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Departamentul de nvmnt la
Distan i Formare Continu
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Facultatea de tiinte Juridice, Sociale i
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Politice
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Coordonator de disciplin:
Asist. univ. Enache Mihaela Cerasela

2008-2009

Avizat Decan

Avizat Sef Departament

UVT
LIMBA ENGLEZA

Suport de curs nvmnt la distan

SEMNIFICAIA PICTOGRAMELOR

= INFORMAII DE REFERIN/CUVINTE CHEIE

= TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE

= BIBLIOGRAFIE

= TEM DE REFLECIE

= TIMPUL NECESAR PENTRU STUDIUL UNUI CAPITOL SAU


SECIUNE

Tematica cursului
anul I semestrul I
1. Lesson one Introducing oneself
(conversation)
2.
Lesson
two(conversation)

Getting

around

3.Lesson three - Nationalities-Countries


(conversation)
4.Lesson four
programme

students

5. Lesson five The family

daily

Cuvnt nainte n condiiile civilizaiei actuale, cnd comunicarea larg


ntre oameni i popoare a devenit o realitate obinuit, cunoaterea unei
limbi de circulaie internaional este o necesitate. Dac n Evul Mediu
limba latin a fost pentru europeni limba comun a culturii i tiinei, astzi,
n epoca ordinatoarelor, a zborurilor cosmice, a transformrilor urbane
spectaculoase i a dezvoltrii fr precedent a schimburilor internaionale,
toi cetenii lumii nva limba englez pentru a se nelege ntre ei. Engleza
este astzi limba tiinei, a tehnicii, a comerului. Lumea tiinific i
intelectual folosete poate cel mai mult aceast limb, puini fiind oamenii
de tiin i cercettorii care s nu o cunoasc i s nu i redacteze lucrrile
direct n englez. Ilustrrile de mai sus nu epuizeaz nici pe departe lista
posibil. S ne referim acum la oamenii simpli i mai puini simpli. Cine nu
a trecut prin momentul penibil cnd nu putem nfiripa o conversaie cu un
strin, cnd suntem redui la gesturi, mimic sau interjecii? Unele persoane
sunt dispuse s remedieze carena prin studiu, sistematic chiar. Altele, se
izoleaz sub imperiul fricii ndrtul unor pori zvorte i cred c limba
englez este inaccesibil lor, dup cum studierea ei (chiar la nivel elementar)
li se pare un efort inutil sau, oricum prea mare. Unul din scopurile acestui
curs este s demonstreze c inaccesibilitatea e o prejudecat, iar efortul
merit s fie ntreprins pn i de ctre cei din fire lenevoi. n nvarea
limbii engleze la un nivel mediu de cunotiine se ajunge fr dificultate i
sperm c acest curs conceput pentru studenii de la forma de nvmnt la
distan, va demonstra c necesitatea cunoaterii limbii engleze se poate
satisface de ctre oricine, uor i cu plcere. Acest curs practic a fost
conceput n aa fel nct, n cei doi ani de studiu ai limbii engleze, s ajute la
consolidarea cunotiinelor acumulate pn aici, precum i la nsuirea de
noi elemente specifice specializrii studiate. Mult

Succes!

Cuprins
nsuirea unui limbaj de specialitate nu se poate face fr a avea o baz
solid, de aceea primul an de studiu universitar al limbii engleze conine n
principal elemente practice i applicative la ndemna acelora care doresc si nsueasc, s consolideze i s foloseasc un limbaj minim de limba
englez. Cele zece lecii care alctuiesc capitolul cuprind teme axate pe
principalele aspecte ale vieii cotidiene de munc, sociale, culturale
avnd drept scop s formeze deprinderi de limb necesare nsuirii ulterioare
a limbajului legat de problematica de specialitate. Fiecare lecie cuprinde un
text nsoit de o tem gramatical prezentat sugestiv i concis prin
structuri, scheme i tabele. Schemele gramaticale prezint probleme de
gramatic i construcii pentru a cror nelegere i mai ales folosire,
studenii ntmpin dificulti. Expunerea gramatical este urmat de diferite
tipuri de exerciii lexicale i gramaticale menite s formeze deprinderi de
limb la cei ce studiaz limba englez.

Obiective operaionale: dup parcurgerea acestui an de studiu studenii


vor putea s:

se prezinte i s fac cunotiin cu alte persoane vorbitoare de


limba englez

poarte o conversaie simpl, referitoare la locul natal, meserie,


i s cear indicaii pentru a ajunge n locul dorit;

vorbeasc despre programul su zilnic, despre vreme i mesele


principale;

poat s se descurce n diferite situaii cum ar fi la bibliotec i


la diferite ntlniri publice;

completeze un curriculum vitae;

recunoasc, s diferenieze i s foloseasc n aplicaii practice


timpuri verbale precum prezentul simplu i continuu, prezentul perfect
simplu i continuu, mai mult ca perfectul simplu i continuu;

capete deprinderi pentru traduceri din i n limba englez.

=2h

LESSON ONE
CONVERSATION
INTRODUCING ONESELF
(PREZENTARI)

F
FORMAL
J.D.: Excuse me. Who are you?
S.R.: Im Sandra Reynolds. Im your English teacher, and who are you?
J.D.: How do you do. My names Jane David. Im a student.
K.S.: And my name is Ken Smith. Im a student, too.
S.R.: How do you do. (Im) glad to meet you. (Its) nice to meet you.
J.D.: Its nice to meet you, too. Greetings.
S.R.: Good morning. (Good afternoon; Good evening).
J.D.: Good evening. How are you?
S.R.: Im fine thank you. And how are you?
J.D.: Very well, thank you./ Rather unwell.
S.R.: Good bye. See you later.
J.D.: Good night. See you tomorrow.
Atenie! Nu se spune niciodat Good day, nici la ntlnire nici la desprire. n engleza
modern este o form de expediere a interlocutorului, ceva de felul Poi pleca.

