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Content

FOREWORD

 

4

1

ADMINISTRATION OF THE CODE

5

1.1 Title

 

5

1.2 Scope

5

1.3 Application to build

5

 

1.3.1 General

5

1.3.2 Form of Application to Build

5

1.3.3 Approval in Part

7

1.4 Approvals

 

8

1.5 Inspections

8

 

1.5.1

Procedure

8

1.6 Special inspector

8

1.7 Completion certificate

9

1.8 Compliance

 

9

1.9 Alternate materials and types of construction

10

 

1.9.1 General

10

1.9.2 Standards

10

1.9.3 Application

10

2 TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

11

3 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

12

3.1

Principle

12

3.1.1 Site preparation

12

3.1.2 Site clearance

13

3.1.3 Material storage

13

3.1.4 Batter boards

13

3.1.5 Driveways and paving

13

3.1.6 Earth works

14

3.1.7 Earthquake considerations

15

3.1.8 Hurricane considerations

21

3.1.9 Roofs.

30

3.1.10 Windows and doors

31

3.2

Design criteria

35

3.2.1 Conventional design

35

3.2.2 Engineered design.

37

3.2.4

Live load.

39

3.2.5 Roof load.

41

3.2.6 Lateral load design

41

3.2.7 Load factors.

44

3.2.8 Deflection.

45

3.3

Minimal requirements

46

3.3.1 Location on lot

46

3.3.2 Light

46

3.3.3 Ventilation

47

3.3.4 Minimum room areas

48

3.3.5 Ceiling height

52

3.3.6 Minimum passage

52

3.3.7 Sanitation

54

3.3.8 Toilet, bath and shower spaces

54

3.3.9 Glazing

59

3.3.10 Enclosed garages

61

3.3.11 Emergency escape and rescue openings

61

3.3.12 Exits

62

3.3.13 Landings on stairways

65

3.3.14 Pedestrian ramps

65

3.3.15 Stairways

65

3.3.16 Handrails

70

3.3.17 Guards

72

3.3.18 Foam plastic

72

3.3.19 Flame spread and smoke density

74

3.3.20 Insulation

74

3.3.21 Dwelling unit separation

74

3.3.22 Moisture vapour retarders

76

3.3.23 Protection against decay

77

3.3.24 Protection against termites

81

3.3.25 Site address

81

3.3.26 Flood resistant construction

81

3.3.27 Coastal high hazard areas.

83

3.4

Basic materials

85

3.4.1 Reinforced Concrete

85

3.4.2 Timber

90

3.4.3 Metal

90

4 FOUNDATIONS

92

4.1

General

92

4.1.1 Load bearing walls and columns

92

4.1.2 Reinforcement

92

5 VERTICAL STRUCTURES

98

5.1

Concrete and masonry

98

5.1.1 Masonry Block Walls

 

98

5.1.2 Columns, beams and shear panel structure

116

5.1.3 Framed structure See next edition

to be published

119

5.2

Timber

121

5.2.1 Identification & Grade.

 

121

5.2.2 Exterior walls.

121

5.2.3 Interior load bearing walls.

124

5.2.4 Interior non-bearing walls.

 

124

5.2.6

Headers.

125

5.2.7 Cripple walls.

125

5.2.8 Wall bracing.

126

5.2.9 Structure

129

5.2.10 Cladding

129

5.3

Metal

133

5.3.1

MS beams and profiles

133

5.4

Mixed construction

133

6 FLOOR SYSTEMS

136

6.1

Concrete floor slabs

136

6.1.1 Layout

136

6.1.2 Finishing

143

6.1.3 Services

143

6.2

Timber

145

6.2.1 Identification & Grade.

145

6.2.2 General

145

6.2.3 Floor sheathing

149

6.3

Metal

150

6.3.1

MS steel beam

150

7 ROOF ASSEMBLIES

152

7.1

Roof structure

152

7.1.1 Concrete roof structure

152

7.1.2 Timber

152

7.1.3 Metal

162

7.2

Roof covering

165

7.2.1 Weather protection

165

7.2.2 Materials

166

7.2.3 Requirements for material roof covering

166

8 FIGURES

175

9 TABLES

178

10 NORMATIVE REFERENCES

179

FOREWORD

1.In the preparation of this code, extensive use has been made of the Parts of the Caribbean

Uniform Building Code (CUBIC) which deals with small buildings.

considered for revision and the management Committee for the revision project has elected to make use of the International Code Council Inc., of the U.S.A. in the provision of base documentation for the revision of CUBIC. In like manner for this code use has been made of the I.C.C. year 2000. International Residential Code Final Draft 1998.

The CUBIC is at this time being

2.The drafting of the code document has been managed by the Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago, sponsored by the Joint Consultative Council in the Construction Industry and the Interim National Physical Planning Commission with the support and active participation of the Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards.

3.A committee has been meeting consistently for the past two years for the preparation of this Code and comprises the following members.

The Committee, which has prepared this code, is comprised of:-

Mr. Fenrick De Four

National Physical Planning Commission (Chairman)

Mr. Burnell Austin

Ministry of Local Government

Mr. Stephen Basdeo

National Emergency Management Authority

Mr. Kenrick Bethelmy

Trinidad and Tobago Fire Services

Mr. Jack Bynoe

Board of Architecture of Trinidad & Tobago

Mr. Peter Bynoe

Trinidad & Tobago Institute of Architects

Dr. Richard Clarke

Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago

Mr. J. Holgar Hackshaw

Land Settlements Agency

Mr. Adul Latiff

John Donaldson Technical Institute

Dr. Jeffrey M. Phillips

Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago

Mr. Jean M. Picchiottino

Board of Engineering of Trinidad & Tobago

Mr. Francis Pierre

Sangre Grande Regional Corporation,

Mr. Edwin Yuk Low

Mr. Ishmael A. Soobrattee

Ministry of Local Government

City Engineer, Port of Spain City Corporation

Trinidad & Tobago Bureau of Standards (Secretary)

4.The first edition of this code [provides simple guidelines for the construction of small buildings (residential, office or light industrial) where use is made of concrete foundations, masonry block walls and timber frame roofing.

5.Future editions of this code will cover all types of small buildings constructed with concrete, masonry, timber, metal or any combination of these

1

Administration of the code

1.1 Title

These provisions shall be known as the "Trinidad and Tobago Small Buildings Code" and shall referred to herein as "This code".

1.2 Scope

1.2.1

The provisions in this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, repair, equipment, use occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of buildings, for single or multiple family residential or general purpose use of not more than two stories in height and with a floor area of three hundred square metres or less.

1.2.2

This code is intended to provide minimum requirements to safeguard life, limb, health and public welfare. It calls for minimum requirements for building materials in common use and takes into consideration the need for protection against wind and earthquake.

1.2.3

Sufficient detail is provided to allow for the adequate preparation of plans for buildings under normal environmental conditions. Regulatory authorities would deal with approvals on the basis of adherence to the requirements of this code.

1.2.4

The builder/designer is advised to seek assistance from registered professionals in the design and construction of wind and earthquake resistant structures for buildings outside the scope of this code and/or for special application or other than normal environmental conditions.

1.3 Application to build

1.3.1 General

A person wishing to erect a building or structure, or to carry out a building operation of a small building as defined shall comply with the requirements of the Planning and Development of Land Act and also with the requirements of this Code.

1.3.2 Form of Application to Build

Three (3) sets of completed application forms and plans are to be provided. include the following:

(1)A location plan, showing the location of the lot sufficient to identify the site. Streets should be named and lots numbered where applicable.

(2)A site plan, normally at a scale of 1/100, 1/125, 1/200 or 1/250 showing the dimensions of the site and its relationship to abutting lots, roads, public utilities and buildings grades and elevations as described in (3); and the location of the proposed building in relationship to the site boundaries, which are to be identified.

The plans shall

(3)Existing and proposed contours and levels of the site are to be shown. The levels must show the relationship of the lowest floor of the building with the levels of the adjoining street and with the known datum.

(4) Building plans to include:

I.

Floor Plan to Metric Scale 1/50 and/or 1/100

To show:

- room sizes and designations (all dimensions finish to finish including plaster)

- positioning of doors and windows

- materials used in construction

- thickness of each wall (including plaster)

II. Elevations and Sections to Metric Scale 1/50 and/or 1/100

To show:

- roof heights (floor to ceiling) and pitch

- height of floor above ground

- positioning of doors and windows

- materials used in construction

III. Foundation Plan to Metric Scale 1/50 and/or 1/100

To show:

- foundation layout

- cross sections

- materials used in construction

IV. Structural details to Metric Scale 1/50 and/or 1/100

To show:

- details of beams

- details of columns

- details of slabs

- details of floors

- details of all walls

- all reinforcement details

- roof design and construction details

V. Plumbing

To show:

- water and waste isometrics

- location of inspection boxes

- location and details of grease traps

- sizes and slopes of the pipes used in the sewer lines

- details of septic tanks and soakaway

VI. Site drainage

To show:

- storm surface and roof water disposal

-All drawings shall be individually numbered for ease of reference. Revisions shall carry revision numbers.

-All drawings, specifications and accompanying data shall bear the name and address of the person responsible for the preparation of the plans and documents.

1.3.3 Approval in Part

a)Where approval of a portion of a building is desired prior to the issuance of a permit for the whole project, application shall be made for the complete buildings, and detailed plans for the which immediate approval is desired shall be filed with the Chief Building Officer.

b)Should a permit be issued for a part of a building, the holder of such permit may proceed with construction without the assurance that the permit for the entire building will be granted. The granting of such permit will depend on the approval of the application including all requirements.

1.4

Approvals

1.4.1All construction plans specifications and associated reports required by these rules should conformed to this code and shall be approved by the Chief Building Officer before construction commences.

1.4.2No construction shall commence until the Chief Building Officer has issued a permit or a written notice to proceed.

