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Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

NATO si razboiul din Irak

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

SCURTA ISTORIE A N.A.T.O.


nurmacelui de-al 2 WM, Europa Rsritean a fostdivizat de ceaOccidental din cauzaabordrilorideologiceipoliticediferite, specificerzboiuluirece. Europa Rsriteanaajuns sub dominaiaUniuniiSovietice. n 1949, 12 state de peambelemaluri ale Atlanticului au format OrganizaiaAtlanticului de Nord, pentru a combaterisculca URSS s-iextindcontrolulEuropei de Estiasupraaltorpri ale continentului. OrganizaiaAtlanticului de Nord este o alian politico-militarstabilitn 1949 prinTratatulAtlanticului de Nord semnat la Washington pe 4 aprilie 1949. NATO ncorporeazlegturatransatlantic, ceunete Europa i America de Nord. Obiectivul central icontinuu al NATO, stabilitprintratatul de la Washington, esteacela de a salvgardalibertateaisecuritateatuturormembrilorsi, fcnduz de mijloacepoliticeimilitare. ntre 1947 i 1952, Planul Marshall aoferitmijloacele de stabilizare ale economiilorEuropeiOccidentale. Rolul NATO de alianpoliticimilitar a fost de a asiguraaprareacolectivmpotrivaoricreiforme de agresiunei de a menineunmediu de securitatesigurpentruconsolidareademocraieiicreetereeconomic. ncuvintelepreedintelui SUA de atunci, Harry S. Truman, Planul Marshall i NATO erau doujumti ale aceluiaifruct. Membriifondatoriai NATOBelgia, Canada, Danemarca, Fr, Islanda, It, Luxemburg, Olanda, Norvegia, Portugalia, UK i SUA- s-au angajatsintervinnaprareafiecruia, neventualitateauneiagresiunimilitare. PrinconectareaAmericii de N la aprareaEuOccidentale, Aliana a demonstratcoricetentativcoercitivpoliticsaumilitar la adresaEuropeiOccidentalear fi sortiteecului.PrezenaforelorAmericii de N peteritoriuleuropean, la solicitareaguverneloreuropene, a contribuit la descurajareaUniuniiSovietice de a-iimaginac o eventualagresiunearputeareui. Mai multdectatt, ntimp, maimulte state au devenitaliai. n 1952, GreciaiTurcia s-au alturatAlianei, urmate, 3 animaitrziu de RepublicaFederalGermanin 1982, de Spania. PrinintermediulAlianei, EuOccidentali America de N nudoarci-au apratreciprocindependenadar au iatinsunnivel de stabilitatefr precedent. ntra-adevrsecuritateaasigurat de NATO a fostdeschisca oxigen de prosperitate, care a pus bazelecooperriiiintergrriieconomiceeuropene. La nceputulanilor 90 aceasta a contribuit la terminareaRzboiuluireceiodat cu ea la sfrituldivizriiEuropei.

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

TARILE MEMBRE NATO


Aliana s-a format din state independente,interesatenmentinereapaciisiaparareaproprieiindependeneprinsolidaritatepoliticiprintr-o formilitardefensivcorespunztoare, capabilsdescurajezei, dacar fi necesar, sraspundtuturorformelorprobabile de agresiunendreptatmpotrivaeisau a statelormembre. Iniial, aceste state au fost: Belgia, Canada, Danemarca,Frana, Islanda, Italia, Luxemburg, Marea Britanie, Norvegia, Portugalia, Olanda si SUA. La 18 februarie 1952, au aderat la tratat Grecia si Turcia, iar la 6 mai 1955, RFG a devenitmembra NATO. GreciaiTurcia s-au alturatalianeinfebruarie 1952. Germania aaderatca Germania de Vest n 1955, iarunificareagerman din 1990 a extinsparticipareaGermaniei cu regiunile Germaniei de Est. Spania a fostadmis la 30 mai 1982, iarfostelerisemnatare ale Pactului de la Varovia au aderat fie la 12 martie 1999 (Polonia, UngariaiCehia), iarnanul 2004 (Romnia, Slovenia, Slovacia, Estonia, Letonia, Lituaniai Bulgaria). La 1 aprilie 2009 au aderat la NATO Albania iCroaia.

