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UNIVERSITATEA DIN BUCURETI

Facultatea de Fizic
L U C R A R E M E T O D I C O - T I I N I F I C
! E N T R U O B " I N E R E A # R A D U L U I D I D A C T I C I
$ N $ N V M % N T
Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice
A(lica/ii
Ca+didat0 !')1e2)' COSTINEL C$RCIUMARU
C)+duct)' &tii+/i1ic0 C)+13 u+i43 D'3 CRISTEA !ETRIC
5677
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
CUPRINSUL LUCRRII
INTRODUCERE 5
CAPITOLUL I. ELECTROSTATICA. NOIUNI FUNDAMENTALE 7
I.1 Introducere: Interacun !unda"enta#e 7
I.$ Sarcna e#ectrc% &
I.' Con(er)area (arcn e#ectrce *
I.+ Cuant!carea (arcn e#ectrce 1,
1.5 C-".u# e#ectro(tatc. Le/ea #u Cou#o"0 11
I.1 C-".u# e#ectrc 1+
I.1.1 Inten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc: )ectoru# nten(tate
E

1+
I.1.$ 2otena#u# c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc: (ca#aru#

1&
I.1.' Crcu#aa )ectoru#u
E

.e o cur0% dat% $,
I.1.+ Ener/a .otena#% a ((te"u#u c-".3(arcn% .unct!or"% $$
I.1.5 F#u4u# c-".u#u e#ectrc $'
I.7 Le/ea #u 5au(( $+
I.& Ecuaa #u La.#ace. Ecuaa #u 2o((on $7
CAPITOLUL II. MA5NETOSTATICA. NOIUNI FUNDAMENTALE $*
II.1 De!nrea c-".u#u "a/netc $*
II.$ Le/ea 6ot3Sa)art3La.#ace '1
II.' Interacunea curen#or .ara#e# '+
II.+ 2otena#u# "a/netc )ector
A

'5
II.5 F#u4u# nduce c-".u#u "a/netc '7
II.1 Le/ea crcuta#% A".7re .entru )d '&
II.7 2otena#u# "a/netc (ca#ar8
m
+,
II.&.1 Starea de "a/net9are. Mo"entu# "a/netc +,
II.&.$ Ma/net9area +$
II.* Mode#u# a".eran a# cor.ur#or "a/net9ate +'
II.*.1 6uc#a e#e"entar% de curent +'
II.*.$ Curentu# e#ectrc a".eran +5
II.1,. Induca "a/netc% : nten(tatea c-".u#u "a/netc ;n cor.ur +7
CAPITOLUL III. FORA LORENT< +*
III.1 =endr> A. Lorent9 ? Scurt% 0o/ra!e +*
III.$ Fora Lorent9 5,
III.' Acunea !ore Lorent9 5$
$
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CAPITOLUL IV. CONFI5URAII DE C@M2URI ELECTRICE AI
MA5NETICE CU A2LICAII IM2ORTANTE
55
IB.1 Con!/ura de c-".ur e#ectrce 55
IB.1.1 D.o#u# e#ectrc 55
IB.1.$ D(tr0ua #nar% de (arcn% 57
IB.1.' Conden(atoru# c#ndrc 5&
IB.1.+ D(tr0ua .#an%8 un!or"% : n!nt% de (arcn% e#ectrc% 5*
IB.1.+ Conden(atoru# .#an 1,
IB.1.5 D(tr0ue (!erc%8 (u.er!ca#%8 de (arcn% e#ectrc% 11
IB.1.1 Conden(atoru# (!erc 1'
IB.$ Con!/ura de c-".ur "a/netce 1+
IB.$.1 C-".u# .rodu( de un curent con(tant8 #nar8 n!nt 1+
IB.$.$ C-".u# "a/netc a# une (.re crcu#are de curent 15
IB.$.' C-".u# "a/netc .rodu( de un (o#enod 11
IB.$.+ 6o0ne#e =e#"Co#t9 1&
CAPITOLUL V. MIACAREA 2ARTICULELOR DNCERCATE ELECTRIC
DN C@M2URI ELECTRICE AI MA5NETICE
7,
B.1 Ecuaa de ":care a .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate e#ectrc ;n c-".ur e#ectrce :
"a/netce
7,
B.$ M:carea .artcu#e ;nc%rcate ;n c-".ur e#ectrce : "a/netce un!or"e
Fca9u# nere#at)(tG
71
CAPITOLUL VI. RE<ULTATE EH2ERIMENTALE 77
BI.1 Deter"narea (arcn e#ectrce e#e"entare .rn metoda Millikan 77
BI.1.1 Scurt (torc 77
BI.1.$ 6a9e#e teoretce a#e e4.er"entu#u 7*
BI.1.' MontaIu# e4.er"enta# &'
BI.1.+ Modu# de #ucru &5
BI.1.5 2re9entare .ro/ra" de ca#cu# &7
BI.$ Deter"narea (arcn (.ec!ce
m e
ut#9-nd tu0u# cu !a(ccu# e#ectronc
;n/u(t.
*,
BI.$.1 Sco.u# #ucr%r *,
BI.$.$ 6a9e#e teoretce a#e e4.er"entu#u *,
BI.$.' D(.o9t)u# e4.er"enta# *1
BI.$.+ Modu# de #ucru *'
BI.$.5 2re#ucrarea date#or e4.er"enta#e *'
CAPITOLUL VII. A6ORDAREA NOIUNILOR DE SARCINE
ELECTRICE AI C@M2URI ELECTRICE AI MA5NETICE DN
DNBEEM@NTUL 2REUNIBERSITAR
*5
BII.1 Conce.tu# de c-". : de (arcn% e#ectrc% ;n .redarea !9c *5
BII.$ Dncadrarea noun#or de (arcn% e#ectrc%8 c-". e#ectrc : "a/netc ;n
"anua#e#e : .ro/ra"e#e :co#are
*7
'
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BII.' A(.ecte "etodce /enera#e cu e4e".#!c%r ;n cadru# te"e **
Proiect de tehnologie didactic (1) 1,5
Proiect de tehnologie didactic () 1,&
CONCLU<II 111
6I6LIO5RAFIE
DECLARA IE DE AUTENTICITATE
11$
11'
+
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INTRODUCERE
Tran(!or"%r#e .rn care a trecut ;n)%%"-ntu# .reun)er(tar ro"-ne(c ;n u#t" an
au condu(8 .rntre a#te#e8 #a "od!c%r (e"n!cat)e a#e .ro/ra"e#or :co#are8 "od!c%r
care nu au !o(t ;n(% ;ntotdeauna 0ene!ce. Un e4e".#u ;n ace(t (en( ;# con(ttue renunarea8
cu !oarte .une e4ce.8 #a noun#e de e#ectro(tatc%. Cu" .ot ! ;ne#e(e te"enc
!eno"ene .recu" nteraca e#ectro(tatc%8 conduca e#ectrc%8 e4(tena (.ectre#or : "u#te
a#te#e8 dac% nu (e cuno(c noun#e !unda"enta#e de e#ectro(tatc%J Ca da(c%#8 tre0ue (%
;ndru"%" e#e) (% de(co.ere :8 de "u#te or8 cCar (% rede(co.ere #u"ea8 nu (%3
0o"0ard%" cu n!or"a #.(te de (u.ort #o/c.
Lucrarea de !a% a0ordea9% e4.er"enta# (tudu# ":c%r .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate
e#ectrc ;n c-".ur e#ectrce : "a/netce8 a)-nd ca a.#ca deter"narea (arcn e#ectrce
a e#ectronu#u .rn "etoda M##>an : deter"narea (arcn (.ec!ce
m e
a e#ectronu#u8
ut#9-nd tu0u# cu !a(ccu# e#ectronc ;n/u(t. A:a cu" era !re(c8 ;nantea .%r
e4.er"enta#e8 a" a0ordat8 .e .arcur(u# a cnc ca.to#e8 noun#e !unda"enta#e de
e#ectro(tatc% : "a/neto(tatc%.
Structurat% .e :a.te ca.to#e8 #ucrarea cu.rnde tre .%r: teoretc%8 .ractc% :
"etodo#o/c%.
Teora e(te .re9entat% ;n .r"e#e cnc ca.to#e : nc#ude noiuni fundamentale
de electrostatic i magnetostatic FCa.. I : IIG8 fora Lorentz FCa.. IIIG8 configuraii
importante de cmpuri electrice i magnetice FCa.. IBG8 dinamica micarii particulelor
ncrcate n cmpuri electrice i magnetice FCa.. BGK
2artea a.#cat)% e(te e4.u(% ;n ca.to#u# BI : .re9nt% re9u#tate e4.er"enta#e
o0nute .entru determinarea sarcinii electrice elementare prin metoda Millikan : a
sarcinii specifice
m e
a electronului ut#9-nd tu0u# cu !a(ccu# ;n/u(t de e#ectron.
A"0e#e e4.er"ente au !o(t e!ectuate ;n La0oratoru# de E#ectrctate : Ma/net(" a#
Facu#t% de F9c% dn 6ucure:t. Re9u#tate#e e4.er"enta#e .recu" : .re#ucrarea date#or
e4.er"enta#e Frea#9ate cu (o!t3ur (.eca#9ateG (unt .re9entate cu aIutoru# unor ca.tur de
ecran.
Ca.to#u# BII e(te de(tnat "etodc : cu.rnde at-t o (nte9% a a0ord%r noun#or
de (arcn% e#ectrc%8 c-". e#ectrc : c-". "a/netc ;n ;n)%%"-ntu# .reun)er(tar8 c-t :
a(.ecte "etodce /enera#e cu e4e".#e de .roecte de act)tate ddactc%.
5
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Dn conte4tu# a"ntt "a (u(8 con(der c% #ucrarea .oate ! ut#% ca (u.ort "etodo#o/c
.entru co#e/ .ro!e(or de (.eca#tate care dore(c (% de9)o#te : (% a.ro!unde9e te"a8
.recu" : e#e)#or ce do)ede(c .reocu.%r deo(e0te ;n a.ro!undarea "atere. Totodat%8
(tudu# ":car .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate ;n c-".ur e#ectrce : "a/netce are nu"eroa(e
a.#ca .ractce ;n o.tca e#ectronc%8 ;n (.ectro"etra de "a(%8 tu0ur#e catodce8
acce#eratoare#e de .artcu#e8 ca.cane#e de on8 etc.
Autoru# "u#u"e:te .e acea(t% ca#e Facu#t% de F9c% a Un)er(t% dn
6ucure:t : ;ndru"%toru#u (%u :tn!c .entru acce(u# #a !ac#t%#e e4.er"enta#e :
.entru (.rInu# acordat ;n t".u# e#a0or%r #ucr%r.
Au/u(t8 $,11
2ro!e(or Co(tne# C;rcu"aru
1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
CAPITOLUL I
ELECTROSTATICA. NOIUNI FUNDAMENTALE
I.1 Introducere: Interacun !unda"enta#e
F9ca "odern% acce.t% e4(tena con!r"at% e4.er"enta# a patru tipuri de
interaciuni nu"te interac iuni fundamentale . Ace(te nteracun au caracter(tc !oarte
d!erte8 !nd de(cr(e #a n)e# !unda"enta# .rn teor 0a9ate .e ace#e (etur a4o"atce :
.redc care au (u.ra)eut con!runt%r dure cu nu"eroa(e#e e4.er"ente re#e)ante. Ce#e
.atru t.ur de nteracun8 ;".reun% cu .rnc.a#e#e #or caracter(tc8 (unt .re9entate ;n
Ta0e#u# I.I.
Ta!el I.I: T.ur#e !unda"enta#e de nteracun ;n natur% F.otr)t cuno:tne#or actua#eG
Interac"i#ne
Teorie
F.oner ;n do"enuG
Partic#le
Fcare "eda9%
nteracuneaG
Tria
Fre#at) #a
/ra)taeG
Co$%ortarea
Fd(tane L"arMG
Ra&a
de
acune
F"G
Tare
FNuc#ear%G
Cromodinamica
cuantic ? NCD FM.
5e##3Mann8 5. <Oe/8
=. D. 2o#t9er8 S.
Co#e"an8 D. 5ro((8 F.
P#c9e>G
Gluoni
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Q1 1,
315
Electromagnetic
Fre9u#tatu#
un!c%r forelor
electrice cu ce#e
magnetice ? R. C.
Ma4Oe##G
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Electrodinamica
cuantic ? NED FSn3
Itro To"ona/a8 R.
ScCOn/er8 R.
FeSn"an8 F. DS(onG
Fotoni 1,
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Q1Tr
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Slab
F.roduce
de9nte/rarea

G
Teoria forei
electroslae FA.
Sa#a"8 S. 5#a(CoO8 S.
Pen0er/ G
Mezonii
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co".#cat% 1,
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Gravitaional
!elati"itatea
generalizat FA.
En(tenG
Gra"itonii
F.otetceG
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Du.% cu" .ute" o0(er)a8 ntre interaciunile fundamentale amintite se numr
componenta electric a interaciunii electro#magnetice. Interacun#e electrice (e
"an!e(t% ;ntre cor.ur de(.re care (.une" c% (unt electrizate. Inten(tatea nteracun#or
e#ectrce e(te "%(urat% .rn nter"edu# forelor electrice. La n)e# !unda"enta#8
nten(tatea nteracun#or e#ectro"a/netce e(te caracter9at% .rn con(tanta ad"en(ona#%
7
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a (tructur !ne 1'7 T 1 . Or/nea : (e"n!caa ace(tu nu"%r au r%"a(8 ;n
cuda
.ro/re(e#or !%cute de !9ca teoretc%8 un "(ter .-n% ;n 9ua de a(t%9.
E4.er"enta#8 (e con(tat% c% forele electrice pot fi att de atracie$ ct i de
respingere.
Fore#e e#ectrce de.nd de d(tana "ede ;ntre cor.ur#e e#ectr9ate8 !ora (c%9-nd
.e "%(ur% ce cor.ur#e e#ectr9ate (e ;nde.%rtea9% unu# de a#tu#.
I.$ Sarcna e#ectrc%
2entru de(crerea (e"3c#a(c% a caracter(tc#or !ore e#ectrce8 (e .re(u.une c%
(ur(a nterace e#ectrce e(te o .ro.retate !unda"enta#% a "atere de(cr(% .rn "%r"ea
!9c% nu"t% sarcin electric. Fa.tu# c% !ore#e e#ectrce au at-t caracter atract) c-t :
re.u#()8 arat% c% .entru (ucce(u# une de(crer teoretce tre0ue !o#o(te ce# .un dou%
t.ur de (arcn% e#ectrc%. Ina#8 .r" cercet%tor au atr0ut .ro.ret%#e e#ectrce
e4(tene unor !#ude contnue (.eca#e8 fluide electrice F6enIa"n Fran>#nG8 ce
.enetrea9% toate cor.ur#e dn natur%8 con!erndu3#e proprieti electrice. De(co.err#e
u#teroare a#e !9c teoretce : e4.er"enta#e au ;n#ocut acea(t% "a/ne na#%8 dar
ntut)%8 : au ar%tat c% #a n)e# (u0ato"c (arcna e#ectrc% are (tructur% /ranu#ar%
Fcuantc%G8 ar ;ne#e/erea .ro!und% a nteracun#or e#ectrce e(te condonat% de
;ne#e/erea n)e#u#u (u03ato"c a# "atere.
E4.er"enta#8 (3a con(tatat ca e%ist numai dou tipuri de sarcin electric. Ace(te
t.ur de (arcn% (unt nu"te a(t%9 (arcn% poziti" FUG8 re(.ect) (arcn% negati"
F3G8 dn "ot)e ce )or de)en c#are ;n .ara/ra!u# ur"%tor.
Cor.ur#e care au e4ce( de (arcn% e#ectrc% de un anu"t t. (e nu"e(c corpuri ncrcate
electric. In ca9 contrar8 cor.ur#e (unt neutre electric. Cor.ur#e (unt electrizate atunc
c-nd (e /%(e(c ;n una dn ur"%toare#e (t%r:
3 Dnc%rcate e#ectrcK
3 Neutre8 dar a)-nd (arcn#e e#ectrce d(tr0ute neun!or" ;n )o#u"u# cor.u#u8
:T(au .e (u.ra!aa ace(tua. A(e"enea cor.ur au ;ntotdeauna re/un #oca#
&
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;nc%rcate e#ectrc. A:adar8 un cor. .oate ! ;n ace#a: t". : neutru e#ectrc :
e#ectr9at.
3 Dnc%rcate e#ectrc : a)-nd (arcn#e e#ectrce d(tr0ute neun!or" ;n )o#u"u#
cor.u#u :T(au (u.ra!aa ace(tua8 ;n ace#a: t"..
O o0(er)ae e4.er"enta#% ".ortant% e(te aceea c% forele de natur electric pot
aprea i ntre corpuri neutre din punct de "edere electric.
E4.er"enta#8 (e con(tat% c% e#ectr9area cor.ur#or (e .roduce .rn !recare8 #o)re8
.rn contact cu a#t cor. e#ectr9at8 .rn n!#uen%8 .rn ;nc%#9re8 .rn radere8 etc.
I.' Con(er)area (arcn e#ectrce
E4.er"ente nu"eroa(e8 atent condu(e8 au ar%tat c%:
&arcina electric este o proprietate fundamental$ indestructiil$ a
particulelor su#atomice. Acea(t% .ro.retate e(te (ur(a nterac#or
e#ectro"a/netce. A:adar8 #a n)e# ato"c : (u03ato"c8 "atera conne
;ntotdeauna re/un ;nc%rcate e#ectrc. Ce#e "a cuno(cute .artcu#e (u03ato"ce
(unt e#ectron8 .roton8 neutron : "e9on. U9ua#8 a(e"enea .artcu#e (e nu"e(c
purttori de sarcin electric. Dntre ace(tea8 (n/ure#e .artcu#e (ta0#e (unt
e#ectron : .roton.
Toate o0(er)a#e !%cute .-n% ;n .re9ent a(u.ra !eno"ene#or ;n care (unt ".#cate
(arcn#e e#ectrce au condu(8 !%r% e4ce.e8 #a conc#u9a c%:
&arcina electric total a unui sistem$ adic suma algeric a sarcinilor
poziti"e i negati"e$ se conser".
Sarcna e#ectrc% a con(ttuen#or (u03ato"c e(te un n)arant re#at)(t.

Acea(t% #e/e de con(er)are e(te !unda"enta#% ;n natur% : e(te nu"t% #e/ea
conser"rii sarcinii electrice' 2-n% acu"8 nc una dntre nterac#e !unda"enta#e FTa0e#
I.IG nu !orea9% ;nc%#carea ace(te #e/. In)a#darea e4.er"enta#% a ace(te #e/ ar d(tru/e
*
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;ntre/u# e:a!odaI a# teor#or !9ce actua#e. Cu toate ace(tea8 ;n "od re"arca0#8 (e
con(tat% c% legea conser"rii sarcinii electrice este respectat indiferent de natura
interaciilor la care particip constituenii suatomici.
Veri+icarea e,%eri$ental a ace*tor a+ir$a"ii %re*#%#ne %o*i!ilitatea $*#rrii ei
%reci*e. Pe acea*t %o*i!ilitate ne !a&$ de$er*#l %ractic de deter$inare a *arcinii
electrice -i *arcinii *%eci+ice
m e
a electron#l#i. de*cri* /n ca%itol#l VI al ace*tei
l#crri.
I.+ Cuant!carea (arcn e#ectrce
I(tora !9c a do)edt8 nu odat%8 c% ce# .un ;n .r)na .artcu#e#or (u0ato"ce8
ntua : nte#/ena u"an% au "er( ;nantea de(co.err#or .ro.ru39(e. F#o(o! /rec au
ntut e4(tena c%r%"9#or de 0a9% a#e "atere8 a .artcu#e#or nd)90#e de "atere8 cu
"u#t t". ;nante ca ace(tea (% !e e!ect) de(co.erte. Nu"e#e atom are or/ne /reac%8
VWXYXZV atomos Fdn [38 Vne/aeV U W\Y]^ 3 te"no8 Va t%aV8 con!or" =. 5. Ldde## and
R. Scott8 V( Greek#Englis) Le%iconV. 2er(eu( D/ta# L0rarSG8 e# (e"n!c% dec
".o(0#tatea de a d)9a ;n contnuare8 a ! nd)90#. Dn 1&7+8 5eor/e RoCn(tone
StoneS
1
(u(ne e4(tena une entt% de (arcn% e#ectrc% .e care tot e# o nu"e:te electron
;n 1&*1
$
. Dn 1&*78 R.R. TCo"(on de(co.er% e4(tena e#ectron#or ;n t".u# unor
e4.er"ente cu ra9e catodce. Re9u#tate#e e4.er"enta#e ;# conduc #a conc#u9a c% ace(te
ra9e (unt a#c%tute dn .artcu#e cu "a(% !oarte "c%8 ;nc%rcate e#ectrc. Totodat%8 e# ;: d%
(ea"a c% ace(tea (unt con(ttuen un)er(a# a "atere8 deoarece re9u#tate#e nu erau
n!#uenate de natura e#ectro9#or !o#o(.
Dn 1*,*8 Ro0ert M##>an8 unu# dntre .r" "ar !9cen a"ercan8 d% .u0#ct%
re9u#tate na#e a#e unor e4.er"ente de deter"nare a (arcn e#ectrce8 re9u#tate care
(u(neau .ote9a cuant!c%r ecCd(tante a ace(tea. De(crerea a"%nunt% a ace(tor
e4.er"ente : a o0(er)a#or !na#e a(u.ra #or au !o(t .u0#cate de M##>an ;n 1*11 F2CS(.
Re).8 '$8 ... '+*3'+78 1*11G.
Dn .re9ent8 )a#oarea acce.tat% .entru cuanta de (arcn% e#ectrc% ;n ((te"u#
nternaona# de unt% FS.I.G e(te:
1
6e#!a(t8 "eetn/ o! tCe 6rt(C A((ocaton(8 1&7+
$
On tCe Cau(e o! Dou0#e Lne( and o! E_ud(tant Sate##te( n tCe S.ectra o!
5a(e(`8 The scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society, $nd (ere( + F1&&&3#&*$G8
1,
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
1*
1, G +, F 1,$171+&7 . 1

e Cou#o"0. FI.1G
U#teror8 e4.er"ente de "are !nee au de"on(trat e/a#tatea .er!ect% dntre (arcna
e#ectronu#u : cea a .rotonu#u. Se .%rea c% tot ce era de a!#at ;n .r)na (tructur d(crete
a (arcn e#ectrce8 (e a!#a(ea

Nu de aceea: .%rere au !o(t ;n(% MurraS 5e##3Mann
: 5eor/e <Oe/ care ;n 1*1+ (u(n8 nde.endent8
e4(tena a tre .artcu#e .otetce ce ntr% ;n a#c%turea
.artcu#e#or (u0ato"ce8 e4ce.e !%c-nd #e.ton8 dec
: e#ectron. Ace(tea au !o(t nu"te L_uar>(M8 re(.ect)
a:. Ter"enu# teCnc ro"-ne(c e(te cuarci. Denu"rea
de cuarc 3a !o(t (u/erat% #u 5e##3Mann de cartea
LFinnegan*s +akeM (cr(% de Ra"e( RoSce8 carte ;n care
a.are te4tu# LT)ree ,uarks for Muster MarkM. Dn
traducere ro"-nea(c%8 cu)-ntu# _uar> ;n(ea"n% .%t
de .e(c%ru:.
(I0. I.1: 2r"a .a/na a ce#e0re #ucr%r .u0#cate de R. M##>an
;n 2CS(. Re).8 '$8 ... '+*3'+78 1*11.
A(t%98 teora .artcu#e#or e#e"entare : nter.retarea "u#tor e4.er"ente (u(ne
e4(tena a :a(e t.ur de cuarc : antcuarc: up-u.8 do/n-d.8 c)arm-c.8 strange-s.8 topFtG :
ottomFGG8 a#e c%ror (arcn e#ectrce (unt .%r !raconare dn cuanta e F
e ' $ t
8
e ' 1
G. Dnce.-nd dn 1*7+8 e4(tena ace(tora a !o(t te(tat% ;n cadru# unor e4.erene de cocnr
;ntre .artcu#e cu ener/ !oarte ;na#te. Con!or" "ode#u#u teoretc acce.tat a#
cro"odna"c cuantce8 cuarc (unt con!na de !ore#e de cu#oare ;n nteroru#
.artcu#e#or Le#e"entareM : nu .ot8 .rnc.a#8 ! e)dena LdrectM ;n Le4teroru#M
ace(tora.
Dn #ucrarea de !a% )o" con(dera .artcu#e#e ;nc%rcate e#ectrc ca (".#e .urt%toare
de (arcn% e#ectrc%8 at-t de "c8 ;nc-t d"en(un#e : (tructura #or8 ;n "aIortatea
ca9ur#or8 .ot ! ne/#Iate. Dn ace(te cond8 )or0" de(.re (arcn .unct!or"e.
I.5 C-".u# e#ectro(tatc. Le/ea #u Cou#o"0
11
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Acea(t% #e/e8 !oarte ".ortant% .entru (tudu# !eno"ene#or e#ectrce8 a !o(t
.u0#cat% ;n anu# 17&5 de c%tre !9canu# !rance9 CCar#e( Au/u(tn de Cou#o"0 :
(ta0#e:te canttat) "odu# ;n care nteraconea9% .rn !ore e#ectrce dou% (arcn e#ectrce
.unct!or"e a!#ate ;n re.au(:
0ou sarcini electrice punctiforme$ aflate n repaus$ interacioneaz cu o for
direct proporional cu produsul dintre mrimea sarcinilor i in"ers proporional cu
ptratul distanei dintre ele$ pe direcia dreptei ce le unete.
Le/ea (e .oate (cre )ectora# (u0 !or"a:

'
1$
1$ $ 1
1$
r
r , ,
k F


FI.$G
Ac
1
,
:
$
,
(unt (ca#ar F)a#or#e (arcn#or8 "%(urate ;n cou#o"0 dac% (e !o#o(e:te
((te"u# nternaona# de unt%G8
1$
r

e(te )ectoru# de .o9e a (arcn $ ;n ra.ort cu


(arcna 18 ar
1$
r
e(te d(tana ce #e (e.ar%. Bectoru#
1$
r

.une ;n e)den% c% !ora


aconea9% .e dreca dre.te ce une:te (arcn#e. Ecuaa e4.r"% : !a.tu# c% (arcn#e de
ace#a: !e# F
,
$ 1
> , ,
G (e re(.n/8 ar ce#e d!erte F
,
$ 1
< , ,
G (e atra/.
(ig. I.: Dou% (arcn e#ectrce .unct!or"e8 a!#ate ;n re.au(8 nteraconea9% cu o !or% drect .ro.orona#%
cu .rodu(u# dntre "%r"ea (arcn#or : n)er( .ro.orona#% cu .%tratu# d(tane dntre e#e8 .e dreca
dre.te ce #e une:te.