1.5 Inspections

1.5.1 Procedure

The Chief Building Officer is authorised to make the following inspections and either approve the portion of the works completed or shall notify the builder where such work does not meet with his approval:

(i)

SETTING OUT

(ii)

FOUNDATIONS BEFORE CONCRETING

(iii)

STRUCTURAL FRAME AND ROOF

(iv)

RING BEAMS FORM WORK AND REINFORCEMENT

(v)

PLUMBING

(vi)

SITE DRAINAGE

(vii) FINAL INSPECTION (OCCUPANCY CERTIFICATE)

1.5.2 All inspections shall be carried out by persons authorised as Building Inspectors or by suitably qualified persons approved by the Chief Building Officer and appointed to carry out such inspections.

1.5.3 Work shall not be done on any part of a building or structure beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the written approval of the Building Inspector. Such written approval shall normally be given only after an inspection shall have been made of each successive step in the construction as indicated by each of the foregoing inspections where appropriate.

1.5.4 If circumstances warrant, the Chief Building Officer in his discretion may waive inspection but this does not absolve the owner and builder from the responsibility of any construction in contravention of this Code.

1.5.5 Reinforcing steel or structural framework of any part of any building shall not be covered or concealed in any manner whatsoever without first obtaining the approval of the Building Inspector or the Special Inspector.

1.6 Special inspector

When site conditions, size or complexity of the work warrants, the Chief Building Officer may impose a condition on the permit requiring the owner to employ a Special Inspector for the inspection of the structural framework, or any part thereof, and for the review of all plans relating to such work, as herein required.

(i) Buildings or structures or part thereof of unusual design or method of construction and with critical structural connections.

(ii)

Marine construction.

(iii)

Major foundations and/or pile driving.

(v)

Major site works.

(vi)

Drainage and waste disposal.

Such Special Inspector shall be a Listed Professional with the relevant experience. The Special Inspector shall ensure compliance with this Code and shall submit regular progress reports and inspection reports to the Chief Building Officer.

At the completion of the construction work or project, the Special Inspector shall submit a Certificate of Compliance to the Chief Building Officer stating that the work was done in compliance with this Code and in accordance with the approved plan or plans. His duties shall end with the submission of such certificate.

1.7 Completion certificate

a) A new building shall not be occupied or a change made in occupancy or the nature of the use

of a building or part of a building until after a Completion Certificate has been issued.

b) Upon completion of a building erected in accordance with approved plans and after final

inspection herein referred to, and - upon application, the Chief Building Officer shall issue a Certificate

stating the nature of the occupancy permitted.

c) A temporary Completion Certificate may be issued for a portion or portions of a building, which

may safely be occupied prior to final completion of the building.

1.8 Compliance

a) The issuance and granting of a permit shall not be deemed or construed to be a permit for, or

an approval of, any violation of this Code.

b) The issuance of a permit upon approval of plans and specifications, shall not prevent the Chief

Building Officer from thereafter requiring the correction of errors on such plans and specifications, or

from preventing building operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of this Code or any Regulations applicable thereto.

c) When during the construction of the work carried out under the permit, from issuance of permit

to issuance of the Completion Certificate, the Chief Building Officer reasonably believes that approved plans are in violation of this Code, he shall notify the permit holder and the permit holder shall correct the drawings or otherwise satisfy the Chief Building Officer that the design and/or working drawings are in compliance with this Code.

d) Compliance with this Code is the responsibility of the permit holder until the issuance of a

Completion Certificate; at which time it shall become the responsibility of the owner.

e) The permit granted for the construction of the work shall be available at the construction site

during normal working hours for inspection by the Building Inspector.

1.9 Alternate materials and types of construction

1.9.1 General

The provisions of this Code are not intended to prevent the use of types of construction or materials or methods of designs as alternates to the standards herein set forth. Such alternates shall be offered for approval and their consideration shall be as specified in this Section.

1.9.2 Standards

The types of Construction or materials or methods of design referred to in this Code shall be con- sidered as standards of quality and strength. New types of construction or materials or methods of design shall be at least equal to these standards for the corresponding use intended.

1.9.3 Application

a) Any person desiring to use types of construction or materials or methods of design not specifically mentioned in this Code shall file with the Chief Building Officer proof in support of claims that may be made regarding the safety and sufficiency of such types of construction or materials or methods of design and request approval and permission for their use.

b) The Chief Building Officer shall approve such alternate types of construction or materials or methods of design if it is clear that the standards of this Code are at least equalled. If, in the opinion of the Chief Building Officer, the standards of this Code will not be satisfied by the requested alternate, he shall refuse approval.

2

Terms and definitions

3

General construction

3.1

Principle

3.1.1

Site preparation

3.1.1.1

Preliminary investigation

Before any construction work commences, it shall be determined whether planning permission and other approvals would be required from the competent (relevant) authorities. A preliminary inspection of the site shall be undertaken so that preparation may be made for any problems or diffi- culties that may arise. This time should also be used to plan how the site will be organised so that a logical layout may emerge.

3.1.1.2 Checklist for site conditions

Completion of the checklist below will provide enough information about the site and its conditions to permit construction to begin.

a) Has planning permission been obtained?

b) Is easy access to the site available?

c) Is there a surveyor's or topological drawing of the site?

d) Have the location of all boundary markers been found?

e) Are water, sewage disposal facilities and an electricity supply available on site?

f) Take note of the general topography of site and other physical conditions likely to cause

hazards.

g) Is there evidence of termite infestation in the soil or trees?

h) Will there be a need for the removal of large trees?

i) Is the area normally subject to land slippage?

j) Is there adequate natural provision for the removal of storm water i.e. collection of water as a result of heavy rains or flooding.

k) Will construction endanger any of the public utility services?

l) Determine the height of the water table if appropriate.

m) Determine whether the soil is suitable for the construction of a soak-away pit.

n)

Determine the ground floor datum.

o)

Determine the depth of the foundation stratum.

q)

Select suitable areas for stockpiling aggregate.

r)

Select an area for the location of a concrete mixer or for the hand-mixing of concrete.

s)

Select location of a materials storage shed.

t)

Are their existing structures to be removed or altered?

Completion of the above checklist should highlight possible construction problems as well as the requirements of plant and materials. Where foundation problems are evident it is recommended that an engineer or any other appropriate professional be consulted.

3.1.2

Site clearance

3.1.2.1

Care should be taken to preserve any trees on the site. Where it is necessary to remove any trees, special care shall be taken to remove, totally, all roots and stumps of the felled trees as well as any of the other remains from the site.

NOTE There may be statutory limitations on the extent to which large trees may be removed.

3.1.2.2

The area where the building will be situated shall be stripped of topsoil. This material should be stock piled in a suitable area for later use during landscaping.

3.1.3

Material storage

3.1.3.1

Areas shall be allocated on the cleared site for the storage of materials. Coarse and fine aggregate for the mixing of concrete and mortar shall be placed in separate heaps in a location near to the concrete mixer or concrete mixing area.

3.1.3.2

Cement, nails and finished materials (groove ply, PVC pipe, galvanised sheeting etc.) requiring protected storage shall be stored in a shed, which is weather tight and has a wooden floor raised not less than four inches off the ground.

3.1.3.3

Reinforcement steel shall be stacked off the ground to reduce corrosion.

3.1.4 Batter boards

The building shall be properly set out on the site according to the building plan. Batter boards, which are horizontal boards parallel to the sides of the building and supported by vertical boards driven into the ground shall be erected in convenient locations near the four corners of the building, and to these boards should be transferred the building lines and levels for the project.

3.1.4.1

The floor level is usually marked on the batter boards and used as a permanent reference. All wall lines and levels shall be referred to these boards. Periodic checks shall be made to ensure that these boards have not been shifted from their intended positions.

3.1.5

Driveways and paving

3.1.5.1

The driveways and paving dealt with in this section are those suitable for use as driveways and parking areas for private cars and light goods vehicles only. Driveways shall be not less than 3m wide.

3.1.5.2

The choice of flexible (asphalt) or rigid (concrete) paving is largely influenced by the soil conditions at the site and the cost of driveway. Gravel driveways and paving are acceptable if adequate drainage is available and if the gravel or crushed rock is reasonably hard, free from clay, and would not be easily crushed by the light traffic. Adequate provision for drainage shall be made.

3.1.5.3

Where firm soils or rocks are present, any type of paving previously mentioned may be used. Where soft soils are present gravel or a flexible paving is recommended.

3.1.5.4

For all kinds of paving the topsoil shall be removed and replaced by a minimum of 150 mm of compacted, granular material.

3.1.5.5

For rigid paving, a concrete slab with a minimum thickness of 100 mm is required, reinforced by welded wire mesh of minimum 100 mm 2 /m wide in both directions, placed 25 mm below the slab surface. Construction joint shall be created every 5 m.

Note: A98, A142 and 150x150X4.5 BRC are acceptable.

3.1.5.6

For flexible paving a minimum thickness of 50 mm of asphalt (cold or hot mix) shall be applied and compacted by roller on an approved and adequate sub base.

3.1.6

Earth works

3.1.6.1

Site topography

3.1.6.1.1

The natural topography of the land should be maintained and any excavation or back filling that must be carried out (and deemed as necessary) should be kept to a minimum. This is necessary to maintain the natural vegetation, prevent landslides and flooding and preserve in general the natural environment.

3.1.6.1.2

It is essential therefore that buildings should be constructed in such a manner to compliment the natural topography of the site and not vice-versa.

3.1.6.2

Soil conditions

3.1.6.2.1

The characteristics of the site soil conditions shall be ascertained. If necessary, compaction shall be carried out in order to improve the bearing value of the soil.

3.1.6.2.2

Where expansive clay is encountered or where problem conditions are present, professional advice shall be sought before planning the foundation.

3.1.6.3

Excavations

3.1.6.3.1

Excavations for foundations shall be carried out along the building lines to the depth of the foundation stratum identified as suitable.

3.1.6.3.2

Excavations not exceeding 1.5 m in depth may generally be without planking and strutting, which is a system of braced timber walls erected against the faces of the excavation to prevent collapse. For excavations exceeding 1.5 m the extent of planking and strutting necessary shall be determined by the nature of the soil and the location of the water table.

