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Feodor Dostoievski

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(Redirec ionat de la Dostoievski) Salt la: Navigare, c utare Feodor Dostoievski

Portret de Vasili Perov, 1872 Na tere 11 noiembrie, (30 octombrie, stil vechi), 1821 Moscova, Rusia 9 februarie, (28 ianuarie, O.S.), 1881 St. Petersburg, Rusia prozator, publicist Rus

Deces

Profesiune Na ionalitate

Mi care Realism literar Semn tur

Feodor Mihailovici Dostoievski ( , Dostoevsky ascult ) 11 noiembrie, (30 octombrie, stil vechi), 1821, 9 februarie, (28 ianuarie, O.S.), 1881, St. Petersburg, Rusia) a fost unul din cei mai importan i scriitori ru i, ale c rui opere au avut un efect profund i de durat asupra fic iunii din secolul al XX-lea. Adesea prezentnd personaje aflate n st ri de con tiin extreme sau fracturate, operele sale demonstreaz un talent extraordinar pentru p trunderea psihologiei umane i analiza politicii sociale i spirituale a societ ii din Rusia epocii sale. Multe dintre operele sale au fost profetice i el a fost un precursor al unor idei moderne. Se spune despre el c este p rintele existen ialismului, n special n nsemn ri din subteran , volum descris de Walter Kaufmann drept cea mai bun uvertur pentru existen ialism scris vreodat . Este unul dintre cei mai importan i autori din literatura universal , a c rui oper este o str lucit replic literar i filosofic la criza social i spiritual a vremii sale, zugr vind ciocniri polifonice ntre personaje originale i paradoxale, aflate ntr-o permanent i pasionant c utare a armoniei sociale i umane, marcate de un profund psihologism i tragism. C r ile sale sunt traduse i comentate n ntreaga lume, dup ele s-au realizat numeroase spectacole de teatru i filme celebre.

Cuprins
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1 Biografie 2 Opere i influen a lor 3 Bibliografie suplimentar 4 Opere majore 5 Leg turi externe

[modific ] Biografie

Spitalul Mariinsky, locul de na tere al scriitorului

Feodor a fost cel de-al doilea copil dintre cei apte ai lui Mihail si Mariei Dostoievski. Imediat dup ce mama sa a murit de tuberculoz n 1837, el i fratele s u Mihail au fost trimi i la Academia Tehnic Militar din Sankt Petersburg. Tat l lor, un chirurg militar n retragere, care a lucrat la Spitalul pentru s raci Mariinsky (Sfnta Maria) din Moscova, a murit n 1839. De i nu este sigur, se pare c ar fi fost ucis de un servitor care i-a turnat vodc pe gt pn la sufocarea sa. Indiferent de ce s-a ntmplat cu adev rat, Sigmund Freud s-a ocupat de acest episod n articolul s u Dostoievski i paricidul (1928). Dostoievski a fost arestat i nchis n 1849 pentru activit i antistatale mpotriva arului Nicolae I. Pe 16 noiembrie din aceluia i an, a fost condamnat la moarte pentru leg turile cu un grup de intelectuali liberali, din Cercul Petra evski. n plan biografic, momentul crucial al vie ii lui Dostoievski l-a reprezentat anul 1849, cnd a fost arestat i condamnat la moarte pentru participarea la ntrunirile unui cerc de tineri fourieri ti (condus de Mihail Petra evski), n cadrul c rora se purtau discu ii subversive. mpreun cu ceilalti de inu i, a fost transportat n pia a unde aveau loc execu iile i trecut prin toat procedura de anun are a condamn rii la moarte prin mpu care. Dup patru ani n katorga, urma i de al i cinci de serviciu militar obligatoriu, revine la Petersburg i i reia activitatea literar . Pn n momentul arestului fusese plasat de critic n umbra lui Gogol. Incidenta crizelor de epilepsie, la care era predispus, a crescut in aceasta perioada. La eliberarea din inchisoare n 1854, i s-a oferit ansa s devin soldat pentru restul pedepsei, n Regimentul siberian. Dostoievski i-a petrecut cinci ani din viata aici, nti a fost caporal, apoi a devenit locotenent la al aptelea batalion din acest regiment, sta ionat lng fortul Semipalatinsk din Kazahstan. A fost o experien care i-a schimbat i p rerile ideologice, astfel Dostoevski a abandonat ideile liberale i a devenit conservator i extrem de religios. S-a mprietenit cu un alt conservator, Constantin Pobedonos ev. A avut o leg tur i mai apoi s-a c s torit cu Maria Dmitrievna Isaeva, v duva unui cunoscut din Siberia. n 1860, s-a ntors la St. Petersburg, unde a scos o serie de gazete literare alaturi de fratele sau mai mare, Mihail, dar f r mare succes. In 1864 sotia sa moare, eveniment care il lasa puternic afectat, iar la scurt timp isi pierde si fratele, care i era foarte drag. Cum financiar, Dostoievski nu avea nici o economie si cu toate straduintele nu se intrevedea vreo sursa de venit scriitorul cade intr-o depresie accentuata si incepe sa joace jocuri de noroc de pe urma carora acumuleaza datorii uriase.