Ce#e dou% !ore re(.ect% .rnc.u# acun#or rec.roce a# "ecanc neOtonene8
$1 1$
F F

.
1$
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Ba#oarea con(tante k de.nde de ((te"u# de unt% de "%(ur% !o#o(t : de natura
"edu#u ;n care are #oc "%(urarea. Dn )d8 ;n SI8
$
$
*
1, *
C
1m
k . Acea(t% )a#oare (e o0ne
dn:
,
+
1

k
8 FI.'G
unde
m F T 1, &5+ 8 &
1$
,


FFaradT"etruG e(te o con(tant% nu"t% permiti"itate electric
a "idului. Acea(t% con(tant% nu e(te o con(tant% !unda"enta#% a natur8 )a#oarea e !nd
!4at% de a#e/erea con)enona#% a )a#or .er"ea0#t% "a/netce a )du#u
7
,
1, +


=T" : de a#e/erea8 de a(e"enea con)enona#%8 a )a#or )te9e #u"n ;n
)d $**7*$+5& c "T(8 .rn re#aa de(co.ert% teoretc de c%tre R. C. Ma4Oe##
1
$
, ,
c
.
Le/at de ecuaa FI.$G8 tre0ue !%cute c-te)a o0(er)a:
3 (arcn#e (unt con(derate .unct!or"e8 ;n ca9 contrar #e/ea nu e )a#a0#%K
3 conda ca (arcn#e (% !e ;n re.au( e(te nece(ar% .entru a e#"na !ore#e
"a/netce ce au na:tere .rn ":carea ace(toraK
3 e4(t% o "are a(e"%nare ;ntre acea(ta : e4.re(a "ate"atc% a #e/ atrace
un)er(a#e a #u NeOton8 ;n(% nc unu# nc ce#%#a#t nu :3a .u( .ro0#e"a
b"edatoru#uM ce !%cea .o(0#% tran("terea !ore #a d(tan%K
3 #e/ea NU ".#c% aditi"itatea #nar% a nteracun#or (arcn#or e#ectrce.
U#t"a a!r"ae e(te !oarte ".ortant% : .oate ! ;ne#ea(% cu aIutoru#
e4.er"entu#u ur"%tor: Con(der%" c% a)e" #a d(.o9e tre (arcn .unct!or"e
' $ 1
8 8 , , ,
. M%(ur%" (e.arat !ora care (e e4erct% a(u.ra !ec%rea dntre e#e dn .artea
ce#or#a#te dou%. Se con(tat% c% e(te e/a#% cu re9u#tanta )ectora#% a !ore#or ce (3ar e4ercta
;n "od nd)dua#8 dn .artea !ec%re (arcn. A#t!e# (.u(:
fora cu care interacioneaz dou sarcini nu este influenat de prezena altor sarcini.
Acea(ta e(te e(ena principiului
&uperpoziiei liniare a e!ecte#or
e#ectrce. Ind!erent de nu"%ru#
1'
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(arcn#or .unct!or"e dn ((te"8
#e/ea #u Cou#o"0 .oate ! !o#o(t%
.entru a ca#cu#a !ora tota#% cu care
nteraconea9% orcare .erecCe de
(arcn.
(ig. I.1: Fora cu care nteraconea9% dou% (arcn
nu e(te n!#uenat% de .re9ena a#tor (arcn.
I.1 C-".u# e#ectrc
O "oda#tate e!cent% de ana#9% a nteracun#or e(te cea .rn nter"edu#
c-".ur#or de !ore. Dn .unct de )edere "ate"atc8 e4(t% de(crer scalare a#e ace(tor
c-".ur F;n care !ec%ru .unct a# (.au#u ;n care (e e4erct% nteracun (e a(oca9% un
nu"%r8 (au (ca#ar8 de.endent de .unct : de t".G8 de(crer "ectoriale8 tensoriale :
)arante a#e ace(tora. Dn ca9u# c-".u#u e#ectrc8 ace(ta e(te conce.ut #a n)e# c#a(c ca o
form de e%isten a materiei n 2urul sarcinilor electrice$ a"nd ca surs direct sarcina
i mi2locind interacia dintre sarcini. Lucrarea de !a% .re9nt% at-t de(crerea (ca#ar% a
c-".u#u e#ectrc F.rn ntroducerea noun de potenial electric
G Fr

G c-t : de(crerea
)ectora#% F.rn ntroducerea )ectoru#u intensitate electric G Fr E

G. E)dent8 ce#e dou%


t.ur de de(crere (unt .er!ect ecC)a#ente8 #e/%tura ;ntre .otena#e : nten(t% !nd
(ta0#t% de o ecuae #oca#%8 anu"e de o ecuaie diferenial liniar8 a:a cu" era de
a:te.tat con!or" .rnc.u#u (u.er.o9e. 2entru a ntroduce ace(te !unc8 )o" .orn de
#a ceea ce cunoa:te" deIa8 #e/ea #u Cou#o"0 : .rnc.u# (u.er.o9e #nare.
I.1.1 Inten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc: )ectoru# nten(tate E

2entru a o0ne n!or"a #oca#e de(.re c-".u# e#ectro(tatc dn Iuru# une (arcn
e#ectrce Fnu nea.%rat .unct!or"eG date8 te(t%" c-".u# e#ectrc .rodu( de acea(ta cu o
(arcn% .unct!or"%
,
,
de )a#oare !oarte "c% Fnu"t% : (arcn% de .ro0%G8 .#a(at% ;n
d!erte re/un a#a c-".u#u. In!or"a nde.endente de natura (arcn .unct!or"e
.#a(at% ;n c-".8 (e o0n ;".%rnd !ora e#ectrc% "a(urat% e4.er"enta#8 #a (arcna
.unct!or"% de .eo0%. M%r"ea )ectora#% a(t!e# o0nut% .oart% nu"e#e de intensitate a
cmpului electric : e(te o !unce de .unct:
1+
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
,
G F
G F
,
r F
r E

8 FI.+G
unde
,
,
.oart% nu"e#e de (arcn% .unct!or"% de .ro0%.
Dn SI8 untatea de "%(ur% .entru nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc e(te
m
3
F)o#tT"etruG.
Con!or" re#ae FI.+G8 nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc8 ;ntr3un .unct (tuat #a d(tana
r !a% de (arcna .unct!or"% , F(ur(aG8 )a !:
r
r
,
E

'
,
+

FI.5G
2e 0a9a .rnc.u#u (u.er.o9e #nare8 !o#o(nd re#aa FI.+G8 c-".u# creat de un
((te" de (arcn .unct!or"e FF/. I.+G )a a)ea e4.re(a:
(ig. I.2: C-".u# creat de un ((te" de (arcn .unct!or"e ;n re.au(8 ;ntr3un ((te" de coordonate dat.

2
n
2 2
2
r
r
,
E

1
'
,
+
1

8 FI.1G
unde 2
r
e(te d(tana de #a o (arcn% oarecare 2
,
.-n% #a .unctu# ;n care (e ca#cu#ea9%
E

.
Iat% cu"8 .ro.ret%#e c-".u#u e#ectrc .ot ! de(cr(e de "%r"ea )ectora#%
E

.
A:adar8 .entru re.re9entarea unu c-". e#ectrc "om asocia fiecrui punct din
spaiu un "ector care determin mrimea i direcia cmpului. Orentarea #u
E

8 .entru
(arcn .unct!or"e .unct!or"e8 e(te de3a #un/u# dre.te ce une:te (arcna cu .unctu# ;n
15
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
care dor" (%3# re.re9ent%"8 ar (en(u# e(te deter"nat de !ora ce aconea9% a(u.ra
(arcn e#ectrce de .ro0%8 .#a(ate ;n c-"..
(ig. I.3: Orentarea #u
E

.entru (arcn .unct!or"e .unct!or"e e(te de3a #un/u# dre.te ce une:te (arcna
cu .unctu# ;n care dor" (%3# re.re9ent%"8 ar (en(u# e(te deter"nat de !ora ce aconea9% a(u.ra (arcn
e#ectrce.
Un "od ntut) de )9ua#9are a c-".u#u e#ectrc e(te .rodu( cu aIutoru# liniilor
de cmp. Ace(tea (unt cur0e "a/nare #a care )ectoru# c-". e#ectrc e(te tan/ent ;n orce
.unct. Une #n .artcu#are de c-". (e atr0ue ;n "od con)enona# un (en(8 ace#a: cu
ce# a# )ectoru#u nten(tate e#ectrc% #oca#%. 2rn nter"edu# #n#or de c-". nu (e .oate
deter"na )a#oarea nten(t%. Dn !/ura I.1 a" re.re9entat c-te)a #n de c-". .entru
((te" de dou% (arcn8 cea .o9t)% !nd de tre or "a "are dec-t cea ne/at)%.
Echipotentiale
Versori
camp
Echipotentiale
Versori
camp
(ig.I.4a: D(tr0ua )er(or#or nten(t% c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc datorat (arcn#or .unct!or"e
' T
+
, , . Sunt de a(e"enea re.re9entate c-te)a nter(ec a#e (u.ra!ee#or ecC.otena#e F(u.ra!ee .e
care .otena#u# .%(trea9% )a#or con(tanteG cu .#anu# !o de C-rte. Ca#cu#u# a !o(t e!ectuat ut#9-nd
.ro/ra"u# de ("u#are MOLECULAR PORc6ENC=8 d(.on0# /ratut .entru a.#cat acade"ce Fadre(a:
Ctt.:TT"O.concord.or/T"ode#erTG. 4maginea distriuiei este produs n timpul redactrii lucrrii.

11
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig. I.4!: O (tuae ce)a "a co".#cat% dec-t cea .re9entat% ;n FI5. I.1a: c-".u# e#ectrc e(te .rodu( de tre
(arcn e#ectrce .unct!or"e ' T
+
, , . Ca#cu#u# a !o(t e!ectuat ut#9-nd .ro/ra"u# de ("u#are
MOLECULAR PORc6ENC=8 d(.on0# /ratut .entru a.#cat acade"ce Fadre(a:
Ctt.:TT"O.concord.or/T"ode#erTG. 4maginea distriuiei este produs n timpul redactrii lucrrii.
(ig. I.4c: Un e4e".#u t.c8 dar !oarte ".ortant: dipolul electric. Ca#cu#u# a !o(t e!ectuat ut#9-nd
.ro/ra"u# de ("u#are MOLECULAR PORc6ENC=8 d(.on0# /ratut .entru a.#cat acade"ce Fadre(a:
Ctt.:TT"O.concord.or/T"ode#erTG. 4maginea distriuiei este produs de autor n timpul redactrii lucrrii.
17
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig. I.4d: Un a#t e4e".#u ".ortant: C-".u# e#ectrc : .otena#u# .rodu(e de un conden(ator cu .#%c .#an3
.ara#e#e8 !nte ca d"en(une. Ca#cu#u# a !o(t e!ectuat ut#9-nd .ro/ra"u# de ("u#are MOLECULAR
PORc6ENC=8 d(.on0# /ratut .entru a.#cat acade"ce Fadre(a: Ctt.:TT"O.concord.or/T"ode#erTG.
Ace(t e4e".#u (".#u arat% c% .entru un conden(ator cu .#%c .#an3.ara#e#e real8 c-".u# e#ectrc e(te .ractc
con(tant doar ;n 9ona (a centra#%. Dn a.ro.erea "ar/n#or8 c-".u# e#ectrc .re9nt% )ara (e"n!cat)e.
Ace(t !a.t e(te !oarte ".ortant atunc c-nd (e ut#9ea9% un a(e"enea conden(ator .entru a re.roduce
e4.er"entu# #u M##>an. 2c%tur#e de u#e tre0ue (% !e n)e(t/ate ;n re/unea centra#% a conden(atoru#u8
;n ca9 contrar e#e )or a)ea o ":care care d!er% de cea (".#%8 de(cr(% .rn ecua#e e4.er"entu#u.
4maginea este produs de autor n timpul redactrii lucrrii.
Dn ca9u# une d(tr0u )o#u"ce contnue de (arcn%8 a:a cu" e(te cea .re9entat%
;n e4e".#u# dn F/. 1.78 nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc (e ca#cu#ea9% ;n#ocund (u"a cu
nte/ra#a8 ;n re#aa FI.1G:

( )

'
,
G dF d d d d8 d8
+
1
G F
r r
r r dz d5 d% z 5 %
r E

8
FI.7G
unde
r r

e(te d(tana de #a e#e"entu# de (arcn%
, d
cu.rn(% ;n e#e"entu# de )o#u"
d d d dz d5 d% 3 d
.-n% #a .unctu# ;n care (e ca#cu#ea9% nten(tatea
E

a c-".u#u e#ectrc.
Dn ecuaa F1.7G8 nte/ra#a (e ca#cu#ea9% .e ;ntre/u# )o#u" a# d(tr0ue de (arcn%8 ar
( ) d d8 d8 z 5 %
re.re9nt% den(tatea )o#u"c% de (arcn%.
1&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
x
y
z
r
r
E(x,y,z)
dV
O
G e 8 e 8 e F z 5 %
x
y
z
r
r
E(x,y,z)
dV
O
G e 8 e 8 e F z 5 %
(ig. I.5: E4e".#u de d(tr0ue rea#% a (arcn e#ectrce ;ntr3un ((te" ato"c. In e#e"entu# n!nte9"a#
d3`8 (arcna e#ectrc% tota#% e(te (u"a contr0u#or nd)dua#e datorate d!er#or oritali electronici.
I"a/nea d(tr0ue e(te .rodu(% ;n t".u# redact%r #ucr%r8 ut#9-nd .ro/ra"u# de )9ua#9are /ratut
.entru a.#ca acade"ce HcrSSDen F63OndoO CR7(ta##ne Structure( and 89N(te(G
FCtt.:TTOOO.4crS(den.or/TG d(.on0# .entru UNIH8 Lnu48 or CS/On FCtt.:TTOOO.cS/On.co"TG Pn OS.
I.1.$ 2otena#u# c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc: (ca#aru#

Du.% cu" a" d(cutat8 o "oda#tate ecC)a#ent% de a caracter9a co".#et c-".u#


e#ectro(tatc e(te ut#9area !unce (ca#are nu"t% potenial electric. 2entru a o de!n8
o0(er)%" drect c% nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc F1.5G .rodu( de (arcna e#ectrc%
.unct!or"% .oate ! (cr(% ca /radentu# cu (e"n (cC"0at a# une !unc (ca#are:

[ ]
,
'
,
G F .
+

,
_

+ r grad const
r
,
k grad r
r
,
E

8 FI.&G
unde
,

e(te o con(tant% adt)% ar0trar%. Funca (ca#ar%:



,
G F +
r
,
k r

FI.*G
de!ne:te potenialul electric datorat unei sarcini punctiforme ,8 #a d(tana r de acea(ta. Se
o0(er)% c% .otena#u# e#ectrc a# une (arcn .unct!or"e e(te deter"nat doar .-n% #a o
con(tant% adt)% ar0trar%. D!erena de .otena# ;ntre dou% .uncte a#e c-".u#u e#ectrc8
nu"t% tensiune electric8 nu de.nde de )a#uarea ar0trar% a con(tante. Se"n!caa !9c%
a ace(te con(tante e(te c#ar%: ea re.re9nt% )a#oarea .otena#u#u .rodu( #a d(tan% n!nt%
1*
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
de (arcna .unct!or"%. A#e/erea cea "a natura#% a )a#or con(tante e(te dat% de condiia
la limit
, G F
. Con!or" de!ne de "a (u( FI.*G8 #e/%tura ;ntre nten(tatea e#ectrc%
E

: .otena#u# e#ectrc
G Fr

a# c-".u#u e(te rea#9at% de ecuaa d!erena#%:



Gf F g G F r grad r E

.
FI.1,G

2otr)t .rnc.u#u (u.er.o9e #nare a c-".ur#or8 !o#o(nd #nartatea
o.eratoru#u /radent8 deduce" c%8 .entru o distriuie aritrar a (arcn e#ectrce8
potenialul electric ntr#un punct dat al cmpului se calculeaz nsumnd potenialele
produse n acel punct de toate sarcinile sistemului$ mai puin cele plasate e%act n punctul
coinsiderat. A:adar8 : ;n ca9u# c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc .rodu( de d(tr0u ar0trare de
(arcn%8 FI.1,G e(te8 de a(e"enea8 ecuaa /enera#% de #e/%tur% ;ntre c-". : .otena#.
Su.ra!ee#e dn c-". .e care .otena#u# .%(trea9% )a#or con(tante (e nu"e(c suprafee
ec)ipoteniale. Ecuaa FI.1,G ne (.une "edat c% intensitatea cmpului electrostatic este
perpendicular pe suprafeele ec)ipoteniale Fde3a #un/u# ace(tor (u.ra!ee /radentu#
.otena#u#u (e anu#ea9%8 dec !ora e#ectrc% E ,

tre0ue (% !e nor"a#% #a e#eG.


Dn ecuaa FI.1,G decur/e o a#t% .ro.retate !unda"enta#% a c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc:
acesta este irotaional 6 Dntr3ade)%r8 .otr)t une teore"e "ate"atce (".#e8 rotoru#
orc%ru c-". )ectora# care der)% dn /radentu# unu c-". de (ca#ar e(te nu#. A:adar:
, f g G F grad rot r E rot

. FI.11G
I.1.' Crcu#aa )ectoru#u E

.e o cur0% dat%
Dntr3o re/une de c-". e#ectrc8 con(der%" o cur0% ar0trar% . De3a #un/u#
ace(te cur0e8 a#e/-nd un (en( de .arcur/ere8 (e .oate e)a#ua (ca#aru# deter"nat de
nte/ra#a de #ne:

l d E Circulatia

E #u
. FI.1$G
Acea(t% nte/ra#% (e nu"e:te circulaia cmpului electric de#a lungul curei . Se"nu#
)a#or ace(te nte/ra#e de.nde de (en(u# de .arcur/ere a# cur0e8 (cC"0area (en(u#u
deter"n-nd (cC"0area (e"nu#u )a#or nte/ra#e.
$,
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig. I.:: E4e".#u de cur0% ar0trar% de3a #un/u# c%rea .oate !
ca#cu#at% crcu#aa nten(t% e#ectrce.
Fo#o(nd ecuaa FI.1,G : de!na FI.1$G8 deduce":
$1 1$ $ 1
G $ 1 F G $ 1 F G $ 1 F
f g 7 7 d l d grad l d E





FI.1'aG
Ace(ta e(te un re9u#tat (".#u8 dar ".ortant:
3aloarea circulaiei cmpului electric de#a lungul unei cure aritrare$ plasat n cmp
electric$ depinde doar de diferena potenialelor la capetele curei 8
ea !nd a#t!e# independent de dru"u# ur"at de cur0% .rn c-".. O e4.r"are
ecC)a#ent%8 ce)a "a .un tran(.arent%8 dar "a e#e/ant% "ate"atc8 e(te acea(ta:
crcu#aa c-".u#u e#ectrc de3a #un/u# une cur0e ;ncC(e8 ar0trare8 e(te nu#%:

, l d E

FI.1'0G
Acea(t% ecuae e(te .er!ect ecC)a#ent% cu ecuaa FI.11G8 datort% teore"e Sto>e( care
#ea/% crcu#aa unu c-". )ectora# .e o cur0% ;ncC(% ar0trar%8 de !#u4u# rotoru#u ace(tu
c-". .rntr3o (u.ra!a% ar0trar%8 ce are ca /rane cur0a a#ea(%:


&
ds E rot n l d E


.
Dne#e/e" acu" "ot)u# .entru care are (en( ntroducerea noun de diferen de
potenial Ften(uneG ;ntre dou% .uncte a#e c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc. O0(er)%" de a(e"enea c%
o a(e"enea .ro.retate e(te ntrn(ec deter"nat% "ate"atc de .ro.retatea FI.11G a
c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc8 aceea de a ! rotaona#. De a(e"enea8 !o#o(nd conda natura#% #a
#"t% .entru .otena#u# e#ectrc8 con(tat%" c% )a#oarea .otena#u#u e#ectrc ;ntr3un .unct
$1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
a# c-".u#u .oate ! e4.r"at% : ca )a#oarea #uat% cu (e"n (cC"0at a crcu#ae c-".u#u
e#ectrc de#a lungul unei cure aritrare care L#ea/%M .unctu# de #a n!nt de .unctu# a#e(
dn c-".:



G F 8unct
8unct
l d E

. FI.1+G
A:adar8 potenialul electric este o funcie de punct. 2re(u.un-nd c% de3a #un/u# cur0e
a#e(e ar0trar e(te de.#a(at% cuasistatic o (arcn% .unct!or"% ar0trar%8 ,8 o0(er)%" c%
E , F
e%t

e(te toc"a fora e%tern care tre0ue a.#cat% (arcn .entru a co".en(a
acunea !ore e#ectrce datorate c-".u#u : dec a "enne cua(ecC#0ru# "ecanc ;n
t".u# de.#a(%r. A(t!e#8 nte/ra#a FI.1+G8 (cr(% ;n !or"a:
,
L
l d F
,
l d E
e%t
8unct
e%t
8unct
8unct


G F G F
1

8 FI.15G
arat% c%:
8otenialul electric al unui punct din cmpul electrostatic reprezint lucrul
mecanic9unitatea de sarcin$ efectuat de forele e%terne$ pentru a aduce cuasistatic sarcina
electric punctiform de la infinit$ n punctul ales din cmp$ urmnd un drum aritrar prin
cmp'
Untatea de "%(ur% ;n S.I. de unt% a .otena#u#u : a d!erene de .otena# e(te
3oltul:Rou#eTCou#o"0. S"0o#u# acce.tat e(te B. A:adar8 untatea de "%(ur% .entru c-".
e(te Bo#tT"etru.
Inde.endena #ucru#u "ecanc de dru"u# ur"at .rn c-". nu e(te o .ro.retate
/enera#% a c-".ur#or. Ea e(te o .ro.retate re"arca0#% a une c#a(e (.eca#e de c-".ur
!9ce de !ore8 nu"te cmpuri conser"ati"e. Dntre ace(tea8 ce#e "a cuno(cute (unt cmpul
gra"itaional :8 e)dent8 cmpul electrostatic. Fore#e de !recare : ce#e "a/netce8 de
e4e".#u8 nu (e 0ucur% de acea(t% .ro.retate.