3.1.6.3.3

Where collapse of the side of excavation is anticipated, all excavation in excess of 1.5 m in depth shall be planked and strutted.

3.1.6.3.4

Where the foundation is in rock, it shall be excavated at least 50 mm to provide a key for the foundations.

3.1.6.3.5

The bottom of all excavations shall be level and firm. Where loose materials are encountered, foundation bottoms shall be compacted by ramming.

3.1.6.3.6

Where excavations have been carried beyond their generally required depth, either by accident or design, the deep areas shall be back filled with compacted, adequate material or with Grade E concrete (see table B-1).

3.1.6.4

Back filling

3.1.6.4.1

Back filling shall not be carried out in dry rivers, natural drains, where water flows after heavy rains and along thalwegs (lowest areas in valleys).

3.1.6.4.2

Back filling around foundation walls and under floor slabs shall be carried out using only suitable, selected materials. Unless the floor slab is reinforced to act as a suspended slab, the depth of fill shall not exceed 1 m.

3.1.6.4.3

Suitable fill material may be brought to the site or obtained from excavated material, provided always that such material is free of substantial amounts of clay or organic matter.

3.1.6.4.4

All backfill shall be well compacted in layers not exceeding 150 mm in thickness where compaction is by hand. Where mechanical compaction equipment is used, the thickness of layers may be increased to 225 mm.

3.1.6.4.5

Where back filling under floor slabs on grade has been effected using hard core, a 50 mm layer of sand shall be applied to the top of the compacted hard core to protect damp proof membranes from puncture.

3.1.7

Earthquake considerations

3.1.7.1

Earthquake resistant construction

3.1.7.1.1 General

Trinidad and Tobago is in an earthquake zone and has experienced varying degrees of damage due to earthquakes. It is therefore essential that buildings are designed and constructed so that they have some resistance to the shaking or lateral forces produced by earthquakes.

3.1.7.1.2

Effect of soil type

3.1.7.1.2.1

The type of soil at the site may have a significant effect upon the resistance of the building to an earthquake. However for buildings within the scope of this code the effect of the soil type is not so significant provided that the building is not constructed on loose saturated sands, which may liquefy during an earthquake and cause collapse of the building.

3.1.7.1.2.2

The earthquake may also, due to shaking of the ground, compact loose sand or fill material, and if a building is constructed on such material, the building will be damaged.

3.1.7.1.3 Effect of high seas

Buildings on coastal areas may suffer due to high waves produced by earthquakes, and therefore the siting of the building in relation to the sea level needs to be considered. Professional advice shall therefore be sought in such cases.

3.1.7.1.4

Building shape

3.1.7.1.4.1

The success with which a building survives an earthquake is greatly affected by its shape in plan, the way the building is tied together and the quality of construction.

3.1.7.1.4.2

Most buildings with a simple rectangular shape with no projections (or only short projections) perform well under earthquake conditions provided the construction is adequate.

3.1.7.1.4.3

Long narrow buildings should be avoided by limiting the length to three times the width. If the building must be longer, then it should be divided into separate blocks with adequate separation. Figure A1-1 illustrates desirable and undesirable plan shapes.

3.1.7.1.4.4

Rectangular buildings with well inter-connected cross walls are inherently strong and therefore desirable.

Separation of Blgs to improve resistance Desirable plans Long undesirable plans

Separation of Blgs to improve resistance

Desirable plans

Long undesirable plans

Fig A1-1 Plan of building proportion

Floor level Not acceptable opening location 400 400 Floor level 1 800mm min Shear panel
Floor level
Not acceptable opening location
400
400
Floor level
1 800mm min Shear panel
1 000
1 100
2 020

Fig A1-2 Recommended location of wall opening

First floor Ground level First floor Ground level
First floor
Ground level
First floor
Ground level

Fig A1-3 Recommended location of wall opening for tow storey building

3.1.7.1.5

Appendages

Where buildings have decorative or functional additions or appendages such as window hoods, parapets and wall panels etc. extreme care must be taken to ensure that they are securely fixed, since many of such items tend to fall easily and may cause damage during an earthquake.

3.1.7.2 Rules for the construction of earthquake resistant buildings

It is recommended that the following rules be followed for the construction of buildings:

3.1.7.2.1 Masonry buildings

An important factor contributing to the earthquake resistance of masonry buildings is the detailing and placing of steel reinforcement. A registered professional should undertake the design of a reinforced concrete frame building. The reinforcing guide given in this section therefore must only be used for simple single storey buildings constructed of approved quality masonry blocks. For the minimum quantities of reinforcing steel to be used refer to Clause Vertical Structures.

3.1.7.2.2 Timber buildings

There are two additional areas of concern with respect to timber buildings:

All corners and intersections must be adequately braced.

Earthquake and hurricane forces tend to remove timber buildings from their supports by shaking. Because of this sills shall be securely fastened to foundations.

3.1.7.2.3 Steel buildings

The natural ductility of steel protects the frame from severe damage. However, in many cases masonry block walls are used and the precautions already listed for these walls will apply. The wall reinforcement must now be anchored by welding to the steel columns and beams, or the steel frame encased in concrete in which case the wall reinforcement can be tied into the concrete cage encasing the steel frame.

3.1.7.3

Location of openings

3.1.7.3.1

The location and size of openings in walls have a significant effect upon the strength of a wall and its ability to resist earthquake forces.

3.1.7.3.2

Openings shall be located away from a corner by a clear distance of at least 1/4 of the height of the opening. It is recommended that the minimum distance be 400 mm.

3.1.7.3.3

The total length of the openings should not exceed 1/2 the length of the wall between consecutive cross walls (see figure A1-2).

3.1.7.3.4

The horizontal distance between two openings should not be less than 1/2 the height of the shorter opening (see figure A1-2).

3.1.7.3.5

For two storey buildings, the vertical distance from an opening to one directly above it shall not be less than 600mm, nor shall it be less than one half the width of the smaller opening.

3.1.8

Hurricane considerations

3.1.8.1

Hurricane resistant construction

3.1.8.1.1

General

3.1.8.1.1.1

It is very important in Trinidad and Tobago to be ever conscious of the fact that the region lies in the hurricane belt. Because of this, hurricane resistant construction principles must be adhered to if safe buildings are to be erected. This section gives general principles for safe hurricane resistant design, and it is recommended that the details shown in these guidelines must be adhered in order to ensure safe construction.

3.1.8.1.1.2

For the buildings within the scope of this document the areas most vulnerable to hurricane forces are the roofs, windows, walls and appendages.

3.1.8.1.1.3

The underlying objective of hurricane resistant construction is to produce a building that will not collapse during a hurricane. The building must be standing and its occupants should be safe.

3.1.8.2

Rules for the construction of hurricane resistant buildings

3.1.8.2.1

Building site

3.1.8.2.1.1

Buildings sited in exposed areas (e.g. on the brow of a hill or near coastal areas) are most vulnerable, while those sheltered by natural topography are less vulnerable. Buildings sited in gullies or riverbeds are very vulnerable as they are subject to severe damage by floods caused by the heavy rains, which often accompany a hurricane.

3.1.8.2.1.2

In siting the building, therefore, steep slopes and edge of cliffs should be avoided, as well as other conditions such as steep sided valleys where exceptionally high wind speeds are found.

3.1.8.2.1.3

Tie beams should be constructed to reduce the untied height of the columns to a maximum of 3 meters as shown in figure A1-6. It is advisable to seek professional assistance for such construction, unless otherwise designed for larger columns.

3.1.8.2.2

Timber buildings.

3.1.8.2.2.1

Because of the relatively light nature of a timber building, extra precautions shall be taken to prevent uplift. Care must therefore be taken to ensure that the entire structure is securely fastened to the foundations.

3.1.8.2.2.2

The spaces between the supporting columns or piers may be filled in to reduce the uplift forces (see figure A1-6).

3.1.8.2.2.3

As far as timber walls are concerned, in addition to bracing corners in both directions, diagonal braces or steel straps must be installed at the level of the top plate to provide rigidity of the corners at that level (see figures A1-7 and A1-8).

width of wall

width of wall roof reinforced concrete ring beam frame of building roof level floor level
roof reinforced concrete ring beam frame of building
roof reinforced
concrete ring beam
frame of building

roof level

floor level

Fig A1-4 Typical roof gable wall arrangement

roof level roof reinforced concrete ring beam frame of building floor level 200x300 r.c. tie
roof level
roof reinforced
concrete ring beam
frame of building
floor level
200x300 r.c. tie beam
200mm thk.
r.c. blockwall
existing grade
r.c. strip footing
Ground slopes should be less than 15 degrees
roof level
roof reinforced
concrete ring beam
frame of building
floor level
200x300 r.c. tie beam
300x300 mm min
r.c. column
existing grade
r.c. footing
Steep slopes more than 15 degrees
and less than 30 degrees
r.c. footing
Note: Those sketches don't show the shear panels
900 mm min
600 mm min
3 000mm maximum

Fig A1-5 Recommended method of construction on sloping sites

Grade

100 X 100 Timber sill

r.c. tie beam 200mm thick blockwork
r.c. tie beam
200mm
thick blockwork
100 X 100 Timber sill r.c. tie beam 200mm thick blockwork Colomn may be 200 x
100 X 100 Timber sill r.c. tie beam 200mm thick blockwork Colomn may be 200 x

Colomn may be 200 x 200mm reinforced concrete or block work filled with concrete and 4 - 12mm rods 8mm links - 200mm centers

Fig A1-6 In-fill panel between timber building supports

Horizontal bracing for corners at wall plate level 50 x 100 wall plate Uprights 25
Horizontal bracing for corners
at wall plate level
50 x 100 wall plate
Uprights
25 x 150 sheating
Wall sill
Brace corners by
diagonal bracings

Fig A1-7 Timber framing showing bracing

Wall plate must be fastened and strapped to the top of uprights Window opening ouble
Wall plate must be fastened and strapped
to the top of uprights
Window
opening
ouble uprights
t openings
Door
opening
Wall sill is fixed to foundation
wall by anchor bolts
Wall sill
The uprights are fixed to
the wall sill

