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UNIVERSITATEA DE MEDICIN I FARMACIE

IULIU HAIEGANU CLUJ-NAPOCA


FACULTATEA DE FARMACIE
DISCIPLINA DE ORGANIZARE I LEGISLAIE
FARMACEUTIC

RSPUNDEREA PENAL N DOMENIUL


FARMACEUTIC
REZUMATUL TEZEI DE DOCTORAT
Conductor tiinific
Prof. dr. Constantin Polinicencu

Doctorand
Farm. Anamaria Murean

2010
CUPRINS

INTRODUCERE....................................................................................................4
I. PARTEA GENERAL. RSPUNDEREA JURIDIC .................................6
CAPITOLUL 1
NOIUNEA DE RSPUNDERE ....................................................................6
1. 1. Definirea i formele rspunderii .............................................................6
1. 2. Condiiile rspunderii .............................................................................7
1. 3. Concluzii.................................................................................................9
CAPITOLUL 2
RSPUNDEREA PENAL ...........................................................................10
2. 1. Definirea rspunderii penale.................................................................10
2. 2. Principiile rspunderii penale ...............................................................12
2. 3. Infraciunea...........................................................................................18
2. 3. 1. Trsturi eseniale i generale ale infraciunii ........................19
2. 3. 2. Elementele infraciunii............................................................20
2. 4. Sanciunea.............................................................................................25
2. 5. Executarea sanciunilor penale .............................................................27
2. 5. 1. Executarea pedepselor principale ...........................................28
2. 5. 2. Executarea pedepselor complimentare ...................................30
2. 5. 3. Executarea pedepselor accesorii .............................................30
2. 6. Concluzii...............................................................................................30

CAPITOLUL 3
REABILITAREA I CAUZELE
CARE NLTUR RSPUNDEREA PENAL.........................................32
3. 1. Reabilitarea...........................................................................................32
3. 1. 1. Reabilitarea de drept ...............................................................33
3. 1. 2. Reabilitarea judectoreasc ....................................................34
3. 2. Cauzele care nltur rspunderea penal.............................................35
3. 2. 1. Amnistia..................................................................................36
3. 2. 2. Graierea .................................................................................37
3. 2. 3. Prescripia ...............................................................................38
3. 2. 4. Lipsa plngerii prealabile i mpcarea prilor......................38
3. 3. Concluzii...............................................................................................39
II. CONTRIBUII PERSONALE
RSPUNDEREA PENAL N DOMENIUL FARMACEUTIC ...................40
A. IPOTEZA DE LUCRU...................................................................................40
CAPITOLUL 4
PROBLEME N PRACTICA FARMACEUTIC ......................................40
4. 1. Probleme care necesit reglementare ...................................................42
4. 2. Probleme care necesit modificri ale normelor n vigoare .................47
4. 3. Probleme de aplicare a normelor n vigoare.........................................48
4. 4. Concluzii...............................................................................................49
B. MATERIALE I METODE...........................................................................50
CAPITOLUL 5
LEGISLAIA FARMACEUTIC I METODELE JURIDICE ..............50
5. 1. Materiale...............................................................................................50
5. 2. Metode ..................................................................................................54
5. 2. 1. Metode de cercetare juridic...................................................55
5. 2. 1. 1. Metoda logic ........................................................55
5. 2. 1. 2. Metoda comparativ ..............................................55
5. 2. 1. 3. Metoda istoric ......................................................56
5. 2. 1. 4. Metoda sociologic ................................................57
5. 2. 2. Interpretarea juridic...............................................................58
5. 2. 2. 1. Metoda gramatical................................................58
5. 2. 2. 2. Metoda sistematic ................................................59
5. 2. 2. 3. Metoda logic ........................................................61
5. 2. 2. 4. Metoda teleologic.................................................62
5. 2. 2. 5. Metoda istoric ......................................................63
5. 3. Concluzii...............................................................................................64
C. REZULTATE I DISCUII
INFRACIUNI PRIVIND REGIMUL LEGAL AL EXERCITRII PROFESIUNII
DE FARMACIST.................................................................................................65
CAPITOLUL 6
EXERCITAREA FR DREPT A PROFESIUNII DE FARMACIST....67
6. 1. Eliberarea din drogherii a medicamentelor etice..................................79
6. 2. Funcionarea fr farmacist a unitilor farmaceutice ..........................85

6. 3. Exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist n afara unitii farmaceutice......86


6. 4. Concluzii...............................................................................................89
CAPITOLUL 7
INTERDICII DE EXERCITARE
A PROFESIUNII DE FARMACIST .............................................................91
7. 1. Infraciuni contra umanitii sau vieii..................................................91
7. 1. 1. Infraciuni contra pcii i omenirii .........................................93
7. 1. 2. Infraciuni contra vieii ...........................................................97
7. 2. Alte infraciuni care pot conduce la interzicerea
exercitrii profesiunii de farmacist ........................................................99
7.3. Suspendarea sau retragerea calitii de membru al Colegiului
Farmacitilor din Romnia ..................................................................105
7. 4. Concluzii.............................................................................................110
CAPITOLUL 8
INCOMPATIBILITI CU EXERCITAREA
PROFESIUNII DE FARMACIST...............................................................111
8. 1. Difuzarea i comercializarea altor produse
n afara celor nregistrate i aprobate de Ministerul Sntii ............112
8. 2. Exercitarea profesiunii de medic ........................................................113
8. 3. Ocupaii de natur a aduce atingere demnitii
profesiunii de farmacist sau bunelor moravuri ...................................117
8. 4. Starea de sntate necorespunztoare.................................................118
8. 5. Incompatibiliti prevzute de Codul deontologic al farmacistului....119
8. 6. Concluzii.............................................................................................123
III. CONCLUZII FINALE................................................................................126
REFERINE ......................................................................................................134

Cuvinte cheie: rspunderea penal, farmacist, profesiune, infraciune, interdicie,


incompatibilitate.