F
VERY FORMAL
J.D.: Good morning, Professor Reynolds. Let me introduce myself. My names
Jane David. Im your new student.
S.R.: How do you do. Welcome to our courses. My names Sandra Reynolds.
J.D.: How do you do. Im pleased to meet you, Professor Reynolds.
S.R.: Im your English Professor. What are you studying this term?
J.D.: Im studying English language this term and English literature next term.

S.R.: Till tomorrow then.


J.D.: Its been nice knowing you. Good bye for now.
INFORMAL
J.D.: Hi, Im Jane. Im a new student. Who are you?
K.S.: Hi, Im Ken. Im a new student, too. Glad to know you. Where are you
from?
J.D.: Im from Canada. Are you from Canada, too?
K.S.: No, Im not. Im from Scotland.
J.D.: Oh, how nice! K.S.: See you soon.
J.D.: Bye-bye for now.
I. EXPLANATORY NOTES
1. Name = First name = Christian name = Given name: Jane, Jennifer, Robert, Mary,
Kenneth, Sandra etc.
Surname = Family name = Last name: Reynolds, David, Bush, Smith, MacDonald,
OCasey, Roberts etc.
2. How Do We Address People?
There are different ways of addressing people and of speaking:
Informal or friendly between friends, teenagers, young people (classmates),
businessmen;
Formal between acquaintances and also for older people or people in higher jobs.
Very formal for people we want to show respect to.
How do we address unknown people?
Excuse me, sir (madam, officer/constable etc.)
Ladies and gentlemen (when addressing an audience).
How about people we know?
Hi, Ted / Hi, Betty (more used for young people).
Hello, Fred / Hello, Barney (it is slightly more formal).

We can greet acquaintances or people we know whether they are older or in higher jobs
with hello, or good morning / afternoon / evening. At a very formal level, respect
may be shown by adding their name: Hello, Mr. Smith (for gentlemen), Hello, Mrs.
Reynolds (for married ladies), Hello, Miss David (for unmarried ladies), or Hello,
Mes Green (for ladies, when their marital status is not important). If the persons have
titles, they are used in calling them: Professor Hill, Dr. Brown, Dean Roberts (only
one title - the highest is used together with the surname). For very high ranks we can
use: Your Excellency, Your Highness, Your Sanctity.
II. GRAMMAR
1.PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronume personale)
Desemneaz persoanele ce pot aprea ntr-un dialog (vorbitorul, interlocutorul)
sau nlocuiete obiectul despre care se vorbete.

Singular

Plural

Person
1st person
2nd person
3rd person

Nominative
I
you
he, she, it

1st person
2nd person
3rd person

we
you
they

Dative
(to) me
(to) you
(to) him (to)
her (to) it
(to) us
(to) you
(to) them

Accusative
me
you
him, her, it
us
you
them

2. Verb TO BE present tense link verb (verb de legtur)


Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I am
You are
He, she, it is
We are
You are
They are

Am I?
Are you?
Is he, she, it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?

I am not
You are not
He, she, it is not
We are not
You are not
They are not

n engleza vorbit este mai folosit forma contras:


Im a teacher. / Im not a teacher.
Youre a student. / Youre not a student.
Hes a policeman. / Hes not a policeman.
Shes an air hostess. / Shes not an air hostess.

InterrogativeNegative
Am I not?
Are you not?
Is he,she,it not?
Are we not?
Are you not?
Are they not?

Its an animal. / Its not an animal.


Were workers./ Were not workers.
Youre engineers. / Youre not engineers.
Theyre taxi drivers. / Theyre not taxi drivers.
Verbul TO BE ca verb de legtur (link verb) se folosete: cu un substantiv (la singular,
ntotdeauna precedat de articolul nedefinit a sau an) I am a mother; cu un
adjectiv, He is tired sau cu adverb de loc, He is in the room / He is there.
EXERCISES

I. Substitute the nouns in the following sentences by the personal pronouns in


the correct case.
Model: I like this book. I like it.
1. I am very pleased with this test paper. 2. John arrives at the faculty early. 3. I
always give George good books to read. 4. Three students are talking about the
exam. 5. The assistant-lecturer is asking Henry a question. 6. The professor is
lending the student a book. 7. Students are very attentive during seminars. 8. I see
my coleague going to the library. 9. Give mother a glass of water, please. 10.
Read the lesson, please. 11. Lets go and see grandmother. 12. I want to give my
grandparents a present. 13. Ill thank father tomorrow. 14. Look at Tom and me!
15. I cant see your friends. 16. Give the cat some milk.
II. Fill in the blanks using the personal pronouns in brackets in the correct
case:
1. This is a book for ... (he). 2. John always buys text-books for ... (they). 3. I
never speak to ... (she) during lectures. 4. I am putting ... (it) on the shelf. 5. Every
day, I see ... (you) in the classroom. 6. I pay attention to ... (it). 7. I tell ... (she) not
to be late. 8. She requests ... (they) to take part in the scientific session.

=3h
LESSON TWO
CONVERSATION GETTING AROUND

F
1. (British version)
Liz: Hi, Jenny, How are you?
Jenny: Rather unwell this morning. And you?
Liz: Oh, Im fine, thanks, but Im sorry for you. Why are you such in a hurry? Its
pretty hot today, isnt it? Can I help you?
Jenny: Im late for class, and I want to buy some stationery, you know, writing
paper, notebooks and a ball-(point) pen. Is there a stationers near here?
Liz: Yes, of course. Can you see that restaurant over there?
Jenny: The one on the corner?
Liz: Turn at the restaurant and keep straight on up to the next cross-roads; go
across the road and take the first turning to the left. The stationers on the left side
of the street. You cant miss it.
Jenny: Thanks a lot. But thats quite a distance.
Liz: Yes, thats right, but you can find there everything you need: there are
writing paper, pads, envelopes, refills for your pen, erasers and even a marvelous
assortment of greeting cards and diaries. There are also glue, ink, thumbtacks
a.s.o.
***
2. (American version)
Jenny: Pardon (Excuse) me, officer. Wheres the City Bank?
Policeman: Its downtown, five blocks from here, straight ahead.
Jenny: Is it on the left?
Policeman: No. Its on the right. Its across the coffee shop.
Jenny: Thanks very much.

