dreptului active force concerning the development and
pozitiv ntruct normele juridice sunt, n principiu, un modification of positive law because legal regulations
produs al societii. n acelai timp, este de necontestat are, in principle, a product of society. At the same time,
c n societatea contemporan arhitectura sistemelor de it is indisputable that in contemporary society the
drept naionale este influenat de mediul socio-politic architecture of national legal systems is influenced by
european i internaional. European and international socio-political environment.
Modul n care aceti factori exercit influene How these factors influence the activity of
asupra activitii de legiferare constituie o problem lawmaking is an old issue, but just as urgent and present
veche, ns la fel de stringent i actual i astzi. nowadays. Thus, the question is whether law is or not an
Astfel, se pune ntrebarea dac dreptul este sau nu un instrument of political power, to which we tried to find a
instrument al puterii politice, ntrebare la care am response in the present study.
ncercat s gsim un rspuns n prezentul studiu.

1. Aprecieri introductive 1. Introductory remarks


Elaborarea dreptului constituie o aciune The creation of law must be visualized as
condiionat de realiti complexe - sociale, an action conditioned by complex realities of a
economice, politice, spirituale, interne sau social, economic, political, spiritual, domestic
internaionale. Toate aceste realiti alctuiesc or international nature that constitute the so-
sursele reale ale dreptului care determin called given, which determines the
obiectul, subiectele, coninutul, finalitile i constructing.
ntr-o anumit msur chiar forma acestuia. n All of these realities constitute the real
considerarea acestor aspecte, rolul lor nu sources of law, which determine the object, the
trebuie exagerat, ns nici lsat n derizoriu subjects, the content, the ends and to some
cci, aa cum afirma M. Djuvara, ntreaga extent even the form of the law. Considering
istorie, ntregul trecut, toate forele sociale, these aspects, their role must not be
limba, economia rii respective, industria, exaggerated, nor overlooked because, as M.
comerul, agricultura, politica, concepiile Djuvara stated the entire history, the entire
morale i tiinifice, concur spre a exercita o past, all social forces, language, the economy
influen puternic asupra evoluiei juridice, of the respective country, industry, commerce,
ntocmai cum i dreptul exercit o influen agriculture, politics, moral and scientific

Asistent univ. drd.; adresa: str. C-tin Sttescu, bl. B5, ap. 28, Piteti, Arge; Facultatea de tiine Juridice i
Administrative, Universitatea din Piteti; telefon: 0744922368; e-mail: duminica.ramona@yahoo.com.

Lector univ. dr.; adresa: Piteti, Arge; Facultatea de tiine Juridice i Administrative, Universitatea din Piteti;
telefon: 0723619812; e-mail: andidraghici@yahoo.com.

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puternic asupra evoluiilor lor (Djuvara, concepts, compete to exert a strong influence
1999, p. 300). over the evolution of law, just as the law exerts
Plecnd de la aceste aprecieri, n cele ce a strong influence over their own evolution
urmeaz vom pune n discuie modul n care, n (Djuvara, 1999, p. 300).
societatea contemporan, realitile social- Beginning with these remarks, in what
politice determin apariia i evoluia dreptului. follows we will discuss the way wherein, the
Realitatea socio - politic se refer la la social-political relations lead to the apparition
complexitatea vieii n comunitate, la and evolution of the law in contemporary
componentele concrete ale societii: mediul society.
economic, mediul politic, ideologic, cultural i The social-reality refers to the complexity
chiar religios. Reprezentnd un produs al of community life, to the concrete components
societii, dreptul se afl ntr-o relaie of society: the economic environment, the
permanent i constructiv cu aceste realiti. political environment, the ideological, cultural
and even religious environment. By
2. Influena mediului economic asupra representing a product of reality, the law is in a
elaborrii dreptului permanent and constructive relation with these
O for activ n elaborarea i modificarea realities.
oricrui drept obiectiv o reprezint componenta
economic a mediului social. 2. The influence of the economic
Mediul economic ofer dreptului anumite environment in the development of the law
condiii ale vieii materiale, dimensiuni care The economic component of the social
asigur, n final, esena sa normativ. Factorii environment is an active force in the
economici influeneaz sau determin development and modification of any objective
elaborarea anumitor norme juridice, right.
exercitndu-i autoritatea asupra tuturor The law is imposed by the economic
componentelor sistemului social. Aceti factori environment with certain conditions of the
permit dreptului s se adapteze la cerinele material life, dimensions that finally ensure its
economice, n funcie de scopurile i interesele normative essence. The economic factors
sociale. Fenomene economice, precum: influence or determine the elaboration of
producia, repartiia circulaia i consumul, certain legal norms, by exerting their authority
reformele economice, trecerea la economia on every component of the social system.
pia prind via prin drept care, prin legile These factors allow the law to adapt to
adoptate, creaz cadrul de dezvoltare al economic requirements, depending on the
economiei. social ends and interests. Economic phenomena
n acest sens, W. Lippman spunea c such as: production, reparation, circulation and
niciun om nu poate s posede bunuri, nici s consumption, economic reforms, the change to
se bucure deschis i n siguran de ele, dac the market economy take shape through the
acest lucru are loc n virtutea faptului c statul law, through adopted laws, and create the
este dispus s-i fie respectat dreptul su legal. framework of development of the economy. In
Fr titlu legal el nu are proprietate, el nu this sense, W. Lippman said that no man can
este dect un posesor lipsit de own property, nor openly and securely enjoy its
posibiliti mpotriva acelora care sunt destul benefits, if it is not by virtue of the fact that the
de puternici pentru a pune stpnire pe state is disposed to have his legal right