Mormntul lui Dostoievski

i A suferit de patima jocului i de pe urma efectelor acesteia. Se pare ca romanul Crim pedeaps cel mai cunoscut roman al scriitorului, a fost grabinc finalizat pentru a-l da spre publicare, fapt ce i-ar fi adus un avans in bani de la editura. Dostoievski a scris n acela i timp i nuvela Juc torul pentru a-i satisface preten iile editorului sau Stellovski care, potrivit contractului, dac nu primea o oper nou ar fi intrat n posesia drepturilor de autor a tuturor operelor dostoievskiene. Pentru a se sustrage obligatiilor fata de creditori i cautand noi cazinouri, Dostoievski c l tore te n Occident. Aici ncearca s reia leg tura cu Apollinaria (Polina) Suslova o studenta cu care avusese o relatie cu c iva ani n urm , insa aceasta declina cererea n c s torie. Astfel Dostoievski se casatoreste 1867 cu Anna Snitkina, o femeie de doar 20 de ani, de profesie stenografa. n aceast period scrie cele mai importante opere ale sale. Din 1873 pn n 1881 i-a r zbunat insuccesele din domeniul jurnalistic i a editat un lunar cu povestiri, schi e i articole despre evenimente curente, Jurnalul scriitorului. Ziarul a avut un succes fenomenal. n 1877 Dostoievski tine un discurs de evocare la nmormntarea prietenului s u, poetul Nekrasov, provocand mari controverse. Trei ani mai tarziu cu pu in timp naintea mor ii sale tine o faimoas cuvntare despre Pu kin la dezvelirea monumentului acestuia din urm din Moscova. n ultimii ani de via , Feodor Dostoievski a tr it n sta iunea Staraia Russa, care era mai aproape de Sankt Petersburg. Moare pe 28 ianuarie (stil vechi) 1881 i este ngropat in cimitirul Tihvin lng Mn stirea Alexandr Nevski, Sankt Petersburg.

[modific ] Opere

i influen a lor

Statuia lui Dostoievski la Omsk.

Influen a lui Dostoevski a fost uria , practic nu exist romancier important din secolul al XXlea, de la Herman Hesse la Marcel Proust, William Faulkner, Albert Camus, Franz Kafka, Henry Miller, Yukio Mishima, Gabriel Garca Mrquez,Vladimir Nabokov, Henry James, Joseph Conrad si chiar D.H. Lawrence, asupra c rora Dostoievski s nu- i exercitat influen a. La noi, i ele romanele lui Mircea Eliade (Huliganii) sau Nicolae Breban (Animale bolnave) poart urma acestei influen e. Romancierul american Ernest Hemingway l-a citat pe Dostoevski drept surs de influen major in autobiografia sa. n mod esen ial un scriitor mitic (n aceast privin a fost comparat cu Herman Melville), Dostoevski a creat un opus de opere de o imens putere hipnotic , avnd urm toarele tr s turi: scene dramatizate (conclavuri) n care personajele, ntr-o atmosfer fierbinte sau scandaloas , se angajeaz n dialoguri socratice la Russe; c utarea lui Dumnezeu, problema R ului i suferin ele celor inocen i. Tipologia personajelor sale e una extrem de simpl : cre tini umili (prin ul M kin, Sonia Marmeladova, Alio a Karamazov), nihili ti autodistructivi (Svidrigailov, Smerdiakov, Stavrogin), cinici (Feodor Karamazov), intelectuali rebeli (Raskolnikov, Ivan Karamazov); personajele sale ac ioneaz sub impulsul unor idei, i nu al unor instincte, de i, n anumite cazuri, i acestea pot juca un rol semnificativ. Romanele lui Dostoevski sunt comprimate n timp (ac iunea dureaz doar cteva zile) i acest procedeu l ajuta pe autor s scape de una din tr s turile importante ale prozei realiste, de coroziunea vie ii umane n timp. Personajele sale sunt de fapt niste traduceri ale unor idei spirituale i ies din acest motiv n afara timpului, sunt atemporale. Alte teme care reapar obsedant sunt: suicidul, mndria r nita, colapsul valorilor familiei, regenerarea spiritual cu