;n cmpuri electrice dependente de timp ecuaia -4'<<. nu este ade"rat i deci
noiunea de tensiune ntre dou puncte ale cmpului$ aa cum a fost definit$ i pierde
sensul. Dn a(e"enea cond8 .ute" ca#cu#a ;n contnuare nte/ra#a FI.1$G8 #a un "o"ent
dat8 ;n(% rezultatul este$ ne)ta0#$ dependent de drumul urmat n cmp. A(e"enea (tua
(unt t.ce ;n ca9u# !eno"ene#or de nduce e#ectro"a/netc%.
$$
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
I.1.+ Ener/a .otena#% a ((te"u#u c-".3(arcn% .unct!or"%
2roce(u# "a/nat de de.#a(are cua((tatc% de(cr(% "a (u(8 arat% c%8 ;n .unctu#
a#e( dn c-".8 (arcna .unct!or"% are )te9% nu#% Fener/e cnetc% nu#%G8 dar ((te"u#u
(arcn%3c-". (3a co"uncat Fcua((tatcG ener/a
8unct e%t
, L
. Dntruc-t c-".u#
e#ectro(tatc e(te con(er)at)8 deduce" c%
8unct
, +
8 FI.11aG
re.re9nt% toc"a energia potenial a ((te"u#u (arcn% .unct!or"%3c-". e#ectro(tatc.
Acea(t% ener/e nu a.arne unea dntre entt% Fc-".u#u8 (au .artcu#e cu (arcn%G8 c
;ntre/u#u ((te". Re9u#tatu# (e /enera#9ea9% "edat8 ut#9-nd .rnc.u# (u.er.o9e
#nare8 #a ((te"e : d(tr0u orc-t de co".#cate8 de (arcn ;n re.au(. De e4e".#u8
.entru un ((te" de dou% (arcn .unct!or"e
1
,
8
$
,
(e o0ne:
r
, ,
+
$ 1
,
+
1

8 FI.110G
unde r e(te d(tana ce (e.ar% (arcn#e. 2entru un nu"%r oarecare 1 de (arcn .unct!or"e8
d(.u(e orcu" ;n (.a u8 ener/a .oten a#% a ((te"u#u (e ca#cu#ea9% ;n(u"-nd du.%
toate .erecC#e:

1
2 2 k 2k
k 2
r
, ,
+
1 ,
+ $
1

. FI.11cG
Su"a du0#% (e ca#cu#ea9% a(t!e#: (e a
1 2
: (e (u"ea9% du.%
K .... + 8 ' 8 $ 1 k
a.o (e
a
$ 2
: (e (u"ea9% du.%
K ... + 8 ' 8 1 1 k
8 .a.".d.8 .-n% #a
1 2
. Dn !e#u# ace(ta8
!ecare .erecCe a.are ;n (u"% de dou% or8 "ot) .entru care ;n !aa (u"e a.are !actoru#
1T$. E)dent8 untatea de "%(ur% .entru orce !e# de ener/e e(te ;n S.I.8 R FRou#eG.
I.1.5 F#u4u# c-".u#u e#ectrc
Con(der%" o (u.ra!a% &8 ar0trar%8 .#a(at% ;ntr3o re/une de c-". e#ectrc
( ) z 5 % E 8 8

. D)9%" (u.ra!aa ;n e#e"ente ds n!nt "c8 a(t!e# ;nc-t ;n #"te#e !ec%rua


nten(tatea c-".u#u are aceea: )a#oare : orentare FF/.I.*G. Ber(oru# unea dntre
nor"a#e#e (u.ra!ee #a e#e"entu# ds ;# not%" cu n

.
$'
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig. I.;: F#u4u# c-".u#u e#ectrc .rntr3o (u.ra!a% e#e"entar%.
F#u4u# e#e"entar a# c-".u#u e#ectrc e(te de!nt .rn:
ds n E d

. FI.17G
F#u4u# tota# a# c-".u#u e#ectrc .rn (u.ra!aa !nt% & (e )a ca#cu#a ;n(u"-nd contr0u#e
e#e"entare date de FI.17G8 cu aIutoru# nte/ra#e de (u.ra!a%:


&
&
ds n E

. FI.1&G
Dac% (u.ra!aa & e(te ;ncC(%8 .otr)t teore"e Gauss#=strogradski8 )a#oarea
nte/ra#e FI.1&G .oate ! de a(e"enea e4.r"at% nte/r-nd d)er/ena )ectoru#u nten(tate
E

.e )o#u"u# 3 8 ;ncC( de (u.ra!aa !nt% &:


&
ds n E

3
d3 E di"

FI.1*G
2entru o (arcn% .unct!or"% , : o (u.ra!a% ar0trar% & FF/. I.1,G8 a.#carea
re#ae FI.1&G e(te "edat%. F#u4u# e#e"entar e(te:

d
,
ds
r
n r ,
d
,
'
,
+ +

8 FI.$,G

$+
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig. I.1<: F#u4u# e#e"entar deter"nat de o (arcn% e#ectrc% .unct!or"%
unde
ds
r
n r
d
'


e(te e#e"entu# de un/C (o#d (u0 care (e )ede (u.ra!aa dn .unctu# ;n
care e(te .#a(at% (arcna e#ectrc% .unct!or"% ,. Dn ace(t ca98 ca#cu#u# nte/ra#e FI.1&G e(te
e#e"entar8 re9u#tatu# !nd:

,
+
,
& 8 FI.$,G
unde e(te un/Cu# (o#d tota# (u0 care (e )ede (u.ra!aa !nt% &8 dn .unctu# ;n care (e
a!#% (arcna .unct!or"% ,.
I.7 Le/ea #u 5au((
Dac% (arcna .unct!or"% (e a!#% n interiorul une (u.ra!ee ;ncC(e oarecare8
+ 8 ar dac% (arcna (e a!#% n e%teriorul (u.ra!ee ;ncC(e8 , . A:adar8 ;n ace(te
ca9ur8 !#u4u# .rn (u.ra!aa ;ncC(% a )a#oar#e re"arca0#e:

'


(u.ra!ete e4teroru# n (arcna 8 ,
(u.ra!ete nteroru# n (arcna 8
,

,
8 FI.$1G
)a#or independente de poziia sarcinii n interiorul9e%teriorul suprafeei nc)ise : de
forma acesteia. For"u#a FI.$1G e(te e4.r"area "ate"atc%8 n form integral8 a teoremei
lui Gauss F!or"u#at% de Car# FredrcC 5au((8 ;n 1&'5G. C-nd (u.ra!aa con(derat% ;ncCde
"a "u#te (arcn .unct!or"e8 (au o d(tr0ue ar0trar% de (arcn% e#ectrc%8 .rnc.u#
(u.er.o9e #nare a nten(t%#or ne arat% c% (arcna , dn !or"u#a FI.$1G tre0ue ;n#ocut%
cu (arcna tota#% ;ncC(% de (u.ra!aa &8 adc%:

, ,

total
2
2
&
>
,
ds n E

FI.$$aG
unde (3a notat

2
2 total
, >
.
A:adar8
,
(u.ra!ata de ncC(a Sarcna
ar0trara ncC(a (u.ra!ata o 3 .rntr ca".u#u F#u4u#

FI.$$0G
$5
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig. I.11: F#u4u# c-".u#u e#ectrc .rntr3o (u.ra!a% ;ncC(% ar0trar%.
Le/ea #u 5au(( e(te8 e(ena#8 ecC)a#ent% cu #e/ea #u Cou#o"08 ;n(% e4.r"at%
(u0 a#t% !or"%. Ea .er"te ca#cu#area co"od% a nten(t% c-".u#u e#ectrc ;n ca9u# ;n
care d(tr0u#e de (arcn% .re9nt% ("etre (.aa#% rdcat%.
Atunc c-nd (u.ra!aa ;ncCde o d(tr0ue )o#u"c% de (arcn%8 #e/ea #u 5au(( (e
(cre "ate"atc:


3
total
3
total
&
>
d3 E di" d3 ds n E
, ,
1

8 FI.$'G
unde (3a !o#o(t teore"a 5au((3O(tro/rad(> FI.1*G8

3
total tot
d3 >
8 ar
total

e(te
den(tatea )o#u"c% tota#% de (arcn% dn )o#u"u# 38 #"tat de (u.ra!aa ;ncC(% &. Ecuaa
FI.$'G arat% c% d)er/ena )ectoru#u nten(tate e#ectrc% e(te #e/at% de den(tatea )o#u"c%
de (arcn% e#ectrc% .rn ecuaa !unda"enta#%:
,
.o#ar9are #0er
,

+

total
E di"

. FI.$+G
Ecuaa FI.$+G e(te e4.re(a ;n form diferenial F#oca#%G a #e/ #u 5au((. Acea(t%
ecuae e(te una dntre !a"oa(e#e ecua Ma4Oe##8 "alail c)iar n cazul n care
cmpurile depind de timp F.entru c% (arcna e#ectrc% (e con(er)%G. De a(e"enea8 tre0ue
notat c% #a nu"toru# !race tre0ue (% a.ar% ntotdeauna .er"t)tatea de#ectrc%
,

a
)du#u8 ar #a nu"%r%tor den(tatea )o#u"c% tota#% de (arcn% Fdatorat% tuturor
contr0u#or: (arcn% #0er%8 de polarizare8 .rodu(% datort% /ener%r de .erecC8 etcG.
$1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Den(tatea )o#u"c% a (arcn de .o#ar9are e(te #e/at% de "ectorul polarizare
8

.rn
re#aa (".#%:
8 di"
pol


. FI.$5G
Ecuaa Ma4Oe## FI.$+G (e .oate dec (cre:
, ,

lier
8
E di"

,
_

. FI.$1G
Bectoru# .o#ar9are
8

ndu( de .re9ena unu c-". e#ectrc


E

;n "edu e(te:
E 8


,
. FI.$7G
unde "%r"ea ad"en(ona#%

e(te nu"t% susceptiilitate electric a "edu#u.


Dn#ocurea re#ae FI.$7G ;n FI.$1G conduce #a ecuaa /enera#%:
lier
E di" + f G 1 gF
,

FI.$&G
;n care "%r"ea E E 0

+
,
G 1 F (e nu"e:te deplasare electric8 (au8 cu" a !o(t
ntrodu(% ;n #"0a ro"-n%8 inducie electric. M%r"ea
,
1 +
8 (e nu"e:te constant
dielectric a "edu#u8 (au permiti"itate dielectric relati" : ne arat% de c-te or
.er"t)tatea e#ectrc% a "edu#u con(derat e(te "a "are dec-t ce a )du#u. ;n general$
aceste mrimi depind de cmp : de poziie dac% "atera#u# e(te neo"o/en. Dn con(ecn%8
n cazul general$ factorul
,
1 +
care multiplic intensitatea
E

a cmpului electric
n ecuaia -4'?@. nu poate fi scos de su operatorul di"ergen. Acea(t% o0(er)ae (".#%
e4.#c% (ur(a une eror !rec)ente ;n "u#te "anua#e de e#ectrctate8 cCar atunc c-nd e#e
a0ordea9% cCe(tunea #a un n)e# teoretc !oarte rdcat: ;n ace(tea8 ecuaa /enera#%
Ma4Oe##
lier
E di" + f G 1 gF
,

e(te (cr(% (u0 !or"a:

lier
E di"

8 FI.$*G
con(derat% o L/enera#9areM .entru "ed de#ectrce d!erte de )d a ecuae FI.$+G. De
!a.t8 #ucrur#e (tau e4act n)er(: de: !oarte ut#% F.entru c%8 e)dent8 e(te "u#t "a u:or de
re9o#)atG8 ecuaa FI.$*G re.re9nt% doar o a.ro4"ae )a#d% ;n limita cmpurilor slae8 a
mediului omogen : a ca9u#u c-nd

e(te (ca#ar F"edu# nu e ten(ora#G.



I.& Ecuaa #u La.#ace. Ecuaa #u 2o((on
$7
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Dn ca9u# e#ectro(tatc8 co"0n-nd ecuaa grad E

cu ecuaa Ma4Oe## FI.$+G8


o0ne" o ecuae care8 ;".reun% cu cond#e .e !rontere#e do"enu#u8 .er"te
deter"narea .otena#u#u e#ectrc Fdec : a nten(t% c-".u#uG8 atunc c-nd (e cuno(c
co".#et d(tr0u#e de (arcn%:
,
G F
G F G F


r
r grad di"
total


8 FI.',G
unde (e"n!c% o.eratoru# La.#acean8 cu acunea:
$
$
$
$
$
$
z 5 %

. O ecuae
de !or"a FI.',G (e nu"e:te ecuaia lui 8oisson. O a(e"enea ecua (unt ;nt-#nte de( ;n
!9c%8 : .er"t ca#cu#u# .otena#e#or Fnu ne.%rat e#ectrceG8 or de c-te or (e cunoa:te
d(tr0ua (.aa#% a (ur(e#or. Dn ace#e re/un dn (.au unde d(tr0ua de (arcn% (e
anu#ea9%8
,
total

8 : ecuaa 2o((on (e reduce #a o ecuae "a (".#%:


, G F r

8 FI.'1G
nu"t% ecuaia lui Laplace.
=dat ce condiiile pe frontierele domeniului au fost precizate$ soluiile acestor
ecuaii sunt unice. Acea(t% a!r"ae8 a c%re de"on(trae e(te ce)a "a co".#cat%8 .oart%
nu"e#e de teorema unicitii soluiilor.
Func#e ce (at(!ac ecuaa #u La.#ace (e nu"e(c funcii armonice. E)dent8
.otena#u# e#ectrc e(te o !unce ar"onc%.
Una dntre .ro.ret%#e re"arca0#e a#e !unc#or ar"once e(te aceea c% e#e ;:
atn/ e4tre"e#e .e !rontera do"enu#u. De ac8 re9u#t% c% ;ntr3un c-". e#ectro(tatc .ur8
nu e4(t% .uncte de ecC#0ru a# (arcn#or e#ectrce8 adc% sarcinile electrice nu pot fi
meninute n ec)iliru numai cu fore de tip electrostatic. Acea(t% conc#u9e re"arca0#%8
cuno(cut% (u0 nu"e#e de teorema lui Earns)a/ 8 ne .er"te (% a!r"%" cu certtudne c%
!ore#e de #e/%tur% ;n (o#de F: nu nu"aG nu .ot a)ea doar or/ne e#ectro(tatc%.
$&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
CAPITOLUL II
MA5NETOSTATICA. NOIUNI FUNDAMENTALE
Se crede c% TCa#e( dn M#et cuno:tea .ro.ret%#e "a/netce a#e unor "nereur de
!er ;nc% dn anu# 1,, ;.e.n.8 ar cCne9 !o#o(eau o !or"% rud"entar% de 0u(o#% .entru a (e
orenta .e "%r cCar "a ;nante.
Le/%tura dntre "a/net(" : curentu# e#ectrc a !o(t de(co.ert% de !9canu#
dane9 =an( CCr(tan Oer(ted
'
;n anu# 1&$,8 c-nd a o0(er)at de)erea acu#u une
'
F9can : cC"(t dane9 F177731&51G8 a !%cut acea(t% de(co.erre ;n t". ce .reda #a Un)er(tatea dn Co.enCa/a8 unde8 ;nce.-nd dn
anu# 1&,+8 a !o(t a.roa.e toat% )aa .ro!e(or.
$*
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
0u(o#e a!#ate ;n a.ro.erea unu conductor .arcur( de curent e#ectrc. A a.%rut a(t!e# deea
c% ;n Iuru# unu curent e#ectrc F(arcn e#ectrce ;n ":careG e4(t% un c-". "a/netc.
(ig.II.1= E4.er"ente#e #u Oer(ted
Ma/neto(tatca (tuda9% .ro.ret%#e c-".u#u "a/netc ce (e (ta0#e:te ;n Iuru#
curen#or e#ectrc (taonar Fcare nu de.nd de t".G : nteracun#e "a/netce a(ocate
cu ace:ta. Curentul electric staionar este cel a crui intensitate electric nu depinde
de timp.
II.1 De!nrea c-".u#u "a/netc
A:a cu" a" de!nt nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc
E

8 ca !nd !ora ce aconea9%


a(u.ra unt% (arcn de .ro0% a!#at% ;n re.au(8 .ute" de!n un a#t c-".8 .rn acea .arte a
!ore n(tantanee ce aconea9% a(u.ra une (arcn e#ectrce de .ro0% ;n ":care8 cu )te9a
n(tantanee "

. 2entru a de9)o#ta deea8 (% .re(u.une" c% ;ntr3un anu"t .unct dn (.au8


#a un "o"ent dat8 ;ntr3un ((te" de coordonate oarecare8 (e con(tat% e4.er"enta# c% !ora
ce (e e4erct% a(u.ra une (arcn de .ro0% ,8 care (e ":c% cu )te9a con(tant% "

8 e(te
dat% de:
A " , E , F


+ 8
FII.1G
;n care
E

:
A

(unt "%r" )ectora#e ce nu de.nd de "

. Dac% acea(t% re#ae e(te


ade)%rat%8 de!n"
E

ca !nd nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc ;n ace# .unct :


A

ca !nd
',
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
inducia magnetic n acel punct. Untatea de "%(ur% F;n SIG .entru nduca c-".u#u
"a/netc .oart% nu"e#e de Tesla'
Re#aa FII.1G e(te e4.re(a "ate"atc% a #e/ #u Lorent9
+
8 ar ter"enu# care
d% contr0ua #a !ora tota#% a c-".u#u "a/netc "a/netc8 A " , F
L

8 .oart% nu"e#e
de for Lorentz. Dn ca.to#u# ur"%tor8 )o" d(cuta .e (curt acea(t% !or%.
Dn con(derente (torce8 )o" ntroduce nounea de nduce
A

a c-".u#u
"a/netc .ornnd !o#o(nd un e4.er"ent "u#t "a u:or de rea#9at8 anu"e "%(urarea
!ore ce aconea9% a(u.ra unu conductor .rn care trece un curent (taonar8 a!#at ;ntr3un
c-". "a/netc e4teror. Acea(ta !or% )a ! nu"t% for electromagnetic : o )o" !o#o(
ca do)ad% e4.er"enta#% a e4(tene c-".u#u "a/netc ;ntr3o re/une a (.au#u.
Fora e#ectro"a/netc% ce aconea9% a(u.ra e#e"entu#u de curent l 4d

a!#at ;n c-".u#
"a/netc e4teror de nduce
A

FF/. II.$G are e4.re(a:


A l 4d F d

8 FII.$G

(ig.II.= Fora e#ectro"a/netc%
F d

a!#at ;n c-".u# "a/netc e4teror de nduce


A

8
.er.endcu#ar ce aconea9% a(u.ra e#e"entu#u de curent
l 4d

.e.#anu# deter"nat de
l d

:
A

.
unde 4 e(te nten(tatea curentu#u e#ectrc ce (tr%0ate crcutu#8 ar l d

e(te e#e"entu#
de
crcut orentat ;n (en(u# curentu#u. Se o0(er)% c% acea(t% re#ae8 ;".reun% cu .rnc.u#
(u.er.o9e #nare8 .er"te "%(urarea !ore tota#e a(u.ra conductoru#u #nar : dec
deter"narea e4.er"enta#% a nduce c-".u#u "a/netc A.

II.$ Le/ea 6ot3Sa)art3La.#ace
+
=endr> Antoon Lorent9 F1&5'31*$&G8 "ate"atcan !9can o#ande98 a ntrodu( ace(t ter"en ;n 1&*$. Dn 1*,$ a .re"u# No0e#
.entru !9c% ;".reun% cu 2eter <e"an .entru (tudu# !eno"enu#u ce a)ea (% .oarte nu"e#e de e!ect <e"an.
'1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Dntr3un artco# .re9entat ;n !aa Acade"e Re/a#e de Atne dn Frana8 #a ',
octo"0re 1&$,8 R.6. 6ot
5
: F. Sa)art
1
au anunat re9u#tate#e une n)e(t/a
e4.er"enta#e a(u.ra une !ore "a/netce .rodu(% de un curent e#ectrc (taonar ce
.arcur/ea un conductor #nar !oarte #un/. Conc#u9#e e4.er"enta#e a#e #u 6ot : Sa)art
au !o(t ur"%toare#e:
3 c-".u# "a/netc ;ntr3un .unct oarecare e(te .er.endcu#ar .e .#anu# care conne
!ru# conductor : .unctu# re(.ect)K
3 #n#e de c-". "a/netc !or"ea9% cur0e ;ncC(e F#n#e de c-". "a/netc au !o(t
)9ua#9ate .rn d(.unerea .#tur de !er ;n !or"a unor #n ;ncC(e8 !or"-nd un (.ectru
"a/netcGK
3 c-".u# "a/netc e(te n)er( .ro.orona# cu d(tana dntre !r : .unctu# ;n care (e
o0(er)% e!ecte#e ace(tuaK
3 (en(u# c-".u#u "a/netc o0nut e(te a(ocat8 .rn re/u#a 0ur/Cu#u dre.t8 cu
(en(u# ;n care crcu#% curentu# e#ectrc care .arcur/e !ru# conductor.

2ornnd de #a re9u#tate#e e4.er"enta#e o0nute8 6ot : Sa)art au aIun( #a o
e4.re(e "ate"atc% deo(e0t de (".#% .entru c-".u# "a/netc .rodu( de un conductor
#nar ;ntr3un .unct (tuat #a d(tana r de conductor:
r
4
r A

$
G F
,
8 FII.'G
unde
,

e(te o con(tant% nu"t% permeailitate magnetic a "idului. Dn S.I.8 .rn


con)ene8 acea(ta are )a#oarea e4act%:
$
7
,
1, +
(
1


. FII.+G
5
Rean36a.t(te 6ot F177+31&1$G a !o(t un !9can8 a(trono" : "ate"atcan !rance9. A (tudat "eteor8 .o#ar9area #u"n : a
e!ectuat .r"e#e 90orur cu 0a#oane.
1
Fe#4 Sa)art F17*131&+1G !9can !rance9 care .e #-n/% "a/net(" : curent e#ectrc a (tudat acu(tca. Sa)art e(te o"on" cu untatea
de "%(ur% .entru nter)a#e "u9ca#e8 (a)art 8 de: acea(ta a !o(t de !a.t n)entat% de Ro(e.C Sau)eur.
'$
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig.II.1= Induca c-".u#u "a/netc creat de un curent
e#ectrc (taonar8 ;ntr3un .unct oarecare8 deter"nat.
La c-te)a 9#e du.% anunu# ace(tora8 La.#ace
7
a /%(t o e4.re(e "ate"atc% !oarte
".ortant% ce d% nduca c-".u#u "a/netc .rodu( de un conductor de o !or"%
oarecare. A(t!e#8 nduca "a/netc% A d

.rodu(% ;ntr3un .unct (tuat #a d(tana r

de
un e#e"ent de #un/"e l d

dntr3un conductor (tr%0%tut de curentu# e#ectrc I FFI5.II.'G8


e(te:
'
,
+ r
r l 4d
A d

. FII.5G
Dn ca9u# unu crcut de #un/"e L F(tuat ;n .#anu# !oG8 a.#c-nd .rnc.u# (u.er.o9e
#nare8 nduca c-".u#u "a/netc ;ntr3un .unct deter"nat8 (e ca#cu#ea9% .rn
nte/rarea "e"0ru#u dre.t8 .e toat% #un/"ea:

L
r
r l d
4 A
'
,
+

. FII.1G
Liniile de cmp magnetic (unt cur0e ;ncC(e8 tan/ente #oca# #a )ectoru# nduce
"a/netc%
A

.
Dn contnuare8 )o" a.#ca !or"u#a #u La.#ace ;n ca9u# unu conductor #nar !oarte
#un/8 .entru a )er!ca e4.re(a /%(t% .e ca#e e4.er"enta#% de 6ot : Sa)art.
Modu#u# e4.re(e II.5 e(te:
$
,
(n
+ r
dl 4
dA

. FII.7G
2entru a ca#cu#a c-".u# creat de ;ntre/u# curent8 )o" nte/ra acea(t% e4.re(e ;ntre
: + :
7
2erre3S"on8 MarcC9 de La.#ace F17+*31&$7G8 a(trono"8 "ate"atcan !9can !rance98 ce#e0ru .rn .ote9a (a co("o/onc% Bant#
Laplace8 con!or" c%rea ((te"u# (o#ar (3a n%(cut dntr3o ne0u#oa(% ;n " care. A !or"u#at ecua a La.#ace.
''
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig.II.2= Induca c-".u#u "a/netc creat de un
curent e#ectrc (taonar .rntr3un conductor n!nt8
#a d(tana a de ace(ta.
dl
r
4
A

+

$
,
(n
+

. FII.&G
O0(er)%" c%: $ T + 8 dec:
( )
$
1
$ $
co( (n
l a
a
+

.

A(t!e#8 re#aa FII.&G de)ne:
( )
dl
l a
a 4
A

+
+

, $
'
$ $
,
$

. FII.*G
Du.% nte/rare8 o0ne" cCar re#aa FII.'G:
a
4
A

$
,
.
(ig.II.3= Induca "a/netc%
A

8 creat% de trecerea
unu curent (taonar 4 .rntr3un conductor #nar8 #un/.
'+
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Loca#8 )ectoru# nduce "a/netc%
A

e(te (tuat ;ntr3un .#an tran()er(a# .e


conductor8 tan/ent #a cercu# de ra9% a cu centru# .e conductor : e(te orentat ;n (en(u# de
rotre a# 0ur/Cu#u dre.t care ;nantea9% ;n (en(u# de crcu#ae a# curentu#u e#ectrc 4.
II.' Interacunea curen#or .ara#e#
Bo" !o#o( re#aa anteroar% .entru a ca#cu#a !ora cu care nteraconea9%
do conductor #nar8 .ara#e#8 !oarte #un/8 (tua ;n )d8 #a d(tana a : .arcur: de
curen e#ectrc (taonar
1
4
8 re(.ect)
$
4
FF/.II.1G.
Induca creat% de curentu#
1
4
;n #ocu# ;n care (e a!#% conductoru# $ are e4.re(a:
a
4
A

$
1 ,
1
.
Deoarece
1
A

e(te .er.endcu#ar .e conductoru# $8 !ora cu care .orunea de #un/"e l dn


ace(ta )a ! atra(% de conductoru# 1 are e4.re(a:
a
l 4 4
l 4 A F

$
$ 1
, $ 1 $
. FII.1,G
Dn con!or"tate cu .rnc.u# acun#or rec.roce8 ce#e dou% !ore (unt e/a#e ;n "odu# : de
(en(ur contrare8 dec .ute" renuna #a ndc8 (crnd .entru fora de interaciune pe
unitatea de lungime dntre do conductor #nar8 .ara#e#8 !oarte #un/8 (tua ;n )d
(ig.II.4= Interacunea curen#or
.ara#e#
'5
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
F(au aerG8 #a d(tana a8 .arcur: de curen e#ectrc (taonar de nten(t%
1
4
:
$
4
8 e4.re(a:
a
4 4
f
l
F

$
$ 1
,
. FII.11G
Cu aIutoru# ace(te re#a !unda"enta#e (e de!ne:te untatea de "%(ur% a curentu#u
e#ectrc ;n ((te"u# nternaona#8 (mperul:

(mperul este intensitatea acelui curent electric constant$ meninut n dou
conductoare paralele i rectilinii de lungime infinit$ i seciune trans"ersal circular
negli2ail$ plasate n "id la distana de un metru unul de cellalt$ produce ntre acestea o
for de
7
1, $

1 pe fiecare metru de lungime.
II.+ 2otena#u# "a/netc )ector
A

Dn ace(t .ara/ra! )o" ar%ta8 !o#o(nd un ca9 .artcu#ar8 c% nduca c-".u#u


"a/netc .oate ! ntrodu(% cu aIutoru# une "%r" )ectora#e nu"t% potenial magnetic
"ector. 2entru a /%( acea(t% e4.re(e )o" !o#o( ur"%toarea denttate:
( ) ( ) g gradf g rot f g f rot

+
unde
f
e(te o !unce (ca#ar% ar0trar%8 ar
g
e(te o !unce )ectora#%. Dn ca9u# no(tru8
)o" con(dera
r
f
1

: C g

8 C

!nd den(tatea curentu#u (taonar de nten(tate I ce


trece .rntr3un conductor "a():
C
r
grad C
r
grad C rot
r r
C
rot

,
_

,
_

+
1 1 1
. FII.1$G

(ig.II.5= ScC % !o#o(t% .entru deter"narea .oten a#u#u "a/netc )ector8
(

'1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
E4.re(a
C rot
r

1
(e anu#ea9% deoarece o.eratoru# rotor conne der)ate .ara#e
;n ra.ort cu coordonate#e %$5$z a#e .unctu#u de o0(er)ae8 ;n t". ce !unca )ectora#%
( ) d d8 d8 z 5 % C C

de.nde de coordonate#e #oca#e a#e den(t% de curent.