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bunurile lui (Lippmann , 1943, p. 278). respected. Without a legal title man has no
n cadrul oricrui tip de societate property, he is nothing but a possessor deprived
componenta economic este determinant, of possibilities to fight against those powerful
poart amprenta ideologiei specifice societii enough to appropriate what is his (Lippmann ,
n perioada respectiv. De exemplu, ideologia 1943, p. 278).
marxist de esen materialist-dialectic Within any type of society the economic
ntlnit n societile socialiste i comuniste component is decisive and it bears the mark of
de tip totalitar, considera c dreptul trebuie s the ideologies typical of the respective period.
corespund situaiei economice generale i For example, Marxist ideology, materialist-
tipului de economie impus de aceast ideologie dialectic in essence, as exemplified by
precum i c economia este cea care constituie totalitarian socialist and communist societies,
factorul determinant al dreptului. Pe de alt considers that the law should correspond to the
parte, ideologia liberal i neoliberal consacr general economic situation and the economic
teza conform creia dreptul trebuie s model imposed by this ideology and also that
recunoasc libertile i drepturile economice the economy constitutes the decisive factor of
(dreptul de a acumula bogii i capital, the law.
libertatea de a produce, de a comercializa On the other hand, liberal and neo-liberal
producia etc.), s garanteze economia ideologies sanction the thesis according to
contractual, s creeze un cadru adecvat which the law must acknowledge the economic
desfurrii acesteia. rights and liberties (the right to accumulate
Revoluia romn din 1989 a generat riches and capital, the freedom to produce and
schimbri radicale n societatea romneasc. to commercialise what is produced etc.), it
De la vechea economie, caracterizat de o must guarantee contractual economy and create
centralizare excesiv s-a trecut la o economie an adequate framework for this type of
de pia al crui principal factor propulsator a development.
devenit libera iniiativ a productorilor i The Romanian revolution of 1989 has
autonomia agenilor economici. Toate aceste generated radical changes in Romanian society.
principii au fost consacrate n Constituia rii The economy has shifted from the old,
i n legi speciale. excessively centralized economy to the market
Aceste transformri intervenite n aceti economy, whose main driving force is the free
ani au generat apariia unor norme initiative of manufacturers and the autonomy of
fundamentale menite s reglementeze relaiile economic agents. All these principles have
comerciale i s garanteze: libertatea been sanctioned by the countrys Constitution
comerului; concurena loial; stimularea and special laws.
investiiilor strine. The transformations that have occurred in
De asemenea, un alt exemplu l reprezint these last years have led to the advent of certain
actuala criz economic prin care trece Europa fundamental laws meant to regulate
i nu numai, i care, exercit o influen commercial relations and to guarantee: freedom
deosebit asupra elaborrii dreptului intern, dar of trade, loyal competition and the stimulation
i asupra dreptului comunitar i internaional, of foreign investments.
adoptndu-se norme prin care s se limiteze The current economic crisis plaguing
efectele acestei crize: de pild, n Spania a fost Europe and the rest of the world is also an
adoptat Legea economiei sustenibile sau n example of how the economy exerts