Policeman: Youre welcome.


VOCABULARY
stationery papetrie
notebook blocnotes, carnet
ball-(point) pen pix
cross-road intersecie
writing paper pad tampon pentru hrtia de scris
envelope plic
refill mine de pix
eraser gum de ters
diary jurnal (intim)
glue lipici
ink cerneal
thumbtack pionez
Explanatory notes:
1. block (in America) = cvartal, grup de case ptrat sau dreptunghiular ntre 4 strzi.
block of flats / apartment house = bloc
downtown = n sau spre centrul comercial al unui ora
2. Expressing GRATITUDE (expresii de mulumire): Thanks Thank you Many
thanks Thanks a lot Thanks again Thank you very much Thank you very much
indeed Thank you ever much for (letting me know) - Its been really marvelous 9
3. Possible responses, depending on the occasion (posibile rspunsuri, n funcie de
ocazie):
Dont mention it (Im glad to help you) Its all right Its my pleasure Youre
welcome Im very much obliged to you.
Study and remember (expressions):
It takes you only ten minutes to get there v trebuie numai zece minute ca s
ajungei acolo
Turn to the left/right! Luai-o spre stnga
Go straight on/ahead! Mergei tot nainte
The red light is on Semaforul arat rou
Trolley buses run till oclock Troleibuzele circul pn la ora
Would you mind telling me the way to ? Suntei amabil s-mi spunei care este
drumul ctre ?
Could you put me right? M-ai putea ndruma?
This way, please! Pe aici, v rog!
Take the first turning to the left/right Luai-o pe prima strad la stnga/dreapta
At the next crossroads turn to the left/right La prima intersecie luai-o la
stnga/dreapta
Its on the right hand side Este pe partea dreapt
Can you direct me to ? mi putei arta direcia ctre ?

Is this the right way to ? Acesta este drumul ctre ?


You are still some way off Suntei nc la o oarecare distan
Its just round the corner Este chiar dup col
We happen to be going in that direction ourselves ntmpltor i noi mergem n
aceast direcie
Im trying to find my way to - ncerc s gsesc drumul ctre
You are going the wrong way Mergei ntr-o direcie greit
Is it much of a walk? Este mult de mers pe jos?
Do I take this street or that? S o iau pe aceast strad, sau pe cealalt?
Its quite a distance Este destul de departe
Which is the quickest way to ? Care este calea cea mai rapid ctre
GRAMMAR
1. Verbul TO BE exprimnd existena there is / there are (este, se afl, se gsete /
sunt, se afl, se gsesc)
Cuvntul neaccentuat thereeste urmat de o form a verbului TO BE n propoziii care
exprim noiunea de existen (este o expresie care nu exist n limba romn. Limba
francez are ceva asemntor n expresia il y a). Se folosete ori de cte ori subiectul
propoziiei este o persoan oarecare nedefinit sau un obiect, iar predicatul este verbul
TO BE.
Aceast expresie introduce noi informaii interlocutorului:
Exemple:
There is (Theres) a pen on the desk.
There are (Therere) two books on the table.
There is a glass on the table.
There are lots of interesting buildings in Edinburgh.
There are writing paper pads ...
There is glue in the bottle.
Observai c:
a) There se folosete n loc de subiect;
b) There is se folosete naintea unui substantiv la singular;
c) There are se folosete naintea unui substantiv la plural;
Interogativul se formeaz:
Is there a stationery near here?
Are there many children in the room?
Negativul:
There is not (isnt). / There are not (arent).
Observai c i n acest caz exist forme contrase, neaccentuate.
Atenie! S nu confundai cuvntul THERE din expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE cu
adverbul THERE care se traduce cu ACOLO. ntr-o propoziie ele pot aprea mpreun.
Ex. There are two chairs there. (Sunt dou scaune acolo).
2. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS (Pluralul Substantivelor)
Rules
Singular

Examples
Plural

a. Majoritatea substantivelor formeaz pluralul bedroom


adugnd -s la forma singularului:
picture
tap
b. Substantivele care se termin n -sh, -ch, -tch, glass
-ss, -s, -x primesc -es
bus
brush
watch
box
c. Cnd substantivele se termin n -y precedat de party
o consoan, -y se schimb n i i se adaug es:
country
d. Substantivele care se termin n -f, -fe l leaf
schimb pe f n v i se adaug -es:
life
e. Substantivele care se termin n -o precedat de tomato
o consoan primesc -es:
potato
f. Substantive cu pluralul neregulat:
man
woman
child
tooth
foot
goose
mouse

bedrooms
pictures
taps
glasses
buses
brushes
watches
boxes
parties
countries
leaves
lives
tomatoes
potatoes
men
women
children
teeth
feet
geese
mice

Terminaia pluralului se citete:


[s]
[z] dup vocale i [iz] dup: [s], [z], [], [t],
dup consoane surde: consoane sonore: [b], [d], [d]
[p], [t], [f], [k], [h], []
[v], [g], [l], [m], [n], [],
[r], []
clocks taps baths
jugs towels films
wages classes brushes
watches buses
EXERCISES

I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the phrase:


1. There ... a teacher in the classroom. 2. There ... two teachers in the classroom.
3. There ... many pupils in the classroom. 4. There ... a dog in the room. 5. There
... books and notebooks on the shelf. 6. There ... books on the floor. 7. There ... a
blackboard on the wall. 8. There ... many pictures on the wals. 9. There ... a map
in the classroom. 10. There ... many flowers in the garden.
II. Change these sentences according to the patterns:
a) There is a large table in the room. (small) / There isnt a small one.
b) There are two black cats in the garden. (white) / There arent two white ones.