Totodat%8
( ) ( ) ( )
'
$ $ $
d d d
1 1
r
r
z z 5 5 % %
k
z
2
5
i
% r
grad



+ +

,
_

.
A(t!e#8 re#aa II.1$ de)ne:
' '
1
r
r C
C
r
r
C
r
grad
r
C
rot

. FII.1'G
n-nd cont de de!na den(t% de curent8 .ute" (cre:
l 4d d3 C

. FII.1+G
Dn#ocu" FII.1'G : FII.1+G ;n FII.1G .entru a o0ne:

,
_


d3
r
C
rot d3
r
r C
r
r l 4d
A
3 3 L

+ + +
,
'
,
'
,
. FII.15G
O.eratoru# rotor a !o(t (co( ;n a!ara nte/ra#e deoarece e(te a.#cat ;n .unctu# ;n care (e
deter"n%
A

: nu ;n .uncte dn nteroru# e#e"entu#u de )o#u" d3. Dec:

,
_

3
d3
r
C
rot A

+
,
. FII.11G
Dn re#aa FII.11G re9u#t% c% nduca "a/netc% e(te rotoru# unu c-". )ectora#8
notat cu
(

8 nu"t potenial magnetic "ector:


( rot A

8 FII.17G
unde8
d3
r
C
(
3

+
,
. FII.1&G
A.#c-nd o.eratoru# d)er/en% re#ae FII.17G8 /%(" o .ro.retate !unda"enta#% a
c-".u#u "a/netc8 anu"e aceea c% este un cmp de di"ergen nul. Acea(t% .ro.retate
e(te e4.r"at% .rn ecuaa #u Ma4Oe##:
, A di"

8 FII.1*G
unde a" nut cont c% d)er/ena orc%ru rotor e(te nu#%. 2ute" (.une dec c% nduca
"a/netc% ;n )d e(te un cmp de "ectori solenoidal Fare rotor 9eroG.
II.5 F#u4u# nduce c-".u#u "a/netc
'7
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
F#u4u# nduce c-".u#u "a/netc .rntr3o (u.ra!a% e#e"entar% ds (e de!ne:te
cu aIutoru# re#ae d!erena#e:
ds A ds n A d co(

8 FII.$,G
unde n

e(te )er(oru# nor"a#e #a ds.


(ig.II.:= F#u4u# nduce "a/netce
.rntr3o (u.ra!a% e#e"entar%

F#u4u# .rntr3o (u.ra!a% !nt% S (e )a e4.r"a .rntr3o nte/ra#% care ;n(u"ea9%
contr0u#e e#e"entare date de FII.$,G:


&
ds n A

. FII.$1G
Se .oate de"on(tra c% flu%ul induciei magnetice printr#o suprafa aritrar$
nc)is$ este egal cu zero. Dntr3ade)%r8 ;n 0a9a teore"e 5au(( ? O(tro/rad(>8 .ute" .oate
(cre:
( )d3 A di" ds n A
& 3


8 FII.$$G
unde & e(te (u.ra!aa !nt% ce ;ncCde )o#u"u# 3.
n-nd cont de re#aa FII.1*G8 )o" o0ne" "edat:
,

&
ds n A

8 FII.$'G
care (e"n!c% !a.tu# c% n cazul cmpului magnetic nu a"em surse8 ca ;n ca9u# c-".u#u
e#ectrc8 ar #n#e de c-". )or ! ;ntotdeauna cur0e ;ncC(e. Ecuaa FII.$'G e(te e4.re(a
"ate"atc% a #e/ #u 5au(( .entru c-".u# "a/netc.
[ ] +
&4
FPe0erG
'&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677

$
1 1 1 m T +

II.1 Le/ea crcuta#% A".7re .entru )d
Le/ea crcuta#% a #u A".7re (ta0#e:te c% circulaia "ectorului inducie a
cmpului magnetic
A

pe un drum nc)is L este proporional cu intensitatea curentului 4


ce strate o suprafa aritrar & ce se spri2in pe drumul L.
2entru ;nce.ut8 )o" con(dera un conductor rect#nu .arcur( de curentu#
(taonar 4 ar dru"u# L ca !nd un cerc .er.endcu#ar .e ace(ta F!/.II.*aG.
(ig.II.;a= Crcu#aa )ectoru#u
A

.e un dru"
crcu#ar8 .er.endcu#ar .e conductoru# #nar .arcur(
de un curent (taonar de nten(tate 4
(ig.II.;!= Crcu#aa )ectoru#u
A

.e un dru"
;ncC( oarecare .e care (e (.rIn% (u.ra!aa
de(cC(% &8 (tr%0%tut% de curentu# de nten(tate 4
Crcu#aa )ectoru#u
A

;n ace(t ca9 .artcu#ar )a !:


4 dl
r
4
dl
r
4
Adl l d A
L L L L


,
, ,
$ $


. FII.$+G
Se .oate de"on(tra c% e4.re(a e(te ade)%rat% nd!erent de !or"a : orentarea
dru"u#u L !a% curent .recu" : de nu"%ru# de curen ;n#%nu de conturu# re(.ect)8
adc%:


k
k
L
4 l d A
,


. FII.$5G
M%r"ea


k
k
4
(e nu"e:te solenaie : (e "%(oar% ;n a".erK #a ca#cu#area e (e ne
cont de (en(ur#e den(t%#or de curent a(ocate curen#or ce tra)er(ea9% (u.ra!aa.
Re#a#e FII.$+G : FII.$5G (e .ot (".#!ca dac% (e ntroduce )ectoru#
D

8 nu"t
intensitate a cmpului magnetic. Dn )d8 de!na nten(t% c-".u#u "a/netc
D

e(te:
'*
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
D A

,
.
Dn ace(te cond8
4 l d D
L


. F II.$1G
M%r"ea


L
mm
l d D u

(e nu"e:te tensiune magnetomotoare. E)dent8 dac% dru"u# ;ncC( L nu ;n#%nue:te
ncun curent8 ten(unea "a/neto"otoare crcu#aa #u
A

e(te nu#%. Dn 0a9a teore"e


Sto>e(8 .ute" (cre crcu#aa )ectoru#u
A

(u0 !or"a:


( ) ds n A rot l d A
L &



8 FII.$7G
unde & e(te o (u.ra!a% !nt% oarecare ce (e (.rIn% .e conturu# L FF/.II.*0G.
2e de a#t% .arte .ute" (cre:


& L
ds n C 4 l d A


, ,

8 FII.$&G
unde C

e(te )ectoru# den(tate de curent8 & e(te aceea: (u.ra!a% !nt%8 ar n

e(te
)er(oru# nor"a#e #a e#e"entu# de (u.ra!a% ds. 2rn co".ararea ce#or dou% re#a (e o0ne
a:a nu"ta lege circuital a #u A".7re .entru )d8 (u0 !or"% d!erena#% F#oca#%G:
C A rot

,
8 FII.$*G
care e(te o !or"% .artcu#ar% a unea dntre ecua#e !a"oa(e a#e #u Ma4Oe##8 !or"%
)a#a0#% doar ;n do"enu# "a/neto(tatc.
A:a cu" #e/ea #u 5au(( .entru e#ectro(tatc% .er"te ca#cu#area cu u:urn% a
nten(t% c-".ur#or create de ((te"e de (arcn ce .re9nt% ("etre rdcat%8 cu aIutoru#
#e/ #u A".7re (e .oate ca#cu#a u:or nduca "a/netc% dn Iuru# crcute#or .arcur(e de
curent e#ectrc (taonar8 ce .re9nt% ("etre.
Ecua#e FII.1*G : FII.$*G8 #uate ;".reun%8 deter"n% ;n "od un)oc nduca
"a/netc%
A

8 dac% C

e(te cuno(cut.
II.7 2otena#u# "a/netc (ca#ar8 m

Dac% ;ntr3o re/une a (.au#u a)e" , C

: , A

8 .ute" (cre:
+,
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
, A rot

8 FII.',G
(au:

,
,
,

5
A
z
A
%
A
z
A
z
A
5
A
z
5
z %
5
z
.
Dn acea(t% re/une8 nduca "a/netc%
A

.oate ! (cr(% ca der)-nd dntr3un .otena#


(ca#ar
m

8 nu"t potenial magnetic scalar:


m
grad A
,

FII.'1G
(au8
%
A
m
%

,
8
5
A
m
5

, 8
z
A
m
z

,
Se o0(er)% de(tu# de u:or c% ace(te e4.re( (at(!ac e/a#tatea cu 9ero a
co".onente#or rotoru#u. Tre0ue .rec9at c% .otena#u# "a/netc (ca#ar nu de.nde
un)oc de .unct8 ar )a#oarea (a (e deter"n% .-n% #a o con(tant% adt)%8 ar0trar a#ea(%8
ana#o/ .otena#u#u c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc.
Ar ! ntere(ant de (.u( c% ;n 1&1+8 cCar Ma4Oe##8 ;ntr3o #ucrare :tn!c% de(.re
c-".u# e#ectro"a/netc8 ctt% ;n !aa RoSa# SocetS8 aduce ;n d(cue .otena#e#e
"a/netc )ector : (ca#ar8 atr0undu3#e (e"n!ca !9ce8 .entru ca8 ;n 1&1&8 (% decd% c%
a !o(t o dee .roa(t%.

II.& Starea de "a/net9are. Mo"entu# "a/netc
Dn a!ar% de conductoare#e .arcur(e de curent de conduce : de cor.ur#e ;nc%rcate
cu (arcn e#ectrce ;n ":care8 (e "a "a .ot e4ercta acun .ondero"otoare : a(u.ra
a#tor cor.ur (tuate ;n c-". "a/netc8 dntre care ce#e "a ".ortante (unt cor.ur#e
!ero"a/netce. Matera#e#e dn acea(t% c#a(%8 cu" ar ! de e4e".#u magnetita8 cCar : !%r%
un trata"ent .rea#a0# .roduc c-". "a/netc #a !e# ca (arcn#e e#ectrce ;n ":care (au
curentu# e#ectrc de conduce. A#te "atera#e dn acea(t% c#a(% cu" (unt fierul8 oelul8
ncCe#u#8 co0a#tu# : a#aIe a#e ace(tora8 adu(e ;n .rea#a0# ;n c-". "a/netc e4teror8 du.%
(u.r"area ace(tua .roduc c-". "a/netc #a !e# ca "a/nettaK ;n acea(t% (tare e#e (e
nu"e(c magnei permaneni. Starea cor.ur#or care ;n c-". "a/netc (unt aconate de
+1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
!ore : cu.#ur (u.#"entare !a% de ce#e condonate de (tarea #or e#ectrocnetc% (au de
(tarea de ;nc%rcare cu (arcn% e#ectrc% ;n ":care8 (e nu"e:te stare de magnetizare8
re(.ect) de polarizare magnetic. Cor.ur#e a!#ate ;n (tare de "a/net9are (e nu"e(c
magnetizate.
II.&.1 Mo"entu# "a/netc
Se :te c% .entru (tuderea c-".u#u "a/netc (e !o#o(e(c ace "a/netce (au 0uc#e
e#e"entare de curent Fde(.re care )o" )or0 "a t-r9uG. Ace#e "a/netce (unt "c
cor.ur "a/net9ate8 ;n(% orc-t de "c ar ! nu .ot ! con(derate .uncte "atera#e
deoarece (unt aconate de cu.#ur de !or e.
Bo" con(dera un c-". "a/netc o"o/en de nduce
A

8 ;n care .#a(%" un a(t!e#


de cor.. Se con(tat% c% .entru o anu"t% orentare a cor.u#u ;n ra.ort cu
A

8 cu.#u# (e
anu#ea9%K drea.ta tra(at% .rn cor.u# a!#at ;n ecC#0ru (ta0# : orentat% ;n (en(u# #u
A

(e
nu"e:te a% de magnetizare. Dn orce .o9e (3ar a!#a cor.u#8 rotndu3# ;n Iuru# a4e (a#e de
"a/net9are de )er(or u

8 cu.#u# r%"-ne ne(cC"0at. Cu.#u# care aconea9% a(u.ra


"cu#u cor. "a/net9at are Fana#o/ cu.#u#u e#ectrcG e4.re(a:
A m C

. FII.'$G
M%r"ea )ectora#% m

caracter9ea9% (tarea de "a/net9are a "cu#u cor. : (e nu"e:te


moment magneticK [ ]
$
. .
m ( m
4 &
.
Dac% "cu# cor. "a/net9at e(te (tuat ;ntr3un c-". "a/netc (taonar : #oca#
neun!or"8 a(u.ra ace(tua aconea9% ;n .#u( o !or%
F

8 a c%re e4.re(e e(te:


( ) A m grad F

. FII.''G
Deoarece .rodu(u# (ca#ar A m

cre:te cu "odu#u# )ectoru#u


A

8 !ora "a/netc%
F

tnde
(% de.#a(e9e cor.u# (.re re/un#e unde c-".u# e(te "a nten(. Dn c-". "a/netc un!or"8
!ora
F

e(te nu#%8 ar a(u.ra cor.u#u (e e4erct% nu"a cu.#u# C

.
Acun#e .ondero"otoare a#e c-".u#u "a/netc a(u.ra unu "c cor. "a/net9at8
"o0#8 de "o"ent "a/netc m

: ;n (tare e#ectrocnetc% nu#%8 con(tau dn:


Fora "a/netc%
F

FII.''G8 nenu#% nu"a ;n c-". "a/netc neo"o/enK


Cu.#u# re9u#tant
i
C

care conne o co".onent% datorat% !ore


F

: o
co".onent% de !or"a C

:
+$
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
( ) [ ] A m A m grad r C F r C

+ +
i
8 FII.'+G
unde r

e(te )ectoru# de .o9e a# .unctu#u unde (e /%(e:te cor.u# "a/net9at ;n ra.ort cu


or/nea re!erena#u#u.
II.&.$ Ma/net9area
Starea de "a/net9are a unu cor. !oarte "c e(te co".#et caracter9at% de
"o"entu# (%u "a/netc8 ;n(% ace(ta e(te n(u!cent .entru a de(cre starea de magnetizare
a unu cor. "a()K .entru acea(ta8 e(te nece(ar% ntroducerea une "%r" nu"t%
magnetizare.
2rn d)9area unu cor. "a/net9at !nt .ute" o0ne !ra/"ente de )o#u" 3 8
!ecare a)-nd "o"entu# "a/netc e#e"entar m

. &tarea de magnetizare a cor.u#u !nt


(e caracter9ea9% local .rn "%r"ea )ectora#% e/a#% cu den(tatea )o#u"c% a momentului
magnetic8 nu"t% "ector magnetizare
M

:
d3
m d
3
m
M
3

,
#"
. FII.'5G
Mo"entu# "a/netc re9u#tant m

e(te e/a# cu nte/ra#a )ectoru#u "a/net9are


e!ectuat% .e ;ntre/ )o#u"u# B:

3
d3 M m

. FII.'1G
Ln#e )ectoru#u
M

(unt (tuate ;n nteroru# cor.ur#or. 2entru "aIortatea cor.ur#or8


e4.erena .une ;n e)den% o de.enden% "a "c%8 (au "a "are8 a (t%r #or de
"a/net9are de c-".u# "a/netc e4teror ;n care (e a!#%. Cor.ur#e a# c%ror "o"ent
"a/netc (e anu#ea9% du.% (u.r"area c-".u#u e4teror (e nu"e(c cu magnetizare
temporar8 ar "%r"#e care #e caracter9ea9% (unt momentul magnetic temporar
t
m

:
magnetizarea temporar
t
M

. Cor.ur#e care .re9nt% "a/net9are ;n #.(a unu c-".


"a/netc e4teror8 (au care8 adu(e ;n c-". "a/netc .%(trea9% o "a/net9are du.%
(u.r"area ace(tua8 (e nu"e(c cu magnetizare permanent. M%r"#e care #e
caracter9ea9% (unt momentul magnetic prmanent p
m

: magnetizarea permanent
p
M

.
Dn /enera#8 "o"entu# "a/netc (e .oate (cre:
p t
m m m

+
. FII.'7G
+'
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Re#aa e(te ("#ar% .entru "a/net9are:
p t
M M M

+
. FII.'&G
2entru un "a/net .er"anent (tuat ;ntr3un c-". "a/netc e4teror (#a08
co".onenta te".orar% a "o"entu#u (%u "a/netc e(te ne/#Ia0#%. Un "a/net .er"anent8
a)-nd !or"% c#ndrc% : a4a de "a/net9are #on/tudna#%8 ut#9at ca ac magnetic8
ntrodu( ;n c-". "a/netc8 ndc% dreca #oca#% : (en(u# nduce "a/netce
A

.
II.* Mode#u# a".eran a# cor.ur#or "a/net9ate
Unu cor. "a/net9at (e .oate a(oca o re.arte !ct)% de curent e#ectrc8
ecC)a#ent% at-t dn .unctu# de )edere a# acun#or .ondero"otoare e4erctate de un c-".
"a/netc e4teror8 c-t : dn .unctu# de )edere a# .roducer de c-". "a/netc.
II.*.1 6uc#a e#e"entar% de curent
(ig.II.1<= 6uc#a e#e"entar% de curent
Un conductor !#!or" .arcur( de curent e#ectrc8 !or"-nd o cur0% ;ncC(% 8 de
are .#an% !oarte "c% FF/.II.1,G8 (e nu"e:te ucl elementar de curent.

Ac"i#nile %ondero$otoare a*#%ra !#clei de c#rent /n c>$% $agnetic #ni+or$.
Fora "a/netc%
F

ce (e e4erct% a(u.ra 0uc#e de curent (e ca#cu#ea9% cu


re#aa:
A r d i A r d i F

,
_




. FII.'*G
n-nd cont c%
,

r d

re9u#t% c% ;n c-". "a/netc un!or" !ora care aconea9%


a(u.ra 0uc#e e#e"entare de curent e(te nu#%:
++
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
,

. FII.+,G
Se .oate de"on(tra c% e4.re(a cu.#u#u care aconea9% a(u.ra 0uc#e de curent
e(te:
A ( i C




.
FII.+1G
unde

e(te )ectoru# are a# 0uc#e de curentK



( n (

8 n

!nd )er(oru# nor"a#e #a


(u.ra!aa 0uc#e de are

(
F(en(u# (e (ta0#e:te ;n !unce de (en(u# curentu#u8 !o#o(nd
re/u#a 0ur/Cu#u dre.tG.
M%r"ea )ectora#% e/a#% cu .rodu(u# dntre nten(tatea curentu#u i : )ectoru# are

a# 0uc#e de curent (e nu"e:te "o"ent "a/netc a# 0uc#e e#e"entare de curent

( i m

. FII.+$G
2rn ur"are8 re#aa FII.+1G de)ne:
A m C

. FII.+'G
Induca "a/netc% ;n )d

a une 0uc#e de curent (e ca#cu#ea9% cu aIutoru#


re#ae:


&

r
( d r
grad
i
D A
'
,
,
+

. FII.++G
Deoarece d"en(un#e (u.ra!ee 0uc#e (unt "u#t "a "c dec-t d(tana r

.-n%
#a .unctu# ;n care (e "%(oar% nduca8 re#aa FII.++G (e .oate (cre (u0 !or"a:
( )

&

m r grad ( i
r
r
grad
(
r
r
grad
i
( d
r
r
grad
i
A

+ +
+ +
,
'
,
'
,
'
,
. FII.+5G
M%r"ea (ca#ar%
m

:
'
+
1
r
r m

8 FII.+1G
e(te potenialul magnetic scalar al uclei elementare de curent.
2ute" (cre dec:
m m
grad D grad A

K
,
. FII.+7G
Se .oate de"on(tra c%:
+5
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
7n mic corp magnetizat i o ucl elementar de curent$ a"nd momentele
magnetice m

egale$

m m

8 FII.+&G
sunt ec)i"alente att din punctul de "edere al aciunilor ponderomotoare care se e%ercit
asupra lor dac sunt situate n cmp magnetic e%terior$ ct i al cmpului pe care l
produc n "idul din e%teriorul lor'
Acea(t% teorem de ec)i"alen e(te ut#% ;n tratarea c-".u#u "a/netc ;n cor.urK
un cor. "a() "a/net9at .oate ! d)9at ;n "c cor.ur "a/net9ate8 ar ace(tea #a r-ndu#
#or .ot ! (u0(ttute .rn 0uc#e e#e"entare de curent ecC)a#ente. Dec .ro0#e"a c-".u#u
.oate ! tratat% ca : cu" ar ! ;n )d.
(ig. II.11= EcC)a#ena dntre 0uc#e#e de curent : cor.ur#e "a/net9ate
II.*.$ Curentu# e#ectrc a".eran
Deoarece un "c cor. "a/net9at .oate ! ;n#ocut cu o 0uc#% e#e"entar% de curent
FF/.II.118 aG8 !ec%re .orun e#e"entare a unu cor. !nt "a/net9at (e .oate
(u0(ttu un ((te" de 0uc#e .arcur(e de curen nu" amperieni (au moleculari. Unu
!ra/"ent de cor. "a/net9at de !or"a une .r("e a)-nd 0a9a de are ( : ;n%#"e )
8 cu "a/net9area
M

orentat% nor"a# .e (u.ra!aa de are ( FF/.II.118 0G : cu


"o"entu# "a/netc e#e"entar m

:
( ) ( ) ( ) M ) ( M 3 M m

8 FII.+*G
(e a(oca9% 0uc#a e#e"entar% de curent de are ( : un curent a".eran e#e"entar
m
i
8 cu "o"entu# 0uc#e:
( i m
m

. FII.5,G
Ident!c-nd e4.re(#e "o"ente#or "a/netce8 re9u#t%:
+1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
) M i
m

8 FII.51G
re(.ect)8 #a #"t%:
) d M di
m

. FII.5$G
(ig. II.1: D(tr0u de curen a".eren
ecC)a#ente unu cor. "a/net9at
Dn re/" (taonar8 orce cor. "a/net9at .oate ! ;n#ocut dn .unctu# de )edere
a# c-".u#u "a/netc .rodu(8 cu o re.arte de curent a".eran8 ;nc-t !ec%re .r("e
e#e"entare de ;n%#"e d) (e a(oca9% o 0uc#% e#e"entar% a# c%re curent a".eran
m
di
e(te dat de re#aa FII.5$G. Se !ra/"entea9% cor.u# "a() ;n .r("e e#e"entare a#e
c%ror "ucC ) d

(unt tan/ente cur0e .e care (e (.rIn% (u.ra!aa de(cC(%

&
8 ar
!ec%re .r("e ; core(.unde curentu# a".eran e#e"entar
m
di
. 2rn nte/rare8 (e o0ne:

) d M i
m

8 FII.5'G
adc%: nten(tatea curentu#u a".eran .rn (u.ra!aa

&
e(te e/a#% cu crcu#aa
"a/net9ae
M

de3a #un/u# cur0e .


