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LECTIA VIII

MODURILE NEPERSONALE
SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE
In limba engleza, modurile nepersonale sunt urmatoarele:
infnitivul, forma -ing (gerunziul si participiul prezent) si participiul
trecut.
Infnitivul poate avea aspect, diateza si timpuri.
Diateza activa
o infinitiv prezent simplu: to call
o infinitiv prezent continuu: to be calling
o infinitiv perfect simplu: to have called
o infinitiv perfect continuu: to have been calling
Diateza pasiva
o infinitiv prezent simplu: to be called
o infinitiv perfect: to have been called
Forma -ing. Att participiul prezent ct si gerunziul se formeaza prin adaugarea
terminatiei -ing la infinitivul verbelor (to call calling). Participiul prezent si
gerunziul pot avea timpuri si diateza.
Diateza activa
o nedefinit: calling
o perfect: having called
Diateza pasiva
o nedefinit: being called
o perfect: having been called
Participiul trecut se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ed la verbele regulate;
in cazul verbelor neregulate el reprezinta forma a !!!-a:
o to call called called
o to go went gone
Constructii cu infinitivul
". Acuzativ cu infinitiv
#onsta dintr-un verb urmat de un pronume sau substantiv in acuzativ $ un verb
la infinitiv.
%&. ! 'ant (ou to go no'.
()reau ca tu sa pleci acum.)
%&ista cteva tipuri de verbe care accepta acest tip de constructii:
a. Adverbe e&primnd dorinta sau vointa: to 'ant to 'ish to li*e to disli*e
to hate.
%&. !+d li*e him to come 'ith me.
(As vrea ca el sa vina cu mine.)
! 'ant ,ohn to do this.
()reau ca ,ohn sa faca aceasta.)
b. verbe e&primnd perceptia senzoriala: to see to hear to feel to 'atch.
Aceste verbe sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt (fara to).
%&. ! sa' him leave the room.
(--am vazut ca paraseste camera.parasind camera.)
c. verbe e&primnd un ordin o permisiune sau o cauzalitate: to ma*e to
cause to allo' to order. )erbele to make si to let sunt urmate de infinitivul
scurt (fara to).
%&. ! made him stud( %nglish.
(--am facut sa invete engleza.)
! let him go out and pla(.
(--am lasat sa iasa afara sa /oace fotbal.)
0e ordered the door to be loc*ed.
(%l a ordonat sa se incuie usa.)
d. verbe e&primnd perceptia mentala: to thin* to suppose to e&pect to
consider to understand to *no' to believe.
%&. ! consider him to be a good student.
(#onsider ca el este un bun student.)
! e&pected him to come in time.
(1-am asteptat ca el sa vina la timp.)
e. verbe declarative: to state to declare to admit.
%&. 0e admitted the ne's to be false.
(%l a recunoscut ca stirile erau false.)
2he( declared him to be the man of the (ear.
(%i l-au declarat a fi omul anului.)
f. cu anumite verbe urmate de prepozitii obligatorii: to rel( upon.on to count
upon.on .
%&. ! rel( on (ou to do this.
(1a bazez pe tine sa faci aceasta.)
". Nominativ cu infinitiv
#onsta dintr-un subiect in nominativ $ un verb la diateza pasiva sau activa $ un
verb la infinitiv.
a. folosit cu verbe la diateza pasiva: to see to hear to *no' to sa( to
believe to suppose to e&pect to ma*e to consider.
Ex. He is said to be a good writer.
(e spune ca el este un bun scriitor.)
unt situatii in care !ominativul cu Infnitivut exprima o
formulare pasiva a "cuzativului cu Infnitiv:
Ex. I made #im stud$ Englis#.
He was made to stud$ Englis#.
I consider #im to be a good student.
He is considered to be a good student.
He considered t#e news to be false.
%#e news was considered to be false.
%#e$ declared #im to be t#e man of t#e $ear.
He was declared to be t#e man of t#e $ear.
b. cu verbele: to happen to prove to turn out to seem to appear
o la diateza activa:
%&. 0e proved to be a good /ournalist.
(%l s-a dovedit a fi un bun /urnalist.)
! happened to meet him in the street.
(3-a intmplat sa-l intlnesc pe strada.)