1. There is a short pencil in the pencil-box. (long) 2. There are three glasses on the
table. (clean) 3. There are two green books in the bag. (brown) 4. There is a young
man in the room. (old) 5. There are two large armchairs in the room. (small) 6.
There is an old newspaper on the table. (new) 7. There is a white dog in the
schoolyard. (black) 8. There are two red blouses on the chair (blue). 9. There is a
tall man in the garden. (short) 10. There are two fat cats under the tree. (thin)
III. Make questions and answers.
1. There is a kitchen in the flat. (Yes) 2. There are two living-rooms in the flat.
(No) 3. There is a dog in the classroom. (No) 4. There are three cats in the
schoolyard. (Yes) 5. There are two books on the desk. (No) 6. There is a book on
the floor. (No) 7. There is a dining-room in the house. (Yes) 8. There are two
bedrooms in the house. (Yes) 9. There are three armchairs in the living-room.
(Yes) 10. There is a bookcase in the bedroom. (No)
IV. Rewrite the sentences, making the words in brackets plural:
1. Our students club often organizes (evening party). 2. She has just put ten
(tomato) on the plate. 3. All the (child) who have reached the age of six go to
school. 4. Have you already brushed your (tooth)? 5. She has bought two (loaf). 6.
Have you turned off the hot and cold (tap)? 7. You go to the library after (class),
dont you? 8. She has put six (glass) on the table. 9. There are many fallen (leaf)
on the ground. 10. I have never seen such beautiful (picture). 11. (Woman) have
equal rights with (man) in our country. 12. They have put the (watch) into (box)
that do not exceed an overall length of two (foot).
V. Use the plural of the nouns in brackets making the necessary changes. In
case no change is possible, explain the reasons: 1. He was thanked for his
(work) at the hospital. 2. They were fully aware of the (spirit) of the time. 3. The
poet published his new (volume) at the start of the century. 4. The Chinese
invented the (compass). 5. The (information) didnt come in time. 6. I have a
small (cactus) at home. 7. Dont fight with him. His (force) is enormous. 8. I feel
a (pain) in my leg. 9. Its a (damage) that cant be repaired. 10. I wont take
anybodys (advice). 11. I dont like his (manner) of speech. 12. Six to eight hours
of practice a day gave him a great (ability) for playing the piano in less than a
year. 13. Lots of (people) come to the Romanian seaside every summer. 14. I like
the (fabric) my husband brought me as a birthday present. 15. She has a brooch of
diamonds set in (platinum).

= 3h
LESSON THREE
NATIONALITIES COUNTRIES

Jenny: Meet my friend, Ingrid.


Pedro: Hello.
Ingrid: Hello. Pleased to meet you. What nationality are you?
Pedro: Im from Peru./ Im Peruvian. Where are you from?
Ingrid: Im from Sweden./ Im Swedish.
Pedro: Is your family in London, too?
Ingrid: No, my family is in Sweden and in Australia.
Pedro: Oh!
Ingrid: Are you in London on holiday or on business?
Pedro: Im on business. Im a physicist. Im working in a Research Centre for
three months. Its not far from London. What about you? Are you a student, or a
post graduate student? If not, whats your job?
Ingrid: No, Im not a student. Im visiting an English family for a year to brush up
my English. Are you staying in a private house, too?
Pedro: At the moment Im staying at a hotel.
Ingrid: Isnt it too expensive?
Pedro: It sure is, but tomorrow morning Im registering for a special Nuclear
Physics Course, and then Im moving to a bed-sitter. Look! Here is my
registration card. Be so kind and help me to fill it in.
***
MOVING IN
Because the hotel is too expensive, Pedro wants to rent a nice, small apartment /
flat. So, he has two ways to find it:

1. Direct conversation
Pedro: Excuse me, are you Mrs. Scott?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am.
Pedro: How do you do, Mrs. Scott. Im Pedro Gonzales your new tenant. Youre
the landlady, arent you?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am. How do you do, Mr. Gonzales. Nice to meet you. This is
Maggie Baxter. Shes your neighbour.
Maggie: Hello, Pedro, nice to meet you.
Pedro: Hello, Maggie, glad to see you, too. Can I see the bed-sitter Mrs. Scott? Is
it upstairs?
Mrs. Scott: Of course you can. Come in, please. Its upstairs. My flat is
downstairs.
Pedro: Oh, its very nice.
2. On the phone
Five three oh, four nine seven eight. Mrs. Scott: Hello?
Pedro: Its about the flat / apartment to let in the morning paper ads. Is it still to
let?
Mrs. Scott: Oh yes, of course it is.
Pedro: Can you tell me about it?
Mrs. Scott: There are two rooms: a living-room and a bedroom, and also a kitchen
and a bathroom, of course. You can come and see it.
Pedro: Where is it?
Mrs. Scott: Its in the neighbourhood of the University College, near Regents
Park.
Pedro: Whats your address?
Mrs. Scott: 54 Drummond Street, near Euston Station.
Pedro: Oh, and how much is the rent?
Mrs. Scott: Two hundred pounds / 200 a month.
Pedro: I can come in twenty or thirty minutes. Is that all right?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, of course. Oh, wait. Whats your name?
Pedro: Pedro Gonzales.
Mrs. Scott: Can you spell it?
Pedro: P-E-D-R-O G-O-N-Z-A-L-E-S
Mrs. Scott: Thank you. See you in half an hour.
Pedro: Good bye. See you soon.
VOCABULARY
bed-sitter = bed-sitting-room garsonier, camer combinat
ads. (prescurtare de la advertisements) reclam, publicitate
GRAMMAR

1. THE PRESENT TENSE (Common Aspect)


Timpul Prezent (Aspectul Comun)
Affirmative Form

Negative Form

Interrogative Form

I work
You work
He, she, it works

I do not (dont)
work
You do not work
He,she,it does not

Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he, she, it
work?

We work
You work
They work

(doesnt) work
We do not work
You do not work
They do not work

Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?