ajutorul suferin ei (cel mai important motiv), respingerea culturii vestice i afirmarea valorilor ortodoxiei ruse i arismului. Criticii literari ru i, cum ar fi Mihail Bahtin, au caracterizat opera sa drept 'polifonic ': spre deosebire de alti romancieri, Dostoevski nu este interesat de o 'unic viziune' , ci prezint situa ia sub forma unei suite de unghiuri foarte diferite, din acest motiv romanele sale sunt extrem de dramatice, sunt romane de idei, n care punctele de vedere conflictuale i personajele se dezvolt adesea ntr-un crescendo insuportabil. Este o opinie comun a criticilor literari c , al turi de operele unor Dante Alighieri, William Shakespeare, Miguel de Cervantes, Victor Hugo i a ale altor c iva scriitori, romanele, povestirile i nuvelele lui Dostoevski se nscriu n Canonul european i au influen at n mod decisiv existen ialismul i expresionismul, ca s d m doar dou exemple.

[modific ] Bibliografie suplimentar


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Ion Iano i, Dostoevski i Tolstoi. Poveste cu doi necunoscu i, 2004 Ion Iano i, Dostoevski, ed. Teora, 2003 Ion Iano i, Dostoevski. Tragedia subteranei, 2004

[modific ] Opere majore


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Oameni s rmani (1846) Nop i albe (1848) Dublul: un poem din Petersburg (1846) Neto ka Nezvanova (1849) Satul Stepancikovo i locuitorii s i (1859) Umili i i obidi i (1861) Amintiri din casa mor ilor (1862) nsemn ri din subteran (1864) Crim i pedeaps (1866) Juc torul (1867) Idiotul (1868) Demonii (1872) Adolescentul (1875) Fra ii Karamazov (1880)

The Raw Youth


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search "The Adolescent" redirects here. For the 1979 French film, see The Adolescent (film).

Cover of The Adolescent The Raw Youth, also published as The Adolescent or An Accidental Family, (Russian: ), is a novel by Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky, first published in 1875. Ronald Hingley, author of Russians and Society and a specialist in Dostoevsky's works, named this novel a bad one, whereas Richard Pevear (in the introduction to his and his wife's 2003 translation of the novel), vehemently defended its worth in spite of those who have deemed the work a failure. Originally Dostoevsky had created the work under the title "Discord". The novel chronicles the life of 19-year-old intellectual, Arkady Dolgoruky, illegitimate child of the controversial and womanizing landowner Versilov. A focus of the novel is the recurring conflict between father and son, particularly in ideology, which represents the battles between the conventional "old" way of thinking in the 1840s and the new nihilistic point of view of the youth of 1860s Russia. Where as the young of Arkady's time embraced a very negative opinion of Russian culture in contrast to Western or European culture. Another main theme is Arkady's development and utilization of his "idea" in his life, mainly a form of rebellion against society (and his father) through the rejection of attending a university, and the making of money and living independently, onto the eventual aim of becoming excessively wealthy and powerful.

[edit] Characters
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Arkady Makarovich Dolgoruky is the protagonist of the novel. He took the name Dolgoruky from his aged adoptive father, even though he is the illegitimate son of the dissipated landowner Versilov. Arkady's dream is to "become a Rothschild" (i.e. become

fabulously wealthy like the historical Baron James Rothschild). In his quest for wealth Arkady becomes entangled with socialist conspirators and a young widow, whose future is somehow dependent on a document that Arkady has sewn into his jacket.
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Makar Ivanovich Dolgoruky is an aging peasant and Arkady's legal father. He is a respected lifelong wanderer. Andrei Versilov is Arkady's biological father and a dissipated landowner. Scandals swirl around him, including a history with a mentally unstable girl and rumors of being a Catholic. Katerina Akhmakov is a young widow and romantic interest of both Versilov and Arkady. A letter sewn to Arkady's jacket may have dire consequences for her future. Monsieur Touchard was Arkady's old school teacher. His strict nature and disrespect of Arkady made a deep impression on the protagonist.