Fig A1-8 Timber framing for wall

roof sheeting

roof battens 50 x 150 timber rafter at 600mm centers ceiling material metal hurricane tie
roof battens
50 x 150 timber rafter
at 600mm centers
ceiling material
metal hurricane tie
every other rafter
timber wall plate
r.c. ring beam
roof eave 900mm (max)
facia board
150
225

Fig A1-9 Rafter/wall plate connections

50 x 100 timber wall plate r.c. ring beam
50 x 100 timber wall plate
r.c. ring beam

12mm anchor bolt at 1200mm centers (maximum)

Fig A1-10 Rafter/ ring beam connections

Timber rafter Infill concrete r.c. ring beam metal hurricane tie
Timber rafter
Infill concrete
r.c. ring beam
metal hurricane tie

metal hurricane tie imbedded in ring beam

Timber wall plate Metal strap Timber upright
Timber wall plate
Metal strap
Timber upright

ber wall plate

Timber wall plate Mortise Tenon Timber upright
Timber wall plate
Mortise
Tenon
Timber upright

Fig A1-11 Wall plate connections and hurricane ties

3.1.8.2.3

Steel buildings

The principles for the design and construction of hurricane resistant steel buildings are:

3.1.8.2.3.1

Ensure that there are adequate numbers and sizes of foundation holding down bolts, and that they are all in place and properly fixed.

3.1.8.2.3.2

Ensure that there is adequate lateral support provided by cross bracing or horizontal ties or by cast in place concrete or masonry walls.

3.1.8.2.3.3

Where concrete walls or concrete masonry is used, the connections between the steel frames and the walls shall be provided.

3.1.8.2.3.4

Ensure that the fabricator's recommendations with regards to the construction of the roof and roof covering are followed.

3.1.9

Roofs.

3.1.9.1

Roofs with pitch between 0 and 20° (or a slope between 0 % and 36 %) are more vulnerable to uplift forces. It is recommended that roofs be constructed with a pitch between 20° and 40° (or a slope between 36 % and 84 %).

3.1.9.2

The aptitude to reduce uplift forces is affected by the shape of the roof in the following order from the most effective to the least effective:

a) Hip roof

b) Gable

c) Shed

3.1.9.3

Attention should be given to the location of fixings used for the roof cladding. It is necessary to provide additional fixings at the roof edges and ridge, since high-localised pressures are produced in these locations.

3.1.9.4

Roof overhangs also experience high local pressures and, where possible, these should be kept to a minimum or adequately strengthened.

3.1.9.5

Where buildings have covered patios or verandas, their roofs may be separate structures rather than extensions of the main building roof. A patio or veranda roof may be lost without endangering the safety of the main roof.

3.1.9.6

The main roof must be securely fixed to the ring beam and ridge beams and details for achieving this are shown in figures A1-9, and A1-10 and A1-11.

3.1.10

Windows and doors

Special attention must be paid to the installation of doors and windows, since the loss of a door or window during a hurricane will greatly alter the internal pressure of the building, thus adversely affecting its safety. For this reason, glazed windows and doors may be fitted with shutters.

Masonry Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Columns, beams &
Masonry
Suspended first floor slab
Ground floor slab suspended
or on grade
Columns, beams & shear panel structure
Suspended first floor slab
Ground floor slab suspended
or on grade
Masonry
Suspended ground floor slab
with crawl space
Columns, beams & shear panel structure
Suspended ground floor slab
with crawl space

Shear panel

Masonry Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

Columns, beams & shear panel structure Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

panel structure Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Framed structure Suspended first floor slab Ground

Framed structure Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade Framed structure Suspended ground floor slab

Framed structure Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space

Framed structure Suspended ground floor slab with crawl space Framed structure Ground floor slab suspended or

Framed structure Ground floor slab suspended or on grade

Fig A2-1a Basic 1 or 2 level house type

Flat site 2 levels

First level masonry Ground level framed structure Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended
First level masonry
Ground level framed structure
Suspended first floor slab
Ground floor slab suspended or slab on grade

First level masonry Ground level columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or slab on grade

First level masonry Crawl space columns, beams & shear panel structure Suspended ground floor slab

First level masonry Crawl space framed structure Suspended ground floor slab

Sloping site

Fig A2-1b Mixed 1 or 2 level house type

First level timber Suspended first floor slab Ground floor slab suspended or on grade First
First level timber
Suspended first floor slab
Ground floor slab suspended
or on grade
First level timber
Ground level columns, beams & shear panel structure
Suspended first floor slab
First level timber
Ground level framed structure
Suspended first floor slab
First level timber
Suspended ground floor slab
with crawl space
First level cold formed steel
Crawl space columns, beams & shear panel structure
Suspended ground floor slab
First level metallic structure
Crawl space framed structure
Suspended ground floor slab
Shear panel
One level timber
Ground floor slab suspended
or on grade

Fig A2-1c 1 or 2 level house, other combination

3.2 Design criteria

3.2.1 Conventional design

Buildings and structures, and all parts thereof, shall be constructed to support safely all loads, including dead loads.

Where different construction methods and structural materials are used for various portions of a building, the applicable requirements of this part for each portion shall apply.

3.2.1.1 Conventional building

Conventional construction shall be considered as building with acceptable shape of the figures

A2-1 (a to c)

“1 and 2 level house type”.

All conventional construction shall be designed in accordance with this code.

3.2.1.2 Irregular building

Irregular buildings shall have an engineered lateral-force resisting system designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

A building shall be considered to be irregular when one or more of the following conditions occur:

a) When exterior shear panels or reinforced frame is not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story in which they are required. (See Framed structure)

b) When a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear panel or reinforced frame on all edges.

c) When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 3.60m or 50% of the least floors or roofs dimension.

d) When portions of a floor level are vertically offset.

e) When shear panel or reinforced frame is do not occur in two perpendicular directions.

f) When shear panel or reinforced frame are constructed of dissimilar bracing systems on any one- story level above grade.

3.2.1.3 Limit of this code.

When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements, which exceed the limits of this code, those elements shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Fig A2-2 Trinidad & Tobago winds

Fig A2-2 Trinidad & Tobago winds

3.2.2

Engineered design.

3.2.2.1 General

Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this code as limited by the provisions of this section.

3.2.2.2 Wind design.

The requirements in this document are based on design wind speed over open water at equivalent elevation of 10m average over 10 minutes with a recurrence of one in 50 year. (See figure A2-2 Trinidad and Tobago Winds)

Table 1 Design pressure for winds

Design pressure

Trinidad

Trinidad

Tobago

Central

Coastal

Basic wind speed

     

Km/hr

72

92

101

Wall (horizontal load) kN/m

2

0.70

0.90

1.00

Roof (uplift) kN/m 2

1.00

1.30

1.45

3.2.2.3 Seismic design.

All buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

3.2.2.3.1

Seismic design category.

3.2.2.3.1.1

Ground acceleration

The requirements in this document are based on maximum ground acceleration associated with 10% probability of occurrence in 50 years.

For Trinidad & Tobago

(g refers to the gravity and g = 9.81m/s 2 )

0.3 g

3.2.2.3.1.2

Amplification factor

Where the soil is 100% saturated (low land, reclaimed land, etc.) an amplification factor of 2 shall be applied to the ground acceleration. See calculation for shear load.

3.2.2.3.1.3 Soil liquefaction

To prevent any soil liquefaction on the same type of land than above a special attention shall be carried out with an engineer specialist for the choice of the appropriate type of foundation. See calculation for shear load.

3.2.2.3.2

Weights of applied finishes

Dead load finishes shall not exceed 1 kN/m 2 for roofs or 0.5 kN/m 2 for floors.

Dead load finishes for walls above grade shall not exceed:

a- light-frame walls

0.75

kN/m 2 for

exterior

0.50

kN/m 2 for

interior

b- masonry walls.

2.50

kN/m 2 for 150mm thick masonry wall.

3.80

kN/m 2 for 200 mm thick masonry wall.

c- concrete walls.

4.10 kN/m 2 for 150 mm thick concrete walls.

3.2.2.3.3 Height limitations.

The design applied to any construction is limited to two stories with a maximum of 9m to the top of the building.

3.2.2.4 Flood plain construction.

Buildings and structures constructed in flood prone areas as established in Fig. A2-1 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Clause Flood resistant construction and Clause Coastal high hazard areas of Part "Minimal requirements".

3.2.3 Dead load.

The actual weights of materials and construction shall be used for determining dead load with consideration for the dead load of fixed service equipment.

3.2.4 Live load.

The minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be as provided in Table 2.

Table 2 Minimum uniformly distributed live loads

Use

Live loads (kN/m 2 )

Exterior balconies

5

Domestic floor / All rooms, stairs and corridors

1.5

Office floor

2.5

Small industrial and storage

5

Use

Horizontal loads

(kN/m)

Guard rails and handrails

1

Fig A2-3 Trinidad flood prone areas

Fig A2-3 Trinidad flood prone areas

3.2.5

Roof load.

Roof shall be designed for the live load indicated in Table 3.

Table 3 Minimum roof live loads (kN/m2)

 

Tributary loaded area for any structural members

Roof slope

 

Area (m2)

0 to 20m2

20 to 55m2

over 55m2

Flat or rise less than (20°) 33% slope

1

0.75

0.6

Rise (20°) 33% to (45°) 100%

0.75

0.7

0.6

Rise greater than (45°) 100%

0.6

0.6

0.6

3.2.6

Lateral load design

3.2.6.1

Preamble

Wind and earthquake introduce horizontal loads in the superstructure that are transferred to the foundation. We have to consider 2 steps:

a) Transfer of the horizontal load from

- wind to vertical wall and roof

- acceleration of mass located everywhere in the superstructure

to the appropriated wall or framed structure.

b) Transfer of the load from the top to the bottom of the wall or superstructure and the foundation.