Rules
1. Timpul prezent, aspectul comun, se
folosete pentru a arta o aciune
obinuit sau repetat n prezent. 2.
Adeseori este folosit cu adverbe de tipul:
often, usually, never, always, every year.
3. Poate arta o aciune viitoare, dac este
nsoit de un adverb de timp exprimnd
viitorul. In acest caz, aciunea viitoare
face parte dintr-un program stabilit. 4.
Este folosit n loc de prezentul continuu
cu acele verbe care nu sunt ntrebuinate
la forma continu (to like, to dislike, to
love, to hate, to want, to own, to consist
of/in, to belong)

NegativeInterogative Form
Do I not work?
(Dont I work?)
Do you not work?
Does he, she, it not
work?(Doesnt
he..) Do we not
work? Do you not
work? Do they not
work?

Examples
Students study for their exams. Every
year, the Academy organizes postgraduate courses. We sit for an exam
tomorrow. I like this book.

THE PRESENT TENSE (Continuous Aspect)


Timpul Prezent (Aspectul Continuu)
Se formeaz cu verbul TO BE la prezent i participiul prezent (forma n ing) a
verbului de conjugat. Mai simplu, se poate exprima: TO BE + Ving ( V este
verbul de conjugat).
Affirmative Form

Negative Form

Interrogative Form

NegativeInterogative Form

I
am
(Im)
working
You are working
He, she, it is
working

We are working
You are working
They are working

I am not working
You
are
not
working
He, she, it is not
working
We
are
working
You
are
working
They
are
working

Am I working?
Are you working?
Is he, she, it
working?

not Are we working?


Are you working?
not Are they working?
not

Rules
1. Prezentul continuu arat o aciune n
curs de desfurare n momentul vorbirii.
Uneori, momentul aciunii este fixat prin
adverbe de timp ca: now, at the present
moment.
2. Prezentul continuu exprim uneori o
aciune ce caracterizeaz subiectul ntr-o
anumit perioad de timp. Aceasta
rezult din context.
3. Ca i aspectul comun, poate arta o
aciune viitoare care a fost planificat
ntr-un moment prezent, dac este nsoit
de un adverb de timp exprimnd viitorul.

Am I not working?
Are
you
not
working?
Is he, she, it not
working?
Are
we
working?
Are
you
working?
Are
they
working?

not
not
not

Examples
They are studying for tomorrows
examination.
We are not planning our holidays at the
present moment.
What are you doing here in Bucharest? I
am studying economics.
They are coming to see us next week.

EXERCISES

I. Put the following sentences in the third person singular:


1. We listen to courses. 2. They take down notes. 3. You study for your exam. 4. I
like learning when I enjoy the subject. 5. You always lend me your text-books. 6.
I go home at 2 oclock. 7. I usually come to the faculty at 8 oclock. 8. I pay
attention to what the lecturer says. 9. You like being in time for the courses.
II. Make the following sentences a) interrogative b) negative

1. I leave home at 7 a.m. every day. 2. This student speasks English very well. 3.
He reads very fast. 4. Students read sports magazines every day. 5. He writes his
15
homework in the afternoon. 6. I always go to the cinema with pleasure. 7. He
likes to watch television on Saturday evening. 8. He likes Latin grammar. 9. He
reads a few pages of Spanish literature every week. 10. You write many letters.
III. Use the verbs in brackets in the present tense (common or continuous
aspect):
1. Students from other countries (come) to get trained as economists at the
Academyof Economic Studies. 2. We (attend) classes regularly. 3. He (like)
English. 4. Today, we (study) commercial correspondence in our English seminar.
5. We (rehearse) for a show this evening. 6. They (meet) at 8 oclock tonight. 7.
She just (leave) for the mountains. 8. He (not like) to borrow the books, he
(prefer) to buy them. 9. Where you (hurry)? 10. We (hurry) to the lecture-hall as
we (not want) to be late.
IV. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in parantheses using
Present Tense Simple or Continuous:
1. I ... the water for coffee in a special pot (to boil). 2. Come and make the coffee!
The water ... (to boil). 3. This shop ... at 8 a.m. and ... at 8 p.m. (to open; to close).
4. I ... the book to read the new lesson (to open). 5. Dont shout that loud! I ... you
very well(to hear). 6. Dont interrupt them! They ... to a scientific broadcast (to
listen). 7. I ... what you ... (to see; to mean). 8. Wait aminute, will you? I ... them
off (to see). 9. A man ... with his nose (to smell). 10. Usually she ... a very quiet
child, but now she ... naughty (to be; to be)
V. Put the verbs in parantheses in the Present Tense Simple. Notice the
adverbs they are associated with:
1. Mother never ... (to go out) without a shopping bag. 2. We often ... (to play)
chess in the evenings.3. They usually ... (to do) their shopping at this supermarket.
4. She always ... (to listen to) the concerts broadcast on the radio on Sunday
mornings. 5. I occasionally ... (to read) a thriller before going to sleep. 6. Our kids
frequently ... (to break) something while playing hide-and-seek in their room. 7.
Grandmother hardly ever ... (to take) a sleeping pill. 8. They always ... (to come)
in time. 9. My husband never ... (to catch) anything when he ... (to go) fishing. 10.
Do your friends sometimes ... (to ask) you to babysit?
VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions:
1. Except ... Romanian students, there is also a considerable number ... students
coming ... other countries. 2. There are canteens providing meals ... the students.
4. This term, we insist ... commercial correspondence. 5. Students attend
conferences ... various subjects. 6. This professor gives lectures ... political
economy. 7. All higher education institutes are endowed ... libraries. 8. The
students spend their holidays ... the mountains.