INTRODUCERE
Lucrarea are ca scop studierea rspunderii penale n domeniul farmaceutic n
Romnia. Am ales tema lucrrii de fa ntruct infraciunea n domeniul farmaceutic este
ndreptat mpotriva celei mai importante valori sociale ocrotite de ctre stat prin normele
de drept i anume sntatea. Misiunea farmacistului este de a ocroti sntatea, de a ajuta
la redobndirea ei, iar comind o infraciune n acest domeniu nseamn a aciona n sens
opus misiunii sale profesionale. Pentru realizarea scopului lucrrii, este necesar analiza
condiiilor legale de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist, a regimului legal general al
medicamentelor i a regimului legal special al drogurilor. Studiul de fa se refer, n
special, la rspunderea penal legat de condiiile de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist.

I. PARTEA GENERAL. RSPUNDEREA JURIDIC


Capitolul 1
Noiunea de rspundere
Fiecare ramur a dreptului cunoate o form de rspundere specific caracterizat
prin condiii specifice de fond i de form (condiii, mod de stabilire, forme de realizare,
sanciuni). Exist astfel mai multe forme de rspundere juridic: rspunderea juridic cu
caracter politic (rspunderea constituional a parlamentului), rspunderea civil,
rspunderea penal, rspunderea administrativ (rspunderea puterii publice),
rspunderea disciplinar, rspunderea internaional.
Condiiile rspunderii juridice sunt: conduita ilicit, vinovia i legtura cauzal
ntre fapta ilicit i prejudiciul produs.
Capitolul 2
Rspunderea penal
Dreptul penal, n totalitate, este structurat n jurul a trei instituii fundamentale:
infraciunea, rspunderea penal i pedeapsa.
Rspunderea penal reprezint raportul juridic penal de constrngere, nscut ca
urmare a svririi unei infraciuni, ntre stat, pe de o parte, i infractor, pe de alt parte.
Acesta este un raport complex, al crui coninut formeaz dreptul statului, ca reprezentant
al societii, de a trage la rspundere pe infractor, de a-i aplica sanciunea prevzut
pentru infraciunea svrit i de a-l constrnge s o execute, precum i obligaia
infractorului de a rspunde pentru fapta sa i de a se supune sanciunii, n vederea
restabilirii ordinii de drept i restaurrii autoritii legii.
Temeiul rspunderii penale este infraciunea - fapta ce reprezint un grad nalt de
pericol social, svrit cu vinovie i prevzut de legea penal. Elementele ei sunt:
obiectul, subiectul, latura obiectiv i cea subiectiv. Executarea sanciunilor penale are
loc prin punerea efectiv a condamnatului s nfptuiasc coninutul acestor sanciuni.
Capitolul 3
Reabilitarea i cauzele care nltur rspunderea penal
Condamnarea poate avea unele consecine i dup executarea pedepsei principale,
restrngnd capacitatea juridic a fotilor condamnai (decderi, interdicii i
incapaciti), care ns se pot stinge dup scurgerea unui interval de timp, prin reabilitare.
Astfel, reabilitarea constituie un stimulent pentru fotii condamnai de a avea o conduit
corespunztoare cerinelor societii, dovedit prin aceea c nu au mai nclcat legea. Prin
reabilitare, fostul condamnat este reintegrat n societate, i din punct de vedere moral, nu
doar juridic. Cauzele care nltur rspunderea penal sunt: amnistia, graierea,
prescripia, lipsa plngerii prealabile, mpcarea prilor i retragerea plngerii prealabile.
Aceste cauze sunt generale, deoarece privesc n principiu orice infraciune. Unele au efect
numai n baza dispoziiilor din Codul penal, pe cnd altele, presupun i intervenia
organelor supreme ale puterii de stat, n anumite cazuri (amnistia i graierea).
II. CONTRIBUII PERSONALE
RSPUNDEREA PENAL N DOMENIUL FARMACEUTIC

A. IPOTEZA DE LUCRU
Rspunderea penal n domeniul farmaceutic este angajat n urma nerespectrii
regimului de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist i a regimului legal al medicamentelor.
Iniial, la nceperea acestui studiu, s-a ncercat analizarea ambelor situaii. Pe parcurs
ns, pentru a menine scopul i funcionalitatea lucrrii, s-a considerat limitarea
cercetrii doar la prima situaie. Prin urmare, obiectivele acestui studiu sunt:
- prezentarea rspunderii juridice n cadrul legislaiei romneti;
- definirea rspunderii penale i a principiilor care o guverneaz;
- prezentarea cadrului legal de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist;
- stabilirea normelor legale, adecvate cercetrii propuse, care duc la naterea
rspunderii penale n domeniul farmaceutic, n special a celor de exercitare a
profesiunii de farmacist;
- analizarea textului acestor norme pentru stabilirea cazurilor n care este angajat
rspunderea penal, ca urmare a nerespectrii regimului legal de exercitare a
profesiunii de farmacist;
- studierea interdiciilor i a incompatibilitilor de exercitare a profesiunii de
farmacist;
- identificarea condiiilor i a cauzelor exercitrii fr drept a profesiunii de
farmacist;
- analizarea situaiilor din practic de exercitare fr drept a profesiunii de
farmacist;
- identificarea i analizarea deficienelor textului legilor studiate, a problemelor de
aplicabilitate ale acestor norme, a discordanelor ntre diferite acte normative care
reglementeaz domeniul farmaceutic, dar i a neconcordanelor ntre prevederile
actelor normative i necesitile din practic;
- mpiedicarea repetrii problemelor examinate, n normele viitoare.
Capitolul 4
Probleme n practica farmaceutic
Problemele legislative n domeniul farmaceutic romnesc pot clasificate n trei
mari categorii i anume: probleme care necesit reglementare, probleme care necesit
modificri ale normelor n vigoare i probleme de aplicare a normelor n vigoare. Printre
problemele majore din practica n domeniul farmaceutic ce necesit reglementare se
numr: lipsa definirii exacte a profesiunii de farmacist, a proprietii asupra unitilor
farmaceutice i a standardelor de funcionare a unitilor farmaceutice.
Problemele ce necesit modificri ale legislaiei n vigoare, referitoare la practica
n domeniul farmaceutic, sunt multiple. O parte sunt date de existena unor norme
contrare n cuprinsul aceleai legi sau n alte prevederi legale (ca de exemplu art. 634 cu
art. 836 din Legea nr. 95/2006), unele deriv din inexistena n legislaie a trimiterilor
prevzute (ca de exemplu art.562 din Legea nr. 95/2006), iar altele nu-i au
corespondena sau reciprocitatea n legislaia n vigoare (ca de exemplu art. 563 alin. 1 lit.
a i art. 383 lit. a din Legea nr. 95/2006).
Problemele de aplicare a legislaiei farmaceutice n vigoare sunt date de:
inexistena unor standarde clare de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist i de operare a
unitilor farmaceutice, de modificrile mult prea dese, din ultimul timp, a legislaiei
farmaceutice i de greutatea aplicrii normelor farmaceutice n vigoare privitoare la
controlul acestei activiti.
Lucrarea de fa are ca scop studierea normelor referitoare la rspunderea penal