II.1,. Induca "a/netc% : nten(tatea c-".u#u "a/netc ;n cor.ur
+7
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig. II.11= Induca "a/netc% ;n cor.ur
Con(der%" o 0o0n% cu 1 (.re8 .arcur(% de curentu# de nten(tate i8 ;n nteroru#
c%rea e(te ntrodu( un cor. FF/.II.1'G. Su0 acunea c-".u#u "a/netc .rodu( ce curentu#
i8 cor.u# (e "a/net9ea9%. Su0(ttu" cor.u# .rntr3un ((te" de 0uc#e de curen
a".eren8 a(t!e# ;nc-t .ro0#e"a c-".u#u .oate ! tratat% ca : cu" ar ! ;n )d. Ca
ur"are8 (e .oate a.#ca #e/ea #u A".7re. Dn ace(t (en(8 (e con(der% o cur0% ;ncC(%
care (e ;ncCde ;n )d : care ;n#%nue toate (.re#e 0o0ne. Sen(u# de .arcur/ere a#
cur0e (e a(oca9% du.% re/u#a 0ur/Cu#u dre.t cu (en(u# curentu#u .rn 0o0n%. Dac%

&
e(te o (u.ra!a% de(cC(% ce (e (.rIn% .e conturu# 8 curentu# tota# ;n#%nut de
ace(ta e(te e/a# cu (u"a dntre (o#enaa 1i a 0o0ne : nten(tatea curentu#u a".eran8

m&
i
. 2rn ur"are8 #e/ea crcuta#% A".7re FII.$5G (e (cre (u0 !or"a:

m&
i 1i l d A
, ,


8 FII.5+G
unde
A

e(te nduca "a/netc% ;n nteroru# cor.u#u8 ar l d

e(te e#e"entu# de contur


8 c%rua (3a a(ocat (en(u# de .arcur/ere (.ec!cat. Dn#ocund ;n re#aa FII.5+G
nten(tatea curentu#u a".eran cu e4.re(a FII.5'G8 (e o0ne:


+ l d M 1i l d A

, ,

8 FII.55G
re(.ect):
1i l d M
A

,
_

. FII.51G
M%r"ea )ectora#% dn .arante9% (e notea9% cu
D

: (e nu"e:te intensitatea cmpului


magnetic n interiorul corpului:
M
A
D


[ ]
m
(
D
&4

. FII.57G
Dn u#t"a re#ae re9u#t% #e/%tura dntre nduca "a/netc%
A

8 nten(tatea c-".u#u
D


"a/netc : "a/net9area
M

:
+&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
( ) M D A

+
,
. FII.5&G
Un "atera# "a/netc e(te izotrop dac% (u0 acunea unu c-". "a/netc a)-nd
orce orentare ;n cor. (e "a/net9ea9% te".orar ;n dreca c-".u#u : e(te liniar dac%
#oca# "a/net9area te".orar%
t
M

e(te .ro.orona#% cu nten(tatea c-".u#u "a/netc


D

:
D M
m t

8 FII.5*G
unde "%r"ea ad"en(ona#%
m

(e nu"e:te susceptiilitate magnetic.


Dac% (u0(tana e(te !%r% "a/net9are .er"anent%8
,
p
M

8 re#aa FII.5&G de)ne:


( ) ( ) D M D A
m t

+ + 1
, ,
8 FII.1,G
unde "%r"ea ad"en(ona#%:
r m
+ 1
8 FII.11G
(e nu"e:te permeailitate magnetic relati" a (u0(tane. Re#aa FII.1,G de)ne:
D D A
r


,
8 FII.1$G
unde
r

,

e(te permeailitatea magnetic asolut a (u0(tane.


O!*er?a"ie:
Deoarece .entru cor.ur#e cu "a/net9are te".orar% )ectoru#
t
M

e(te !unce de
D

FII.5*G8 re#aa FII.5&G are !or"a ( ) ( ) [ ] D M D D A



+
,
: dec pentru a caracteriza
cmpul magnetic n corpuri sunt necesare dou mrimi:
D

: ( ) D A

.


CAPITOLUL III
FORA LORENT<
+*
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
III.1 =endr> A. Lorent9 ? Scurt% 0o/ra!e
&

=endr> Antoon Lorent9 (3a n%(cut #a Arne"8 O#anda8 .e 1& u#e 1&5'8 ca !u a# #u
5errt Freder> Lorent9 : a# (oe ace(tua 5eertruda8 n%(cut% )an 5n>e#. A a0(o#)t
#ceu# dn Arne" :8 ;n 1&7,8 a ntrat #a Un)er(tatea dn LeSden8 unde a de)ent #cenat
;n "ate"atc% : !9c%. Dn 1&7$ (3a ;ntor( ;n ArnCe" ca .ro!e(or8 .re/%tndu3: ;n ace(t
t". te9a de doctorat cu .r)re #a re!#e4a : re!raca #u"n. A o0nut tt#u# de doctor #a
nu"a $$ de an8 ar #a $5 a !o(t nu"t #a Catedra de F9c% Teoretc% a Un)er(t% dn
LeSden8 creat% (.eca# .entru e#.
Dnc% de #a ;nce.utu# act)t% (a#e :tn!ce :3a .ro.u( (%
de9)o#te teora e#ectro"a/net("u#u a #u Ma4Oe##.
Tre0ue (.u( c% Lorent9 a !o(t ade.tu# teore #u Fre(ne#8
con!or" c%rea eterul e(te un "edu "o0# care u".#e
;ntre/u# (.au. Eteru# a !o(t !o#o(t de ade. de dre.t
((te" de re!ern% a0(o#ut .entru !eno"ene#e
e#ectro"a/netce. Dn ;ncercarea de Iu(t!ca e:ecu#
e4.er"entu#u e!ectuat de McCe#(on : Mor#eS8 care
doreau (% do)edea(c% e4(tena unu eter a0(o#ut "o0#8
Lorent9 !ace o .re(u.unere !oarte curaIoa(% .entru ace#e
)re"ur F1&*$G8 anu"e aceea c% eteru# .roduce o .re(une .e dreca ":c%r cor.ur#or8
.re(une ce conduce #a o contrace a ace(tora cu !actoru#
$
$
1
c
"
F" 3 )te9a cor.u#u !a%
de eter8 c 3 )te9a #u"nG. CCar dac% a .#ecat de #a o (u.o9e nenatura#%8 ce#e0ru#
!9can a /%(t cu acea(t% oca9e tran(!or"%r#e care a)eau (%3 .oarte nu"e#e.
En(ten : 2oncarj
*
a)eau (% de"on(tre9e ;n anu# 1*,5 c% ecua#e #u Ma4Oe##
(unt n)arante #a tran(!or"%r#e Lorent9.
A o0nut 2re"u# No0e# .entru !9c% ;n 1*,$8 ;".reun% cu 2eter <ee"an8 .entru
de(co.errea : e4.#carea !eno"enu#u ce .oart% nu"e#e ace(tua dn ur"%.
Dn #ucrarea LTCe tCeorS o! e#ectron(M dn 1*,+8 Lorent9 ntroduce .re(u.unerea c%
.artcu#e#e "cro(co.ce nu (unt a#tce)a dec-t "od!c%r #oca#e a#e (t%r eteru#u. 2artcu#a
e(ena#% .entru acea(t% #ucrare e(te8 a:a cu" o0(er)%" : dn tt#u8 e#ectronu#8 cu aIutoru#
&&
No0e#.r9e.or/
**
Ru#e( =enr 2oncarj F$* a.r#e 1&5+ ? 17 u#e 1*1$G a !o(t unu# dntre ce "a "ar "ate"atcen : !9cen !rance9. A a)ut
contr0u :tn!ce ".ortante : ;n do"en#e: a(trono"e8 /eode9e8 "ecanca cuantc%8 teora .otena#e#or : !#o(o!e.
(ig. III.1= =. A. Lorent9
5,
v
o
v
o
v
o
v
o
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
c%rua Lorent9 a e4.#cat o (ere de !eno"ene e#ectrce : "a/netce8 : a a .o(tu#at
e4(tena !ore ce a)ea (%3 .oarte nu"e#e.
Dntrea/a (a )a% a r%"a( !de# carere ddactce8 cCar dac% a !o(t co.#e:t de
onorur : d(tnc8 !%c-nd .arte dn d)er(e co"tete : or/an9a :tn!ce. A "urt #a
=aar#e"8 ;n data de + !e0ruare 1*$&.
III. $ Fora Lorent9
Fa.tu# c% !ora ce aconea9% a(u.ra une .artcu#e ;nc%rcate e#ectrc a!#at% ;n
":care ;ntr3o 9on% ;n care e4(t% un c-". "a/netc8 de.nde de orentarea )te9e !a% de
)ectoru# nduce "a/netc%8 nu e(te at-t de ntut) .recu" !a.tu# c% !ora e#ectro(tatc%
de.nde doar de nten(tatea
E

a c-".u#u : de )a#oarea (arcn. Ma "u#t8 Iu(t!carea


ace(te rea#t%8 nece(t% o a0ordare re#at)(t%8 care nu era #a ;nde"-na !9cen#or
(!-r:tu#u de (eco# HIH. Dn ace(t "ot)8 atunc c-nd !eno"enu# a !o(t o0(er)at8 e4(tena
!ore a !o(t #uat% ca atare8 ar e4.re(a A " , F

8 .e care a(t%9 o !o#o(" ;n "od curent8


a !o(t b.o(tu#at%b.
Dn ce#e ce ur"ea9%8 )o" ;ncerca "a de/ra0% (% Iu(t!c%" a.ara !ore Lorent9 :
de.endena e de )te9a .artcu#e ;nc%rcate. Bo" a.e#a .entru acea(ta #a o e4.eren%
"a/nar%. Con(der%" dou% :rur .ara#e#e8 a.ro.ate8 !oarte #un/8 de .urt%tor de (arcn
(ig. III.: S(te"u# de (arcn ;n ce#e dou% ((te"e de re!ern%
.o9t)e : ne/at)e care (e de.#a(ea9% cu aceea: )te9%8
,
"
F;n ((te"u# #a0oratoru#uG8 ;n
(en(ur o.u(e FF/. III.$G. Stuaa e(te a(e"%n%toare unu conductor .arcur( de curent
e#ectrc8 cu deo(e0rea c%8 ;n ace(t ca9 on .o9t) (unt "o0#. Con(der%"8 de
a(e"enea8 c% d(tana dntre (arcn e(te (u!cent de "c%8 ;nc-t caracteru# #or d(cret (% nu
n!#uene9e ca#cu#e#e8 ar den(tatea #nar% de (arcn% .o9t)% : ne/at)% e(te aceea: ;n
((te"u# ;n care (arcn#e re(.ect)e (unt ;n re.au(. Dac% not%" cu den(tatea #nar% de
51
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(arcn% ;n ((te"u# #a0oratoru#u8 atunc8 ;n ((te"u# ;n care (arcn#e (unt ;n re.au(
acea(ta )a de)en
$ T 1
$
$
,
1

,
_

c
"
Fc ? )te9a #u"n ;n )dG8 datort% contrace re#at)(te.
A#t!e# (.u(8 ;n ((te"u# #a0oratoru#u8 an(a"0#u# e(te neutru dn .unct de )edere e#ectrc :
dec , E

.
Dac% o .artcu#% de .ro0% cu (arcna ,8 (e ":c% .ara#e# cu ce#e dou% :rur cu )te9a
"

8 atunc8 ;n sistemul legat de aceasta8 den(t%#e de (arcn% )or a)ea )a#or d!erte
datort% co".uner re#at)(te a )te9e#or. A(t!e#8 ;n ((te"u# de re!ern% a# .artcu#e8
den(tatea tota#% de (arcn% )a !:
$
$
$
, e e
1
1 $
c
"
c
""


. FIII.1G
Dnante (% "er/e" "a de.arte8 tre0ue (% .rec9%" c% (arcna tota#% r%"-ne ;n
contnuare n)arant%8 nd!erent de ((te"u# de re!ern% a#e(. Dn cond#e ".u(e F:rur#e
(unt .re(u.u(e de #un/"e n!nt%G8 nu .ute" cu.rnde ;ntrea/a (arcn%K ce (e ;nt-".#% #a
ca.ete nu ntere(ea9%.
2entru a aIun/e #a e4.re(a c-".u#u .rodu( de acea(t% den(tate #nar% a.#c%"
teore"a #u 5au(( .e o (u.ra!a% c#ndrc% de ra9% r8 : o0ne":
$
$
$
,
, e
1
1
c
"
rc
""
E

8 FIII.$G
a c%ru orentare e(te rada#%8 (.re :r.
Fora ce )a acona a(u.ra (arcn de .ro0% .o9t)e ,8 )a ! ;ndre.tat% .e dreca
ra9e (.re :r : are )a#oarea:
$
$
$
,
,
e
1
1
c
"
rc
"" ,
F

. FIII.'G
A.#c-nd !or"u#a de trecere #a ((te"u# #a0oratoru#u8 /%(":
$
,
,
rc
"" ,
F

. FIII.+G
M%r"ea
,
"
re.re9nt% nten(tatea 4
E
a curentu#u .rodu( de de.#a(area (arcn
.o9t)e. E)dent8 de.#a(area (arcn#or ne/at)e .roduce aceea: contr0ue #a curent8
5$
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
+
4 4
. Curentu# tota# .rn conductor e(te dec
,
$ " 4
. Dn ace(te cond8 ;n !unce de
curentu# tota#8 e4.re(a FIII.+G de)ne:
$
,
$ rc
,"4
F

. FIII.5G
U9ua#8 n-nd cont c%
, ,
$
1

c
8 : c%
r
4
A

$
,
e(te nduca c-".u#u creat de curentu#
#nar 48 n!nt de #un/8 ;ntr3un .unct (tuat #a d(tana r !a% de ace(ta8 o0ne" e4.re(a
!ore Lorent9 ;n ace(t ca9 .artcu#ar:
,"A F
. FIII.1G
n-nd cont de orent%r#e "%r"#or )ectora#e ce nter)n ;n e4.re(e8 !or"a )ectora#% )a
!:
A " , F

8 FIII.7G
;n care8 .entru deter"narea (en(u#u !ore8 tre0ue (% #u%" ;n ca#cu# : (e"nu# (arcn.
Dn(u"-nd acun#e !ore Lorent9 a(u.ra tuturor .urt%tor#or de (arcn% care
contr0ue #a curentu# 4 dntr3un conductor #nar8 de #un/"e l8 (tuat ;n c-".u# "a/netc
A

8 /%(" e4.re(a forei electromagnetice ce aconea9% a(u.ra ace(tua:


A l 4 F
elmg


FIII.&G
III.' Acunea !ore Lorent9

2entru a ;ne#e/e "odu# ;n care aconea9% !ora Lorent98 )o" ana#9a ce (e
;nt-".#% cu o .artcu#% de "a(% m8 ;nc%rcat% cu (arcna ne/at)% ,8 ce .%trunde cu )te9a
"

;ntr3un c-". "a/netc (tatc : o"o/en8 de nduce


A

8 orentat de3a #un/u# a4e =% a


unu ((te" orto/ona# de a4e FF/.III.'G.
Ne/#I-nd !ore#e /ra)taona#e8 ecuaa )ectora#% de ":care (e (cre:
A " ,
dt
" d
m


. FIII.*G
5'
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
(ig.III.1: M:carea une .artcu#e ;nc%rcate e#ectrc ;ntr3un c-". "a/netc (tatc : o"o/en.
Dn"u#" (ca#ar ecuaa cu "

:
" A " , "
dt
" d
m

G F
FIII.1,G
: o0(er)%" c% ter"enu# dn (t-n/a (e .oate (cre

,
_


$
$
m"
dt
d
"
dt
" d
m

8 ar ter"enu# dn
drea.ta e(te nu# F)ector "

: A "

(unt .er.endcu#arG. A#t!e# (.u(8 fora Lorentz nu


modific energia cinetic a particulei.
Ecuaa III.* .oate ! de(co".u(% ;n dou% co".onente: una .e drece .ara#e#% cu
c-".u# : a#ta .e o drece nor"a#% #a c-".:
A " ,
dt
" d
m


kk
kk
k
8 FIII.11G
A " ,
dt
" d
m

. FIII.1$G
Deoarece
,
kk
A "

8 acce#eraa .artcu#e .e dreca c-".u#u )a ! nu#% :


":carea .e acea(t% drece e(te un!or"%. Dn ecuaa III.1$8 .ute" (cre:

" a
dt
" d
c c

8 FIII.1'G
unde
c
a

e(te acce#eraa ;n .#anu# 5=z8 .er.endcu#ar .e c-".. Tre0ue o0(er)at c%


deoarece "
F
: kk
"
(unt con(tante8 atunc :

$ $
" " " constant8 ceea ce ;n(ea"n% c%8
;n
5+
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
ace(t .#an8 ":carea e(te crcu#ar% un!or"% cu .u#(aa
m
,A
c

Fnu"t% :
.u#(ae
cc#otronc%G. Acce#eraa a.are doar datort% "od!c%r drece )ectoru#u )te9%8
"

.
Inte/r-nd ecuaa III.1'8 o0ne":
c c
r "


8 FIII.1+G
unde
c
r

e(te ra9a cercu#u ce re.re9nt% traectora .artcu#e ;n .#anu# 5=z. n-nd cont c%
c

:
c
r

(unt rec.roc .er.endcu#ar8 e4.re(a ra9e .oate ! (cr(%:


,A
m"
r
c

. FIII.15G
2artcu#a )a a)ea dec o ":care e#coda#% cu .eroada
,A
m
T
c
$

: .a(u#
,A
m"
)
kk
$

.
55
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
CAPITOLUL IV
CONFI5URAII DE C@M2URI ELECTRICE AI MA5NETICE CU
A2LICAII IM2ORTANTE
IB.1 Con!/ura de c-".ur e#ectrce
IB.1.1 D.o#u# e#ectrc

D.o#u# e#ectrc e(te un ((te" de (arcn .unct!or"e8 e/a#e ;n "odu# dar de (e"ne
contrare8 care (e /%(e(c #a o d(tan% "u#t "a "c% dec-t d(tana de #a d.o# #a .unctu# ;n
care (e ca#cu#ea9% nten(tatea : .otena#u# c-".u#u creat de ace(ta FF/. IB.1G.
(ig. IV.1= D.o#u# e#ectrc. Ca#cu#u# a !o(t e!ectuat ut#9-nd .ro/ra"u# de ("u#are
MOLECULAR PORc6ENC=8 d(.on0# /ratut .entru a.#ca acade"ce Fadre(a:
Ctt.:TT"O.concord.or/T"ode#erTG. 4maginea distriuiei este produs n timpul redactrii lucrrii.

Mo"entu# d.o#u#u e#ectrc e(te o "%r"e )ectora#% de!nt% de re#aa:
l , p

8 FIB.1G
unde l

e(te )ectoru# de .o9e a# (arcn .o9t)e ;n ra.ort cu cea ne/at)%8 ar , e(te


)a#oarea a0(o#ut% a unea dntre (arcn.
51
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Ne .ro.une" (% ca#cu#%" .otena#u# e#ectrc

: nten(tatea
E

a
c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc ;ntr3un .unct A8 oarecare8 de.arte de d.o#. 2entru ;nce.ut
)o" ;n(u"a
.otena#e#e ce#or dou% (arcn .unct!or"e:

,
_


d
1 1
+
,
r r
,

. FIB.$G
O0(er)%" c% .ute" (cre:
co( $ d
$ $ $
lr l r r + + 8
de unde (coate":

$
1
$
$
$
1
1
d
1

,
_

+ +
r
l
r
l
r r
.
Du.% de9)o#tarea ;n (ere : ne/#Iarea ter"en#or de ordn (u.eror
( ) r l <<
8 /%(":
co(
1
d
1
$
r
l
r r
. FIB.'G
Dn#ocund FIB.'G ;n FIB.$G8 e4.re(a #u

8 de)ne:

co(
+
$
,
r
,l

. FIB.+G
n-nd cont de FIB.1G8 .ute" (cre:

co(
+
$
,
r
p

8 FIB.5G
(au:
( )
'
,
+ r
r p
r

. FIB.1G
C-".u# e#ectro(tatc a# unu d.o# e#ectrc dea# (e ca#cu#ea9% dn .otena#8 cu
!or"u#a cuno(cut%: E

. A)e":

( )
'
,
+
1
r
r p
r E

. FIB.7G
Ca#cu#-nd /radentu# unu .rodu( de !unc8 o0ne" ;n !na#:
( )
( )

,
_

' 5
,
'
+
1
r
p
r
r r p
r E

. FIB.&G
Re#aa .oate (cr(% : (u0 !or"a:

( )

,
_

p
r
p r
r
r E

co( '
+
1
'
,
. FIB.*G
57
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Studu# d.o#u#u .re9nt% ntere( at-t ca9u# ;n care (arcna e#ectrc% e(te n)ara0#%
;n t".8 c-t : ca9u# ;n care (arcna e(te )ara0#% ;n t".. D.o#u# cu (arcn nde.endente
de t". !o#o(e:te #a e4.#carea .o#ar9%r de#ectrc#or. Ce# cu (arcn de.endente de t".
.er"te ana#9a ce#e "a (".#e antene.
IB.1.$ D(tr0ua #nar% de (arcn%
Ne .ro.une" (% deter"n%" nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc .rodu( ;n )d de o
d(tr0ue #nar% n!nt% de (arcn% e#ectrc% cu den(tatea . S"etra ((te"u#u ne
.er"te a.#carea #e/ #u 5au((8 a#e/-nd dre.t /au((an% un c#ndru de ra9% r : ;n%#"e
)8 coa4a# cu !ru# FF/.IB.$G.
2entru acea(t% (u.ra!a% ;ncC(%8 )o" (cre:

,
nt

,
& d E
&


. FIB.1,G
Datort% ("etre c#ndrce8 c-".u# .e (u.ra!aa #atera#% )a ! orentat rada#8 du.%
dreca )er(oru#u n

a# e#e"entu#u de are d&. O0ne":



l
&
& E & d E


8 FIB.11G
unde
r) &
l
$
e(te ara #atera#% a c#ndru#u con(derat. Sarcna dn nteroru# (u.ra!ee
e(te
l ,
nt
. Dn#ocu" totu# ;n FIB.1,G : o0ne" e4.re(a nten(t% c-".u#u
e#ectro(tatc #a d(tana r de !r:
(ig.IV.= C-".u# une d(tr0u
#nare n!nte de (arcn% e#ectrc%
.
5&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
o
r
E

FIB.1$G
2entru a ca#cu#a .otena#u# e#ectrc

a# c-".u#u )o" !o#o( o re#ae der)at% dn


!or"u#a FI.1'.aG:

C r
r
dr
r d E d +

#n
$ $
, ,


FIB.1'G
2entru a deter"na con(tanta C8 )o" ".une conda na#%
,
#a
,
r r
K atunc:
,
,
#n
$
r C

FIB.1+G
::
r
r
,
,
#n
$


FIB.15G
Re#aa FIB.15G e(te ut#% ;n (tudu# conden(atoru#u c#ndrc8 .e care ;# )o"
.re9enta ;n contnuare.
IB.1.' Conden(atoru# c#ndrc
Un a(t!e# de conden(ator e(te a#c%tut dn dou% conductoare c#ndrce8 de ra9e
d!erte8 d(.u(e coa4a#. Ra9a conductoru#u nteror e(te (u!cent de "c% ;nc-t (% .oat% !
con(derat #nar Fca ;n ca9u# .recedentG8 den(tatea de (arcn% .e ace(ta !nd FF/.IB.'G.
aG 0 G
(ig.IV.1= Conden(atoru# c#ndrc: aG )edere /enera#% : .rnc.a#e#e e#e"ente /eo"etrceK 0G )er(or
c-".u#u : (u.ra!ee#e ecC.otena#e.

A.#c-nd ace#a: raona"ent ca : ;n ca9u# anteror8 /%(" .entru nten(tatea
c-".u#u dntre ar"%tur e4.re(a ana#o/%:
1
r
$
r
r
l
5*
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677

o
r
E

8
ar .entru d!erena de .otena#:

1
$
,
#n
$ r
r



FIB.11G
=ser"aie: Raona"entu# a !o(t !%cut ne/#I-ndu3(e e!ecte#e de "ar/ne. Ca.actatea
conden(atoru#u (e ca#cu#ea9% .ornnd de #a re#aa:

,
C
8 FIB.17G
.entru a (e aIun/e du.% ;n#ocure #a:
1
$
,
#n
$
r
r
l
C

. FIB.1&G
IB.1.+ D(tr0ua .#an%8 un!or"% : n!nt% de (arcn% e#ectrc%
Ne .ro.une" (% deter"n%" ace#ea: "%r"
E

8 .entru .#an n!nt8 ;nc%rcat


un!or" cu den(tatea de (arcn% (u.er!ca#% tota#%
+
FF/.IB.+G.
(ig.IV.2: Inten(tatea
E

a c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc a# unu .#an n!nt8


;nc%rcat.
d&
d d&
E d

&
M
d,
E

r
=

+
E

E d

d,
1,
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Dn F/.IB.+ deduce" c% nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc
E

;n .unctu# M e(te
nor"a#% #a .#an. Dntr3ade)%r8 dac% #u%" un e#e"ent "c de are d& de .e .#anu# ;nc%rcat cu
+
8 e# conne (arcna d, h ld&. Dac% d& e n!nt "c8 (arcna d, .oate ! con(derat% ca
.unct!or"%8 d-nd na:tere ;n .unctu# M unu c-".
$
,
+ r
,
dE

8 orentat ca ;n !/ur%.
Fa% de .roeca O a #u M .e .#an8 e#e"entu# de are d& are un ("etrc d d& care conne
(arcna d, h ld& c-nd d& d& d . Ace(ta creea9% un c-". d E d

;n M8 ("etrc !a% de
nor"a#a #a .#an : cu "odu# e/a# cu E d

. Co".un-nd ace(te c-".ur (e o0ne un c-".


re9u#tant nor"a# #a .#an. 2#anu# e(te !or"at dntr3o "u#"e n!nt% de a(t!e# de e#e"ente
care8 .rn (u.er.o9e8 dau ;n .unctu# M un c-". nor"a# #a .#an. 2entru a deter"na ace(t
c-". )o" a.#ca #e/ea #u 5au(( .entru o (u.ra!a% c#ndrc%8 a:a cu" arat% !/ura. Ma
e4act8 c#ndru# e(te (econat #a Iu"%tate de .#anu# ;nc%rcat

. F#u4u# c-".u#u e#ectrc .e


acea(t% (u.ra!a% e(te:

+
l
& & &
& d E & d E & d E

$
8 FIB.1*G
unde a" notat cu
l
&
(u.ra!aa #atera#% a c#ndru#u : cu

&
(u.ra!aa une 0a9e.
O0(er)%" c% .r"a nte/ra#% dn "e"0ru# dre.t e(te nu#% deoarece ;n orce .unct
& d E d

8 ar ;n a doua Ed& & d E

8 deoarece
& d E d

. Cu ace(te o0(er)a8 re#aa
FIB.1*G de)ne:

& &
Ed& & d E $

. FIB.$,G
Sarcna dn nteroru# c#ndru#u e(te

& ,
nt
8 ar

&
e(te a#e( (u!cent de "c
;nc-t (% .ute" con(dera . const E : (%3# (coate ;n !aa nte/ra#e dn drea.ta. Du.%
;n#ocure8 )o" .utea (cre:
,
$ $ $

& &
&
E& d& E Ed&



8 FIB.$1G
de unde /%(":
,
$

E
. FIB.$$G
Inde.endena nten(t% c-".u#u .rodu( de un (trat de (arcn de d(tana !a% de
.#an a .unctu#u ;n care (e !ace e)a#uarea8 a condu( #a deea de a !o#o( un du0#u (trat de
(arcn8 adc% a unu conden(ator .#an.
11
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
IB.1.+ Conden(atoru# .#an

E(te un an(a"0#u !or"at dn dou% !oe F.#%cG "eta#ce8 .ara#e#e8 !ecare a)-nd
aceea: are &8 cu (.au# dntre d 8 ocu.at cu un de#ectrc8 care ;n ca9u# no(tru )a ! )du#.
Ce#e dou% !oe "eta#ce (e ;ncarc% un!or" cu aceea (arcn% e#ectrc%8 de den(tate
(u.er!ca#%
+
8 re(.ect)

FF/.IB.+G.
Dac% ne/#I%" e!ecte#e de "ar/ne8 .ute" con(dera c% !ecare .#ac% )a da na:tere
;n nteror unu c-". a c%ru e4.re(e e(te dat% de FIB.$$G. 2rn ur"are8 ;n nteroru#
conden(atoru#u8 c-".u# re9u#tant )a !:
(ig.IV.2= Conden(atoru# .#an. Dac% d(tana dntre ar"%tur
e(te "c%8 e!ecte#e de "ar/ne (unt ne/#Ia0#e8 c-".u#
.ut-nd ! con(derat o"o/en.