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Romnia, Legea 118/2010 privind unele considerable influence over the development of
msuri necesare n vederea restabilirii not only domestic but also community and
echilibrului bugetar. Aadar, toate aceste international law: laws have been passed to
eforturi pentru crearea i perfecionarea limit the effect of this crisis. For example, the
cadrului legislativ al reformei economice Law for a Sustainable Economy has been
constituie o evident dovad a racordrii passed in Spain, while in Romania there is Law
dreptului la cerinele transformrilor 118/2010 concerning certain measures, which
economice. are necessary for reestablishing the budgetary
Nu n ultimul rnd, nu trebuie neglijat nici balance. Therefore, all these efforts made to
rolul mediilor financiar-bancare n constituirea create and perfect the legal framework of the
i funcionarea dreptului obiectiv n vigoare. economic reform constitute clear evidence of
Nicio societate nu are anse de reuit dac nu the connection between the law and the
mbin interesele i creditul de care se bucur requirements of the economic transformations.
cei bogai cu cele ale statului. O datorie Last but not least, we must not neglect the
naional, dac nu este excesiv de mare, va fi role of the financial and banking environment
pentru naiune o adevrat binecuvntare. Ca in the development and functioning of the
atare, plecnd de la aceste afirmaii, este clar objective law currently in force. No society
c nu doar orice drept pozitiv, dar i dreptul has any chance of success if it does not
internaional public i privat depind ntr-o combine the interests and the credit enjoyed by
msur subtil evaluabil de jocul de interese the wealthy with those of the state. A national
ale grupurilor interne i internaionale debt, if not an excessively large one, will be a
financiar-bancare (Marrs, 2000, p. 49). true blessing for the nation. As such, starting
from these statements, it is clear that not any
3. Conexiunea politic - drept positive law, but also public and private
O alt component care exercit influen international law depend to a subtly assessable
asupra dreptului, i asupra creia ne vom opri extent on the interests of internal and
n continuare, este mediul politic. Legtura international financial and banking groups
dreptului cu politica poate fi caracterizat ca (Marrs, 2000, p. 49).
fiind una complex.
Dreptul constituie un ansamblu de norme 3. The connection between politics and
care reglementeaz conduita unui grup social, the law
n timp ce politica apare ca o expresie a The political environment is another
aciunii puterii de stat. Dac n cazul dreptului component that exerts influence over the law,
suntem n prezena unor reguli prestabilite, on which we shall focus our discussions
mediul politic se particularizeaz prin libertate further.
de aciune. ns, ntre drept i politic apar The connection of the law with politics may
importante conexiuni. be characterised as a complexe one.
Relaia dintre acest factor i drept este The law constitutes an ensemble of norms
remarcabil relevat de profesorul Gheorghe C. that regulate the conduct of a social group,
Mihai care afirm: Limbajul juridic e ntr-o while the politics appears as an expression of
relaie ciudat cu limbajul politic; astfel, att the action of the state power. If in the case of
pentru unul, ct i pentru cellalt nu exist the law we are in presence of certain pre-
adevr, ci adevruri, ntre care se poate alege i established rules, the political environment

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decide cu majoritatea celor ce decid prin distinguishes itself by its freedom of action.
vot.(...) Pentru politic nu exist iubire, iar However, between law and politics there are
pentru dreptul pozitiv ea nseamn cu totul important connections.
altceva (loialitate n relaii sexuale oficializate, The relation between this factor and the
solidaritate n relaiile dintre ceteni, ntre law is remarkably emphasized by Professor
sindicaliti) dect depire pe sine. Pentru Gheorghe C. Mihai who states: The legal
dreptul pozitiv, biserica (credin religioas language is in a particular relation with the
instituionalizat) este aceea recunoscut s political language; thus, there is no one single
funcioneze, chiar dac, pe de alt parte, el truth for one or the other but many truths, from
recunoate dreptul la opiune religioas. Pentru which one can choose and decide by majority
politic, biserica nu are nicio relevan dac nu-i of the vote. () There is no love in the
slujete scopurile. Pentru dreptul pozitiv political language and in the case of positive
cstoria e familia instituionalizat, n care law it means something completely different
partenerii pot fi: persoane majore de sex (loyalty in legitimate sexual relationships,
diferit. Pentru politic familia, chiar i solidarity between citizens, between members
instituionalizat, e o entitate depit (Mihai, of a syndicate) to surpassing oneself. In the
2009, pp. 283-284). case of positive law, the church
Problema influenei factorului politic (institutionalized religious faith) is the one
asupra activitii de creare a dreptului este acknowledged to work, even though, on the
veche, dar la fel de stringent i actual i other hand, it acknowledges the right to choose
astzi. ones religion. In the case of politics, the
Jean Carbonier fcea cu ceva timp n urm church has no relevance if it does not serve its
o observaie pertinent, ncercnd s denune ends. In the case of positive law, marriage
tendina politicului de a-i subordona dreptul: represents the institutionalized family, in which
evoluia structurilor sociale produce o the partners can be: mature persons of different
ncercare de subordonare dreptului de ctre sexes. In the case of politics, the family, even
politic, care n final conduce la degradarea an institutionalized one, is an outdated entity
relaiei dreptului cu societatea, legea nu mai (Mihai, 2009, pp. 283-284).
are n zilele noastre semnificaia pe care o avea The problem posed by the influence of the
odat. Ea nu este, n multe cazuri, acea maxim political factor over the creation of law is an
de conduit care era proclamat solemn cu old one, but it is just as pressing and current
intenia validitii ei pentru generaiile viitoare, today as ever.
ci o modalitate pentru stat de a da ordine unui Some time before, Jean Carbonier made a
grup mai mare sau mai mic de supui pertinent observation, trying to denounce the
(Carbonier, 1976, p. 115) sau ntr-o formulare tendency of politics to subordinate the law:
mai dur, juristul Rudolf von Ihering aprecia: the evolution of social structures leads to
Dreptul nu este principiul superior care politics subordinating the law, which finally
guverneaz lumea; el nu este un scop n sine, ci leads to the degradation of the relation between
mijlocul de a realiza un scop, care este the law and society, nowadays the law no
conservarea societii. Dac societatea nu se longer has the same significance it once had. It
poate menine n starea juridic actual, dac n is not, as in many cases an adage of conduct
privina aceasta dreptul nu poate s o ajute, solemnly proclaimed with the intention of
fora intervine i remediaz situaia. Stpnii validating it for future generations, rather a way