n domeniul farmaceutic, cu privire special la exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist i


prentmpinarea apariiei problemelor legislative observate i discutate ntr-o norm
legal ulterioar.
B. MATERIALE I METODE
Capitolul 5
Legislaia farmaceutic i metodele juridice
Pentru cercetarea propus s-au studiat textele de lege privind exercitarea
profesiunii de farmacist, organizarea i funcionarea Colegiului Farmacitilor din
Romnia, Codul deontologic al farmacistului i Codul penal al Romniei.
Cercetarea n domeniul legislaiei farmaceutice reclam utilizarea metodologiei
juridice, adic a metodelor folosite n cercetarea tiinific n domeniul dreptului. Sunt
prezentate metodele de cercetare juridic utilizate, cu detalierea metodelor logice,
comparative, istorice i sociologice. Pentru studiul propus s-a aplicat interpretarea
juridic. Ea cuprinde mai multe categorii de metode i anume: interpretarea gramatical,
teleologic, sistematic, istoric i logic. n general, n lucrarea de fa aceste metode de
interpretare juridic nu au fost folosite izolat, ci s-au utilizat mpreun, fie cte dou sau
mai multe sau toate n acelai timp, pentru stabilirea adevratului sens i scop ale
normelor studiate.
C. REZULTATE I DISCUII
INFRACIUNI PRIVIND REGIMUL LEGAL AL EXERCITRII PROFESIUNII
DE FARMACIST
Capitolul 6
Exercitarea fr drept a profesiunii de farmacist
Analiza contextului legal de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist a dus att la
identificarea condiiilor n care se svrete infraciunea de exercitare fr drept a
profesiunii de farmacist, ct i la observarea cauzelor svririi acestei infraciuni.
Condiiile existenei acestei infraciuni sunt legate de svrirea de acte rezervate
profesiunii de farmacist de ctre o persoan care nu are aceast calitate (art. 40 din Legea
nr. 81/1997, art. 78 din Legea nr. 305/2004, art. 634 din Legea nr. 95/2006 i art. 281 din
Codul penal).
Situaiile din practic de exercitare fr drept a profesiunii de farmacist sunt:
- eliberarea din drogherii a altor medicamente dect cele fr prescripie medical;
- funcionarea farmaciei sau a depozitului de medicamente fr farmacist;
- exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist de ctre o persoan care nu are aceast calitate.
Cele mai frecvente situaii de exercitare fr drept a profesiunii de farmacist,
ntlnite n practic, sunt cele n care asistenii de farmacie, n drogherii, ncalc
prevederile legale de eliberare a medicamentelor din grupa A.
Persoanele vinovate de complicitate la infraciunea de exercitare fr drept a
profesiunii de farmacist sunt, cel mai frecvent, chiar farmaciti.
Cauzele exercitrii fr drept a profesiunii de farmacist sunt:
- lipsa definirii exacte, ntr-un act normativ, a profesiunii de farmacist i a celei de
asistent de farmacie, a atribuiilor, ndatoririlor i competenelor profesionale ale
acestora;
- lipsa prevederilor legale, clare, privind farmacistul stagiar;
- organizarea i funcionarea necorespunztoare a Inspeciei de Farmacie, n privina

controlului respectrii condiiilor legale i a sanciunilor legale aplicabile;


- ineficiena activitii Colegiul Farmacitilor din Romnia n privina respectrii, de
ctre farmaciti, a Codului deontologic al farmacistului;
- lipsa contiinei profesionale n cazul unor farmaciti.
Considernd caracteristicile ce definesc profesiunea i valorile sociale aprate de
stat, se poate deduce importana respectrii prevederilor legale privitoare la exercitarea
profesiunii de farmacist, pentru c infraciunea de exercitare ilegal a profesiunii de
farmacist, de ctre o persoan care nu are aceast calitate sau de orice alt persoan, n
alte condiii dect cele legale, poate duce, nu doar la periclitarea valorilor sociale pe care
le apar legea prin incriminarea unei astfel de fapte, dar i la compromiterea prestigiului
profesiunii ce st la baza autonomiei exercitrii profesiunii de farmacist i a privilegiului
de auto-reglementare.