According to this code

- horizontal transfer is done by horizontal diaphragm or horizontal beam

- vertical transfer is one by shear panel, cross, or framed structure

3.2.6.2 Diaphragm

Floor, roof or ceiling assemblies may be constructed with the necessary stiffness and load path continuity to distribute lateral loads (wind and earthquake) to lateral support subsystems. In this role, floor, roof or ceiling surface act as horizontal beams (also called a diaphragm) spanning lateral supports points.

Use of floor, roof or ceiling assembly, as a diaphragm requires both strength and stiffness properties and development of connections to transfer the diaphragm force.

Part elevation Minimum 800
Part elevation
Minimum 800

Shear panel in 2 parts

Shear panel in one part

ground level

In situ concrete 5 diam. 12 Part elevation 1 800 400 In situ concrete Part
In situ concrete
5 diam. 12
Part elevation
1 800
400
In situ concrete
Part plan
2 diam. 12
In situ concrete
every 2 rows
150mm min
1 600
1 000
400

Fig B6-1 Shear panel - Vertical core blocks

Shear panel in two parts Ring beam concrete and reinforcement ground level ground level Part
Shear panel in two parts
Ring beam concrete and reinforcement
ground level
ground level
Part elevation
Part elevation
L2 = 2400 mm - L1
L1 = 1000 min
Shear panel in one part
Ring beam concrete and reinforcement
500
Limit of opening
location
4 dia. 12mm
ground level
Part elevation
250mm min
1 800
150 min
200
2100
min
1600
max
In situ concrete
6mm stirrup each 150mm
Part plan
m min
115

Fig B6-2 Shear panel - Horizontal core blocks

3.2.6.3

Shear panel

3.2.6.3.1 Concrete wall

A shear panel (see figures B-6-1 and B-6-2 Shear panel) is a portion or section of a 150mm

exterior wall that performs the function of resisting lateral earthquake or wind forces.

3.2.6.3.2 Timber

See paragraph "Wall bracing".

3.2.7

Load factors.

All

structures shall resist combined loads as follows;

3.2.7.1

Gravity

1.40 D + 1.70 L

3.2.7.2

Earthquake

a) 0.75 (1.40 D + 1.70 L +/- 1.87 E)

and

b) 0.90 D +/- 1.43 E

3.2.7.2.1

Shear load calculation

A simplified formula, for this code is

V =

0.05 x S x W

total shear in kN

Whereas :

The 0.05 coefficient integrated the Z = ground acceleration, C = amplification factor due to structure frequency, I = Importance factor =1 in this code and Rw = Ductility factor related with respect to the column design reinforcement used in the normal practice formula.

S = site factor

S

= 1

For good soil (rock, gravel)

S

= 1.2 For softer material (clay, fill )

 

S

= 1.5 For deep alluvial deposits

S

= 2.5 maximum for reclaimed land and saturated soils (due to the amplification factor)

 

W

=

total

load

in

kN

3.2.7.3

Wind

1.40 D + 1.70 L + 1.75 W

Note:

D

= dead load

L

= live load

E

= earthquake load

W = wind load

3.2.8 Deflection.

The allowed deflection of any structural member under the live load shall not exceed the following values in Table 4

Table 4 – Maximum deflection authorised.

Rafters and purlins

L/180

Interior walls and partitions

H/180

Floors and ceilings

L/360

All others structural members

L/240

NOTES:

L = span length

H

3.3 Minimal requirements

3.3.1

Location on lot

3.3.1.1

Exterior walls.

Exterior walls with a fire separation distance less than 1.25m shall have not less than a one-hour fire-resistive rating. The one-hour fire resistive rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance less than 1.25m shall be rated for interior and exterior exposure. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend more than 300mm into the fire separation distance. Projections extending into the fire separation distance shall have not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction on the underside. The above provisions shall not apply to walls, which are perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separation distance.

3.3.1.2 Openings.

Openings shall not be permitted in the exterior wall of a dwelling with a fire separation distance less than 1.25m. This distance shall be measured perpendicular to the vertical plane of the opening.

3.3.2

Light

3.3.2.1

Habitable rooms.

All habitable rooms shall be provided with an area to allow natural light to enter not less than 10 percent of the floor area of such rooms.

3.3.2.2 Adjoining rooms.

For purpose of determining requirements of light, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and

provides an opening of not less than 10% of the floor area of the interior room but not less than

2.50m 2 .

3.3.2.3 Bathrooms.

Bathrooms, water closet compartments and other similar rooms shall be provided with an area to allow natural light to enter not less than 0.25m 2 .

3.3.2.4 Stairway illumination.

All interior and exterior stairways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, including the landings and treads.

Interior stairs shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of each landing at the top and bottom of the stairs.

Exterior stairs shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairs.

3.3.3

Ventilation

3.3.3.1

Natural ventilation

3.3.3.1.1

Habitable rooms.

Natural ventilation shall be provided in all habitable room through windows, louvres or other natural openings through the external wall to the outdoor air.

The minimum area of ventilation shall be not less than 15 percent of the floor area of such rooms.

3.3.3.1.2 Adjoining rooms.

For purpose of determining ventilation requirements, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than 15% of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 2.50m 2 .

3.3.3.1.3 Bathrooms.

Bathrooms, water closet compartments and other similar rooms shall be provided with a

2

.

ventilation area not less than 0.25m

3.3.3.2

Mechanical ventilation

3.3.3.2.1

Habitable rooms.

All habitable rooms shall be provided with the minimum ventilation rates of 30m 3 /hr for continuous ventilation for every 12m 2 of the floor area or part of such rooms.

This ventilation shall be through windows, doors or other natural openings through the external wall from the outdoor air through a special 30m 3 /hr-air regulator.

3.3.3.2.2 Kitchen and bathrooms

All the air introduced into the house through the habitable rooms must be extracted in the rooms e.g. kitchen, bathroom, toilet, washing room and other similar rooms have to be maintained in depression to create an air flow through the house.

The minimum exhaust airflow for each room is as follows

Kitchen

120 m 3 /hr

Bathroom

60

m 3 /hr

Shower

60

m 3 /hr

Toilet (WC)

30

m 3 /hr

Washing room and store room

30

m 3 /hr

This ventilation air shall be exhausted permanently and directly outside.

3.3.3.2.3 Internal doors

All internal doors have to be provided with air passages not less than 150 cm 2 .

Note: These passages can be provided with a bottom gap of 2 or 2.5cm under the door.

3.3.3.2.4 Minimum global ventilation

For each house or apartment the minimum ventilation rate is one volume of the habitable part of the house per hour.

3.3.4

Minimum room areas

3.3.4.1 Minimum area.

Every dwelling unit shall have at least one habitable room (living, sleeping, eating or cooking room), which shall be not less than 12m 2 of floor area.

3.3.4.2 Other rooms.

Other habitable rooms shall have a gross area of not less than 7.50m 2 .

3.3.4.3 Exception:

Kitchen

not less than 5m 2

Bathroom

not less than 3m 2 and not less than 2m 2 for the second one

Shower

not less than 1.5m 2

Toilet (WC)

not less than 1m 2

See figure A3-1 Minimum room sizes, A3-2 Typical furniture arrangement and A3-3 Typical arrangement 7.5m 2 room.

900mm min 1400mm min 1800mm min 1732mm square 2236mm 1667mm 2143mm 1732mm Kitchen 2778mm 5m2
900mm min
1400mm min
1800mm min
1732mm square
2236mm
1667mm
2143mm
1732mm
Kitchen
2778mm
5m2 min
2236mm
Shower
1.5m2 min
Bath.
3m2 min
750mm min
800mm
1333mm
WC
1250mm min
2500mm minimum
1m2 min
3000mm
3464mm square
2500mm minimum
2739mm square
4800mm
4000mm
Main room
Other room
3464mm
12m2 min
7.5m2 min
3000mm
2739mm

Fig A3-1 Minimum room sizes

1800mm min 2778mm 785mm 890mm Entrance
1800mm min
2778mm
785mm
890mm
Entrance

1400mm min

Bathroom 3m2 min 2143mm 685mm 900mm mini
Bathroom
3m2 min
2143mm
685mm
900mm mini

Shower

1.5m2 min

1667mm 685mm
1667mm
685mm

750mm min

1333mm WC 1m2 min 685mm
1333mm
WC
1m2 min
685mm

Kitchen

5m2 min

3000mm

Main room 4000mm 12m2 min
Main room
4000mm
12m2 min

Fig A3-2 Typical furniture arrangement

Other room

7.5m2 min

2500mm minimum 2500mm minimum 3000mm 3000mm
2500mm minimum
2500mm minimum
3000mm
3000mm

Fig A3-3 Typical furniture arrangement - 7.5 m 2 room

3.3.4.4

Minimum dimensions.

Habitable rooms shall not be less than 2.50m in any horizontal dimension.

Exception:

minimum

Kitchen

1.80m wide.

Bathroom

1.40m wide.

Shower

0.90m wide.

Toilet (WC)

0.75m wide and 1.25m long.

Corridor

1.00m wide.

Stair

1.00m wide.

3.3.4.5

Height effect on room area.

Portions of a room with a sloping ceiling measuring less than 1.50m or a furred ceiling measuring less than 2.15m from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as contributing to the minimum required habitable area for that room.

3.3.5

Ceiling height

3.3.5.1

Minimum height.

3.3.5.1.1

Habitable rooms

Habitable rooms (living, sleeping, eating or cooking room) and basement shall have a ceiling height of not less than 2.40m. See figures A3-4 Habitable room area

3.3.5.1.2 Other rooms

Other rooms e.g. corridors, bathrooms, toilet rooms and laundry shall have a ceiling height of not less than 2.15m.

3.3.5.1.3 Measurement

The required height shall be measured from the finish floor to the lowest projection from the ceiling.

3.3.6 Minimum passage

The minimum passage for the access to the dwelling and each room shall be as follows

3.3.6.1 Main entrance

Almost one access door from outside shall be not less than 900mm wide and 2000mm high.