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neomenoi care i-au persecutat propriile for the state to establish order within a larger or
popoare, crmuindu-le cu scutul, au fcut smaller group of subjects (Carbonier, 1976,
pentru educaia juridic a omenirii tot att de p. 115) or in the rougher words of jurist
mult ct cei mai nelepi legiuitori ce au scris Rudolf von Ihering who ascertainted that: The
tablele legii (Von Ihering, 1877, p. 233). law is not a superior principle that governs the
Practic, din afirmaiile de mai de sus world; it is not an end in itself, rather the means
deducem c dreptul s-ar reduce la un simplu of achieving an end, meaning the preservation
mijloc de manipulare utilizat de puterea of society. If society cannot maintain the
politic, ceea ce n parte este adevrat. O current juridical conditions, if concerning this
analiz simpl a ctorva momente din istorie law the law cannot help society, force is used to
este suficient pentru a ne determina s aderm remedy the situation. The inhuman masters
la susinerile doctrinarilor citai mai sus, nsi who have persecuted their own people, leading
societatea romneasc actual, confruntndu-se them with the shield in hand, have done as
cu o asemenea adevrat criz a dreptului much for the juridical education of humanity as
obiectiv, iar una dintre cauzele acesteia este any of the wise legislators who have etched the
chiar aceast utilizare a dreptului ca o tiin a law in stone (Von Ihering, 1877, p. 233).
mijloacelor. Practically, from the statements above we
Este evident c toate regimurile politice, deduced that the law is reduced to a simple
fie totalitare, fie democratice au creat i au method of manipulation used by the political
utilizat dreptul obiectiv ca form de powers, which is partly true. A simple analysis
reglemetare normativ n propriile scopuri, iar of certain historic moments is sufficient to
pe de alt parte legea a servit la promovarea make us adhere to the statements of the
unor valori de natur a manipula populaia. doctrinaires previously quoted, contemporary
Comentnd aprecierile lui Rudolf von Romanian society itself is confrunted with a
Ihering, G. Ripert arta c de fapt, Ihering similar crisis of objective law, and one of the
nltur vemntul sacru i misterios al puterii causes of these crises is the use of the law as a
politice, care ar putea mpiedica punerea n science of means.
discuie a legilor pe care le dicteaz. Nu trebuie It is obvious that all political regimes,
confundat violena nedreapt cu fora social either totalitarian or democratic have created
care lupt pentru crearea dreptului, and used objective law as a form of normating
accentund c individul e mai presus de stat, regulation in the pursuit of their own goals, and
ns trebuie s respecte disciplina etatic, on the other side the law severd to promote
singura ordine care asigur pacea social. certain values that can manipulate the people.
n ce ne privete, orice norm juridic va fi By commenting Rudolf von Iherings
ferit de supremaia politicului atta timp ct se statements, G. Ripert shows us that actually,
va raporta la propriile sale criterii de valoare, Ihering draws away the sacred and mysterious
care o fac mai stabil i credibil n ceea ce veil from the face of the political powers,
privete reflectarea realitii sociale, ns fr a which can impede the discussion on laws that
nelege prin asta o izolare a dreptului de they dictate. We must not mistake unlawful
politicul, de la care i revendic paternitatea i violence for the social force that fights for the
cu care se afl interdependen, ci doar c creation of the law, and underline the fact that
dreptul trebuie s-i pstreze propria esen. the individual is above the state, however he
n doctrin, (Roubier, 1961, p. 277) n must abide by the state discipline, the only