Capitolul 7
Interdicii de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist
Pedeapsa interzicerii exercitrii profesiunii de farmacist a fost prevzut succesiv
de art. 5 din Legea nr. 81/1997, art. 10 din Legea nr. 305/2004 i art. 562 din Legea nr.
95/2006. Aceast pedeaps poate fi aplicat farmacistului de ctre organizaia
profesional ca sanciune disciplinar sau de ctre instana de judecat ca urmare a
condamnrii definitive pentru svrirea cu intenie a unei infraciuni contra umanitii
sau vieii n mprejurri legate de exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist, ca pedeaps
complementar (potrivit art. 53 pct. 2 lit. a, art. 64 lit. c, art. 65 i art. 66 din Codul penal)
pentru orice infraciune pentru care pedeapsa principal aplicat este de minim doi ani, ca
pedeaps accesorie (potrivit art. 64 lit. c i art. 71 lit. b din Codul penal) n cazul oricrei
condamnri privative de libertate, ca msur de siguran (art. 111, 112, 115 din Codul
penal) pentru orice infraciune chiar dac nu s-a aplicat nici o pedeaps sau ca urmare a
contestrii n instan a deciziilor luate de organizaia profesional.
Aplicarea pedepsei interzicerii exercitrii profesiunii farmacistului, aflat n una
din situaiile prezentate n lucrare, este pe deplin justificat deoarece fapta acestuia
prezint un pericol social crescut, periclitnd valorile sociale i ordinea de drept,
acionnd n sens opus scopului nsui al farmacistului, de ocrotire a sntii i vieii
omului.
Capitolul 8
Incompatibiliti cu exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist
Incompatibilitile cu exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist au fost prevzute
succesiv de art. 6 alin. 1 i 2 al Legii nr. 81/1997, art. 11 alin. 1 al Legii nr. 305/2004 i
art. 563 alin. 1 al Legii nr. 95/2006.
n legislaia actual, conform n art. 563 alin. 1 al Legii nr. 95/2006, exercitarea
profesiunii de farmacist este incompatibil cu: profesia de medic, oricare ocupaie de
natur a aduce atingere demnitii profesiei de farmacist sau bunelor moravuri, iar
conform Codului deontologic al farmacistului, cu starea de sntate fizic sau psihic
necorespunztoare, pentru exercitarea profesiei de farmacist.
Incompatibilitatea ntre exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist i cea de medic,
prevzut de Legea nr. 95/2006 ar trebui reformulat astfel nct s stabileasc norme
coerente pentru necesitile din practic. Dei nu este prevzut n Legea nr. 95/2006 i

nici nu a fost prevzut n legile precedente, cel mai frecvent caz de incompatibilitate
rmne, n continuare, acela n care o persoan care exercit profesiunea de medic are, n
acelai timp, calitatea de proprietar al unei uniti farmaceutice. Pentru a preveni
nclcarea dreptului pacientului de a-i alege farmacia, ar trebui modificate prevederile
legale, n sensul recunoaterii acestei incompatibiliti.
Incompatibilitatea cu orice alt profesiune sau ocupaie de natur a aduce atingere
demnitii profesiunii de farmacist sau bunelor moravuri, prevzut de art. 563 alin. 1 lit.
b al Legii nr. 95/2006, este justificat i se datoreaz unor trsturi ce deriv din aceste
profesiuni sau ocupaii, care ar prejudicia relaia cu pacientul, fie prin scderea ncrederii
pacientului n farmacist, fie printr-o atitudine contrar ocrotirii sntii.
Incompatibilitatea exercitrii profesiunii de farmacist cu starea de sntate fizic
sau psihic necorespunztoare a farmacistului pentru exercitarea profesiunii, prevzut de
art. 563 alin. 1 lit. c al Legii nr. 95/2006 deriv, n acest caz, pe de o parte, din faptul c o
stare necorespunztoare a sntii pentru persoana n cauz duce la nendeplinirea
prevederilor legale pentru valabilitatea Certificatului de membru al Colegiului
Farmacitilor din Romnia (art. 564 alin. 3 lit. b al Legii nr. 95/2006) i a condiiilor
legale de exercitare a profesiunii (art. 560 alin. 1 lit. c al Legii nr. 95/2006), iar pe de alt
parte, o stare necorespunztoare a sntii pune sub semnul ntrebrii capacitatea
farmacistului de a-i exercita corect profesiunea n folosul pacienilor. O problem, n
acest sens, este reprezentat de lipsa, n legislaia n vigoare, a unei proceduri de lucru
pentru sesizarea experilor, pentru expertizarea propriu-zis i pentru emiterea deciziei de
suspendare sau retragere a dreptului de a exercita profesiunea de farmacist pentru
farmacistul n cauz.
Cauzele de apariie a incompatibilitilor sunt:
- lipsa unor prevederi legale speciale privind proprietatea asupra unitilor
farmaceutice;
- funcionarea necorespunztoare a organelor specializate ale Ministerului Sntii i
ale organizaiilor profesionale implicate, n privina controlului respectrii condiiilor
legale i a sanciunilor legale aplicabile;
- deficiene n respectarea eticii profesionale medicale i farmaceutice.
Prevederile art. 37 lit. c, e i f din Codul deontologic al farmacistului, ar trebui
reformulate sau abrogate, pentru a fi n acord cu legislaia farmaceutic actual.
III. CONCLUZII FINALE
Lucrarea de fa are ca scop studierea normelor referitoare la rspunderea penal
n domeniul farmaceutic, cu privire special asupra exercitrii profesiunii de farmacist.
Ipoteza de lucru o constituie problemele legislative n domeniul farmaceutic, care
pot clasificate n trei mari categorii: probleme care necesit reglementare, probleme care
necesit modificri ale normelor n vigoare i probleme de aplicare a normelor n vigoare.
Pentru cercetarea propus s-au studiat textele legale i reglementare urmtoare:
Legea nr. 81/1997 privind exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist, nfiinarea, organizarea i
funcionarea Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia, Legea nr. 305/2004 privind
exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist, precum i organizarea i funcionarea Colegiului
Farmacitilor din Romnia, Legea nr. 95/2006 privind reforma n domeniul sntii,
Titlul XIV Exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist, organizarea i funcionarea Colegiului
Farmacitilor din Romnia, Codul deontologic al farmacistului i Codul penal.
Cercetarea n domeniul legislaiei farmaceutice reclam utilizarea metodologiei
juridice, din care s-au utilizat n special metodele interpretrii juridice i metoda