3.3.6.2 Habitable rooms and secondary rooms e.g. Store and laundry

All passage for the access from another room or from the corridor shall be not less than 785mm wide and 2000mm high

3.3.6.3 Other rooms e.g. Bathroom and toilet

All passage for the access from another room or from the corridor shall be not less than 685mm wide and 2000mm high

Room total area

Habitable area 2.40m area Nota: 2.40m area >= 80% of habitable area 2400mm 2150mm lowest
Habitable area
2.40m area
Nota:
2.40m area >= 80% of
habitable area
2400mm
2150mm lowest habitable part
1500mm

Fig A3-4 Habitable room area

3.3.7

Sanitation

3.3.7.1 Toilet facilities.

Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a water closet or privy, lavatory basin, and a bathtub or shower.

3.3.7.2 Kitchen.

Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a sink.

3.3.7.3 Sewage disposal.

All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to a sanitary sewer or to an approved private sewage disposal system.

3.3.7.3.1 Septic tank

The capacity of the septic tank shall be calculated on the basis of 500 litres of sewage per person, full time user.

The minimum capacity is 2,500 litres

The water table must be a minimum of 1 metre deepest than the septic tank.

See figure A3-11 for 2500 litres and A3-12 for 3200 litres septic tank.

See also "Code of Practice for the Design and Construction of Septic Tanks and Associated Secondary Treatment and Disposal System" TTS 16 80 400: 1986.

Note: The above figures complied with this code.

3.3.7.3.2 Soak-away pit

See figure A3-13

The water table must be a minimum of 1 metre deepest than the soak-away.

3.3.7.3.3 Draining trench

Where is impossible to make a soak-away, a draining trench shall be used See figure A3-14

3.3.7.4 Water supply to fixtures.

All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to an approved water supply.

Kitchen sinks, lavatory basins, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing machine outlets shall be connected to the water supply system.

3.3.8

Toilet, bath and shower spaces

3.3.8.1

Space required.

Fixtures shall be spaced as per Figure A3-5 Toilet, bath and shower spaces required.

3.3.8.2 Bathtub and shower spaces.

Bathtub and shower floors and walls shall be finished with a smooth, hard and non-absorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a height of not less than 1.80m above the floor.

min 100mm min 100mm min 100mm clearance mini. 600mm Lavatories
min 100mm
min 100mm
min 100mm
clearance mini. 600mm
Lavatories
min 50mm Wall Tub Shower min 900mm 900mm min Clearance in front of opening 600mm
min 50mm
Wall
Tub
Shower
min 900mm
900mm min
Clearance in front of
opening 600mm min
min 375mm min 300mm Tub Clearance min 600mm Tub Water closet or bidet
min 375mm
min 300mm
Tub
Clearance min 600mm
Tub
Water closet
or bidet

Fig A3-5 Toilet, bath and shower space required

Ventilation pipe 100mm

Ventilation pipe 100mm Inspection dia 300mm Cleanout 100mm Tie beam 590 1210 6 dia 10mm Outlet

Inspection dia 300mm

Cleanout 100mm Tie beam 590 1210 6 dia 10mm Outlet 8 dia 10mm 900 500
Cleanout 100mm
Tie beam
590
1210
6 dia 10mm
Outlet
8 dia 10mm
900
500
1462
dia 12mm every 200mm
inside waterproof liner
dia 12mm every 200mm
both directions
45°
900
75
900
408
400
100
1
1192
600
150
2150

4 dia 12x 2400mm every 2 rows

and tie beam 100 2059 All concrete blocks filled with concrete min 1500mm/building 2365 or
and tie beam
100
2059
All concrete blocks filled with concrete
min 1500mm/building
2365
or boundary
min 1500mm
900
1210

Sewage inlet slope 2.5% (1 in 40)

Fig A3-11 Septic tank 2500 litres - 5 persons maxi

Ventilation pipe 100mm Cleanout 100mm Inspection dia 300mm 6 dia 12mm 652 Tie beam 1376
Ventilation pipe 100mm
Cleanout 100mm
Inspection dia 300mm
6 dia 12mm
652
Tie beam
1376
Outlet
8 dia 12mm
1072
550
1657
dia 12mm every 200mm
950
inside waterproof liner
950
dia 12mm every 200mm
both directions
4 dia 12x 2500mm every 2 rows
4 5°
900
75
900
408
400
100
1192
1600
150
2150
and tie beam 550 100 min 1500mm/building 2295 or boundary 2600 min 1500mm 1072 1376
and tie beam
550
100
min 1500mm/building
2295
or boundary
2600
min 1500mm
1072
1376

All concrete blocks filled with concrete

Sewage inlet slope 2.5% (1 in 40)

Fig A3-12 Septic tank 3200 litres - 8 persons maxi

Top soil and vegetation

min 2500mm /building min 1000mm/boundary 1700 square dia. 1400mm Inlet 50mm flat silica stone 25mm
min 2500mm /building
min 1000mm/boundary
1700 square
dia. 1400mm
Inlet
50mm flat silica stone
25mm stone
Natural sand
vein
(porous layer)
1100

FIG A3-13 Soak-away

min 2500mm /building min 1000/boundary Top soil and vegetation Perforated 100mm pipe general slope 2%
min 2500mm /building
min 1000/boundary
Top soil and vegetation
Perforated 100mm pipe
general slope 2% (1 in 50)
Inlet
Natural sand vein
500
25mm stone
10 metres minimum
150400
650
1200

FIG A3-14 Draining trench

3.3.9

Glazing

3.3.9.1 Identification.

Each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations shall be provided with a manufacturers or installers label, designating the type and thickness of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it complies, which is visible in the final installation. The label shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, embossed mark, or shall be of a type, which once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed.

3.3.9.1.1 Identification of multipane assemblies.

Multipane assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 0.10m 2 in exposed area shall have at least one pane in the assembly identified. All other panes in the assembly shall be labelled.

3.3.9.2 Louvered windows or jalousies.

Regular, float, wired or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be no thinner than nominal 4.80mm and no longer than 1.20m. Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.

3.3.9.2.1 Wired glass prohibited.

Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalousies or louvered windows.

3.3.9.3 Human impact loads.

Individual glazed areas including glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated shall pass the test requirements of CPSC 16-CFR, Part 1201.

3.3.9.4 Hazardous locations.

The following shall be considered specific hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing:

1.Glazing in ingress and means of egress doors except jalousies.

2.Glazing in fixed and sliding panels of sliding (patio) door assemblies and panels in doors including walk-in closets.

3.Glazing in storm doors.

4.Glazing in all unframed swinging doors.

5.Glazing in doors and enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers. Glazing in any part of a building wall enclosing these compartments where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 1.50m measured vertically above any standing or walking surface.

6.Glazing, in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 600mm arc of the door in a closed position and whose bottom edge is less than 1.50m above the floor or walking surface.

7.Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel, other than those locations described in Items 5 and 6 above, that meets all of the following conditions:

7.1 Exposed area of an individual pane greater than 0.80m 2 .

7.2 Bottom edge less than 450mm above the floor.

7.3 Top edge greater than 900mm above the floor.

7.4 One or more walking surfaces within 900mm horizontally of the glazing.

8. All glazing in railings regardless of an area or height above a walking surface. structural baluster panels and non-structural in-fill panels.

Included are

9.

Glazing in walls and fences enclosing indoor and outdoor swimming pools where the bottom

edge of the poolside is (1) less than 1.50m above a walking surface and (2) within 1.50m horizontally

of the water’s edge. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.

3.3.9.5

Wind and dead loads on glass.

3.3.9.5.1

Vertical glass.

All glass sloped 15 degrees or less from vertical in windows, window walls, doors and other

exterior applications shall be designed to resist the wind loads specified in Clause 2.3 Design criteria

Table 1 Design pressure for winds. firmly supported on all four edges.

3.3.9.5.2 Sloped glazing.

Glazing designed in accordance with these provisions shall be

All glass sloped more than 15 degrees from vertical in skylights, sunspaces, sloped roofs and other exterior applications shall be designed to resist the most critical combinations of loads.

3.3.9.5.3 Thicker glass.

Allowable loads for glass thicker than 6.4 mm shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E

1300.

3.3.9.6

Skylights and sloped glazing.

3.3.9.6.1

Definition.

Any installation of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees or more from vertical. Glazing materials in skylights, solariums, sunspaces, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition.

3.3.9.6.2 Permitted materials.

The following types of glazing may be used:

1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.40mm poly-vinyl-butyral interlayer for glass panes 1.50m2 or

less in area located such that the highest point of the glass is not more than 3.60m above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum interlayer thickness shall be

0.80mm.

2. Fully tempered glass.

3. Heat-strengthened glass.

4. Wired glass.

5. Approved rigid plastics.

3.3.9.6.3 Screens general.

For fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass, a retaining screen shall be installed below the glass, except for fully tempered glass.

3.3.9.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing.

When the inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened, or wired glass, a retaining screen shall be installed below the glass.

3.3.9.6.5 Screens not required.

Screens shall not be required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or the bottom pane in multiple glazing and either of the following conditions is met:

1.

Glass area 1.50m 2 or less. Highest point of glass not more than 3.60m above a walking surface

or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 4.80mm, and (for multiple glazing

only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass.

2. Glass area greater than 1.50m 2 . Glass sloped 30 degrees or less from vertical and highest point

of glass not more than 3.00m above a walking surface or other accessible area.

3.3.9.6.6 Screen characteristics.

The screen and its fastenings shall

1 - be capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing.

2 - be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members, and

3 - have a mesh opening of no more than 25 mm by 25 mm.

3.3.9.6.7 Curbs for skylights.

All unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than 25 percent slope shall be mounted on a curb extending at least 100mm above the plane of the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

3.3.10

Enclosed garages

3.3.10.1

Opening protection.

Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

Other openings between the garage and residence shall be equipped with either solid wood doors not less than 35 mm in thickness or 20-minute fire-rated doors.