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mod corect se susine c ntr-un stat order that can ensure peace in society.
democratic, dreptul ar trebuie s constituie o Speaking for ourselves, any legal norm
garanie a vieii politico sociale, o garanie a shall be protected from the supremacy of the
organizrii i funcionrii statului. Dreptul political as long as it relates to its own criteria
trebuie s se supun unei cenzuri proprii, chiar of value that make it more stable and credible
valorile societii contribuind la definirea as a reflection of the social reality, however
idealurilor acesteia. Dac dreptul nu are n without understanding thereby an isolation of
vedere acest scop, el se transform ntr-o the law from the political, wherefrom it claims
tiin a mijloacelor. its paternity and with which it exists in a inter-
Conceptul de putere politic, ntr-o dependence, but only that the law must keep its
exprimare simplist, dar relevant ar desemna own essence.
puterea polisului, n sensul de putere a Doctrine correctly upholds that in a
comunitii membrilor comunitii, care au democratic state, the law should constitute a
contiina apartenenei la ea. guarantee of the social-political life, a
Lato sensu, puterea politic presupune pe guarantee of the organisation and functioning
lng puterea exercitat de stat, deci partea of the state. The law must submit to its own
instituionalizat, i trsturile puterii politice. censure, to the values of society even, by
Este clar c exercitarea puterii politice nu contributing to the definition of societys
este posibil dect prin adoptarea unor acte ideals. If the law does not maintain this goal, it
normative care s reglementeze organizarea i becomes a science of means (Roubier, 1961, p.
funcionarea autoritilor. 277).
n acelai timp, elaborarea dreptului etatic The concept of political power, simply but
revine unui organ de stat, ca o component a relevantly put, designates the power of the
prii instituionalizate din puterea politic din polis, in the sense of power of the community
societate, i se datoreaz iniiativelor cu of members of the community that are
substrat politic din partea partidelor politice conscious of belonging to it.
existente. Limitarea restituirii proprietilor Lato sensu, political power implies besides
agricole la zece hectare, prin Legea nr. the power exercise by the state, i.e. the
18/1991, reglementrile actuale privind institutionalized part, the characteristics of the
obinerea ceteniei romne sau legea political power.
electoral n vigoare n Romnia, It is clear that exercising political power is
dezincriminarea homosexualitii etc, toate au not possible without passing certain laws to
un substrat politic, dat de coloratura politic a regulate the organization and functioning of the
majoritii parlamentare la momentul istoric authorities.
respectiv. Totui, forma reglementrii juridice At the same time, the development of state
i aplicarea ei se degreveaz n bun msur de law is the responsibility of a national body, as a
interesul politic partizan, cci altfel nu s-ar component of the institutionalized part of the
putea impune ca ndatorire general. n acelai political power in society, and it is owed to the
timp, fora dreptului pozitiv asigur dreptul initiatives with a political under-layer of the
forei politice care, valorificndu-1, i existent political parties. The limitation of
ajusteaz legitimitatea (Mihai, 2009, pp. 277- restituted agricultural properties to ten hectares,
278). through Law 18/1991, the current regulations
Asupra dreptului pozitiv i exercit concerning the acquisition of Romanian