comparativ. Aceste metode s-au aplicat asupra prevederilor legale referitoare la


exercitarea fr drept a profesiunii de farmacist, interzicerea exercitrii profesiunii de
farmacist i incompatibiliti cu exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist.
Situaiile din practic de exercitare fr drept a profesiunii de farmacist sunt:
eliberarea din drogherii a altor medicamente dect cele fr prescripie medical;
funcionarea farmaciei sau a depozitului de medicamente fr farmacist; exercitarea
profesiunii de farmacist de ctre o persoan care nu are aceast calitate. Cauzele
exercitrii fr drept a profesiunii de farmacist sunt: lipsa definirii exacte ntr-un act
normativ a profesiunii de farmacist i a celei de asistent de farmacie, a atribuiilor,
ndatoririlor i competenelor profesionale ale acestora; lipsa prevederilor legale clare
privind farmacistul n stagiu; organizarea i funcionarea necorespunztoare a inspeciei
de farmacie, n privina controlului respectrii condiiilor legale i a sanciunilor legale
aplicabile; ineficiena activitii Colegiul Farmacitilor, n privina respectrii, de ctre
farmaciti, a Codului deontologic; lipsa contiinei profesionale n cazul unor farmaciti.
Pedeapsa interzicerii exercitrii profesiunii de farmacist poate fi aplicat
farmacistului de ctre organizaia profesional ca sanciune disciplinar sau de ctre
instana de judecat. Ea este obligatoriu de aplicat de ctre instan, n cazul condamnrii
definitive pentru svrirea cu intenie a unei infraciuni contra umanitii sau vieii n
mprejurri legate de exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist. Ca pedeaps complementar,
ea se poate aplica pentru orice infraciune pentru care pedeapsa principal aplicat este de
minim doi ani. Ca msur de siguran, ea se poate aplica cu rol preventiv, chiar dac
nc nu exist o condamnare a farmacistului, dar acesta este incapabil, nepregtit etc.,
punnd n pericol societatea sau existnd un risc important de a svri fapte penale.
Aplicarea pedepsei interzicerii exercitrii profesiunii farmacistului aflat n una din
situaiile prezentate n lucrare este pe deplin justificat deoarece fapta acestuia prezint
un pericol social crescut, periclitnd valorile sociale i ordinea de drept, acionnd n sens
opus scopului nsui al farmacistului, de ocrotire a sntii i vieii omului.
Cauzele de apariie a incompatibilitilor sunt: lipsa unor prevederi legale speciale
privind proprietatea asupra unitilor farmaceutice; funcionarea necorespunztoare a
organelor specializate ale Ministerului Sntii i ale organizaiilor profesionale
implicate, n privina controlului respectrii condiiilor legale i a sanciunilor legale
aplicabile; deficiene n respectarea eticii profesionale medicale i farmaceutice.
Legislaia din domeniul farmaceutic romnesc nu este ndeajuns de bine studiat,
structurat i aplicat, este deficitar pentru anumite probleme, inadecvat pentru altele i
incoerent. Pentru o bun desfurare a activitilor farmaceutice i pentru diminuarea
pericolului acestora pentru sntatea public, este necesar att ca legislaia din domeniul
farmaceutic s fie cunoscut i aplicat corect, ct i ca aceast legislaie s fie
armonioas i adaptat la nevoile sistemului actual de sntate.
REFERINE SELECTIVE
1. Crian Ofelia, Profesiunea de farmacist Probleme de legislaie, Ed. Medical
Universitar Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 2007, p. 18 - 127;
2. Legea nr. 81 din 9 mai 1997 privind exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist, nfiinarea,
organizarea i funcionarea Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia, Monitorul Oficial,
Partea I, nr. 89 din 14 mai 1997;
3. Legea nr. 305 din 28 iunie 2004 privind exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist, precum
i organizarea i funcionarea Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia, Monitorul
Oficial, Partea I, nr. 578 din 30 iunie 2004;
4. Legea nr. 95 din 14 aprilie 2006 privind reforma n domeniul sntii, Monitorul

Oficial, Partea I, nr. 372 din 28 aprilie 2006;


5. Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Exercitarea fr drept a profesiunii
de farmacist, Clujul Medical, 2004, 1, p. 162 165
6. Ordonana de urgen a Guvernului Romniei nr. 152 din 14 octombrie 1999 privind
produsele medicamentoase de uz uman, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 508 din 20
octombrie 1999;
7. Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Interdicii de exercitare a
profesiunii de farmacist, Farmacia, 2005, 4, p. 112 120;
8. Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Incompatibiliti n exercitarea
profesiunii de farmacist, Farmacia, 2005, 5, p. 136 141;
9. DEX, Dicionarul explicativ al limbii romne, Ediia a II-a, Ed. Univers Enciclopedic,
Bucureti, 1996;
10. Crian Ofelia, Profesiunea de farmacist - Probleme de legislaie, Ed. Medical
Universitar Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 2001, p. 69 80;
11. Ordinul Ministrului Sntii nr. 626 din 11 septembrie 2001 pentru aprobarea
Normelor privind nfiinarea i autorizarea unitilor farmaceutice, precum i a
Condiiilor de organizare i funcionare a acestora, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 629
din 8 octombrie 2001;
12. Ordinul Ministerului Sntii nr. 679 din 16 iulie 2003 pentru aprobarea
Reglementrilor privind clasificarea pentru eliberarea produselor medicamentoase de
uz uman, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 556 din 1 august 2003;
13. Legea nr. 266 din 7 noiembrie 2008 farmaciei, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 765 din
13 noiembrie 2008, republicare Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 448 din 30 iunie
2009;
14. Crian Ofelia, Legislaia privind eliberarea medicamentelor n Romnia, n volumul
Farmacistul furnizor de servicii de sntate, Ed. Medical Universitar Iuliu
Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, p. 24 - 34;
15. Colegiul Farmacitilor din Romnia, Filiala Cluj, Legislaie farmaceutic, vol. I,
Codul de etic i deontologie al farmacitilor din Romnia, Tipografia Universitii
de Medicin i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 1998, p. 74 - 80;
16. Colegiul Farmacitilor din Romnia, Filiala Cluj, Legislaie farmaceutic, vol. I,
Statutul Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia, Tipografia Universitii de Medicin
i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 1998, p. 51 - 59;
17. Colegiul Farmacitilor din Romnia, Filiala Cluj, Legislaie farmaceutic, vol. I,
Regulamentul de organizare i funcionare al Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia,
Tipografia Universitii de Medicin i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca,
1998, p. 60 - 73;
18. Decizia Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia nr. 2 din 15 iunie 2009 privind
aprobarea Statutului Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia i a Codului deontologic
al farmacistului, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 490 din 15 iulie 2009;
19. Ministerul Justiiei, Codul penal, Codul de procedur penal, Ed. Lumina Lex,
Bucureti, 1997, p. 59 61;
20. Criu C., Codul juristului - Codul penal, Ed. Juris Argenssis, 2000, p. 535 - 654;
21. Legea nr. 143 din 26 iulie 2000 privind combaterea traficului i consumului ilicit de
droguri, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 362 din 3 august 2000;
22. Constituia Romniei, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 233 din 21 noiembrie 1991;