PREVEDERILE TRATATULUI ATLANTICULUI DE NORD


De departe cel mai important articol al tratatului este Articolul 5 care prevede:
Partile convin ca un atac armat impotriva uneia sau a mai multora dintre ele in Europa sau in America de Nord va fi considerat ca un atac impotriva tuturor si, in consecinta, daca se va produce un asemenea atac armat, fiecare dintre ele, exercitand dreptul sau individual sau colectiv la autoaparare, recunoscut de articolul 51 al Cartei Natiunilor Unite, va da asistenta Partii sau Partilor atacate, prin luarea in consecinta, individual si concertat cu celelalte parti, a acelor masuri ce vor fi considerate necesare, inclusiv folosirea fortei armate, pentru a restaura si a mentine securitatea zonei Nord-Atlantice.

ARTICOLUL 6 n scopul aplicarii Articolului 5, un atac armat asupra uneia sau mai multora Dintre Pri se consider c include un atac armat: peteritoriuloricreiPrin Europa sau America de Nord, nDepartamentele algeriene ale Franei2, peteritoriulTurcieisaupeinsuleleaflate sub jurisdicia

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

oricreiPri din zonanord-atlantic, la nord de TropiculCancerului; asupraforelorterestre, navalesauaeriene ale oricreiPri, care se aflpe saudeasupraacestorteritorii, saunoricarezon a Europein care forele de ocupaie ale uneiadintrePrieraustaionate la data intrriinvigoare a acestui Tratat, saupeMareaMediteranorinzonanord-atlanticaflat la nord de TropiculCancerului.

TIPURI DE INTERVENITII NATO


-MISIUNI CONFORME ARTICOLULUI 5 Articolul 5 a fostpentru prima data invocate in cadrul NATO dupaatentatul de la 11 septembrie 2001, moment dupa care ainceputrazboiul din Afganistan. -MISIUNI NON-ARTCOLULUI 5 -MISIUNI IN AFARA ZONEI NATO -MISIUNI DE MENTINERE A PACII NATO a avutmisiuni de restabiliresimentinere a paciipeteritorulfosteiRepubliciIugoslave, misiunicare au purtatnumele IFOR(Implementation Force), SFOR(Stabilization Force) desfasurate in Bosnia siHertegovina), KFOR(Kosovo Force) -MISIUNI PRIVIND NOILE AMENINTARI -MISIUNI PRIVIND ARMELE DE DISTRUGERE IN MASA -MISIUNI PRIVIND TERORISMUL INTERNATIONAL Ultimeletreitipuri de misiuni au fsot invocate de SUA pentruataculIrakului, insacelelaltetarimembre NATOnu au consideratcafiindpertinentedovezileaduse. -MISIUNI DE ANTRENAMENT NATO a intreprinsastfel de actiuni in IrakdupainlaturareadictatoruluiSadamHusein, antrenandfortele de securitate ale tariisafaca fata situatie de tranzitie. Miasiunea a purtatnumele de NTM-I(Nato Training Mision-Irak)

Premiselerazboiului din irak


Motivele rzboiului
Discuiile despre motivele i implicaiile rzboiului au nceput deja nainte de izbucnirea conflictului. SUA nu a motivat oficial nceperea rzboiului, dar se refer la ea n general n cadrulrzboiului contra terorismului. Cu toate c oficial nu exist un "casus belli", nainte de rzboi ca motiv principal al

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak


atacului erau indicate armele de distrugere n mas ale lui Saddam Hussein, deoarece conducerea irakian nu permitea accesul liber comitetului internaional de control, comitet care ar fi verificat existena sau lipsa acestor arme. Dup invazie - deoarece nu s-au gsit arme de distrugere n mas - au fost aduse ca raiuni pentru rzboi motive mai puin palpabile cum ar fi de exemplu libertatea, instaurarea democraiei, respectiv eliberarea poporului irakian. Aceste motive sunt la fel de false deoarece pe glob exist alte state n care situaia este la fel de grav, nu exist libertate i democraie, dar acestea nu au resurse naturale ca Irakul.