!f ! happen to meet him ! 'ill tell him 'here (ou are.
(4aca se va intmpla sa-l intlnesc ii voi spune unde esti.)
Nota: Trebuie remarcat faptul ca epresia impersonala din limba
rom!na se int!mpla sa este" de obicei" tradusa cu o epresie
personala in limba engleza.
a. cu e&presiile: to be sure . li*el( . unli*el( . certain
%&. 3he is sure to come in time.
(% sigur ca ea va veni la timp.)
Nota: Din nou avem in limba engleza o epresie personala care se
traduce in rom!neste cu o epresie impersonala. Daca vrem sa
traducem epresia personala: #$a e sigura ca va veni la timp% o
redam in modul urmator: #&'e is sure t'e s'e will come in time%.
". For ( p'rase
#onsta din propozitia for $ un substantiv sau pronume in acuzativ $ un verb la
infinitiv.
%&. !t is eas( for me to do this.
(% usor sa fac asta.)
2his remains for him to decide.
(Aceasta ramne sa o decida el.)
!t is impossible for him to come.
(%ste imposibil ca el sa vina.)
!t is necessar( for me to go there.
(%ste necesar ca eu sa merg acolo.)
Nota: )ltimele doua propozitii se se pot reda in limba engleza si
cu a*utorul sub*onctivului.
%&. !t is impossible that ! (should) come.
!t is necessar( that ! (should) go there.
Constructii cu participiul prezent
". Acuzativ cu participiu
3e foloseste cu verbe e&primnd perceptie senzorial: to see to hear to
'atch to smell precum si cu verbele to find to leave.
%&. ! sa' him leaving
(--am vazut plecnd.)
! heard her singing.
(Am auzit-o cntnd.)
! left . found her cr(ing.
(Am lasat-o . gasit-o plngnd.)
!n cazul verbelor de perceptie aceasta constructie este asemanatoare cu
Acuzativul cu !nfinitiv. 4iferenta de sens intre cele doua constructii este
urmatoarea: folosirea acuzativului cu infinitiv pune accentul pe actiunea
propriu-zisa in timp ce acuzativul cu participiu arata actiunea in
desfasurare.
Astfel: + saw 'er leave s-ar putea traduce Am vazut-o ca pleaca sau Am
vazut-o plec!nd. !n timp ce + saw 'er leaving se poate traduce numai Am
vazut-o plec!nd.

5. Nominativ cu Participiu
%ste pasivul constructiei Acuzativ cu Participiu:
%&: 0e 'as seen leaving.
(%l a fost vazut plecnd.)
3he 'as heard singing.
(%a a fost auzita cntnd.)

6. Nominativul absolut
%ste o constructie participiala care are un subiect al ei propriu.
%&: 2he classes being over 'e 'ent home.
(7rele fiind terminate am mers acasa.)
8eather permitting 'e shall go to the beach.
(4aca vremea va permite vom merge la pla/a.)
Constructie cu participiul trecut
Este formata din verbul to have sau to get & un complement &
participiul trecut.
Ex: I must #ave'get mz s#oes repaired.
(%rebuie sa(mi dau pantofi la reparat.)
I will #ave m$ #air done.
()oi merge sa ma coafez.)
"ceasta constructie arata ca actiunea este facuta de catre
altcineva spre avantajul sau la ordinul persoanei reprezentate de
subiect.
Este de asemenea sa apara situatii in care actiunea exprimata
de participiul trecut este facuta de altcineva in detrimentul
persoanei exprimate de subiect.
Ex. #e #ad two sons *illed in t#e war.
I(au fost ucisi doi fi in razboi.
I #ad m$ bedroom window bro*en.
+ineva mi(a spart geamul din dormitor.
Exercitii cu constructiile er!ale
1. Traduceti in limba engleza folosind constructia
Acuzativ cu Infnitiv sau Acuzativ cu Participiu:
". 1-am asteptat sa vii mai devreme.
5. %l voia ca eu sa-l a/ut.
6. %a m-a facut sa inteleg ce se intmplase.
9. #red ca el e un sot bun.
:. Am auzit-o certndu-si copilul.
;. ,ohn a recunoscut ca vina era a lui.
<. 1a bazez pe tine sa-mi imprumuti niste bani.