,
nt

+
+
E E E

.
FIB.$'G
2otena#u# ;ntr3un .unct (tuat #a d(tana % de ar"%tura ne/at)% F.e care a" a#e(3o
dre.t re!ern%G8 (e ca#cu#ea9% .ornnd de #a e4.re(a:
% E d% E
%
% nt
,
nt


. FIB.$+G
Re9u#t%:
%
%
,

+
8 FIB.$5G
1$
E

C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
ceea ce ;n(ea"n% c% atunc c-nd % cre:te8
%

cre:te #nar. Dac% d % 8 atunc


d
E
+


nt
8 re#ae care e(te !a"#ar%.
Ca.actatea conden(atoru#u cu plci plan paralele e(te:
&
d
,
C
,

+
. FIB.$1G
IB.1.5 D(tr0ue (!erc%8 (u.er!ca#%8 de (arcn% e#ectrc%
Ne .ro.une" (% deter"n%" "%r"#e
E

8 .entru o (!ere conductoare de


ra9% a8 (tuat% ;n )d8 ;nc%rcat un!or" cu den(tatea de (arcn% (u.er!ca#%
+
FF/.IB.5G.
(ig.IV.3= C-".u# : .otena#u# e#ectrc a# une (!ere conductoare ;nc%rcate.

Dn con(derente de ("etre8 #n#e de c-". .orne(c de #a (u.ra!aa ;nc%rcat% cu
(arcn% e#ectrc% 3 .er.endcu#ar .e acea(t% (u.ra!a% 3 : (unt ;ndre.tate (.re e4teror.
Su.ra!aa ;ncC(% .e care (e a.#c% #e/ea #u 5au(( e(te8 de a(e"enea8 o (!er% concentrc%
cu (!era ;nc%rcat%.
,
d
d

,
d& n E

. FIB.$7G
2entru
, , 8
nt d
<

E , a r
8 ar .entru a r )o" a)ea:
,
$
$
+
+

a
r E
e%t

. FIB.$&G
1'
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
O0ne":
$
$
,
r
a
E
e%t

. FIB.$*G
2entru a ca#cu#a .otena#u# ;ntr3un .unct (tuat #a d(tana r de centru# (!ere8 )o"
a.#ca re#aa de de!ne:


r
r d E

.
2entru e4teror8
a r >
8 /%(":
( )

r
a
r
a
r
dr a
r
r
,
$
,
,
$
$
,
$

. FIB.',G
2entru nteror8
8 a r <
.otena#u# e#ectrc are aceea: )a#oare ca .e (u.ra!a%8 ;n ca9
contrar8 (arcn#e ne"a!nd ;n ecC#0ru e#ectro(tatc. Acea(t% )a#oare e(te
( ) a r
:
,

. FIB.'1G
IB.1.1 Conden(atoru# (!erc
Con(der%" do conductor (!erc concentrc de ra9e a : re(.ect) FF/.IB.1G8
de#ectrcu# dntre e !nd )du#. Conductor (unt ;nc%rca cu o (arcn% (u.er!ca#% e/a#% :
de (e"n o.u(. 2e conductoru# ntern den(tatea de (arcn% (u.er!ca#% e(te
a

8 ar (arcna
e#ectrc% de .e ace(ta e(te
a
a ,
$
+
.
(ig.IV.4= Conden(atoru# (!erc
1+
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Le/ea #u 5au(( (cr(% .entru (u.ra!aa (!erc% 8 cu ra9a r a 8 are e4.re(a:
,
$
+


a
a
& d E


8 FIB.'$G
de unde re9u#t% e4.re(a nten(t% c-".u#u ;ntre ar"%tur:

( )
$
,
$
r
a
r E
a

.
FIB.''G
D!erena de .otena# e(te toc"a crcu#aa )ectoru#u
E

.e un dru" de #a a #a :
a
a ,
r
dr a
r d E

a
a



+
,
$
,
$
+

. FIB.'+G
Ca.actatea conden(atoru#u )a !:
a
a ,
C

+
,
+

. FIB.'5G
IB.$ Con!/ura de c-".ur "a/netce
IB.$.1 C-".u# .rodu( de un curent con(tant8 #nar8 n!nt
C-".u# "a/netc (e ca#cu#ea9% u:or a.#c-nd #e/ea crcuta#% A".7re8 dac% (e
/%(e te dru"u# .e care nduc a "a/netc% e(te con(tant%. Dn ca9u# no(tru8 a# unu curent
#nar !oarte #un/8 ace(ta e(te un cerc cu centru# .e conductoru# .arcur( de curent
FF/.IB.7G.
(ig.IV.5= Induca "a/netc% ;ntr3un .unct (tuat #a d(tana a de un curent #nar8 n!nt
15
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Scre" e4.re(a #e/ .e conturu# a#e(:
4 dl A l d A
L L
,




. FIB.'1G
n-nd cont c%

L
a dl $
8 o0ne" "edat e4.re(a deIa cuno(cut%:
a
4
A

$
,
. FIB.'7G
Ln#e de c-". (unt cercur concentrce8 .er.endcu#are .e conductor8 cu centru# .e ace(taK
(en(u# #or (e (ta0#e:te cu aIutoru# re/u# 0ur/Cu#u dre.t. Bectoru#
A

e(te8 du.% cu" (e


:te deIa8 tan/ent #a #na ce trece .rn .unctu# re(.ect)8 a)-nd ace#a: (en( cu acea(ta.
IB.$.$ C-".u# "a/netc a# une (.re crcu#are de curent
2entru a ca#cu#a nduca "a/netc% .e a4u# une (.re crcu#ar .arcur(e de curent
con(tant )o" !o#o( e4.re(a #e/ 6ot ? Sa)art ? La.#ace. Dn !/ura IB.& (e o0(er)% c%8 ;n
orce .unct de .e a4u# centra#8 re9u#tanta co".onente#or nduc e .ara#e#e cu .#anu# (.re
e(te nu#% dn con(derente de ("etre8 "ot) .entru care )o" ;n(u"a doar co".onente#e
.er.endcu#are .e acea(ta.
(ig.IV.:= Induca "a/netc% .e a4u# une (.re crcu#are de curent.
Dn con!or"tate cu #e/ea a"ntt%8 e#e"entu# l d

.roduce ;n .unctu# (tuat #a


d(tana % de centru# (.re nduca e#e"entar%:
11
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
'
,
+ r
r l d 4
A d

. FIB.'&G
Sca#ar8 )o" (cre:
$
,
$
,
,
+ +
*, (n
r
dl 4
r
4dl
dA


. FIB.'*G
2entru co".onenta .er.endcu#ar% .e (.r% a)e":
$
,
+
co(
co(
r
4dl
dA dA

. FIB.+,G
Dn#ocund ;n e4.re(e
$ $
co(
! %
!
+

8 /%(":
( )
$
'
$ $
,
+
! %
! 4dl
dA
+

. FIB.+1G
C-".u# "a/netc tota# (e a!#% du.% nte/rare:
( ) ( )
$
'
$ $
$
,
$
'
$ $
,
$ +
! %
! 4
dl
! %
! 4
A
&pir
+

. FIB.+$G
Induca ;n centru# (.re
( ) , %
)a !:
!
4
A
=
$
,

. FIB.+'G
Dac% .unctu# (e a!#% #a o d(tan% "are de centru# (.re
( ) ! % >>
8 )o" /%(:
'
$
,
$
'
$
$
$
,
$
1
$
'
%
4!
A
%
!
%
!
4
A

,
_

. FIB.++G
Se .oate o0(er)a c% u#t"a re#a e .oate ! .u(% (u0 !or"a:
'
,
'
,
'
$
,
'
$
,
$ $ $ $ %
m
%
4(
%
! 4
%
4!
A
&


8 FIB.+5G
unde
$
! (
&

e(te ara (.re8 ar
&
4( m
e(te "o"entu# "a/netc d.o#ar a# ace(tea.
IB.$.' C-".u# "a/netc .rodu( de un (o#enod
Ne .ro.une" (% deter"n%" e4.re(a nduc e "a/netce ;ntr3un .unct .e a4a
unu (o#enod .arcur( de curent e#ectrc con(tant8 !o#o(nd aceea #e/e8 6ot ? Sa)art ?
La.#ace . So#enodu# e(te !or"at dntr3un nu"%r !oarte "are de (.re8 a e9ate !oarte
a.roa.e une#e de a#te#e8 ca ;n !/ura IB.*.
17
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677

(ig.IV.;= Induca "a/netc% .e a4u# unu (o#enod
2entru a rea#9a ce ne3a" .ro.u(8 a#e/e" un e#e"ent dn #un/"ea (o#enodu#u de
/ro("e d%G8 a!#at #a d(tana %G de centru# ace(tua. 2rn ace(t e#e"ent crcu#% curentu#:
d 4nd% d4 8 FIB.+1G
unde
L
1
n
re.re9nt% nu"%ru# de (.re dn untatea de #un/"e8 1 !nd nu"%ru# tota# de
(.re. A.#c-nd un raona"ent a(e"%n%tor ce#u dn .ara/ra!u# .recedent8 contr0ua
ace(tu e#e"ent #a nduca "a/netc% dn .unctu# 8 )a !:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
d
d $ d $
$
'
$
$
$
,
$
'
$
$
$
,
4nd%
% % !
!
d4
% % !
!
dA
+


. FIB.+7G
2entru a ca#cu#a contr0ua tuturor e#e"ente#or de curent8 nte/r%" .e toat% #un/"ea
(o#enodu#u:
( ) ( )

,
_

,
_

+
+
+
+

,
_

$
$
$
$
,
$
$
$
'
$ $
$
,
$
$
$
$
$
d
d
$
!
L
%
%
L
!
L
%
%
L
n4
% % !
d% n4!
A
L
L

. FIB.+&G
Induca cCar #a erea dn (o#enod F
$
L
%
G8 are e4.re(a:
$ $
,
$ ! L
14
A
+


8 FIB.+*G
ar ;n centru# ace(tua F , % G:
$ $
,
+! L
14
A
=
+


. FIB.5,G
1&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Dn ca9u# unu (o#enod dea# Fn!nt #un/G8
, 8
L
%
L
8 /%(" !or"u#a deIa cuno(cut%:
L
14
A
,

. FIB.51G
care nu de.nde de coordonat%8 ceea ce ;n(ea"n% c% ;n nteroru# unu a(t!e# de (o#enod8
nduca8 ;ntr3un .unct nu .rea de.arte de a4a centra#%8 e(te con(tant%.
IB.$.+ 6o0ne#e =e#"Co#t9
1,
6o0ne#e =e#"Co#t9 (unt dou% 0o0ne crcu#are .#ate8 care .ot ! a("#ate cu dou%
(.re crcu#are8 cu aceea: ra9% !8 .arcur(e de ace#a: curent 48 ;n ace#a: (en(
FF/.IB.1,G. D(tana dntre ce#e .#ane#e ce#or dou% 0o0ne o )o" nota cu $L. Induca
"a/netc% ;ntr3un .unct (tuat .e a4% #a d(tana % de "I#ocu# d(tane dntre 0o0ne (e
ca#cu#ea9% .rn ;n(u"area contr0u#or a"-ndurora.

aG
0G
(ig.IV.1<= 6o0ne#e =e#"Co#t9. aG Ca#cu#u# nduce 0G Con!/uraa c-".u#u
A(t!e#8 nduca ;n .unctu# de coordonat% % (e deter"n% a.#c-nd re#aa FIB.+$G ;n
"od core(.un9%tor:
1,
=er"ann LudO/ Ferdnand )on =e#"Co#t9 F'1 au/u(t 1&$1 ? & (e.te"0re 1&*+G 3 "edc !9can /er"an8 a a)ut contr0u
re"arca0#e ;n "a "u#te do"en a#e tn e.
1*
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

,
_

+
+
+ +

$
'
$ $
$
$
'
$ $
$
,
$
% L !
!
% L !
! 4
% A

. FIB:5$G
Se o0(er)% c% .r"a der)at%8
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

,
_

+
+ +
+

$
5
$ $
$
5
$ $
$
,
$
'
% L !
% L
% L !
% L 4!
d%
% dA
8 FIB.5'G
(e anu#ea9% .entru , % 8 ceea ce ;n(ea"n% c% ;n .unctu# re(.ect) c-".u# trece .rntr3un
e4tre". 2entru a o0ne o 9on% c-t "a e4tn(% de c-". "a/netc un!or"8 tre0ue (%
.une" conda ca : cea de3a doua der)at% (% (e anu#e9e.
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
+

,
_

+
+
+ +

$
5
$ $
$
5
$ $
$
,
$
$
1 1
$
'
% L ! % L !
4!
d%
% A d
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )

,
_

+
+ +
+
+
$
7
$ $
$
$
7
$ $
$ $
,
5
$
'
% L !
% L
% L !
% L 4!
. FIB.5+G
2entru , % 8 conda de anu#are e(te:
1
5
$ $
$

+ L !
L
8 FIB.55G
ceea ce conduce #a:
L ! $ . FIB.51G
O a(t!e# de (tuae e(te .re9entat% ;n !/ura IB.1,.0G. Dn ace(t ca9 nduca are )a#oarea:

!
n4
A
,
$
'
5
+

,
_

. FIB.57G
unde a" ntrodu( n8 nu"%ru# de (.re dn untatea de #un/"e.
7,
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
CAPITOLUL V
MIACAREA 2ARTICULELOR DNCERCATE ELECTRIC
DN C@M2URI ELECTRICE AI MA5NETICE
B.1 Ecuaa de ":care a .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate e#ectrc ;n
c-".ur e#ectrce : "a/netce
Ecuaa de ":care a une .artcu#e a!#at% ;ntr3un c-". de !ore oarecare e(te:
( ) F " m
dt
d

. FB.1G
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3 2artcu#e#e dn !a(ccu# nu nteraconea9% ;ntre e#e8
F

!nd doar re9u#tanta


!ore#or /enerate de c-".ur#e e4terne8 ce aconea9% a(u.ra une (n/ure .artcu#e.
3 Bte9a .artcu#e#or e(te (u!cent de "c% ;nc-t (% trat%" ":carea nere#at)(t.
3 2artcu#e#e nu .ertur0% (e"n!cat) c-".ur#e e4terne.
3 Se ne/#Iea9% !ore#e /ra)taona#e : ce#e datorate e"(e de radae F(.ec!ce
":c%r acce#erate a .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate e#ectrcG.
Cu ace(te .ote9e : n-nd cont de e4(tena c-".ur#or e#ectrce : "a/netce8
F

e(te
cCar !ora Lorent98 ar ecuaa FB.1G de)ne:
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C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Ecuaa )ectora#% e(te ecC)a#ent% cu un ((te" de tre ecua (ca#are8 care8 ;ntr3un ((te"
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(ig.V.= Traectora .artcu#e ;nc%rcate ;n c-". e#ectrc : "a/netc un!or".
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(ig.V.2= Traectora unu e#ectron ce (e ":c% ;n c-". e#ectrc : "a/netc un!or" !%r% )te9% na#% F
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77
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
CAPITOLUL VI
RE<ULTATE EH2ERIMENTALE
BI.1 Deter"narea (arcn e#ectrce e#e"entare .rn metoda Millikan
BI.1.1 Scurt (torc
E%perimentul Millikan a !o(t e!ectuat
.entru .r"a dat% ;n 1*,* FCCca/oG
: a do)edt ;n "od c#ar natura
cuant!cat% a (arcn e#ectrce. I(torc8
re.re9nt% unu# dntre e4.er"ente#e
ce#e "a ".ortante ;n :tna "odern%
: a a)ut o contr0ue dec()% #a
de9)o#tarea !9c ;n .r" an a
(eco#u#u a# HH3#ea.
(ig. VII.1: Ro0ert A. M##>an (ig.VII.= D(.o9t)u# or/na#.
F1&1& ? 1*5'G. 2re"u# No0e# Sur(a !oto/ra!e: I0o.O>.eda.
n F9ca 1*$'. Sur(a !oto/ra!e: or/.
Ctt.:TTno0e#.r9e.or/Tno0e#m.r9e(

E4(tena unor Lato" de e#ectrctateM a !o(t .re(u.u(% ;nc% dn 17+7 de c%tre
6eIa"n Fran>#n. Du.% "a 0ne de o.t decen8 ;n 1&''8 McCae# FaradaS de(co.er%
ce#e0ra #e/e a e#ectro#9e: dac% .rn e#ectro# d!er ca natur% trece aceea: canttate de
e#ectrctate8 co".u: .rodu: .rn d(ocere a.ar ;ntotdeauna ;n cantt% cC"c
ecC)a#ente. A.o8 5. R. StoneS ntroduce ;ntr3un artco# .u0#cat ;n 1&*18 bato"u#M de
e#ectrctate8 .e care3# nu"e:te electron. E)en"ente#e ;nce. (% (e (uccead% cu re.e9cune:
Dn 1&*78 R. R. TCo"(on de(co.er% e4.er"enta# e#ectronu# :3 deter"n% (arcna (.ec!c%
e9m. Dn ace#a: an 1&*78 R. S. E. ToOn(end8 ut#9-nd .c%tur de a.%8 deter"n% (e.arat
(arcna e#e"entar%K ;n 1*,'8 =. A. P#(on8 #ucr-nd ;n La0oratoare#e Ca)end(C8
;"0un%t%e:te "etoda #u ToOn(end. Dn .%cate8 P#(on a ut#9at tot .c%tur de a.%
;nc%rcate e#ectrc. Re9u#tate#e (a#e au !o(t "a .rec(e dec-t ce#e a#e #u ToOn(end : a
.utut e)a#ua nu"erc )a#oarea (arcn e#ectrce e#e"entare. D(.er(a !oarte "are a
date#or e4.er"enta#e nu a .er"( ;n(% e4tra/erea une conc#u9 de!nt)e. Eror#e
7&
g m F
a a


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electriat negativ
+
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C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
a.reca0#e : d(.er(a re9u#tate#or erau /enerate de e)a.orarea ra.d% a a.e. Ace(t
!eno"en "od!c% ;n "od (e"n!cat) "a(a .c%tur ;n t".u# e4.er"entu#u.
Dntr3un :r de e4.er"ente e!ectuate ;ntre an 1*,*31*1'8 cond deo(e0t de atent
contro#ate Fte".eratur%8 .re(une8 co".o9a aeru#u8 ;n#ocurea a.e cu u#e (.eca#8
!o#o(rea une )-(co9t% corectate du.% Cunnn/Ca"G8 3au .er"( #u M##>an (% o0n%
re9u#tate#e care au do)edt natura cuant!cat% a (arcn e#ectrce.

FaG


F0G FcG
(ig.VII.1= aG 2rnc.u# e4.er"entu#u M##>an: 2c%tur#e de u#e e#ectr9ate ne/at) (e ":c% ;n c-".
e#ectrc con(tant .rodu( ;ntre ar"%tur#e conden(atoru#u cu !ee .#an .ara#e#e F(ur(a "a/n:
Ctt.:TT"##>an.edu.Ce#.!Ten/Tnde4.Ct"G. 2c%tur#e ;nc%rcate ne/at) (unt atra(e de ar"%tura cu .otena# "a
rdcat. 0G I"a/nea d(.o9t)u#u e4.er"enta# !o#o(t ;n #a0oratoru# de e#ectrctate a# Facu#t% de F9c%8
Un)er(tatea 6ucure t. cG C-nd nten(tatea c-".u#u e#ectrc Ften(unea dntre ar"%turG e(te (u!cent de
"are8 .c%tura de u#e ;nc%rcat% ne/at) ;nce.e (% urce. Bte9a .c%tur de)ne con(tant% ;n "o"entu# ;n care
re9u#tanta ce#or .atru !ore Fe#ectrc%: E , F
e

8 /ra)taona#%: g m G
u

8 a(cen(ona#% FarC"edc%G:
g m F
a a

: de !recare )-(coa(% cu aeru# FSto>e(G: " r F


r

1 e(te 9ero: , + + + G F F F
r a e

.
E4.er"entu# M##>an r%"-ne .-n% ;n .re9ent (n/uru# e4.er"ent acce(0# ;n
care cuant!carea (arcn e#ectrce .oate ! e)denat% drect8 ut#9-nd "I#oace teoretce
: e4.er"enta#e re#at) e#e"entare. E(te re"arca0# c%8 ;n ur"% cu .e(te un (eco#8 "ntea
u"an% a .utut Ln%(cocM "oda#t% de deter"nare at-t de .rec(e a#e une "%r" .ractc
n)90#e.
7*
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Ceea ce .re9ent%" ;n ace(t ca.to#8 nu e(te a#tce)a dec-t re#uarea ce#e0ru#u
e4.er"ent cu "I#oace#e dn 9ua de a(t%9 : nter.retarea re9u#tate#or e4.er"enta#e
o0nute cu aIutoru# unu (o!t (.eca#9at FMatCcadG.
BI.1.$ 6a9e#e teoretce a#e e4.er"entu#u
Du.% cu" (e )ede ;n !/ur#e BI.'a8 'c8 .c%tur#e de u#e (unt nIectate ;ntre
ar"%tur#e conden(atoru#u cu !ee .#an .ara#e#e. In t".u# ace(tu .roce(8 e#e (e ;ncarc%
e#ectrc .rn !recare cu aeru# Fde ce#e "a "u#te or8 ne/at)G. 2c%tur#e ;nc%rcate e#ectrc (e
":c% a.o ;ntr3un c-". e#ectrc un!or"8 .rodu( : contro#at .rn a.#careaT"od!carea
d!erene de .otena# 7 Fre/#a0#eG ;ntre ar"%tur#e (tuate #a d(tana d una de a#ta. De
o0ce8 ar"%tura (u.eroar% e(te .o#ar9at% .o9t).
M:carea .c%tur#or de u#e e(te un!or"% atunc c-nd (e rea#9ea9% ecC#0ru# ce#or
.atru !ore ce aconea9% a(u.ra #or:
3 Fora /ra)taona#%: g m G
u


FBI.1aG
3 Fora a(cen(ona#% FarC"edc%G: g m F
a a


FBI.10G
3 Fora de !recare cu aeru# FSto>e(G: " r F
a r

1
FBI.1cG
3 Fora e#ectrc%: E , F
e


FBI.1dG
Dn ecuaa FBI.1dG8 "odu#u# nten(t% c-".u#u e#ectrc .oate ! ca#cu#at u:or
cuno(c-nd ten(unea a.#cat% ;ntre ar"%tur : d(tana ;ntre e#e8
d 7 E
. 2r)nd
ut#9area #e/ #u Sto>e( Fecuaa BI.1cG .entru ca#cu#area !ore de !recare cu aeru#8
tre0ue !%cut% o o0(er)ae ".ortant%: Legea &tokes nu este "alail atunci cnd
dimensiunea geometric a picturilor este comparail cu lungimea parcursului lier
mediu I al moleculelor gazului dintre armturile condensatorului. Dn cond nor"a#e
F.re(une at"o(!erc% 1 at".8 te".eratur% C
,
$5 G8 .arcur(u# #0er "edu are o )a#oare
a.ro.at% de m
&
1, *

. 2entru Iu(t!carea #e/ #u Sto>e(8 (e !o#o(e(c con(dera de
cnetc% "o#ecu#ar%8 care .re(u.un c% ;n t".u# ":c%r .c%tura b("teM !ora de !recare
datorat% une )-(co9t% omogene
a

a aeru#u. Cunnn/Ca" a re"arcat c% acea(t% .ote9%


&,
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
nu e )a#a0#% ;n /enera# : a dat e".rc o !or"% canttat)% ace(tor o0(er)a. E# a ar%tat c%
)-(co9tatea dna"c% .oate ! e4.r"at% (u0 !or"a:
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Nota"ie Se$ni+ica"ie +i&ic Valoare Unitate de
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g acce#eraa /ra)taona#% J$@
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2entru o .c%tur% de u#e dat%8 G :
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O!*er?a"ie= 0eterminarea sarcinii picturii se azeaz pe faptul c$ la ec)iliru mecanic$
"aloarea "itezei picturii este controlat de intensitatea cmpului electric dintre armturi
-adic de tensiunea aplicat. i depinde de sarcina electric a acesteia prin intermediul
forei electrice.
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#.(a c-".u#u FF/.BI.+aGK
A.#carea c-".u#u e#ectrc8 "%(urarea )te9e con(tante de urcare :
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aG 0G
(ig.VI.2= D(tr0ua !ore#or care aconea9% a(u.ra .c%tur de u#e ;n ca9u# ;n care:
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co".onente#e "ontaIu#u.