=3h
LESSON FOUR
A STUDENTS DAILY PROGRAMME

F
The clock has just struck six. Mary is in her bedroom. She has got up, opened the
window and turned on the radio. She is doing her morning exercises to the music.
It is half past six. Mary has got into the bathroom. She is standing at the washbasin. What has she just done? She has just turned on the hot and cold taps. What
is she going to do next? She is going to pour some water into the glass and brush
her teeth. Then she is going to have a shower. She doesnt have a bath in the
morning. She takes a bath before she goes to bed.
Mary has already brushed her teeth with her tooth-brush and tooth-paste. She has
had a warm shower. She has dried herself on the towel and has got dressed. What
is she doing now? She is doing her hair in front of the looking-glass.
It is seven oclock. Mary is in the dining-room. Has she already had her
breakfast? No, not yet. She is laying the table for breakfast. She has just put some
coffee-cups, a sugar-bowl, a milk-jug and some plates on the table. Is she going to
have breakfast by herself? No, she is not. She is waiting for her brother who
hasnt shaved yet.
It is half past seven. Mary and her brother have just finished their breakfast. They
are in a hurry. They are leaving for the Academy of Economic Studies.
It takes them twenty minutes to get to the Academy by bus. They arrive there ten
minutes before the bell rings. So they have a chat with their fellow-students. Only
six students of their group are from Bucharest, the others either come from
different parts of the country, or from other countries. They usually have a lot of
things to talk about.
The classes begin at eight oclock and are over at ten minutes to two three times a
week. Twice a week they have classes in the afternoon. They regularly attend
lectures and seminars.

After classes in the morning they have their lunch at the students canteen. Then
they go home on foot. On their way home they do some shopping. After a short
rest they do their homework and read up for seminars.
Then Mary prepares something for dinner and her brother helps her. They have
their dinner at seven oclock in the evening. After dinner they usually look
through some newspapers or magazines, or read some novels or listen to music, or
watch a film on TV.
On Sundays they often go to the students club that regularly organizes various
cultural activities such as evening parties, cinema shows, lectures on music and
literature with recitals by famous musicians and actors.
MORNING AND EVENING
- What do you usually do at your office?
- In the morning I receive letters and cables which I have to answer that very day.
My secretary usually helps me to type the answers. Twice a week I have a
meeting where we discuss different business questions with our chief manager.
Almost every day I have business interviews, talks or conferences with the
representatives of the foreign firms we have done business with lately. In the
afternoon I usually make appointments on the phone with engineers of the
producing enterprises or foreign businessmen for the next day. Sometimes I make
business trips with a view to concluding sales contracts.
- What do you usually do in the evening?
- We generally stay at home and watch TV. Once a week we go to the pictures.
Occasionally we go to a dance.
- Have you been to the theatre this month?
- Yes, we have been to the theatre twice this month.
VOCABULARY
bedroom - dormitor
to strike (struck, struck) a bate, a suna
to get up (got, got) a se scula
to get into a intra to get to a ajunge la
to get dressed a se mbrca
bathroom camera de baie
to stand (stood, stood) a sta n picioare
sugar-bowl zaharni
milk-jug can de lapte
to shave a se brbieri
plate farfurie
to leave for (left, left) - a pleca
lately n ultimul timp
to do ones hair a-i aranja prul, a se coafa

to turn on (the radio, the tap) a deschide (radioul, robinetul)


to pour some water a turna (ceva) ap
to dry oneself on the towel a se terge cu prosopul
to lay (laid, laid) the table a pune masa
to have breakfast / lunch / dinner a lua micul dejun / prnzul / cina
to be in a hurry a se grbi
to have a chat a sta de vorb
to read up for seminars a se pregti pentru seminarii
to do ones homework a-i face temele
to have / to take a shower a face un du
to conclude a sales contract a ncheia un contract de vnzare-cumprare
to make an appointment a fixa o ntlnire
with a view to (+gerunziu) n vederea, pentru a
GRAMMAR
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
(Perfectul Compus)
Perfectul compus se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului to have la prezent i cu
participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat: TO HAVE + V3.
Affirmative Form

Common Aspect
Negative Form

I have finished
You have finished
He, she, it has finished

Interrogative(-Negative)
Form
Have
I (not) finished?
I have not (havent)
(Havent I finished?)
finished.
Have you (not) finished?
You have not finished.
He, she, it has not (hasnt) Has he, she, it (not)
finished?
finished.

We have finished
You have finished
They have finished

We have not finished


You have not finished
They have not finished

(Hasnt he,she,it
finished?)
Have we (not) finished?
Have you (not) finished?
Have they (not) finished?

Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se formeaz din forma scurt a infinitivului,


prin adugarea desinenei ed, dup urmtoarele reguli ortografice:
Spelling Rules
Examples
1) Verbele terminate la infinitiv n e to live lived
mut pierd aceast vocal naintea to arrive arrived
to celebrate celebrated
desinenei ed

2) Verbele terminate la infinitive n y to study studied


precedat de o consoan, schimb y n i
to dry dried
to hurry hurried
3) Verbele monosilabice terminate ntr-o to stop - stopped
consoan precedat de o vocal scurt
dubleaz consoana final
4) Verbele plurisilabice, terminate ntr-o to pre`fer - preferred
consoan precedat de o vocal i avnd to com`pel - compelled
accentual pe ultima silab, precum i to `travel - travelled
verbele terminate n l, indiferent de
accent, dubleaz consoana final

The use of the Present Perfect Tense Common Aspect


Rules
1. Present Perfect exprim o aciune
trecut care are legtur cu prezentul.
a) Legtura poate fi temporal: aciunea
ncepe n trecut i continu n present.
Momentul nceperii aciunii se indic
prin
cuvntul
since
(prepoziie,
conjuncie, adverb) din, de cnd.
Durata aciunii se red printr-o locuiune
adverbial introdus prin prepoziia for
de:
b) Legtura poate fi cauzal: aciunea s-a
terminat, dar urmrile ei continu s
existe n present:

Examples
I have seen this film.
I have known him for many years.
We have not seen him since Monday.
He has not slept well since that night.

Mary has opened the window.


She has turned on the tap.