Invazia
La 20 martie 2003 a nceput invazia coaliiei n Irak, care viola flagrant Dreptul Internaional i care nu dispunea de aprobare din partea Consiliului de Securitate al Naiunilor Unite. Numele operaiei a fost Operation Iraqi Freedom: Operaiunea Pentru Libertatea Irakului. Trebuie menionat ns c din peste 200 de rzboaie declanate i purtate de la nfiinarea acestui for internaional (O.N.U.) pn astzi, doar vreo 2 au fost purtate la instigarea i cu aprobarea acestuia, restul, care reprezint covritoarea majoritate, fiind purtate fr nici un fel de aprobare a forurilor internaionale, fapt care desigur, n-a deranjat deloc franja antiamerican a diplomaiei internaionale, care se grbete ns s critice din perspectiva dreptului internaional actuala intervenie american, dei acest drept internaional nu a fost aplicat, cum ne arat observaia de mai sus, aproape niciodat n materie de rzboi, rzboi care este o chestiune vital a unei entiti statale, drept pentru care toate statele lumii prefer s-i rezerve dreptul suveran de decizie.

Asistena pentru Irak NATO are un interes strategic vital pentru un Irak stabil i a acordat sprijin guvernului irakian, prin intermediul Misiunii de Instruire a NATO din Irak (NTM-I), ncepnd din 2004. NATO i Irakul au convenit de asemenea s coopereze pe termen lung i au formalizat aceast decizie prin aprobarea propunerilor privind un Cadru Structurat de Cooperare. NATO ajut Irakul s-i asigure propria securitate, prin intermediul instruirii personalului militar irakian n Irak sau n afara rii, sprijinului acordat pentru dezvoltarea instituiilor de securitate ale rii, coordonrii furnizrii echipamentului donat de diferite ri membre NATO i, n general, prin intermediul sprijinului acordat reformei aprrii din Irak. Cooperarea cu Irakul se desfoar pe baza Rezoluiei 1546 a Consiliului de Securitate al ONU, care solicit sprijinul organizaiilor internaionale i regionale n vederea aducerii unei contribuii la satisfacerea nevoilor de securitate i stabilitate ale poporului irakian, precum

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak


i a cererilor primite ulterior din partea guvernului irakian.

OPERATION IRAQ FREEDOM RAZBOIUL DIN IRAK A CONSTAT IN 2 ETAPE PRINCIPALE: PRIMA ETAPA O CONSTITUIE INVAZIA IRAKULUI DE CATRE STATELE MEMBRE ALE COALITIE CARE A FOST DECLANSATA PE 20.03.2003 SI CARE S-A SFARSIT IN SEPTEMBRIE 2003. CEA DE A DOUA ETAPA A INCEPUT IN SEPTEMBRIE 2003 SI A LUAT SFARSIT IN 18 decembrie 2011 candultimiisoldatiamericani s-au retras din irak. Fortelemilitare implicate in razboiul din irakpurtaudenumirea de MNFI(Multinational Force Irak) sieraualcatuite din soldatii a 40 de state. NATO TRAINING MISSION

Inceputa in 2004 la cerereaguvernuluiinterimar al irakului, NATO TRAINING MISSION a reusitsacreascasecuritatea in taraprinconstruireacapacitatilormilitsre ale irakului. Datoritasuccesului in antrenareasisprijinireadezvoltariifortelor de securitattea ale irakuluicare sunt in momentul de fata la conducerea complete a securitatii interne. Guvernulirakianconsideraaceastamisiuneauna de success sis iau exprimatdorita de a continua.

Locations NTM-I operates in four different areas in theatre:

The NTM-I Headquarters (HQ) resides within the Union III Forward Operating Base in the International Zone. NATO staff travel to different ISF locations within the IZ to provide training, advising and mentoring.

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

The NTM-I Forward base at ArRustamiyah, some 15 kms south east of Baghdad, supports the Iraqi Military Academy and the Joint Staff College, as well as the Base Defence Battalion that maintains security at ArRustamiyah. NTM-I also operates at the Taji Air Base, some 30 kms north west of Baghdad, which supports the training of the Iraqi Senior Non-Commissioned Officer courses and the Battle Staff Training. The fourth location is Camp Dublin, located south of Baghdad International Airport. This is where the Italian Carabinieri Training Unit carries out the training of the Iraqi Federal Police.