The Adolescent or A Raw Youth


The Adolescent by Fyodor Dostoevsky English translation by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky Everyman s Library, Alfred A. Knopf, New York (2003) This is an excellent translation of a book I first read about fifteen or sixteen years ago as A Raw Youth, translated by Constance Garnett. I still prefer her version of the title, but this new translation is every bit as powerful as Garnett s. It renders Dostoevsky s heightened form of literary delirium into compulsively readable English that remains true in feeling to the period in which the novel is set. The Adolescent was first published in 1875, while Leo Tolstoy was at work on Anna Karenina. As with much of his later work, Dostoevsky used The Adolescent to reveal what he saw as the gradual disintegration of Russian life and society. By taking as his main character and narrator an illegitimate nineteen-year-old boy, he brought something new to the Russian Novel, while offering readers a glimpse into the minds of people who were members of accidental families. But his main concern was the Accidental Family in a

larger, broader sense, as it represented the general population descending into a state of disorder. This is all discussed more accurately and eloquently in Richard Pevear s introduction, which, I confess, I haven t thoroughly read. But I did read the translators notes as I encountered their numbered references in the story, and which are located somewhat inconveniently at the end of the book. The notes offer interesting tidbits about contemporary events as well as Russian history and literature. They illustrate how Dostoevsky was well up on the news of his day, and just how well read he was. The book also contains a useful chronology placed against a background of literary and historical events. And now, a little about the story itself: Owing to his unstable childhood, Arkady Makarovich Dolgoruky, the narrator and adolescent in question, leads a solitary life in which he comes to possess a certain powerful idea. This idea is quite advanced and unusual for someone his age, but, given his personality, it is a logical development. He also feels safe in his idea, because he knows he can embrace it and put it to work at any time. He is even arrogant as a result. But he keeps putting it off. Or, rather, life s events prevent him from going ahead with his idea. His situation is such that he needs to do, understand, or take care of, just one more thing then he can fall back into his idea. He resents the constant interference of others, but is powerless to resist becoming involved in their intrigues. At the same time, he is the first to admit that he is far too impressionable for his own good, and that the slightest distraction sends him headlong into the nearest trouble. In the process, he causes plenty of trouble himself. It isn t long before Arkady s idea takes a back seat to the tumultous life of his family, with whom he has been recently reunited. His natural father, Versilov, is a highly intelligent person of noble background, a perceptive remnant of Old Russia filled with contradictions, to the point that it appears he might possess two distinct personalities. His mother is a peasant married to an uneducatedbut-wise and kind-hearted wanderer, Makar Ivanovich, who is Arkady s legal father. Arkady has a sister, and also a half-brother and half-sister from Versilov s first marriage. The real trouble begins when Arkady is entrusted with a certain document a letter written by a beautiful, enigmatic young widow which states that her father, who is a wealthy old prince, is mentally unstable and should be committed. Arkady secretly keeps this document with him twenty-four hours a day, sewn into his coat. The document is worth a tremendous amount of

money; some people, including members of Arkady s own family, either think it was destroyed or want it to be destroyed; others hope it exists and want it for its blackmail value. To complicate matters, Versilov is in love with the young widow and so is Arkady. There are dozens of minor scandals and intrigues that swirl around the main story, each bringing with it more insight, and none of which can be deemed extraneous. Arkady presents each bit of knowledge in its turn in his Notes, as it happened and as he came to understand it himself. And that is his goal. Writing everything down without trying to hide his own mistakes and embarrassment is the only way he can put matters to rest. An equally important facet of the novel is Arkady s desperate need to know and understand his father, who had always kept him at arm s length. First he hates him, then he loves him to the point of worship, and back and forth it goes throughout the story according to his father s strange actions and confessions, none of which I will give away here. I also won t tell what happens to the document, or how the story itself is finally resolved. Suffice it to say, The Adolescent is a great book on many levels: first, a real story is told; second, it is full of suspense and humor; third, it drives itself forward relentlessly; fourth, it gives a valuable understanding of its times; fifth, like all of Dostoevsky s work, it makes you think. This is Dostoevsky s last major work before his final masterpiece, The Brother s Karamazov. It is a commanding literary performance given by a writer who knew how to challenge his readers, and how to entertain them as well.