2. Present Perfect se refer la o perioad Have you been to the theatre this month?
de timp nc n curs, ceea ce este indicat
prin adverbele sau locuiunile adverbiale:
today, this week, this summer, this month, She has worked much this week.
lately, of late, this morning, this year, in
the last few years.
3. Present Perfect exprim o aciune care The clock has just struck six.
a avut loc ntr-un trecut foarte apropiat. She has already brushed her teeth.
El este nsoit atunci de adverbe de timp He hasnt shaved yet.
nedefinit ca: often, seldom, ever, never,

just, yet, always, already.

EXERCISES

I. Speak about Marys working day according to the plan:


a) What she usually does in the morning (before breakfast).
b) What she generally does at the Academy of Economic Studies.
c) What she usually does after classes and in the evenings.
d) How she spends her time on Sundays.
II. Complete the dialogues using the words in brackets:
When do your classes begin? (8 oclock; generally; in the morning)
How many classes do you have every day? (not more than six; sometimes four)
Do you go straight home after classes? ( not always; the library or the readingroom; sometimes)
What do you usually do there? ( to read books and magazines; to make notes
on; to look through newspapers)
And when do you usually do your English lessons? (to have got the necessary
books; if; to do ones homework at home)
Do you work in the library till late in the evening? (not to stay; late)
And how do you spend your time in the evening when you are free? (to watch
television; to go to the pictures or to the theatre; to go to see ones friends)
Do you go to bed late? (not very; at about 11; as a rule).
III. Use since or for and translate the sentences into Romanian:
1. I havent seen her Sunday. 2. I havent seen them 1980. 3. We havent
seen them ten years. 4. She has been here morning. 5. We have been here
an hour and a half. 6. He hasnt shaved two days. 7. I have known him
five years.
IV. Insert:
a) the past participle of the regular verbs: to open, to turn, to pour, to brush, to
dry, to shave, to finish, to stay, to watch, to live:
1. He has just the window. 2. She has just on the radio. 3. She has already
her teeth. 4. She has already some water into the glass. 5. We have already
our breakfast. 6. Has she herself on the towel? 7. Has he already ? 8.
Have you at home and a film on TV? 9. They havent in Constantza.

b) the past participle of the irregular verbs: to see, to strike, to get up, to put, to
do, to go, to come, to have, to be, to lay, to stand, to leave: 1. I have this film
on TV. 2. The clock has just seven. 3. George hasnt yet. 4. Have you a
sugar-bowl on the table? 5. Why havent you your hair? 6. Jane has to the
students club. 7. Has your brother home? 8. She has just a cold shower. 9.
Have you to the pictures this week? 10. Who has the table for breakfast? 11.
Who has just at the wash-basin? 12. They have just for their office.
V. Translate into English:
1. Nu v-am vzut de doi ani. Unde ai fost? 2. Cine a deschis robinetul de ap
cald? 3. N-am luat nc micul dejun. 4. Ai terminat micul dejun? Da, mi-a
plcut foarte mult. 5. Ct este ora le dvs.? Ceasul meu a stat. 6. De cnd suntei
la Bucureti? Sunt aici de duminic. 7. De cnd locuiete fratele tu n
Bucureti? Din 1974. 8. De cnd avei televizorul? Numai de dou luni.

=3h
LESSON FIVE
THE FAMILY

F
Mary is twenty years old. She is a student of the Faculty of the Agrarian Economy
and Accounting.
She lives with her parents in Bucharest. Her father is a worker. He works as a
welder at a large plant. Her mother is a weaver at a textile mill. Mary has a
brother. Marys brother, John is a doctor at the Brncovenesc Hospital. He has
been working there since 1979. He has a family of his own: a wife and three
children: two sons and one daughter. Helen, Johns wife, is an assistant-lecturer at
the Academy of Economic Studies.
Marys grand mother and grand father are pensioners. They live in Braov. Their
grand sons and grand daughter often spend their holidays at their grand parents.
Marys uncle lives in a provincial town. He is a miner. His wife is a very kind
woman and a good housewife. Jane, their daughter, is Marys cousin. Marys
great grand mother lives with them.
***
John: Where do you live?
Peter: I live with my parents and grand parents in Bucharest.
John: Have you got any sisters and brothers?
Peter: Yes, our family is quite a big one: I have three brothers and two sisters who
are twins.
John: Are they older than you?
Peter: I have only one brother who is older than me. The others are all younger.
John: What is your elder brother?
Peter: He is a civil engineer. He lives in Constantza. He is married and has two
children. My sister-in-law is an economist. I can tell you Im very proud of being
an uncle. I love my niece and my nephew very much.
John: Oh, Im sure you do. Do they often come to Bucharest?
Peter: No, they dont. You see, most of our relatives live there my uncles, aunts,
and all my cousins.

VOCABULARY
parent printe; tat sau mam
father tat
mother mam
welder sudor
weaver estor
son fiu
daughter fiic
great grandparent strbunic sau strbunic
grand mother bunic
grand father bunic
grand daughter nepoat de bunic (bunic)
grand son nepot de bunic (bunic)
housewife gospodin
sister sor
brother frate
cousin vr sau verioar
twins gemeni
civil engineer inginer constructor
to marry a cstori; a se cstori
sister-in-law cumnat
brother-in-law cumnat
uncle unchi
aunt mtu
niece nepoat (de unchi sau mtu)
nephew nepot (de unchi sau mtu)
relative rud
in-laws rude prin alian
bachelor celibatar
spinster celibatar
an only child copil unic
mill uzin, fabric, filatur, moar
GRAMMAR
I. POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
( Adjectivele i pronumele posesive)
Possessive Adjectives
Plural
Singular
our - nostru, noastr, notri, noastre
my meu, mea, mei, mele
your vostru, voastr, votri, voastre
your tu, ta, ti, tale
their lor
his lui
her ei
its lui, ei
Possesive Pronouns
Singular

Plural

mine al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele


yours al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale
his al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui
hers al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei
its su, a sa, ai si, ale sale

ours al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale


noastre
yours al vostru, a voastr, ai votri, ale
voastre
theirs al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor