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influena i grupurile de interese, adic acele citizenship or the electoral law in force in
structuri grupale, care n baza unei atitudini Romania, the decriminalization of
comune pot transmite celorlalte structuri homosexuality etc., all of these have a political
sociale intenia realizrii anumitor scopuri ce side, given by the political variety of the
vizeaz stabilirea, meninerea sau parliamentary majority at a certain moment in
intensificarea formelor de comportament n history. However, the form of the regulation
care sunt implicate atitudini comune. and its application is greatly relieved by the
Asemenea grupuri, bazate pe un sistem de partisan political interest, because thus it
interaciuni stabile, care respect distribuia cannot impose itself as a general obligation. At
general a intereselor n echilibru (pentru o the same time, the authority of the positive law
reacie organizat la presiunile externe asupra ensures the law of the political force, which
acestor interese), acioneaz pentru values it and adjusts its legitimacy (Mihai,
maximalizarea intereselor membrilor si. Ele 2009, pp. 277-278).
fac publice cauzele pe care le apr, sprijin The positive law is also influenced by
sau resping candidaturi la alegeri, dezbat interest groups, meaning those group
proiecte de legi, influeneaz legislativul prin structures that on the basis of a common
tacticile lobbby-ului etc. (Popa, 2007, p. 12). attitude can transmit to other social structures
Un rol din ce n ce mai mare n jocul the intention to reach certain ends that aim to
politic l au alturi de partidele politice, stabilize, maintain or intensify the forms of
grupurile de presiune. n funcie de statutul lor behaviour that involve common attitudes. Such
juridic, pot fi grupri cu caracter obligatoriu groups, based on a system of stable
(de exemplu: consiliile de administraie a interactions, which respect the general and
comunitilor teritoriale la nivelul comun, balanced distribution of interests (for an
ora, jude) sau cu caracter voluntar, care in de organized reaction to the external pressures on
dreptul privat (de exemplu: societile these interests), and act for a maximization of
industriale i comerciale, sindicatele .a.). De the interests of its members. They make the
regul, cile de aciune ale acestor grupuri causes that they defend, public and they
sunt: propaganda, jocul de influen (corupia support or reject the candidacies in elections,
este limita acestui tip de intervenie) precum i debate law projects, influence the legislative
prin aciuni directe: greva, blocarea strzilor through lobbying etc. (Popa, 2007, p. 12).
.a. The pressure groups play an ever more
Nu trebuie neglijat nici puterea important role in the political game besides the
minoritilor, definite ca un grup numeric political parties. Depending on their legal
inferior restului populaiei unui stat, posednd, status, there are compulsory groups (e.g.
din punct de vedere etnic, religios sau administrative councils of territorial
lingvistic, caractere care l difereniaz de cele communities in districts, cities, counties) or
ale restului populaiei i manifest, chiar de voluntary groups, pertaining to the private law
manier implicit, un sentiment de solidaritate, (e.g. industrial and commercial societies,
cu scopul de a-i prezerva cultura, tradiiile, syndicates and others). As a rule, the practices
religia i limba (Lajoie, 2002, p. 23). of these groups are: propaganda, influence
n unele state, asemenea grupuri sunt games (corruption is the limit of this practice)
organizate n partide politice, uniuni sau as well as through direct actions: strikes, street
asociaii legal nregistrate i recunoscute de blockades and so on.

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autoritile statale i lupt, printr-o mare One must not neglect the power of the
varietate de mijloace i metode, pentru ca minorities, defined as a group inferior in
puterea de stat s adopte reglementrile legale number to the rest of the population of a state,
solicitate (folosirea limbii materne n coli, which possesses certain ethnic, religious or
administraie i justiie, creterea gradului de linguistic characteristics that set it apart from
autonomie a localitilor n care acetia sunt the rest of the population and which manifests,
majoritari etc). in an implicit manner, a feeling of solidarity, in
order to preserve its culture, traditions, religion
4. Rolul societii civile n activitatea de and language (Lajoie, 2002, p. 23).
elaborare a dreptului In some states, such groups are organized
Societatea civil trebuie amintit i ea n in political parties, unions or associations
rndul factorilor de configurare a dreptului legally registered and recognized by the state
ntruct prin funciile pe care le exercit: authorities and fight through a great diversity
funcia de supraveghere a puterii publice, of means and methods to force the state to
funcia sancionatorie i cea educativ poate adopt the requested legal regulations (the use of
exercita o influen asupra elaborrii dreptului. the mother tongue in schools, the
De pild, prin intermediul funciei de administration and in justice, the increase of
supraveghere, societatea civil ine sub autonomy of settlements where they form a
presiune puterea public pentru ca aceasta s majority etc.).
reglementeze n manier corespunztoare
instituii fundamentale precum: proprietatea, 4. The role of the Civil Society in the
familia, dreptul la munc, dreptul la educaie Activities of Developing the law
.a. sau prin funcia sancionatorie Civil society must be mentioned among the
materializat n moiuni de cenzur, forme factors that configure the law through the
specifice de grev, dezbateri pe probleme de functions exercised: the function of supervising
interes pentru societate n general. the public powers, the function of sanctioning
Definit ca ansamblul formelor and educating can exercise an influence on the
organizatorice nestatale, apolitice, development of law. For example, by means of
fundamentate pe dreptul de liber asociere the supervising function, civil society keeps the
consfinit de Constituie, prin intermediul public power under pressure in order to
crora sunt exprimate public interesele regulate the fundamental institutions
specifice (economice, sociale, spirituale, accordingly: property, family, the right to
profesionale etc.) ale opiniei publice, constituie work, the right to an education etc. or by means
ansa pe care o au cei fr putere de a se of the sanctioning function which takes the
exprima, de a judeca puterea; ea poate i shape of censure motions, specific forms of
trebuie s fie o contra pondere n raport cu striking, debates on the matters of interest for
fora statului i a structurilor politice. Trebuie society in general.
s fie cea care promoveaz adevrata esen a Civil society is defined as an ensemble of
solidaritii umane, cea care determin apolitical and non-governmental forms of
implicarea cetenilor n treburile cetii organization, founded on the right to free
ncepnd cu respectarea drepturilor i association as sanctioned by the Constitution,
libertilor fundamentale individuale i through which specific public interests
colective, lupta mpotriva corupiei i (economic, social, spiritual, professional etc.)