NATO's assistance to Iraq In accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1546, the NATO Training Mission Iraq (NTM-I) was set up in 2004 shortly after the Istanbul Summit at the request of the Iraqi Interim Government to provide training, assistance, and equipment to the Iraqi Security Forces. NTM-I is not a combat mission, its goal is to help Iraq develop a democratically led and enduring security sector that addresses the needs of the population. The Mission influences professional institutions of the Iraqi Security Forces to build enduring, sustainable capabilities, working directly with partners in the Iraqi Ministries of Defense and Interior to build capabilities that provide internal security and build a foundation to defend against external threats. By providing mentoring, advice and instruction support through in and out of country training, NTM-I has made a tangible contribution to the rebuilding of military leadership in Iraq and the development of the Iraqi Ministry of Defence and the Iraqi Security Forces.

In 2007, NATO allies extended their training assistance to Iraq to include gendarmerie-type training of the Iraqi Federal Police in order to bridge the gap between routine police work and military operations. In total, NTM-I has trained nearly 9,000 Iraqi Federal police, 2500 Iraqi officers, 200 SNCOs and sent over 1800 members of Iraq's Security Forces on out-of-country training courses since the beginning of the mission in 2004.

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

NTM-I delivers its training, advice and mentoring support in a number of different settings. Twenty-three NATO member countries and one partner country have contributed to the training effort in or outside Iraq, through financial contributions or donations of equipment, since the mission began in 2004.

Activity

NTM-I delivers its training, advice and mentoring support along three main lines of activity: 1 Support to the Iraqi Command and Control structure. 2 The professionalization of Iraqi Armed Forces Officers training and education and the professional development at the Non-Commissioned Officer Academy both within Iraq and abroad. 3 Professionalization of the Iraqi Police through the Carabinieri-led training NATO Training MissionIraq Announces Successful Mission Conclusion Baghdad, Iraq The NATO Training Mission in Iraq, which started in 2004 at the request of the Iraqi authorities,will be completing its successful mission and cease operations by the end of 2011.

"Our trainers, mentors and adviserscanbe very proud of what they have achieved over the last seven years. The expertise the NATO mentors have shared with their Iraqi partners has laid the foundation for future cooperation, said the Commander of NATO Training Mission Iraq, Lieutenant-General Robert Caslen.

Since 2004, NTM-I has trained thousands of military and police personnel, helped to design advanced security courses and mentored many of the senior leadership within Iraqi security institutions. "With just over 100 NATO

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

personnel in the mission at any one time, the contribution has had a positive effect on the Iraqi military and police as they continue to grow and mature, added the Commander.

The completion of the training mission does not mean the end of NATO's relationship with Iraq. Both NATO and Iraq are committed to continuing a strategic partnership. Together, proposals and procedures will be developed to strengthen the Structured Cooperative Framework through NATO's Individual Partnership and Cooperation Program. Primary NATO Contributions

United States The US provided 60 instructors and a protection company in addition to airlift support and logistics.[3] Italy At July 2010, the Italian Army has deployed 90 soldiers to Iraq under NTM-I: a Major General, Deputy Commander of the mission; a senior officer, Advisor of the Iraqi Minister of Defense, in an advisory capacity for training and liaison with the NTM-I HQ; a senior officer, an adviser to Iraq's top military university (National Defense University), which coordinates, along with his staff, the training-instructional and doctrinal development within training institutes for officers at the "National Defence College" and "Joint Staff and Command College"; a senior officer of the Carabinieri, head of the "Gendarmerie Training Division", with a team of about 60 Carabinieri, carries out training of VET; unit of the Carabinieri providing training of Iraqi police at Camp Dublin, trainer of NTM-I area near Baghdad International Airport. Additionally, a senior officer of the Italian Navy serves as the Advisor of the Commander of Naval Forces in Iraq.[4] Denmark A contingent of Danish troops has been deployed to train Iraqi forces under NTM-I[5], numbering 10 trainers and seven soldiers for force protection as of September 2007.[3] Netherlands There are 10 military police and 15 trainers in Iraq as of September 2007[6]

United Kingdom The UK has deployed 11 soldiers to Iraq under NTM-I.[3] Turkey As of September 2007, 2 Turkish soldiers were serving in Baghdad.[3]

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak

Romania As of September 2007, there were 2 instructors in Iraq, while the deployment of 5 more was a possibility.[3] Lithuania As of September 2007, there were 3 Lithuanian trainers in Iraq.[3]

Estonia Three officers as of October 2008.[7]