10

Anamaria Muresan

Informaii
personale

Experien
profesional

Nume/Prenume: Murean Anamaria


Adres: Str. Cutezantei nr. 22/14, cod potal 540558, Tg.Mure, Romnia
Telefon: +40 265 246 137
E-mail: badeami@yahoo.com
Naionalitate: Romn
Data naterii: 6 decembrie 1978
Ocupaia: farmacist

Farmacist ef
09/2008 03/2009

Shoppers Drug Mart, Calgary, Canada

Farmacist ef
09/2007 08/2008

Rexall Drug Stores, Olds, Canada

Farmacist clinician
11/2006 08/2007

Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada

Farmacist (ocazional)
11/2006 08/2007 Rexall Drug Stores, Calgary, Canada
Farmacist comunitar
07/2006 11/2006 WalMart, Calgary, Canada
Farmacist comunitar i stagiar
04/2006 07/2006
Alberta Clinic Pharmacy, Calgary, Canada
Reprezentant regional
01/2004 01/2005
Montero, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia
Farmacist comunitar i stagiar
11/2003 12/2003
Arnica, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia
Farmacist comunitar i stagiar
07/1999 01/2005
Novofarm, Tg.Mures, Romnia
Abiliti

precis, srguinciaos, capacitate de nvare rapid i receptiv la schimbri, sociabil,


spirit de echip, dinamic i inovatoare

Educaie

1998 2003 Diplom de licen n Farmacie


Universitatea de Medicin i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de
Farmacie, Romnia
1993 1997 Diplom de bacalaureat - profilul bilingv Englez-Francez
Colegiul Alexandru Papiu Ilarian , Tg.Mure, Romnia

11

Calificri
profesionale

Certificat de prim ajutor i resuscitare cardio-pulmonar/ defibrilare extern


automatizat nivel - furnizori de asisten medical, 01/2009
Autorizaie de administrare a medicamentelor pe cale injectabil acordat de
Colegiul Farmacitilor Alberta, 12/2007
Diabetes Patient Care Level 1 Certificate Program, 09/2009
Women's Health Certificate Program, 09/2009
Obesity Certificate Program, 04/2008

Participri la
manifestri
tiinifice

Pharmacist Conference, Shoppers Drug Mart/Pharmaprix, Calgary, Canada, 2008


Summit 07 Expedition To Excellence, Katz Group, Toronto, Canada, 2007
The 24th Annual Calgary Therapeutics Course, The University of Calgary, Calgary,
Canada, 2007
Demystifying Hospital Pharmacy, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Canada, 2006
Sesiunea poster - Interdicii de exercitare a profesiunii de farmacist, Congresul
Universitii de Medicin i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu Cluj-Napoca, Romnia,
2003
Sesiunea de comunicri tiinifice - Exercitarea fr drept a profesiunii de
farmacist, Congresul Studenilor Farmaciti, Ed. a III-a, Cluj-Napoca, Romnia,
2003
Concursul Aptitudini clinice, Congresul naional al studenilor farmaciti, ClujNapoca, Romnia, 2003
Concursul Comunicarea cu pacientul, Congresul naional al studenilor farmaciti,
Cluj-Napoca, Romnia, 2000 and 2002

Publicaii

Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Interdicii de exercitare a


profesiunii de farmacist, Farmacia, 2005, 4, p. 112 - 120
Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Incompatibiliti n exercitarea
profesiunii de farmacist, Farmacia, 2005, 5, p. 136 - 141
Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Exercitarea fr drept a
profesiunii de farmacist, Clujul Medical, 2004, 1, p. 162 - 165

Apartenen
profesional

Competene
de utilizare a
calculatorului

Microsoft Office, Internet


programe de gestiune pentru farmacii (Simplicity, PDX, Connexus, Nexssys, SCM,
Centricity, HealthWatch)

Limbi strine
cunoscute

Colegiul Farmacitilor Alberta


Asociaia Farmacitilor Alberta
Societatea American a Farmacitilor din Sistemul de Sntate
Colegiul Farmacitilor Romnia

Romn fluent
Englez fluent
Francez intermediar
Italian conversaional

12

THE IULIU HAIEGANU UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND


PHARMACY CLUJ-NAPOCA
THE FACULTY OF PHARMACY
THE DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIZATION
AND LEGISLATION

THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY IN THE


PHARMACEUTICAL DOMAIN
SUMMARY OF THE PhD THESIS
Scientific Coordinator
Professor Constantin Polinicencu, PhD
Murean

PhD Candidate
Pharmacist Anamaria

2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................4
I. THE GENERAL PART. THE JURIDICAL LIABILITY .............................6
CHAPTER 1
THE CONCEPT OF LIABILITY ...................................................................6
1. 1. The definition and the forms of liability.................................................6
1. 2. The conditions of liability.......................................................................7
1. 3. Conclusions.............................................................................................9
CHAPTER 2
THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY ......................................................................10
2. 1. The definition of criminal liability........................................................10
2. 2. The principles of criminal liability .......................................................12
2. 3. The criminal offense .............................................................................18
2. 3. 1. Essential and general aspects of the criminal offense.............19
2. 3. 2. The elements of the criminal offense......................................20
2. 4. The sanction..........................................................................................25
2. 5. The execution of criminal sanctions .....................................................27
2. 5. 1. The execution of the main sentences ......................................28
2. 5. 2. The execution of the complementary sentences .....................30
2. 5. 3. The execution of the auxiliary sentences ................................30