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criminalitii, a ignoranei i birocraiei, of the public opinion are expressed, it


asigurarea traiului decent, ocrotirea mediului, constitutes the opportnity of those without
modernizarea nvmntului, culturii i artei power to express themselves; it can and must
etc. (Voicu, 2006, pp. 53-54). act as a counterweight in relation to the force ot
n ara noastr, chiar dac n prezent, rolul the state and the political strutures. It must
societii civile este unul destul de ambiguu, promote the true essence of human solidarity,
marcat de multe ori de partizanate politice, which determines the citizens to become
totui aceasta a obinut un succes notabil care involved in the business of the city-state,
ne permite s susinem c este nevoie s-i beginning with respect for the fundamental
asume calitatea de factor de configurare a individual and collective rights and liberties,
dreptului. Este vorba de rolul marcant pe care the fight against corruption and criminality,
1-a avut n influenarea puterii legislative de a ignorance and bureaucracy, ensuring a decent
reglementa organizarea i funcionarea celor living, protecting the environment,
mai importante elemente ale sale: sindicatele modernizing teaching, culture and art etc.
(Legea nr. 54/1991), patronatele (Legea nr. (Voicu, 2006, pp. 53-54).
356/2001 i H.G. 503/1991), asociaiile i In our country, even at present, the role of
fundaiile respectiv organizaiile the civil society is sufficiently ambiguous,
neguvernamentale (O.G. 26/2000, Legea nr. marked frequently by political parties, and yet it
34/1998) .a. experienced a notable success, which allows us
to state that it is necessary to assume its role in
5. Influena mediului socio-politic configurating the law. This has to do with the
internaional asupra elaborrii dreptului noteworthy role that it has had in influencing
intern the legislative power, in regulating the
Existena oamenilor se desfor nu numai organization and functioning of the most
n cadrul socio-politic naional, ci existena lor important of its elements: syndicates (Law
presupune i calitatea de membrii ai 54/1991), patronages (Law 356/2001 and H.G.
comunitii regionale i internaionale. 503/1991), asociations, foundations and non-
Raporturile care apar la nivelul comunitii governmental organizations (O.G. 26/2000,
internaionale care, n mare parte sunt relaii Law 34/1998) and others.
interstatale, creeaz un anumit climat
internaional ce se concretizeaz n diferite 5. The influence of the international
categorii de norme i principii, care formeaz social-political environment on the
ordinea juridic internaional. Un exemplu development of internal law
care reflect fora de influenare a dreptului Peoples lives take place not only within the
intern de ctre particularitile existenei national socio-political framework, their
umane la nivelul structurilor internaionale, de existence involves their belonging to the
formele de organizare a relaiilor la acest nivel, members of a regional and international
precum i de specificul ideologiei sociale, l communities.
constituie principiile ce stau la baza dreptului The relations formed at the level of the
internaional contemporan: principiul international community, consisting mostly of
cooperrii ntre state, principiul soluionrii relations between states, create a certain
panice a diferendelor internaionale; international climate, which materializes in
nerecurgerea la for sau la ameninarea cu different categories of laws and principles,