=. !-am privit /ucnd fotbal.
>. --am vazut vorbind cu prietena lui.
"?. 1ama ar vrea ca eu sa devin doctor.
"". !nteleg ca ea e o profesoara foarte buna.
"5. 3tiam ca el e un om foarte ocupat.
"6. Am vazut ctiva copii /ucndu-se in parc.
"9. Presupuneam ca el stie sa conduca masina.
":. %l m-a facut sa pierd trenul.
2. Reformulati urmatoarele propozitii folosind constructia for-phrase":
Model:
%#is translation is eas$. I cam ma*e it.
%#is translation is eas$ for me to ma*e.
". 2his problem is too difficult. ! can+t solve it.
5. 2his is a good boo*. @ou should read it.
6. 2his fact is important. @ou should bear it in mind.
9. 2his is a valuable piece of advice. @ou should ta*e it.
:. 2he time has come. 8e should have a heart to heart tal*.
;. 2he people 'ere impatient. 2he match 'as about to begin.
<. ! have closed the 'indo'. ! don+t 'ant (ou to catch a cold.
=. 2his is the main thing. 8e should do it no'.
>. ! ordered a ta&i. ! didn+t 'ant her to miss the train.
"?. 2his is a strange thing. ! can+t believe she said that.
3. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia
for-phrase":
Model:
It is important t#at I s#ould *now t#e trut#.
It is important to *now t#e trut#.
". !t is necessar( that he be present.
5. !t is recommendable that (ou should read this boo*.
6. !t+s time 'e met again.
9. !t+s time (ou started learning foreign languages.
:. !t is possible that the plane might be dela(ed.
;. !t is impossible that he should have said that.
<. !t is possible that ! might bu( a car.
=. !t is advisable that (ou should resign.
>. !t is important that (ou should come to the office at once.
"?. !t is necessar( that (ou should stud( the matter seriousl(.
4. Reformulati urmatoarele fraze cu modul subjonctiv folosind constructia
Nominativ cu nfinitiv. !olositi drept subiect pronumele subliniate:
Model:
Her parents t#oug#t she was a gifted c#ild.
#e was t#oug#t to be a gifted c#ild.
". !t is e&pected that 'e 'ill arrive at 5 o+cloc*.
5. 2he( heard 'im repeat it several times.
6. !t seemed that s'e 'as satisfied 'ith me.
9. %ver(bod(. %&pected that 'e 'ould resign.
:. !t 'as proved that s'e 'as a liar.
;. 2he( said s'e 'as ill.
<. People believed 'e 'as a brilliant surgeon.
=. ! thought s'e 'as unable to 'in the contest.
>. !t is sure t'e, have had an argument.
"?. !t happened that s'e made three spelling mista*es in her letter.
". #receti la pasiv urmatoarele constructii $cuzativ cu %articipiu&
transform'ndu-le in Nominativ cu %articipiu:
Model:
I #eard t#e dog bar*ing.
%#e dog was #eard bar*ing.
l. I saw t#e plane landing.
,. #e #eard t#e bab$ cr$ing.
-. I found t#e bo$ brea*ing t#e window.
.. I could #ear #er t$ping.
/. I saw #er l$ing on t#e beac#.
0. I saw #er fainting.
1. I saw t#e peasants wor*ing in t#e feld.
2. I #eard t#e c#ild brea*ing t#e vase.
3. I found #er digging in t#e garden.
45. #e #eard t#e #unters s#ooting.
6. Traduceti in limba romna urmatoarele propozitii cu
constructia Nominativul absolut:
4. 6eat#er permitting, we s#all climb to t#e top of t#e
mountain.
,. %#e rain #aving stopped, I went s#opping.
-. %#e concert being over, t#e audience left t#e #ali.
.. %#e plane #aving ta*en o7, I stopped smo*ing.
/. %#e decision being ta*en in m$ favour, I went #ome relaxed.
0. %#e river #aving risen in t#e nig#t, we were seared about
#aving 8oods.
1. Ever$bod$ being at #ome, we sat down to dinner.
2. %#e mud #aving ruined m$ s#oes, I #ad to c#ange t#em.
3. %#e letter being written, I went to post it.
45. %#e sun #aving risen, we #urried to t#e beac#.