13

2. 6. Conclusions...........................................................................................30
CHAPTER 3
THE REHABILITATION AND THE CAUSES
THAT DISMISS THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY ........................................32
3. 1. The rehabilitation..................................................................................32
3. 1. 1. The lawful rehabilitation.........................................................33
3. 1. 2. The court rehabilitation...........................................................34
3. 2. The causes that dismiss the criminal liability .......................................35
3. 2. 1. The amnesty ............................................................................36
3. 2. 2. The pardon ..............................................................................37
3. 2. 3. The prescription ......................................................................38
3. 2. 4. The lack of former complaint and the reconciliation
of the parties........................................................................................38
3. 3. Conclusions...........................................................................................39
II. PERSONAL CONTRIBUTIONS
THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY
IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL DOMAIN........................................................40
A. THE WORKING HYPOTHESIS..................................................................40
CHAPTER 4
PROBLEMS IN THE FARMACEUITCAL PRACTICE...........................40
4. 1. Problems that need to be legislated.......................................................42
4. 2. Problems that require changes to the laws in force .............................47
4. 3. Problems in the application of the laws in force...................................48
4. 4. Conclusions...........................................................................................49
B. MATERIALS AND METHODS...................................................................50
CHAPTER 5
THE PHARMACEUTICAL LEGISLATION
AND THE JURIDICAL METHODS ............................................................50
5. 1. Materials ...............................................................................................50
5. 2. Methods ................................................................................................54
5. 2. 1. Metods of juridical research....................................................55
5. 2. 1. 1. The logical method ...............................................55
5. 2. 1. 2. The comparative method........................................55
5. 2. 1. 3. The historical method ............................................56
5. 2. 1. 4. The sociological method ........................................57
5. 2. 2. The juridical interpretation .....................................................58
5. 2. 2. 1. The grammatical method .......................................58
5. 2. 2. 2. The systematic method ..........................................59
5. 2. 2. 3. The logical method ................................................61
5. 2. 2. 4. The teleological method.........................................62
5. 2. 2. 5. The historical method ............................................63
5. 3. Conclusions...........................................................................................64
C. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY REGARDING THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF
THE PRACTICE OF PHARMACY ..................................................................65

14

CHAPTER 6
THE ILLEGAL PRACTICE OF PHARMACY ..........................................67
6. 1. The dispensation from the druggist shop of other medicines
than the those not requiring a medical prescription..............................79
6. 2. The functioning of the pharmaceutical units without a pharmacist......85
6. 3. The practicing of pharmacy outside the pharmaceutical unit ...............86
6. 4. Conclusions...........................................................................................89
CHAPTER 7
INTERDICTIONS TO PRACTICE PHARMACY .....................................91
7. 1. Criminal offenses against humanity and life ........................................91
7. 1. 1. Criminal offenses against peace and mankind........................93
7. 1. 2. Criminal offenses against life .................................................97
7. 2. Other criminal offenses that can lead to the interdiction of
practicing pharmacy.............................................................................99
7.3. The suspension or revocation of the membership of the
Romanian Colege of Pharmacists .......................................................105
7. 4. Conclusions.........................................................................................110
CHAPTER 8
THE INCOMPATIBILITIES OF PRACTICING PHARMACY ............111
8. 1. The distribution and the selling of other products than
those registered and approved by the Ministry of Health...................112
8. 2. The practice of medicine.....................................................................113
8. 3. Occupations that can harm the dignity of the pharmacist profession
or the morality.....................................................................................117
8. 4. Inadequate state of health ...................................................................118
8. 5. Incompatibilities under the Pharmacist's Code of Ethics ...................119
8. 6. Conclusions.........................................................................................123
III. FINAL CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................126
REFERENCES...................................................................................................134

Key Words: criminal liability, pharmacist, profession, criminal offense, interdiction,


incompatibility.
INTRODUCTION

The paper studies the criminal liability in the pharmaceutical domain in


Romania. We have chosen this topic because the criminal offense in the
pharmaceutical domain is directed against the most important social value protected by
the state through its laws the health. The pharmacists mission is to protect the health,
to help in regaining it, but committing a criminal offense in this domain means to act
against his own professional mission. In order to accomplish the purpose of this paper,
it is necessary to analyze the legal conditions of the practice of pharmacy, the general
drugs regulations and the special narcotics regulations. The present study refers in
particular to the criminal liability derived from the conditions of the practice of

15

pharmacy.
I. THE GENERAL PART. JURIDICAL LIABILITY
Chapter 1
The concept of liability
Every law field has its own particular kind of liability characterised by specific
conditions of substance and form (conditions, modes of establishing, forms of
achievement, mod, and sanctions). Thus, there are more forms of juridical liability:
political liability (constitutional responsibility of the parliament), civil liability,
criminal liability, administrative liability (liability of public power), disciplinary,
international responsibility. The juridical liabilitys conditions are: unlawful conduct,
guilt and the causal link between unlawful act and the damage caused.
Chapter 2
The criminal liability
Criminal law, overall, is structured around three fundamental institutions:
criminal offense, criminal liability and punishment. Criminal liability represents the
criminal justice constraint report, born as a result of criminal offense, between the state,
on one hand, and the offender, on the other hand. This is a comprehensive report,
whose contents form the state law, as the societys representative, to hold the offender
accountable, to apply penalties for the offense and to compel him to execute it, and also
the delinquents obligation to be liable for the offense and to subject himself to
sanction, in order to reinstate law and order and to restore the laws authority.
The principle of criminal liability is the criminal offense the act that has a
high degree of social danger, committed with guilt and established by the criminal law.
Its elements are: the object, the subject, objective and subjective side. The enforcement
of criminal sanctions is done by committing the defendant to accomplish the actual
content of these sanctions.
Chapter 3
The rehabilitation and the causes that dismiss the criminal liability
The conviction may have some consequences after the execution of the main
sentences, restricting the legal capacity of former convicts (forfeitures, interdictions
and inabilities), but which may cease after a time through rehabilitation. Thus,
rehabilitation is an incentive for former convicts to have the appropriate conduct
required by society, proven by their compliance with the law. Through rehabilitation,
the former convict is reintegrated into society, not only morally, but also legally. The
causes that dismiss the criminal liability are: the amnesty, the pardon, the prescription,
no prior complaint, the reconciliation of the parts and the withdrawal of the prior
complaint. These causes are general, because in principle they relate to any offense.
Some are effective only under the provisions of Criminal Code, while others, in some
cases (amnesty or pardon), imply the intervention of the supreme organs of the state
power.
II. PERSONAL CONTRIBUTIONS
CRIMINAL LIABILITY IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL DOMAIN