3.3.10.1.1 Duct penetration.

Ducts penetrating and installed in the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.50mm sheet steel and shall have no openings into the garage.

3.3.10.2 Separation required.

Enclosed garage shall be separated from the residence with ½ hr fire rated wall and/or slab.

3.3.10.3 Floor surface.

Garage and carport floor surfaces shall be of approved non-combustible material.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Exception:

Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports only.

3.3.11

Emergency escape and rescue openings

3.3.11.1

Emergency escape and rescue required.

Basements with habitable space and every sleeping room shall have at least one openable emergency escape and rescue window or exterior door opening for emergency escape and rescue.

Where openings are provided as a means of escape and rescue they shall have a sill height of not more 1.10m above the floor. The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the window or door opening from the inside. Escape and rescue

window openings with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window well.

3.3.11.1.1 Minimum opening area.

All emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 0.50m 2 .

3.3.11.1.2 Minimum opening height.

The minimum net clear opening height shall be 600mm.

3.3.11.1.3 Minimum opening width.

The minimum net clear opening width shall be 600mm.

3.3.11.2 Window wells.

The horizontal dimensions of a window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened. The horizontal dimensions of the window well shall provide a minimum net clear area of 0.85m2 with a minimum horizontal projection and width of 900 mm.

3.3.11.2.1 Ladder and steps.

Window wells with a vertical depth greater than 1.10m below the adjacent ground level shall be equipped with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable with the window in the fully open position.

Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 300mm, shall project at least 75mm from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 450mm on centre vertically for the full height of the window well.

3.3.11.3 Bars, grills, covers and screens.

Bars, grills, covers, screens or other obstructions placed over emergency escape and rescue openings or window wells that serve such openings shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or special knowledge.

3.3.12 Exits

3.3.12.1 Exit door required.

Not less than one exit door conforming to this chapter shall be provided from each dwelling unit. The required exit door shall provide for direct access from the habitable portions of the dwelling to the exterior without requiring travel through a garage or kitchen.

If the distance, measured centre of the corridor, between the house main entrance and the inside kitchen door is more than 6m a second exit is required directly in the kitchen.

3.3.12.2 Type of lock or latch.

All egress doors shall be readily openable from the side from which egress is to be made without the use of a key.

3.3.12.3 Type and Size.

The required exit door shall be a side-hinged door that allow a clear opening not less than 900mm in width and 2025mm in height.

Other exterior hinged or sliding doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions.

3.3.12.4

Hallways.

The minimum width of a hallway or exit access shall be not less than 1m.

3.3.12.5 Exit facilities.

Exterior exit balconies, stairs and similar exit facilities shall be positively anchored to the primary structure at not over 2.40m on centre or shall be designed for lateral forces. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal.

minimum opening in slab 2m min Top landing 2.15m min 12 highs maximum Intermediate landing
minimum opening in slab
2m
min
Top landing
2.15m min
12 highs maximum
Intermediate landing
2m
min
Minimum clearance
Floor to floor
2.15m min
12 highs maximum
Bottom landing
900mm min 900mm min 900mm min 1m mini 900mm min 1m min 1m min 900mm
900mm min
900mm min
900mm min
1m mini
900mm min
1m min
1m min
900mm min
900mm
1m min
1m min
900mm

Fig A3-6 Stairs and landings

3.3.13

Landings on stairways

3.3.13.1 Landings required.

There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. There shall be a floor or landing on each side of an exit door.

3.3.13.2 Size.

See Figure A3-6 Stairs and landings

The width of each landing shall not be less than the stairway or door served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 900mm measured in the direction of travel.

3.3.13.3 Location.

The floor or landing shall be not more than 35mm lower than the top of the threshold.

3.3.13.4 Landing required.

A

minimum 1m by 900mm landing shall be provided:

1.

At the top and bottom of ramps,

2.

Where doors open onto ramps,

3.

Where ramps changes direction,

4.

After no more than 12 high steps.

3.3.14

Pedestrian ramps

See figure A3-7 Ramps and landings

3.3.14.1 Maximum slope.

Ramps shall have a maximum slope of 10 percent.

3.3.14.2 Handrails required.

Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of all ramps.

3.3.14.3 Landing required.

A

minimum 1m by 1m landing shall be provided:

1.

At the top and bottom of ramps,

2.

Where doors open onto ramps,

3.

Where ramps changes direction,

3.3.15

Stairways

3.3.15.1 Width.

Stairways shall not be less than 900mm in clear width at all point.

3.3.15.2 Treads and risers.

The maximum riser height shall be 200mm and the minimum tread depth shall be 250mm. Rise and tread should respect the formula 600mm < 2xRise + Tread < 640mm.

The riser height shall be measured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread’s leading edge.

The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall be sloped no steeper than 2 percent slope.

The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 5

mm. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than

10mm.

The treads finishing should not be slippery.

Top landing Maximum slope 10% 1m minimum Bottom landing 1m minimum 1m minimum 1m minimum
Top landing
Maximum slope 10%
1m minimum
Bottom landing
1m minimum
1m minimum
1m minimum
Bottom landing
Up
Top landing
1m minimum
1m minimum
1m minimum
Bottom landing
Up
1m minimum
Intermediate land
Top landing
Up
1m minimum
1m minimum
1m minimum
Bottom landing
Up
Intermediate land
1m minimum
Up
Top landing

Fig A3-7 Ramps and landings

tread depth 250mm min R 10mm maximum riser height 200mm max
tread depth 250mm min
R 10mm maximum
riser height 200mm max
250mm min 100mm max 200mm maximum Open risers
250mm min
100mm max
200mm maximum
Open risers
Sloped risers 30° max 30° max
Sloped risers
30° max
30° max
Min 20mm / Max 32mm R 10mm max Nosing
Min 20mm / Max 32mm
R 10mm max
Nosing

Fig A 3-8 Steps (Treads, risers and nosing)

F
F
F 2m min 1m (+/- 10mm) Section F 1m minimum 900mm minimum R mini = 5mm
2m min 1m (+/- 10mm)
2m
min
1m (+/- 10mm)
F 2m min 1m (+/- 10mm) Section F 1m minimum 900mm minimum R mini = 5mm

Section F

1m minimum 900mm minimum R mini = 5mm 32mm min/ 65mm max 40mm minimum One
1m minimum
900mm minimum
R mini = 5mm
32mm min/ 65mm max
40mm minimum
One handrail

Handrail

40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum

40mm minimum

40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum

900mm minimum

900mm minimum

32mm min / 65mm max

40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum

Two handrails

40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum

40mm minimum

40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum
40mm minimum 900mm minimum 32mm min / 65mm max Two handrails 40mm minimum

Fig A 3-9 Stair handrails

3.3.15.2.1 Profile.

The radius of curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be no greater than 10mm.

See figure A3-8 Steps (Treads, risers and nosing)

When nosing is provided, shall be not less that 20mm but not more than 32 mm on stairways with solid risers. Bevelling of nosing shall not exceed 10mm.

Risers shall be vertical or sloped from the underside of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not more than 30 degrees from the vertical. Open risers are permitted, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a 100mm sphere.

3.3.15.3 Headroom.

The minimum headroom in all parts of the stairway shall not be less than 2.00m measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform.

See figures A3-6 and A3-9.

3.3.15.4 Winders.

Winders are permitted, provided that the depth of the tread at a point not more than 500mm from the side where the treads are narrower should be not less than the depth of tread of the other section.

The continuous handrail required shall be located on the side where the tread is narrower.

3.3.15.5 Spiral stairs.

Spiral stairways are permitted, provided the minimum width shall be 700mm with each tread having a 200mm minimum tread depth at 350mm from the narrow edge. All treads shall be identical, and the rise shall be no more than 240mm. Minimum headroom of 2.00m shall be provided.

3.3.15.6 Circular stairways.

Circular stairways shall have a tread depth at a point not more than 350mm from the side where the treads are narrower of not less than 300mm and the minimum depth of any tread shall not be less than 150mm. Tread depth at any walking line, measured a consistent distance from a side of the stairway, shall be uniform.

3.3.15.7 Wooden stair protection.

Any enclosed accessible space under stairs shall have walls, under stair surface and any soffits protected on the enclosed side with 13mm gypsum board.

Note: All stairs shall be provided with illumination in accordance with Electrical Code.

3.3.16 Handrails

3.3.16.1 Handrails.

Handrails having minimum heights of 1.00m measured vertically from the nosing of the treads shall be provided on at least one side of stairways. All required handrails shall be continuous for the full length of any stairs with three or more risers. Ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel

posts or safety terminals.

between the wall and the handrail.

Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 40mm

See figures A3-9 Stair handrails and A3-10 Guards.

Stair with string Stair without string Ø100mm min 1m (+/- 10mm) 1m (+/- 10mm) String
Stair with string
Stair without string
Ø100mm min
1m (+/-
10mm)
1m (+/-
10mm)
String
Ø100mm min
Not acceptable
Ø100mm min
1m minimum
Ø100mm min
Not acceptable
height more than 750mm

Fig A3-10 Guards

3.3.16.2

Handrail grip size.

The handgrip portion of handrails shall have a cross section of 32mm minimum to 65mm maximum. Other handrail shapes, which provide an equivalent grasping surface, are permissible. Edges shall have a minimum radius of 3mm.

3.3.17 Guards

3.3.17.1 Guards required.

Porches, balconies or raised floor surfaces located more than 750mm above the floor or grade below shall have guards not less than 1.00m in height. Open sides of stairs with a total rise of more than 750mm above the floor or grade below shall have guards not less than 1.00m in height measured vertically from the nosing of the treads.

See Figure A3-10 Guards

3.3.17.2 Guard rail-opening limitations.

Required guards on open sides of stairways, raised floor areas, balconies and porches shall have intermediate rails or ornamental closures which do not allow passage of a sphere 100mm or more in diameter. Required guards shall not be constructed with horizontal rails or other ornamental pattern that results in a ladder effect.

3.3.18

Foam plastic

3.3.18.1

General.