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carca(a e)t% n!#uena curen#or de aer e4teror Fcare ar .ertur0a ":carea .c%tur de
u#eG : ;".edc% de9)o#tarea unor /raden ter"c ".ortanK
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5 3 Su.ort "eta#c re/#a0#K
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aG 0G

cG dG
(ig. VI.4= aG I"a/ne de an(a"0#u a "ontaIu#u M##>an care nc#ude ca"era )deo .entru tran(!eru#
"a/n dn c-".u# "cro(co.u#u .e "ontoru# TB. Ca"era )deo nu e(te o co".onent% e(ena#% a
"ontaIu#u8 dar .er"te ur"%rrea ;n t". rea# a ":c%r .c%tur de c%tre a((ten%. 0G Deta#u a#
cone4un#or e#ectrce ;ntre 0#ocu# de a#"entare8 (ur(a de #u"n% : conden(atoru# cu !ee .#an3.ara#e#e. cG
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a(e"enea ndcat .rn (%/eat% co"utatoru# care .er"te trecerea ;ntre re/"ur#e E:K ( ELK. dG ScCe"a
cone4un#or e#ectrce ;ntre (ur(a de a#"entare8 conden(atoru# cu .#%c .#an3.ara#e#e : (ur(a de #u"nare
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F/ura FBI.1aG .re9nt% "a/nea de an(a"0#u a "ontaIu#u M##>an "odern8 care
nc#ude o ca"er% )deo .entru tran(!eru# "a/n dn c-".u# "cro(co.u#u8 .e "ontoru#
TB. Ca"era )deo nu re.re9nt% o co".onent% e(ena#% ;n e4.er"ent8 dar .er"te une
a((tene nu"eroa(e (% ur"%rea(c% e4.er"entu# ;n t". rea#. F/ura FBI.10G ndc% "odu#
de conectare a# co".onente#or #a (ur(a de ten(une Fre.re9entat% ;n !/ura BI.1cG. 6orna
.o9t)% a (ur(e de ten(une e(te conectat% #a ar"%tura (u.eroar%8 ar 0orna ne/at)% #a cea
n!eroar%. Ace(te cone4un (unt .re9entate (cCe"atc ;n !/ura FBI.1dG.
BI.1.+ Modu# de #ucru
A" )er!cat dac% toate cone4un#e e#ectrce (unt ;n con!or"tate cu (cCe"a
FBI.1dGK
M3a" a(/urat c% (ur(a de a#"entare are ten(unea ;na#t% redu(% #a , g0utonu#
ndcat .rn U ;n !/ura FBI.1cGf : co"utatoru# de ten(une .e .o9a O!!. A"
a#"entat 0#ocu# de ten(une : a" )er!cat )9ua# c% (ur(a de #u"n% !unconea9%K
A" a#"entat "ontoru# TB : a" a#e( ca (ur(% de "a/n ca"era e4tern%K
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!oca#9at (e o0ne o "a/ne c#ar% a (ca#e dn nteroru# ocu#aru#uK
A" !o#o(t .ara de caucuc a ato"9oru#u .entru a nIecta .c%tur de u#e ;ntre
ar"%tur#e conden(atoru#u cu !ee .#an3.ara#e#e. 2re9ena .c%tur#or a .utut !
)er!cat% )9ua# .r)nd "ontoru# TB. 2c%tur#e au a.%rut ca .uncte #u"noa(e8
(au .ete d!u9e8 care co0orau un!or"K
A" a.#cat o ten(une de ordnu# 1,,3+,, B : a" .utut o0(er)a cu" anu"te
.c%tur ;nce. (% urce un!or". M3a" !4at atena a(u.ra une (n/ure .c%tur
a!#ate ;n re/unea (ca#e /radate8 a.o a" ut#9at crono"etru# d/ta# .entru a
deter"na t".u# de co0or-re
t
;n a0(ena c-".u#u e#ectrc F , 7 G8 re(.ect)
t".u# de urcare
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(arcna e#ectrc% a .c%tur.

(ig.VI.5= I"a/n a#e c-".u#u ocu#ar care nc#ud "a/n#e c-tor)a .c%tur F.uncte#e a#0eG8 d(tana
core(.un9%toare dntre dou% /rada .rnc.a#e F1 ""G : d(tana de ur"%rre FL h $ ""G care (e !o#o(e:te
;n e4.er"ent.
O!*er?a"ii:
aG Datort% r%(turn%r "a/n8 ;n c-".u# ocu#aru#u "cro(co.u#u ce#e dou% ":c%r
a.ar n)er(ate. Dn acea(t% cau9%8 (en9oru# ca"ere )deo a !o(t re.o9onat a(t!e#
;nc-t (% .roduc% o a doua n)er(are a "a/n. A(t!e#8 .e "ontoru# TB ":carea a
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0G Dn /enera#8 .c%tur#e ana#9ate au d"en(un de ordnu# m
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(u!er% n!#uena ":c%r 0roOnene. In t".u#

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ordnu# "cronu#u are o de.#a(are .%tratc% "ede de ordnu# 9ec#or de "crono Cu
toate c% acea(t% de.#a(are e(te (en(0# "a "are dec-t ra9a .c%tur8 ea r%"-ne totu:
cu ordne de "%r"e "a "c% dec-t d(tane#e )ertca#e .e care e(te (tudat% ":carea
.c%tur#or ;n e4.er"ent.
cG O0(er)area ;nde#un/at% a une (n/ure .c%tur .oate conduce #a eror (e"n!cat)e
deoarece ;n t".u# !rec%r cu aeru#8 acea(ta ;: "od!c% (arcna e#ectrc%.
BI.1.5 2RE<ENTARE PRO0RAC CALCUL
Nu"%ru# "are de deter"n%r e4.er"enta#e ".#c% un )o#u" !oarte "are de
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: e#"n% totodat% eror#e de ca#cu#. Dn ace(t .ara/ra! e(te .re9entat ace(t .ro/ra"
.rnnter"edu# unor bca.tur de ecranM8 rea#9ate ;n t".u# ntroducer date#or
e4.er"enta#e .entru una dntre .c%tur.
Sec"i#nea b Con*tante M
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C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
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e#ectronc ;n/u(t.
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A" re/#at ten(unea !#a"entu#u #a 18' B : a" a:te.tat c-te)a "nute ca ace(ta (%
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C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
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CAPITOLUL VII
A6ORDAREA NOIUNILOR DE SARCINE ELECTRICE AI
C@M2URI ELECTRICE AI MA5NETICE DN DNBEEM@NTUL
2REUNIBERSITAR
BII.1 Conce.tu# de c-". : de (arcn% e#ectrc% ;n .redarea !9c
Dn de!nrea orc%ru c-". de !ore8 !e e# "a/netc8 e#ectrc (au de a#t% natur%8
;nt-#n"8 "a "u#t8 (au "a .un8 e4.r"%r ca: bform de e%isten a materieiacare se
manifest prin interaciuniNO' De ceJ ? ne3a" .utea ;ntre0a. Dn .r"u# r-nd8 .entru c%
e4(tena unu c-". .oate ! .erce.ut% nu"a ;n "%(ura "an!e(t%r#or unor nteracun8
ar ;n a# do#ea r-nd8 "edu#8 .rn .ro.ret% care e4ced ("ur#e noa(tre8 n!#uenea9%
canttat) ace(te nteracun.
E(te nece(ar (% .rec9%" c% "atera nu tre0ue con!undat% cu (u0(tana8 care e(te
.r)t% dre.t ce)a .a#.a0#8 u:or de#"ta0#.
C-".u# e(te una dntre "an!e(t%r#e dua#("u#u contnuu ? d(cret (au .artcu#% ?
und% a#e "atere. Ace(t dua#(" nu e(te re)e#at ;nc% de #a ;nce.ut8 .ut-nd ! ;ne#e( .e
"%(ur% ce (tudu# !eno"ene#or re(.ect)e e(te a.ro!undat.
Iat% c-te)a dn caracter(tc#e cua(3c#a(ce a#e ce#or dou% !or"e de e4(ten% a#e
"atere:
Corpurile macroscopice
3 !or"ate dn (u0(tan%8 con(ttute dn .artcu#e d(crete8 au #"te (.aa#e :
.ro.ret% cu" ar ! "a(a : ener/aK
3 (e de.#a(ea9% cu )te9e "a "c dec-t )te9a #u"n ;n )d8 .e traector
deter"na0#eK
3 "a(a de.nde de )te9%.
Cmpul
3 e(te contnuuK
3 nu e(te ".enetra0# F;n ace#a: #oc .ot coe4(ta "a "u#te c-".urGK
3 (e .ro.a/% cu )te9a #u"n8 .ro.a/area !%c-ndu3(e du.% !ront : nu du.%
traectoreK
*7
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
3 are ener/e dar nu : "a(% de re.au(.
Dn .re9ent nu e4(t% o teore unc% a c-".u#u8 a:a cu" nu e4(t% ;nc% o teore a
une !ore unce. Mode#u# !ec%ru c-". de.nde de natura (a8 ;n(% toate au ce)a ;n co"un:
"%r" !9ce (ca#are8 )ectora#e8 ten(ora#e8...8 care (% #e caracter9e9e ;n orce .unct : #a
orce "o"ent de t".K de a(e"enea8 at-t c-".u# e#ectrc c-t : ce# "a/netc (e re.re9nt%
cu aIutoru# unor cur0e "a/nare care au .ro.retatea de a ! tan/ente #a )ectoru# nten(tate
a c-".u#u dn ace# .unct8 nu"te #n de c-"..
Du.% cu" (.unea"8 ;ne#e/erea corect% a noun de c-". ".#c% (tudu
a.ro!undat8 (tudu care du.% c-te (e .are8 ar .utea ! !%cut doar ;n cadru# unor cur(ur
o.ona#e8 (au nd)dua#. A!r"aa (e 0a9ea9% .e !a.tu# c% ;n ;ntre/u# ;n)%%"-nt
.reun)er(tar nu "a e4(t% ncun ca.to# de e#ectro(tatc%8 c-".u# "a/netc !nd net
b!a)or9atMK noun de(.re ace(ta (e ;nt-#ne(c ;n "anua#e#e de c#a(a a BI ? a8 a BIII ?
a8
a H ? a8 a HI ? a : a HII ? a.
Con!or" DEH8 &arcina electric e(te "%r"ea (ca#ar% ce caracter9ea9%
.ro.retatea unu cor. de a crea ;n Iuru# (%u un c-". e#ectrc (au de a ! aconat atunc
c-nd (e a!#% ;n c-".u# e#ectrc a# a#tu cor.. Ace(ta e(te : "odu# cu" e#e) !ac
cuno:tn% cu nounea: ;n c#a(a a BI3a e o0(er)% nteracun#e dntre cor.ur
"acro(co.ce e#ectr9ate .rn !recare. Ace#a: #ucru ;# !%cea : TCa#e( dn M#et8 ;n (eco#u#
BI ;.e.n.8 cu 0o0e de cCC#"0ar.
Dn !ercre8 cuno:tne#e ;n do"enu au e)o#uat8 a(t%9 .ut-nd (.une c% (arcna
e#ectrc% e(te o .ro.retate !unda"enta#% a .artcu#e#or (u0ato"ce8 care #e deter"n%
ace(tora nteracun#e e#ectro"a/netce. Matera ;nc%rcat% e#ectrc e(te n!#uenat%
de c-".u# e#ectrc : ;n ace#a: t". .roduce c-". e#ectrc. Interacunea dntre o (arcn% ;n
":care : un c-". e#ectro"a/netc e(te (ur(a !ore e#ectro"a/netce8 care e(te una dntre
ce#e .atru !ore !unda"enta#e.
Nu )o" n((ta a(u.ra .ro.ret%#or ace(tea F a" !%cut a(ta ;n .r"u# ca.to#G8 ;n(%
tre0ue (.u( c%8 dn "ot)e necuno(cute8 de(.re !a.tu# c% (arcna e#ectrc% e(te o
.ro.retate a .artcu#e#or (u0ato"ce8 c% e(te cuant!cat% : a#te#e8 e#e) de /"na9u a!#%
"a de/ra0% dn (tudu# cC"eK de aceea8 atunc c-nd (e a.e#ea9% #a ace(te cuno:tne
.entru a ;ne#e/e cCe(tun "a co".#e4e Fd!raca e#ectron#or8 (.ectre8 "ode#e ato"ce8
etcG8 a.ar d!cu#t%.
*&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
BII.$ Dncadrarea noun#or de (arcn% e#ectrc%8 c-". e#ectrc :
"a/netce ;n "anua#e#e : .ro/ra"e#e :co#are
Dn ace(t .ara/ra! )o" ana#9a .re9ena noun#or a"ntte a:a cu" (e (e /%(e(c e#e
;n .ro/ra"e#e de !9c% a.#ca0#e ;n anu# :co#ar $,1,3$,11. Tre0ue (.u( c% .e .arcur(u#
u#t"#or an .ro/ra"e#e de !9c% au (u!ert de(tu#e "od!c%r8 nu ;ntotdeauna ce#e "a
!ercte. Ace(te "od!c%r8 cu (co. dec#arat de de(con/e(tonare : a#nere #a cerne#e
euro.ene8 au condu( uneor #a ;ntreru.erea .roce(u#u #o/c de ;n(u:re a unor noun :
!eno"ene de 0a9% dn !9c%. CCar dac% (e dore:te .unerea accentu#u .e
tran(d(c.#nartate : .e a.#ca0#tate nu .ute" ne/#Ia cCe(tun#e !unda"enta#eK a#t!e#8
r(c%" (% de)en" ro0o. Nedornd (% !ace" o ana#9% crtc% a .ro/ra"e8 ne )o"
;ntoarce ;n(% #a (u0ectu# .ro.u(.
Dn c#a(a a BI ? a 8 ;n cadru# ca.to#u#u LFeno"ene "a/netce : e#ectrceM8 # (e
.re9nt% e#e)#or te"e#e:
3 Ma/ne. Interacun "a/netceK
3 2rocedee de e#ectr9are8 nteracunea e#ectro(tatc%K
3 Sarcna e#ectrc%. E4e".#e de e#ectr9are ;n natur%K
3 E!ecte a#e curentu#u e#ectrc.
E)dent8 a0ordarea e(te ca#tat)%8 0a9-ndu3(e .e o0(er)a#e e4.er"enta#e a#e
e#e)#or. Cu acea(t% oca9e .ot ! b)9ua#9ateM #n#e de c-". "a/netc .rn nter"edu#
.#tur de !er. Se .ot ntroduce de!n8 ada.tate n)e#u#u de )-r(t%8 a#e c-".ur#or
e#ectrce : "a/netce. Tot ac e(te o0(er)at% #e/%tura dntre !eno"ene#e e#ectrce :
"a/netce Fe#e) .ot con(tru (n/ur e#ectro"a/neG.
Dn c#a(a a BIII ? a 8 ;n cadru# ca.to#u#u bCurentu# e#ectrcM8 (unt a0ordate te"e#e:
3 Ten(unea e#ectrc%. Inten(tatea curentu#u e#ectrcK
3 E!ectu# "a/netc a# curentu#u e#ectrc. A.#caK
3 Induca e#ectro"a/netc%. A.#ca.
Acu"8 e#e) rede(co.er% !eno"ene#e (tudate anteror8 ;"0o/%ndu3: cuno:tne#e
: do0-ndnd a#te#e no. A(t!e#8 e ;ne#e/ c% (arcna e#ectrc% e(te cuant!cat% #a n)e#u#
unor .artcu#e (u0ato"ce8 c% de.#a(area drIat% a .urt%tor#or de (arcn% d% na:tere
curentu#u e#ectrc8 c% .ro.ret%#e c-".u#u "a/netc .ot ! "%(urate. A.aratu# "ate"atc
e(te !o#o(t .entru a de!n nduca "a/netc% F.rn nter"edu# !ore e#ectro"a/netceG8
**
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
!#u4u# "a/netc : cCar .entru a .re9enta e4.re(a "ate"atc% a #e/ #u FaradaS Fa
nduce e#ectro"a/netceG. A.#ca cu" (unt "otoru# e#ectrc8 a#ternatoru#8 dna"u# )n
(% ;nt%rea(c% ;ne#e/erea !eno"ene#or.
Dac% n)e#u# c#a(e o .er"te8 con(der c% ar tre0u (% (e rea nteracun#e
e#ectro(tatce8 .un-ndu3(e accent .e #atura canttat)% F#e/ea #u Cou#o"0G8 deoarece ;n
t".u# #ceu#u (e !ace a.e# #a ace(tea.
2ro/ra"a c#a(e H ? a .re)ede dou% ca.to#e ;n care a.ar noun#e de(.re care
)or0": b 2roducerea : ut#9area curentu#u contnuu M : b 2roducerea : ut#9area
curentu#u a#ternat)M.
Dn .r"u#8 te"e#e care atn/ (u0ectu# no(tru (unt:
3 Curentu# e#ectrcK
3 Le/ea #u OC" Fnter.retarea re9(tene e#ectrce #a n)e# "cro(co.cGK
3 Le/#e #u crcCCo!! F.r"a8 ca re9u#tat a# )a#a0#t% .rnc.u#u con(er)%r
(arcn e#ectrceGK
3 E!ectu# "a/netc a# curentu#u e#ectrc. A.#ca.
Dn a# do#ea8 te"e#e de ntere( (unt:
3 Curentu# a#ternat)K
3 E#e"ente de crcutK
3 Tran(!or"atoru#K
3 Motoare e#ectrceK
3 A.arate e#ectroca(nce.
E(te .eroada de cr(ta#9are a cuno:tne#or8 c-nd e#e) a!#% ca" tot ceea ce (e
.utea8 ;n #.(a ca#cu#u#u d!erena# : nte/ra#8 de(.re no un#e de (arcn% e#ectrc% :
c-". "a/netc. Tot acu"8 e#e) a!#% de(.re !ora Lorent98 de(co.ernd c% are aceea:
or/ne cu cea e#ectro"a/netc%. U#t"u# ca.to# ; .re/%te:te F.e ce de #a .ro!#u# rea#G
.entru ceea ce )or (tuda ;n c#a(a a HI ?a.
A0ordarea te"e#or (e !ace 0ne;ne#e( ;n !unce de .ro!#u# c#a(e: #a u"an8
accentu# (e .une .e a(.ectu# !eno"eno#o/c8 .e c-nd #a rea#8 ;ne#e/erea corect% a
conce.te#or ".une re9o#)area unor .ro0#e"e (.ec!ce. La c#a(e#e de "ate"atc%3
n!or"atc% : :tne#e natur8 aco#o unde n)e#u# o .er"te8 "u# .ro!e(or ntroduc
noun de e#ectro(tatc%: c-". e#ectro(tatc8 nten(tate8 .otena#8 #ucru "ecanc8 d!eren%
de .otena#8 !#u4 e#ectrc8 ":care ;n c-". e#ectrc8 etcK e#e de)n ut#e ;n an ur"%tor.
Dn ca.to#u# bO(c#a : unde e#ectro"a/netceM dn c#a(a a HI ?a8 te"e#e ;n care
;nt-#n" noun#e de c-". e#ectrc : "a/netc (unt:
1,,
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
3 O(c#a e#ectro"a/netce #0ere. Crcutu# o(c#antK
3 C-".u# e#ectro"a/netc. Unda e#ectro"a/netc%K
3 C#a(!carea unde#or e#ectro"a/netceK
3 A.#ca.
Accentu# (e .une .e ;ne#e/erea : de(crerea !eno"ene#or : "a .un .e a(.ectu#
canttat). E#e) de(co.er% cu" (e .roduce : (e .ro.a/% c-".u# e#ectro"a/netc8
"%r"#e (.ec!ce a#e ace(tua8 .recu" : o (ere de a.#ca a#e unde#or e#ectro"a/netce.
De(crerea !eno"ene#or (e !ace ut#9-nd ace#a: !or"a#(" ut#9at ;n ca.to#u# bO(c#a :
unde "ecanceM.
Tratarea te"e#or (e !ace ;n !unce de .ro!#u# c#a(e : de nu"%ru# de ore .e
(%.t%"-n% a#ocat Funa8 dou% (au treG.
Dn c#a(a a HII ? a8 cu e4ce. a ca.to#u#u bTeora re#at)t% re(tr-n(eM8 ;n toate
ce#e#a#te ;nt-#n" te"e ;n care a.ar8 "a "u#t (au "a .un8 conce.te#e de (arcn% e#ectrc%
: c-".ur e#ectrce : "a/netce. Dn ace(t "ot)8 nu )o" (u0#na dec-t !a.tu# c% te"e
.recu" bS.ectreM8 ME4.er"entu# RutCer!ordM8 MMode#u# 6oCrM8 MRada#e HM8 LE!ectu#
LASERM8 LAcce#eratoare de .artcu#eM (au L2artcu#e e#e"entareM )n (% co".#ete9e
)9unea e#e)#or a(u.ra noun#or #a care ne re!er".