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fora; neamestecul n treburile interne; dreptul which form the international legal system. The
popoarelor de a dispune de ele nsele; principles at the foundation of the
egalitatea suveran a statelor; inviolabilitatea contemporary international law are a relevant
frontierelor; integritatea teritorial; respectarea example of the power to influence the domestic
drepturilor i libertilor fundamentale ale law by the existing human particularities at the
omului i nu n ultimul rnd respectarea cu level of the international structures, by the
bun credin a obligaiilor asumate n forms of organization of the relations at this
conformitate cu dreptul internaional. level as well as the specific characteristic of the
Este de necontestat c n societatea social ideology. These principles include the
contemporan arhitectura sistemelor de drept principle of cooperation between states, the
naionale este influenat de mediul socio- principle of a peaceful solution of international
politic internaional i european. differences; not resorting to force or threats to
Astfel, calitatea Romniei de stat membru use force; noninvolvement in the domestic
al Uniunii Europene i apartenena la marea matters of other countries; the right of the
familie a statelor lumii (Organizaia Naiunilor peoples to lead themselves; the equal
Unite) genereaz printre altele i obligaia sovereignty of all nations; the inviolability of
principal a armonizrii dreptului romnesc cu national boarders; territorial integrity; the
dreptul internaional i cel unional. respect for basic human rights and liberties and
n prezent, crearea unei legislaiei la nivel last but not least the respect in good faith for
intern implic nu doar un efort de organizare the obligations assumed in accordance with
tehnic, de corelare naional, ci i unul de international law.
corelare comunitar i internaional. n acest It is indisputable that in contemporary
sens, art. 12 din Legea nr. 24/2000 privind society the structure of the national legal
normele de tehnic legislativ pentru systems is influenced by the international and
elaborarea actelor normative, republicat n European socio-political environment.
2004 stabilete c actul normativ trebuie s se Thus, the status of Romania as a member
integreze organic n sistemul legislaiei, scop n state of the European Union and as a part of the
care: a) proiectul de act normativ trebuie great family of the states of the world (the
corelat cu prevederile actelor normative de United Nations) generates the obligation to
nivel superior sau de acelai nivel, cu care se harmonize Romanian law with the international
afl n conexiune; b) proiectul de act normativ, and UN law.
ntocmit pe baza unui act de nivel superior, nu At present, the creation of domestic
poate depai limitele competenei instituite prin legislation involves not only an effort to
acel act i nici nu poate contraveni principiilor achieve technical organization, national
i dispoziiilor acestuia; c) proiectul de act correlation, but also one to achieve community
normativ trebuie s fie corelat cu and international correlation. In this sense,
reglementarile comunitare i cu tratatele article 12 from Law 24/2000 concerning the
internaionale la care Romnia este parte. norms of legislative technique for the
Prin urmare, elaborarea unui proiect de act development of normative acts, republished in
normativ implic armonizarea cu prevederile 2004, established that the normative act must
tratatelor internaionale la care ara noastr este be organically integrated into the legislative
parte i intervine n baza principiului system, for which purpose: a) the bill must be
respectrii tratatelor internaionale. ntre legea correlated with the stipulations of laws of the

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intern i un tratat international nu pot aprea same or a higher level, with which it is
discrepane, ntruct ntr-un asemenea caz connected; b) the bill, drawn up on the basis of
legea naional ar face inoperabile dispoziiile a higher level act, cannot surpass the limits of
din tratate, ceea ce ar genera nerespectarea competence instituted through this act and
obligaiilor asumate i a principiului pacta sunt cannot contravene its principles and
servanda prevzut n Constituia Romniei. De stipulations; c) the bill must be correlated with
asemenea, corelarea unui proiect de act the community regulations and the
normativ cu tratatele internaionale intervine i international treaties, of which Romania is a
n baza principiului prioritii tratatelor signatory.
internaionale n materia drepturilor omului, Therefore, the development of a legal
consacrat de art. 20 din Constituia Romniei project involves the harmonization of the
(Grigore, 2009, p. 286). stipulations from international treaties, of
Mai mult, ca urmare a aderrii i n final a which our country is a signatory and intervenes
integrrii Romniei n Uniunea European, din on the basis of the principle of respecting
punct de vedere juridic, s-a nscut i o nou in- international treaties. There can be no
terferen, ntre dreptul naional i cel al discrepancies between a domestic law and an
Uniunii Europene. Ca orice alt stat membru, international treaty, because in such a case the
Romnia i-a asumat obligaia corelrii domestic law would render the stipulations of
legislaiei interne cu legislaia comunitar prin the treaty inoperable, which would lead to
transpunerea i implementarea n ordinea breaking the obligations assumed and of the
juridica intern a acquis-ului comunitar, mai principle pacta sunt servanda stipulated in the
exact actele normative interne trebuie s fie Romanian Constitution. Also, the correlation of
conforme cu reglementrile dreptului a law project with the international treaties
comunitar. intervenes on the basis of the principle of
Prin urmare, este de necontestat priority of international treaties concerning
constatarea potrivit creia mediul social-politic human rights, as sanctioned by article 20 from
naional i internaional exercit influene the Romanian Constitution (Grigore, 2009, p.
marcante asupra elaborrii dreptului, 286).
constituind o veritabil surs real a acestuia. More than that, as a consequence of the
adherence and finally of the integration of
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