The provisions of this section shall state the requirements and uses of foam plastic as insulation, structural filling or decoration

3.3.18.2

Foam characteristics

3.3.18.2.1

Internal characteristics

The minimum density shall be more than 3 kN/m 3 .

3.3.18.2.2 Surface burning characteristics.

All foam plastic or foam plastic cores in manufactured assemblies used in building construction shall have a flame-spread rating of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed rating of not more than 450 when tested for the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E

84.

3.3.18.3

Foam protection

All foam shall be protected from inside and outside by appropriated barrier to prevent damage from.

1- Vapour (humidity from hot air migrating from the hot side to the cold side of the wall, in this region from outside to inside)

2- Fire (both sides)

3- Rodent (rats, mice, etc.)

4- Termites

3.3.18.3.1

Thermal barrier

Foam plastic shall be separated from the exterior of the building by minimum vapour barrier as follows:

Polythene 0.150 mm thick (included in the wall complex)

or metallic cladding (corrosion resistant sheet of 0.50 mm minimum)

or 25mm thickness of masonry or concrete

3.3.18.3.2 Fire barrier

To allow a minimal ignition protection of 15minutes a fire barrier shall be used as follows:

3.3.18.3.2.1 From outside

Metallic cladding (corrosion resistant sheet of 0.50 mm minimum)

or 25mm thickness of masonry or concrete

or 20mm structural wood

or 25mm particleboard.

3.3.18.3.2.2 From inside

Metallic cladding

or 25mm thickness of masonry or concrete

or 20mm structural wood

or 25mm particle board

or

13mm gypsum board (the gypsum board shall be installed using a mechanical fastening

system to ensure that the gypsum board will remain in place when exposed to fire).

3.3.18.3.3 Rodent damage (rats, mice, etc.)

All foam shall be externally protected against any destruction by rodents. This applies to the edge of the foam.

3.3.18.3.4 Termite damage.

The use of foam plastics in areas of termite infestation shall be in accordance with this code.

3.3.18.4

Specific requirements.

3.3.18.4.1

Foam-filled doors.

Foam-filled doors are exempt from the requirements of this Section.

3.3.18.4.2 Interior trim.

Foam plastic trim defined as picture moulds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim may be installed, provided that:

1. The minimum density is 3.50kN/m 3 ,

2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 13mm and the maximum width is 100mm, The trim

constitutes no more than 10 percent of the area of any wall or ceiling, and

The flame-spread rating does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed rating is not limited.

3.3.19

Flame spread and smoke density

3.3.19.1 Wall and ceiling.

Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a flame-spread classification of not greater than 200.

3.3.19.2 Smoke developed index.

Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a smoke developed index of not greater than 450.

3.3.19.3 Testing.

Tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 84.

3.3.20

Insulation

3.3.20.1

Insulation.

Insulation materials, including facings, such as vapour barriers or breather papers installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame-spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke developed index not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

3.3.20.2 Loose-fill insulation.

Loose-fill insulation materials, which cannot be, mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall have a flame-spread rating not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed factor not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC-SI02-M88.

3.3.20.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation.

Each

package of such insulating material shall be clearly labelled in accordance with CPSC 16-CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404.

3.3.20.4 Exposed attic insulation.

All exposed insulation materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux not less than 1200 watt/m 2 .

3.3.20.5 Testing.

Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16-CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404.

Tests for critical radiant flux shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 970.

3.3.21

Dwelling unit separation

3.3.21.1

Multi-family dwellings.

Dwelling units in multi-family dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or floor assemblies of not less than 1 hour fire-resistive rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119.

Fire-resistive-rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend to the underside of the roof sheathing.

3.3.21.1.1 Supporting construction.

When floor assemblies are required to be fire-resistive, the supporting construction of such assemblies shall have an equal or greater fire-resistive rating.

3.3.21.2

Townhouses.

Each townhouse shall be considered a separate building and separated by walls for exterior walls.

A common 2-hour fire resistive wall is permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the cavity of the common wall.

Electrical installations shall be installed in accordance with TTS 26 20 505 Electrical code.

Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with this code.

3.3.21.2.1 Continuity.

The common wall for townhouses shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab and shall extend the full length of the common wall.

3.3.21.2.2 Parapets.

Where parapets are to be provided for townhouses as an extension of the common wall in accordance with the following:

Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 800mm above the roof surfaces.

Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall are at different elevations and the higher roof is not more than 800 mm above the lower roof, the parapet shall extend not less than 800mm above the lower roof surface.

3.3.21.2.3 Structural independence.

Each individual townhouse shall be structurally independent.

3.3.21.3 Exceptions:

Foundations supporting common walls.

Structural roof and wall covering sheathing from each unit may fasten to the common wall framing.

Non structural wall coverings.

Flashing at termination of roof covering over common wall.

Townhouses separated by a common two-hour fire-resistive wall.

3.3.21.4 Sound transmission.

Wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units shall provide airborne sound insulation for walls and both airborne and impact sound insulation for floor-ceiling assemblies.

3.3.21.4.1 Airborne sound.

Airborne sound insulation for wall and floor-ceiling assemblies shall meet a Sound Transmission Class (STC) of 45 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 90.

3.3.21.4.2 Structural-borne sound.

Floor/ceiling assemblies between dwelling units or between a dwelling unit and a public or service area within a structure shall have an impact insulation class ( IIC ) rating of not less than 45 when tested in accordance with ASTM E492.

3.3.21.5 Rated penetrations.

Penetrations of wall or floor/ceiling assemblies are required to be fire resistant or should be protected in accordance with this section.

3.3.21.5.1

Through penetrations.

Through penetrations of fire resistance rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply with this section.

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes or steel conduits, the annular space shall be permitted to be protected as follows:

1 In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies where the penetrating items is a maximum of 150mm nominal diameter and the opening is a maximum of 90 000mm2, concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where installed in the full thickness of the wall or floor assemblies.

2 The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases at

the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the construction.

3.3.21.5.1.1 Fire resistance rated assembly.

Penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire resistance rated assembly.

3.3.21.5.1.2 Penetration fire-stop system.

Penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration fire-stop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E814, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.25mm of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire resistance rating of the wall or floor /ceiling assembly penetrated.

3.3.21.5.2 Membrane penetrations.

Where walls are required to have a minimum 1hour fire-resistance rating, recessed light fixtures shall be so installed such that the required fire resistance will not be reduced.

3.3.21.6 Non-rated penetrations.

Penetrations of horizontal assemblies without a required fire resistance rating shall comply with this section.

3.3.21.6.1 Non combustible penetrating items.

Non combustible penetrating items that connect not more than three stories are permitted provided that the annular space is filled with an approved non-combustible material or approved penetration fire-stop system.

3.3.21.6.2 Combustible penetrating items.

Combustible penetrating items that connect not more than two stories are permitted provided that the annular space is filled with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.

3.3.22

Moisture vapour retarders

3.3.22.1

Moisture control.

In all framed walls, floors and roof/ceilings comprising elements of the building thermal envelope, an approved vapour retarder having a maximum rating of 1.0 perm, when tested in accordance with ASTM E96-92, (Standard Test Methods for Water Vapour Transmission of Materials), shall be installed on the warm side of the insulation.

3.3.23

Protection against decay

3.3.23.1 Location required.

In areas subject to decay damage the following locations shall require the use of an approved species and grade of lumber, pressure preservatively treated, or decay-resistant.

See Table C1 Timber names for use in Trinidad & Tobago.

Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 450mm or wood girders when closer than 300mm to exposed ground in crawl spaces or un-excavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation.

All sills or plates, which rest on concrete or masonry exterior walls and are less than 200mm from exposed ground.

Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab, which is in direct contact with the ground unless, separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier.

The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than 15mm on tops, sides and ends.

Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior of a building have a clearance of less than 150mm from the ground.

Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs which are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.

Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapour retarder is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.

   

Normal

 

Recommended use

 

Resistant to

 

T n T local name

density

at 12%

Furniture

Flooring

External

Internal

Structure

Roofing

Decay

Termites

Comments

joinery

joinery

shingle

Local woods

                   
 

Angelia

0.80

           

x

   
 

Balata

1.05

 

x

x

     

x

 

beefwood

 

Bamboo

                 

scaffolding

 

Bois gris

0.95

       

x

 

X

 

resist to "Capricorn"

 

Boya mulatre or bois mulatre

0.80

               

fineleaf

 

Cajuca

0.48

                 
 

Caribbean pine

0.80

                 
 

Cedar

0.50

x

   

x

         
 

Crabwood or Crappo

0.70

 

x

 

x

x

x

     
 

Determa

0.62

   

-

x

x

 

X

 

Laurier

 

Fiddlewood (black)

0.80

                 
 

Fiddlewood (white)

0.72

                 
 

Galba or Santa Maria

0.64

                 
 

Gommier

0.56

                 
 

Guatecare

1.04

                 
 

Gumbo limbo

                 

see Gommier

 

Hog plum

0.48

                 
 

Lay lay

                   
 

Mahoe

0.56

                 
 

Mahoe or sterculia

0.60

     

x

x

     

maho cochon

 

Mahogany

                   
 

Mangrue (yellow) or Manni

0.70

x

x

x

x

x

 

x

   
 

Milkwood

0.56

                 
 

Mora or Muru

0.96

 

x

       

x

   
 

Nargusta or white oliver

0.80

 

x

x

x

x

       
 

Olivier mangue or Poirier

0.80

                 
 

Pink poui or apamate

0.56

                 
 

Podocarp or Wild pine

0.56

                 
 

Poui (black)

1.12

                 
 

Purple heart

0.88

                 
 

Redwood

               

X

 
 

Resclu or Water wood

   

x

             
 

Saman

0.56

                 
 

Sandbox

0.45

     

x

       

must be treated

 

Sardine

0.80

                 
 

Silk cotton tree

0.38

               

packaging

 

Simarouba

0.45

     

x

 

x

   

acajou blanc

 

Snakewood or Galia

1.15

               

art craft

 

Tabebuia white or Calabash

   

x