BII.' A(.ecte "etodce /enera#e cu e4e".#!c%r ;n cadru# te"e
Un .roce( n(truct)3educat) e!cent (e rea#9ea9% .rntr3o 0un% or/an9are a
act)t%8 a#e/erea : a.#carea adec)at% a "etode#or de n(trure.
Metodele re.re9nt% !or"e (.ec!ce de or/an9are a re#ae .ro!e(or3e#e)3
co".etene : cu.rnd o /a"% ;ntrea/% de .rocedee care )9ea9% cunoa:terea8 n(trurea :
!or"area .er(ona#t%.
Dna"ca "etodo#o/e ddactce a condu( #a tran(!eru# accentu#u de #a .ro!e(or #a
e#e)8 #a trecerea de #a "etode#e tradona#e8 .a()e ? a4ate .e ro#u# .ro!e(oru#u8 #a
"etode#e "oderne8 act) .artc.at)e ? a4ate .e ro#u# e#e)#or. Dn ;n)%%"-ntu# "odern (3a
renunat #a do"nana une "etode8 !o#o(ndu3(e o "etodo#o/e !#e40#%8 ada.ta0#%.
E4(t% "a "u#te "oda#t% de c#a(!care a "etode#or ddactce8 ;n(% no ne )o"
#"ta #a crteru# (torc: c#a(c3"odern.
Cetodele tradi"ionale ce#e "a !o#o(te ;n .redarea3;n)%area !9c (unt:
aG e4.unerea ((te"atc%K
0G con)er(aaK
1,1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
cG de"on(traaK
dG re9o#)area de .ro0#e"eK
eG #ucrarea de #a0orator.
aG E%punerea sistematic e(te "etoda .rn care .ro!e(oru# #e co"unc% e#e)#or ;n
cu)nte8 ((te"atc : contnuu o anu"t% te"%.
2oate #ua d)er(e !or"e: de(crerea8 e4.#caa8 .o)e(trea : .re#e/erea. Metoda
.re(u.une econo"e de t". : !o#o(rea unu #"0aI corect :tn!c8 !nd un "ode# de
.redare concentrat% a "atere.
0escrierea con(t% ;n e4.unerea )er0a#%8 ne;ntreru.t% de )reun da#o/8 care (e
!o#o(e:te #a:
3 .re9entarea a.aratur de #a0orator : !uncon%r ace(teaK
3 .re9entarea unu !eno"en !9c : "I#oace#or ddactce F/ra!ce8 "ode#e8 "acCeteGK
E4e".#e de (tua ;n care .oate ! !o#o(t%: .re9entarea e#ectro(co.u#u : a
/eneratoru#u Ban der 5raa!8 ;n de(crerea e4.er"entu#u RutCer!ord (au M##>an etc.
E%plicaia re.re9nt% e4.unerea )er0a#% a .ro!e(oru#u8 care !o#o(nd raona"entu#
: ar/u"entarea #o/c%8 de9)%#ue .ro.ret% a#e o0ecte#or (au a(.ecte a#e !eno"ene#or ce
nu .ot ! ntute drect de c%tre e#e).
2oate ! !o#o(t% #a te"e .recu": bInter.retarea re9(tene e#ectrce #a n)e#
"cro(co.cM8 bA#ternatoru#M8 (au bS.ectreM.
8o"estirea e(te o !or"% de e4.unere ntut)%8 coerent%8 de (curt% durat%. Se
!o#o(e:te ;n (.eca# ;n /"na9u8 #a ;nce.utu# unu ca.to#8 .entru ntroducerea e#e"ente#or
(torce : 0o/ra!ce (au .entru a e)dena conte4tu# ;n care au a)ut #oc une#e de(co.err.
E4e".#e de ca9ur ;n care .oate ! !o#o(t%: ;n ntroducere #a bE!ectu# "a/netc a#
curentu#u e#ectrcM Fe4.erene#e #u Oer(tedG8 bMode#u# .#anetar a# ato"u#uMF "ode#e#e
ato"ce anteroareG8 bLe/ea #u Cou#o"0MF(curt% 0o/ra!e a ace(tuaG : a#te#e.
8relegerea e(te o !or"% (u.eroar% de e4.unere coerent% a une te"e "a )a(te8
!nd !o#o(t% cu .rec%dere ;n c#a(e#e ter"na#e de #ceu. Cu.rnde un )o#u" "are de
n!or"a : e(te ;n(ot% de .#an:e8 .roec (au de"on(tra "ate"atce.
Se .oate !o#o( #a te"e .recu": b2artcu#e e#e"entareM8 bA.#ca a#e unde#or
e#ectro"a/netceM8 etc.
0G Con"ersaia didactic )a#or!c% da#o/u# ;n )ederea atn/er o0ect)e#or .roce(u#u
de ;n)%%"-nt. Con(ttue una dntre ce#e "a ;nt-#nte "etode de .redare8 .ut-nd !
1,$
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
!o#o(t% ;n toate (ec)ene#e #ece de !9c%. Se ut#9ea9% ;n dou% !or"e: cateCetc% :
eur(tc%.
Forma cate)etic ur"%re:te "%(ura ;n care e#e) :3au ;n(u:t cuno:tne#e
acu"u#ate anteror F(e ut#9ea9% ;n .artea na#% a #ec#orG8 (au e(te !o#o(t% .entru
rea#9area !eed30ac>3u#u8 ;n .artea !na#%. 2oate ! !o#o(t% : (u0 )aranta ? e#e) ;ntrea0%8
e#e) r%(.und ? .entru a antrena ;ntre/u# co#ect).
Forma euristic e(te rea#9at% .rntr3o conducere atent% a con)er(ae de c%tre
.ro!e(or .entru ca e#e) (% aIun/% (% !or"u#e9e (n/ur de#e ce ar ! .utut ! e4.u(e de
ace(ta. Ide#e .ot #ua !or"a unor enunur8 de"on(tra8 e4e".#e8 (o#u8 etc.
cG De"on(traa e(te .rocedeu# #o/c .rn care un enun e(te dedu( dn a#te#e ade)%rate.
0emonstraia didactic ur"%re:te a(/urarea unu (u.ort concret (en9ora# care (%
u:ure9e ;ne#e/erea de c%tre e#e) a te9e ntrodu(e8 .rn .re9entarea unor o0ecte8
!eno"ene8 (u0(ttute8 !/ur.
Dn !unce de "atera#u# ut#9at8 de"on(traa .oate !:
pe "iu8 cu aIutoru# !eno"ene#or : o0ecte#or ;n (tarea #or natura#%K
figurati"8 c-nd (e a.e#ea9% #a !/ur8 ("0o#ur8 "acCeteK (e !o#o(e:te .entru
;ne#e/erea (tructur : a .rnc.u#u de !unconare a unor "a:n : n(ta#a:
grafic (au teoretic8 atunc c-nd (e rea#9ea9% (cCe #a ta0#% (au de"on(tra
"ate"atceK
cu a2utorul mi2loacelor audio"izuale F ;n (.eca# )deo.roectoru#G.
cu a2utorul e%perimentului8 e!ectuat de .ro!e(or ;n !aa c#a(eK e4.er"entu#
de"on(trat) (e !ace c-nd "Ioace#e ddactce (unt n(u!cente8 c-nd nece(t% o
teCnc% deo(e0t% (au t".u# nu .er"te e!ectuarea e4.er"entu#u .e /ru.e.
A" a.#cat3o .entru a e)dena re/u#a "-n (t-n/8 de (ta0#re a drece :
(en(u#u !ore e#ectro"a/netce (au .entru a ;ne#e/e nteracunea curen#or
e#ectrc .ara#e#.
dG !ezol"area de proleme e(te o "etod% !o#o(t% ;n (.eca# ;n "o"ente#e de !4are :
con(o#dare a cuno:tne#or (au are ro# reca.tu#at). Metoda ur"%re:te de9)o#tarea
ca.act% de a.#care a cuno:tne#or : aIut% #a )er!carea ("u#tan% a "a "u#tor
co".etene.
Eta.e#e "etode:
3 cu#e/erea n!or"ae : (ta0#rea date#orK
3 ana#9a connutu#u !9cK
1,'
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
3 re9o#)area .ro.ru9(%K
3 )er!carea : nter.retarea re9u#tate#or.
F%r% a trece ;n re)(t% d!erte#e "oda#t%8 "a "u#t (au "a .un a#/ort"9ate8 de
re9o#)are a .ro0#e"e#or8 tre0ue totu: (u0#nat ro#u# Iucat de crteru# de a#e/ere a
.ro0#e"e .recu" : de d!cu#tatea ace(tea. Dnante de a .ro.une o .ro0#e"% e#e)#or
tre0ue (% a)e" ;n )edere ;n ce "%(ur% re9o#)area e atn/e (co.u# .ro.u( : dac% /radu# de
d!cu#tate core(.unde n)e#u#u c#a(e : eta.e de .re/%tre ;n care e#e) (e a!#%.
eG Lucrarea de laorator ur"%re:te (% .er"t% e#e)#or ;n(u:rea de no cuno:tne .rn
n)e(t/ae .er(ona#%8 !a"#ar9area cu teCnc#e de cercetare :tn!c%8 .rn ur"%rrea
de"on(tra#or e4.er"enta#e a#e .ro!e(oru#u8 .rn de(!%:urarea unor e4.er"ente .ro.r
(au du.% un "ode# dat.
Du.% scopul ur"%rt8 e4.er"ente#e (e .ot c#a(!ca ;n:
demonstrati" ? e(te e!ectuat de .ro!e(or .entru a de"on(tra : a con!r"a
n!or"a#e tran("(eK
aplicati" ? e(te e!ectuat de e#e) .e 0a9a unu .#an ;ntoc"t de .ro!e(or ;n
)ederea ur"%rr .o(0#t%#or de a.#care ;n .ractc% a cuno:tne#or teoretce.
Cu ace(t .r#eI .ot )er!ca #e/#e !9c : deter"na )a#or#e unor con(tanteK
de cercetare ? e#e) conce. e ;n:: "ontaIu# e4.er"enta#8 .ornnd de #a o
.ote9% : contnu-nd cu .re#ucrarea date#or : nter.retarea re9u#tate#or. Sco.u#
e(te de(co.errea unor !eno"ene.
Du.% modul de desfurare8 (e c#a(!c% ;n:
frontal ? e#e) e!ectuea9% conco"tent ace#a: e4.er"ent. Nece(t% un nu"%r
"are de tru(e de !9c%K
pe grupe ? e#e) e!ectuea9% e4.er"ente d!erte (au (u0te"e a#e ace#ua:
e4.er"entK
indi"idual ? !ecare e#e) ;nde.#ne:te o (arcn% d!ert% de a co#e/#or.
Ind!erent de t.u# e4.er"entu#u8 cu e4ce.a ce#u de"on(trat) : a ce#u "enta#8
e#e) )or re#9a un re!erat care tre0ue (% cu.rnd%:
3 tt#u# #ucr%rK
3 (co.u# e4.er"entu#uK
3 "atera#e#e nece(areK
3 teora #ucr%rK
3 .rnc.u# "etodeK
1,+
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
3 ta0e#u# de ;nre/(trare a date#orK
3 ca#cu#u# eror#or : .re#ucrarea date#orK
3 conc#u9.
B9a) de te"a #ucr%r8 a" rea#9at cu e#e) ur"%toare#e te"e e4.er"enta#e:
3 E#ectr9area cor.ur#or Fnd)dua#GK
3 Studu# ca#tat) a# !ore e#ectro"a/netce F.e /ru.eGK
3 Studu# ca#tat) a# !ore e#ectrodna"ce Fde"on(trat)G.
Cetodele $oderne .e care #e )o" aduce ;n d(cue (unt:
aG Metoda .ro0#e"at9%rK
0G Metoda "ode#%rK
cG Metoda n(trur .ro/ra"ate.
aG Metoda prolematizrii orentea9% /-ndrea e#e)#or (.re (.re re9o#)area
nde.endent% de .ro0#e"e. 2unctu# de .ornre ;# con(ttue crearea une situaii#prolem8
care /enerea9% un con!#ct ;ntre e4.erena de cunoa:tere a e#e)u#u : e#e"entu# de noutate
cu care (e con!runt% ace(ta.
2rn situaie#prolem (e ;ne#e/e o (tuae contradctore8 un de9acord ;ntre
rea#tatea cuno(cut% .rn e4.erena anteroar% : rea#tatea .re9ent%8 care (ur.rnde :
ntr/%.
2ro0#e"at9are (e !ace .rn une#e .ro0#e"e8 .rn e4.er"ent (au .rn enunarea
unor .rnc. (au #e/8 .ut-nd ! nte/rat% ;n e4.unere (au de"on(trae.
2r"u# e!ect .e tre0ue (%3# .roduc% e(te a.ara ;n "ntea e#e)#or a unor ;ntre0%r
nero(tte de c%tre .ro!e(orK ;n !e#u# ace(ta (e a(/ur% "ot)aa ntrn(ec% a ;n)%%r.
Dn cadru te"e8 un e4e".#u de .ro0#e"at9are e(te:
!ezisti"itatea semiconductorilor scade odat cu creterea temperaturii$ pe cnd la
celelalte materiale crete' Cum se e%plic fenomenulP
Contradca con(t% ;n !a.tu# c%8 .-n% #a "o"entu# re(.ect)8 e#e) :tau c% o
te".eratur% "are ;n(ea"n% un /rad rdcat de a/tae ter"c% : dec un nu"%r "a "are
de cocnr ;ntre e#ectron "o0# : on ree#e. Re9o#)area con(t% ;n cre:terea odat% cu
te".eratura a nu"%ru#u de .erecC e#ectron3on care .artc.% #a conduce.
0G Metoda modelrii conduce /-ndrea e#e)u#u #a de(co.errea ade)%ru#u cu aIutoru#
"ode#u#u8 !nd !o#o(t dec8 raona"entu# .rn ana#o/e. Ace(ta re.re9nt% o re.roducere
(".#!cat% a unu o0ect (au !eno"en8 ;n(% nu ;ntr3at-t ;nc-t (% o"t% caracter(tc#e
1,5
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
.rnc.a#e : "ode#u# (% nu3: atn/% (co.u#. Se ut#9ea9% atunc c-nd !eno"enu# nu .oate
! o0(er)at drect (au nu .oate a)ea o re.re9entare (".#%8 ntut)%.
Dn rea#9area orc%ru "ode# tre0ue a)ute ;n )edere c-te)a a(.ecte:
3 (% e4(te ana#o/ e)dente cu ((te"u# rea#8 ;n (.eca# ce#e ce .r)e(c .ro.ret%#e
!unda"enta#e a#e ace(tuaK
3 (% e4(te : d!erene8 a(t!e# ;nc-t "ode#u# (% nu !e o co.e !de#% a or/na#u#uK
3 (% !e (".#u de ;ne#e(8 ar n!or"a#e o0nute .e 0a9a "ode#u#u (% !e u:or
tran(!era0#e a(u.ra rea#t%.
Mode#e ddactce (e .ot c#a(!ca ;n:
oiectuale ? care re.re9nt% ;ntr3un /rad rdcat rea#tatea F(o#du# r/d8
.#anu# ;nc#natGK
iconice ? care re.re9nt% !uncona# rea#tatea F"u#aIe8 "acCete8 /ra!ce8
etcGK
simolice ? care au #a 0a9% #"0aIu# con)enona# F!or"u#e !9ce8 ecua
"ate"atce8 (cCe"e #o/ceG.
Dn cadru# te"e8 a" ut#9at "ode#e .entru: (arcna e#ectrc% .unct!or"%8 (.ectru#
c-".u#u "a/netc Fcu aIutoru# .#tur de !erG8 ":carea .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate ;n c-".ur
e#ectrce : "a/netce F.rodu( (o!tOare de ("u#areG8 "ode#e ato"ce8 etc.
cG Metoda instruirii programate (au n(trurea a((tat% de ca#cu#ator ;: /%(e:te un
#ar/ ecou ;n cadru# (tuder noun#or : !eno"ene#or !9ce. Dn !e#u# ace(ta8 atraca
deo(e0t% a e#e)#or .entru ca#cu#ator e(te ut#9at% ;n (co. ddactc8 o!ernd totodat% "ar
.o(0#t% de nd)dua#9are a ;n)%%r : de9)o#tare a ca.act%#or creat)e. Dn)%-nd dn
.#%cere8 e#e) ;: "%re(c ntere(u# .entru cunoa:tere.
In(trurea .ro/ra"at% (e ut#9ea9% cu (ucce( ;n:
3 #eca de )er!care : e)a#uare a cuno:tne#orK
3 re9o#)area de .ro0#e"eK
3 .re9ent%r 2oOer2ontK
3 e4.er"entu# )rtua#.
Deta#erea ace(tor e4e".#e ar aco.er "u#t (.au8 "ot) .entru care nu )o" da ca
e4e".#u dec-t .ro/ra"u# AEL FA((tent Educaona# .entru Aco# : LceeG8 care e(te un
((te" nte/rat de .redare3;n)%are : "ana/e"ent a# connutu#u8 "ent (% (.rIne to
.artc.an #a actu# educaona# ;n .roce(u# de ;n)%are.
1,1
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
Dn cadru# te"e8 a" !o#o(t ca#cu#atoru#8 ;n (.eca# .entru e!ecuarea unor e4.er"ente
)rtua#e8 cu" ar !: )9ua#9area (.ectru#u c-".u#u e#ectro(tatc F((te" de (arcn
.unct!or"e8 conden(atoru# .#anG8 "ode#u# .#anetar a# ato"u#u8 ":carea .artcu#e#or ;n
c-". e#ectrc o"o/en8 ;".r%:terea .artcu#e#or

.e !oe "eta#ce (u0r8 etc.


Proiect de tehnologie didactic (1)
D(c.#na: F9c%
C#a(a: a H3a ? ' oreT(%.t%"-n%
Unitatea de /n?"are= E!ectu# "a/netc a# curentu#u e#ectrc
Titl#l lec"iei= Fora Lorent9
Ti%#l lec"iei= M4t%.
O!iecti?e o%era"ionale=
La (!-r:tu# #ece e#e) tre0ue:
3 (% de!nea(c% !ora Lorent9 : (% ;ne#ea/% "odu# e de acuneK
3 (% "ode#e9e /ra!c : (% ar/u"ente9e ":carea .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate ;n c-".
"a/netc un!or"K
3 (% re9o#)e .ro0#e"e (".#e de !9c%.
Strategii didactice=
a) $iFloace de /n?"$>nt=
3 co".utere8 (o!t educaona# F2ntar BrtuaLa0 MecCanc(G8 ! a de #ucru8 ta0#%8
cret%8 "anua#.
!) $etode de /n?"$>nt=
3 con)er(aa cateCetc%8 con)er(aa eur(tc%8 e4.#caa8 de"on(traa8 re9o#)area
de .ro0#e"e.
c) +or$e de acti?itate=
3 !ronta#8 .entru reactua#9area cuno:tne#or
3 nd)dua#8 .entru rea#9area e4.er"entu#u )rtua# : re9o#)area .ro0#e"e#or
d) $etode de e?al#are=
3 )er!care curent% ora#%
1,7
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
3 o0(er)aa ((te"atc% a e#e)#or
S#cce*i#nea acti?it"ilor de in*tr#ire
Nr.
crt.
E)en"ent
Ddactc
Durata
F"nG
Act)tatea de n(trure O0ec
t)e
Act)tatea
.ro!e(oru#u
Act)tatea
e#e)#or
1 Ca.tarea atene $ 3 )er!c% .re9ena
3 ;".arte !:e#e de
#ucru
3 (e .re/%te(c .entru
#ece
$ Actua#9area
cuno:tne#or
5 3 cere e#e)#or (% de!nea(c% !ora
e#ectro"a/netc% : (% enune
re/u#a "-n (t-n/.
3 cere e#e)#or (% de!nea(c%
c-".u# "a/netc o"o/en.
3 cere e#e)#or (% e4.un%
"%r"#e caracter(tce ":c%r
crcu#are un!or"e.
3 r%(.und #a ;ntre0%r
' Enunarea
tt#u#u #ece :
co"uncarea
o0ect)e#or
o.eraona#e
' 3Scre .e ta0#% tt#u# #ece:
bFora Lorent9M
La (!-r:tu# #ece )a tre0u (%
:t:
3 (% de!n !ora Lorent9 :
(% ;ne#e/e "odu# e de acuneK
3 (% "ode#a /ra!c : (%
ar/u"enta "r:carea
.artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate ;n c-".
"a/netc un!or"K
3 (% re9o#)a .ro0#e"e
(".#e de !9c%.
3 ur"%re(c : notea9%
.e caet tt#u# #eceK
+ DrIarea
;n)%%r
$5 2ornnd de #a de!na !ore
e#ectro"a/netce8 care
aconea9% a(u.ra conductor#or
.arcur: de curent e#ectrc8 a!#a
;n c-". "a/netc8 ; conduce .e
e#e) #a conc#u9a c% a.ara e
(e datorea9% ":c%r
e#ectron#or.
De"on(trea9% #a ta0#% !or"u#a
A " , F
L

8 (u0#nnd
orentarea !ore.
Dndru"% e#e) cu" (%
!o#o(ea(c% (o!tu# educaona#
.entru a re9o#)a te"u# 5 dn !:a
de #ucru.
Cere e#e)#or (% deduc% e4.re(a
(arcn (.ec!ce a une .artcu#e
;nc%rcate:
T A m
,

$
3 r%(.und #a ;ntre0%r.
3 notea9%
de"on(traa .e caet.
3 ur"%re(c cu aIutoru#
(o!tu#u educaona#
traectora une
.artcu#e ;nc%rcate ce
(e ":c% ;n c-".
"a/netc.
3 notea9% .e caet :
e4.un o0(er)a#e.
3 re9o#)% (arcna
nd)dua# : e( #a
ta0#%
'
$ 1
8 8
=
= =
1,&
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
5 A(/urarea
cone4un
n)er(e
1, 2ro.une (.re re9o#)are te"u# 1
dn !:a de #ucru
3 re9o#)% (arcna
nd)dua# : a.o e(
#a ta0#%
' $
8= =
1 E)a#uarea
rea#9%r
o0ect)e#or
#ece
5 Face a.recer a(u.ra
r%(.un(ur#or e#e)#or : ;
notea9%.
2ro.une te"a .entru aca(%.
3 notea9% te"a .e
caete
(i- de l#cr# G (or"a Lorent&
1G Ce e(te !ora e#ectro"a/netc% : care e(te e4.re(a e )ectora#%J
$G Cu" deter"n%" orentarea !ore e#ectro"a/netceJ
'G Care (unt caracter(tc#e unu c-". "a/netc o"o/enJ
+G Cu" (e de!ne:te : care (unt "%r"#e caracter(tce a#e ":c%r crcu#are
un!or"eJ
5G O .artcu#% "cro(co.c% ;nc%rcat% e#ectrc8 .%trunde ;ntr3o 9on% e4tn(% ;n care (e
a!#% un c-". "a/netc o"o/en8 .er.endcu#ar .e #n#e de c-".. Con(tru cu
aIutoru# (o!tu#u 2ntar BrtuaLa0 MecCanc( (tuaa e4.er"enta#% de(cr(% :
)9ua#9a ":carea .artcu#e du.% ce a a#e( )a#or adec)ate a#e "%r"#or !9ce
ce nter)n F"8 _8 68 )8 /h,G.
1G Un !a(ccu# de e#ectron F
8 1, 1 8 *
'1
kg m
e

C e
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aG e(te o0(er)at atunc c-nd (unt a.ro.a do "a/ne .er"anenK
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cu curent contnuu8 !unonea9% ca "otor8 ar dac% rotoru# e(te .u( ;n ":care de o !or%
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CONCLU<II
Dn #ucrarea de !a% a !o(t a0ordat e4.er"enta# (tudu# ":c%r .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate
e#ectrc ;n c-".ur e#ectrce : "a/netce8 a)-nd ca a.#ca:
3 determinarea sarcinii electrice a electronului prin metoda Millikan
3 determinarea sarcinii specifice
m e
a electronului$ utiliznd tuul cu fascicul
electronic ngust.
Lucrarea cu.rnde :a.te ca.to#e : are tre tre .%r e(ena#e: teoretc%8 .ractc% :
"etodo#o/c%.
Teora a !o(t .re9entat% ;n .r"e#e cnc ca.to#e : nc#ude noiuni fundamentale
de electrostatic i magnetostatic FCa.. I : IIG8 fora Lorentz FCa.. IIIG8 configuraii
importante de cmpuri electrice i magnetice FCa.. IBG8 dinamica micarii particulelor
ncrcate n cmpuri electrice i magnetice FCa.. BG.

Contriuia autorului8 e4.u(% e(ena# ;n ca.to#u# BI8 a constat n efectuarea
e%perimentelor i prelucrarea cu soft specializat a datelor e%perimentale' Re9u#tate#e
o0nute (unt .re9entate cu aIutoru# unor ca.tur de ecran. 3alorile e%perimentale oinute
sunt n un concordan cu "alorile moderne acceptate de azele de date internaionale.
A"0e#e e4.er"ente d(cutate ;n #ucrare au !o(t e!ectuate ;n La0oratoru# de E#ectrctate :
Ma/net(" a# Facu#t% de F9c% dn 6ucure:t.
Dn ca.to#u# BII a !o(t .re9entat% o (nte9% a a0ord%r noun#or de (arcn% e#ectrc%8
c-". e#ectrc : c-". "a/netc ;n ;n)%%"-ntu# .reun)er(tar8 c-t : a(.ecte "etodce
/enera#e cu e4e".#e de .roecte de act)tate ddactc%.
11'
C)2ti+el C*'ciu-a'u 8Mi&ca'ea (a'ticulel)' *+c'cate *+ c,-(u'i elect'ice &i -a.+etice3 A(lica/ii9 : 5677
60#o/ra!e
1. S. AN5=EL8 I. IOR5A8 B. MALINOBSC=I8 C.STENESCU8 Metodica predrii
fizicii8
Edt. AR5 TEM2US8 2te:t8 1**5.
$. 5. CONE8 Electricitate i magnetism F$,1,G FOOO..CS(c(..u0.ro G.
'. 2. CRISTEA8 S. ANTO=E8 E%perimente de Electricitate si Magnetism$ 8artea 48 Edt.
Un)er(t% dn 6ucure:t8 6ucure:t8 $,11.
+. 6. CROPELL8 Electricit5 and Magnetism FOOO.#/Ctand"atter.co"G.
5. C. CUCOA FcoordonatorG8 8si)opedagogie pentru E%amenele de 0efiniti"are i Grade
0idactice8 Edt. 2o#ro"8 Ia:8 $,,*.
1. I. DIMA8 N. 5=ER6ANOBSC=I8 I. SECEREANU8 Electricitate i magnetism R 1ote
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curs8 Un)er(tatea dn 6ucure:t8 Facu#tatea de F9c%8 6ucure:t8 1*&1.
7. N. 5=ER6ANOBSC=I8 O. S. STOICAN8 Electronica fizic i aplicaii8 Edt.
Acade"e
Ro"-ne8 6ucure:t8 1**+.
&. =. A. LORENT<8 Electromagnetic p)enomena in a s5stem mo"ing /it) an5 "elocit5
less
t)an t)at of lig)t FCtt.:TT0oo>(./oo/#e.co"G
*. =. A. LORENT<8 T)e t)eor5 of electrons and its applications to t)e p)enomena of
lig)t
and radiant )eat F OOO.arcC)e.or/Tdeta#(Te#ectron(tCeorS,,#orercC G
1,. 2. LORRAIN8 D.R. CORSON8 Electromagnetic Fields and +a"es8 P.=. Free"an and
Co".anS8 1*&&.
11. C. MIRON8 0idactica fizicii # 1ote de curs8 Edt. Un)er(t% dn 6ucure:t8
6ucure:t8
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$,,&.
1$. E. 2URCELL8 Electricitate i magnetism # Cursul de Fizic Aerkele5$ Edt. Ddactc%
:
2eda/o/c%8 6ucure:t8 1*&$.
1'. C' L. AC=IO2U8 Electromagnetism FCurs de fizic general 44G8 Edt. Matr4 Ro"8
6ucure:t8 $,,5.
De c # a r a e de a ut e nt c t a t e 8
Su0(e"natu# C;rcu"aru Co(tne#8 .ro!e(or ttu#ar #a coa#a cu c#(. I3BIII
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aG #ucrarea b M carea .artcu#e#or ;nc%rcate ;n c-".ur e#ectrce "a/netce. A.#ca
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0G nu a" !o#o(t a#te (ur(e dec-t ce#e "enonate ;n 00#o/ra!eK
cG nu a" .re#uat te4te8 date (au e#e"ente de /ra!c% dn a#te #ucr%r (au dn a#te (ur(e
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dG #ucrarea nu a "a !o(t !o#o(t% ;n a#te conte4te de e4a"en (au de concur(.
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)ederea a)9%r de c%tre conduc%toru# :tn!c8 do"nu# con!eren ar un)er(tar
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Data: $'.,&.$,11 Dec#arant8
C;rcu"aru Co(tne#
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111