Poland There is one officer to serving under NTM-I as of September, 2008 Bulgaria In October 2006, the Bulgarian government sent 4 officers.[8]

Albania

Czech Republic Four soldiers serving under NTM-I as of December, 2008[9] Iceland A 'public information officer' was withdrawn in September 2007.[3] Slovakia 5 instructors were withdrawn in April 2007.[3] Slovenia Sent 4 trainers to Iraq in 2006, these men have since been withdrawn.[3] Norway 10 trainers were withdrawn in September 2007.[3] Hungary There were 3 Hungarian soldiers serving under NTM-I as of November, 2008.[

Other NATO Contributions


Germany, Japan, United Arab Emirates Jointly conducted a training programme for Iraqi police officers in the UAE from December 2003. Germany also trained Iraqi logistics troops in a separate UAE-based mission as of December 2004. Belgium offered 10 instructors to the latter programme.[3] Canada, France Separately offered to conduct training outside Iraq; the former did not specify where, while the latter suggested Qatar[3]. Hungary Donated second-hand tanks to the Iraqi Army.[3] Poland, Bulgaria, Spain, Norway, Germany Each hosted domestic training programmes for Iraqi security forces. Latvia, Lithuania and Turkey offered to host similar programmes. Canada, Germany, cash to a mission trust fund. Spain, United States Each contributed over $500,000 in

Non-NATO Contributions
Jordan Although not a NATO member, Jordan's contribution was by far the most extensive, having graduated 50,000 Iraqi police officers by February 2007, plus smaller numbers of Iraqi Army soldiers and Air Force personnel.[3] Jordan has also donated substantial numbers of tanks. Egypt Invited an Iraqi Army company to participate in joint military training in 2004.[3]

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak


Ukraine There are 8 officers supporting the NTM-I mission as February 7, 2008.[10]

Participarearomaniei la razboiul din irak Asistenaoferit de Romnianprocesul de stabilizareireconstrucieaIrakului

a) Participarea la ForaMultinaional (MNF-I) Romnia a participat la MNF-I pn la data de 31 iulie 2009.Militariiromni au participatatt la executarea de misiuni de stabilizareireconstrucie, cti la activiti de instruire a militarilorirakieni.Trupeleromneti au participatncadrulBatalionului de infanterie, Compania de poliiemilitariDetaamentul de geniu, dislocate la Al Hillah, NasiriahiBabilon. Nr maxim de soldati-730(400 infanterie, 100 politiemilitara, 100 genisti, 50 ofiteri de informatii, 30 medici). In 2008 romaniasi-a reduscontingentul la 500 ,iar la inceputullui 2009 la 350. Pierderi: 3 morti, 8 raniti

b) NATO Training Mission in Iraq (NTM-I) Dup 31 iulie 2009, Romniamenineprezenamilitarromneascnprogramul NATO Training Mission in Iraq (NTM-I).ContribuiaRomniei la NTM-I se desfoarnbazaMoUsemnat la 26 ianuarie 2009. 3 INSTRUCTORI, DONATII DE ARME USOARE SI MUNITIE, 60.OOO EURO DONATIE LA FONDUL VOLUNTAR DE ASISTENTA NTM-I

Concluzie:
Motivul declarat al declanrii conflictului din Golf mpotriva Irakului a fost acuzaia c regimul lui Saddam Hussein ar deine arme de distrugere n mas i este, din aceast cauz, un pericol pentru pacea mondial. Saddam Hussein e mort. Rzboiul mpotriva lui s-a ncheiat demult. i pentru c, dup invazia american din 2003, nu au fost gsite niciun fel de arme de distrugere n mas,

Academia de Studii Economice Bucuresti Nato si razboiul din Irak motivaia iniial s-a transformat ntr-o serie de raiuni politice cum ar fi eliberarea poporului irakian i instaurarea democraiei n Irak. Dilema rmne: care sunt criteriile dup care se stabilete dac un stat poate fi democratizat cu fora prin campanii militare de amploare i cine ia decizia final a declanrii rzboiului?

Bibliografie.

www.Nato.mae.ro www.nato.int. http://www.jfcnaples.nato.int http://www.cssp.ro/state/irak/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-National_Force_%E2%80%93_Iraq

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO_Training_Mission_%E2%80%93_Iraq