Pronumele posesiv nlocuiete att numele obiectului posedat ct i al


posesorului. Pronumele posesive nu determin substantive ca adjectivele
posesive, ci le nlocuiesc.
Observai mai jos diferena dintre adjectivul i pronumele posesiv i pronumele personal
n cazul dativ/acuzativ:
Possessive adjective: Its my car.
Possessive pronoun: Its mine.
Personal pronoun: It belongs to me.
II. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
(Adjectivele i pronumele demonstrative)
de apropiere
de deprtare
Singular
this
that
Plural
these
those
Se traduc:
this acest, aceast; acesta, aceasta
that acel, acea; acela, aceea
these aceti, aceste; acetia, acestea
those acei, acele; aceia, acelea
1.
Possessive Adjectives
Where is my book?
She gave me his address.
Our classroom is very nice .
His coat is new.
Her dress is nice.
Our house stands in a quiet street
The room is large. Its walls are white.

Possessive Pronouns
This book is mine.
I have lost my pencil Please, give me
yours.
This is not their house, theirs is bigger
than his.
The new coat is his.
This nice dress is hers. This house is
ours.
The fault is mine.
These seats are theirs.

2.
Demonstrative Adjectives
This young man is my best friend.
That house is very small.
These pencils are good.
Those flowers are roses.

Demonstrative Pronouns
This is my dictionary and that is hers.
These are his magazines, and those are
mine.

III. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


(Prezentul perfect continuu)
Se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului TO BE la prezentul perfect i participiul
prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: HAVE (HAS) BEEN + Ving
Affirmative

Interrogative
Have
I been working?
I have been working / Ive been working
Have you been working?
You have been working
Has he, she, it been working?
He, she, it has been working/Hes been Have we been working?

Have you been working?


We have been working
Have they been working?
You have been working
They have been working
Negative

Interrogative - Negative

I have not been working / I havent


been
You have not been working
He, she, it has not been working
We have not been working
You have not been working
They have not been working

Have I not been working?/ Havent I


been
Have you not been working?
Has he, she, it not been working?
Have we not been working?
Have you not been working?
Have they not been working?

Prezentul perfect la aspectul continuu se folosete:


1. pentru o aciune care a nceput n trecut i care continu i n present:
Ive been waiting for him for half an hour. (Im still waiting for him)
2. pentru o aciune care a nceput n trecut i care tocmai s-a ncheiat:
Im so sorry Im late. Have you been waiting for me for a long time?

EXERCISES

I. Enlarge upon:
a) Your own family.
b) Three relatives. Describe each one to a friend:
- What each relative looks like.
- Where he / she lives and works.
- What his / her interests are.
II. Ask questions to the following sentences, according to the model:
Model: Ive been waiting for you for half an hour. How long have you been
waiting for me?
1. He has been teaching French for two years. 2. Ive been writing the letter for
an hour. 3. The children have been playing in the park since they came from
school. 4. She has been working in the garden since 8 oclock. 5. The boys have
been fishing since early in the morning. 6. He has been staying with us for a
week. 7. He has been reading since I have been here. 8. I have been peeling
potatoes for twenty minutes now. 9. She has been teaching at this school for five
years.
III. Write the following sentences in the plural:
1. This is an interesting book. 2. That clock is slow. 3. This little boy is Marys
brother. 4. That young man is a student at the Faculty of Trade. 5. This family is a
very big one. 6. That play was very good, the acting was wonderful indeed! 7.
That is a naughty boy, isnt he? 8. This is the most beautiful crystal glass Ive ever
seen. 9. That dictionary was printed in 1903. 10. This is the ring she lost
yesterday.
IV. Replace the underlined words by possessive adjectives:
1.Johns book is on the desk. 2. The childrens toys are neatly arranged on the
shelves. 3. My sisters room is very large and clean. 4. Where are mothers shoes?
5. Our brothers new books are extremely valuable 6. Marys old flat looks quite
shabby. 7. The students copybooks are all on the desks. 8. Your sisters watch is
very nice and keeps good time.
V. Translate into English:
a) 1. Familia lor este foarte numeroas. 2. Casa noastr este situat pe o strad
extrem de linitit. 3. Familia ei locuiete n Bucureti; unde locuiete a ta? 4.
Fratele ei mai mare lucreaz de doi ani la o uzin de tractoare. 5. Inelul lui de
logodn este aici; unde este al tu? 6. Aceast tnr este fata cumnatului vostru,
nu-i aa? 7. Acestea sunt darurile de nunt pe care le-au primit tinerii cstorii de
la bunica lor. 8. Aceste verighete sunt pentru nunta lor de argint. 9. Florile acelea
le-am cumprat pentru stbunica mea. 10. Apartamentul acela este nc neocupat.

Bibiografie selectiv
Banta, Andrei (1991) Essential English, Ed. Teora Bucureti
De Blij, H.J.; Mueller, Peter O (2002) Geography-realms, regions, and concepts,
John Wiley&Sons, Inc. U.S.A.
Clawson, David L; Fisher, James S (1998) World Regional Geography-A
development approach, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, U.S.A.
Gali, Livia & colaboratorii (1982) Limba Englez pentru nvmntul superior
economic, Ed.Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti - Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana
(1993)
Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed. Omegapress, Bucureti - Hulban, Horia &
colab.(1983)
Exerciii i teste de limba englez, Ed. tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti Levichi, Leon (1971)
Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed. Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti - Nicolescu,
Adrian & colaboratorii (1980)
Culegere de texte pentru cursul practic de limba englez pentru secia geografiegeologie, Tipografia Universitii din Bucureti - Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum; S;
Leech, G; Svartvik, J (1972)
A Grammar of Contemporary English, Longman, London
***
(1970) - Dicionar polyglot economic i de comer exterior, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti
- Institutul de Lingvistic (1974)
Dicionar Englez-Romn, Ed. Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romnia, Bucureti
***
Speak English Nr. 1- 7/1990; 1-7/1991