16

A. THE WORKING HYPOTHESIS


The criminal liability in the pharmaceutical domain is engaged due to the
violation of the laws that govern the practice of pharmacy and the regulations of the
drugs. Initially, at the start of this study, we tried to analyze both cases. In time,
however, to maintain the order and the functionality of the paper we considered to limit
our research to the first situation. Therefore, the objectives of this study are:
the presentation of juridical liability under Romanian law;
the definition of criminal liability and the principles that govern it;
the presentation of the legal framework of pharmacy practice;
the establishment of legal norms, appropriate for the proposed research, the
ones leading to the initiation of the criminal liability in the pharmaceutical
domain, especially those of exercising the pharmacist profession;
the analysis of the text of these laws to determine where the criminal liability is
engaged as a result of failure to follow the legal rules that govern the
pharmacist profession;
the study of the interdictions and incompatibilities of practicing pharmacy;
the identification of the conditions and the causes that lead to the illegal
practice of pharmacy;
the analysis of actual situations of illegal practice of pharmacy;
the identification and the analysis of the deficiencies of the text of the studied
laws, the problems in the application of these laws, the discordances between
the different laws governing the pharmaceutical domain, but also the
divergence between the legal provisions and the requirements in practice;
the prevention of the recurrence of the examined problems in the future
standards.
Chapter 4
Problems in the pharmaceutical practice
The Romanian pharmaceutical legislative problems can be classified into three
categories: problems that need to be legislated, problems that require changes to the
laws in force and problems in the application of the laws in force. Among the major
issues in the practice of pharmacy that require regulation is the absence of a precise
definition of the pharmacy profession, of pharmaceutical units ownership and of
pharmaceutical units standards of operation.
The problems that require changes to the existing legislation related to the
practice of pharmacy are multiple. Some are given by the existence of contrary rules in
the text of the same law or in other legal provisions (e.g. art. 634 with art. 836 of the
Law no. 95/2006), some from the lack in the legislation of the references provided (e.g.
art. 562 of the Law no. 95/2006), and others do not have correspondence or reciprocity
in the existing legislation (e.g. art. 563 par. 1 let. a and art. 383 let. a of the Law no.
95/2006).
The problems in the application of the laws in force are due to: the lack of clear
standards for pharmacy practice and the operation of the pharmaceutical units, too
frequent pharmaceutical law changes in the last few years, and difficulties in the
control of this activity regarding the application of the laws in force.
The aim of this paper is to study the norms that engage the criminal liability in
the pharmaceutical domain, with special regards to pharmacy practice, and to prevent

17

the legal problems observed and discussed to arise in a subsequent legal norm.
B. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Chapter 5
The pharmaceutical legislation and the juridical methods
For the proposed research we studied the law texts regarding the pharmacist
profession, the organization and the functioning of the Romanian College of
Pharmacists, the Code of Ethics and the Criminal Code of Romania.
The research of the laws governing the pharmaceutical domain requires the use
of juridical methodology, ie the methods used in the law field of scientific research. We
have presented the juridical research methods used, detailing the logical, comparative,
historical and sociological methods. For the study proposed we have applied the
juridical interpretation. It includes several categories of methods: grammatical
interpretation, teleological, systematical, historical and logical. In general, in the
present paper, these methods of juridical interpretation were not used in isolation, but
were used together, two or more, or all at once, to establish the true meaning and
purpose of the norms studied.
C. REZULTATE I DISCUII
THE CRIMINAL LIABILITY REGARDING THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF
THE PRACTICE OF PHARMACY
Chapter 6
The Illegal Practice of Pharmacy
The analysis of the legal setting for the practice of pharmacy has led to the
identification of the conditions under which the criminal offense of illegal practice of
pharmacy is commited, as well as to the observation of the causes of committing this
criminal offense. The conditions for the existence of this crime are derived from the
committal of acts rezerved for the practice of pharmacy by a person who does not have
this quality (art. 40 of Law no. 81/1997, art. 78 of Law no. 305/2004, art. 634 of Law
no. 95/2006 and art. 281 of the Criminal Code).
The actual situations of illigal practice of pharmacy are:
- the dispensation from the druggist shop of other medicines than those not requiring
a medical prescription;
- the functioning of the pharmacy or the drugs warehouse without a pharmacist;
- the practice of pharmacy by a person who doesnt have this quality.
The most frequent situations of illegal practice of pharmacy, encountered in
practice, are those in which the pharmacy assistants, in druggist shops, break the
regulations of group A drugs dispensation.
The persons guilty of complicity in the criminal offense of illegal practice of
pharmacy are most frequently pharmacists.
The causes of the illegal practice of pharmacy are:
- the lack of a precise definition, in a legislative measure, of the profession of
pharmacy and of the pharmacy assistant, their attributions, duties and professional
competencies;
- the lack of clear legal provisions for the pharmacist intern;
- the inadequate organising and functioning of the Pharmacy Inspection in

18

monitoring the compliance with the legal requirements and the legal penalties
applicable;
- the inefficiency of the activity of the Romanian College of Pharmacists regarding
the compliance by the pharmacists with the Pharmacist Code of Ethics;
- the lack of professional conscience for some pharmacists.
Considering the characteristics that define the profession and the societal values
protected by the state, we can deduce the importance of respecting the legal provisions
related to the practice of pharmacy, because the criminal offense of illegal practice of
pharmacy by a person who doesnt have the quality or by any other person other than
the one satisfying the statutory requirements, may lead not only to the endangerment of
the social values that the law protects by criminalizing such acts, but also to the
compromise of the prestige of the profession which is the basis for its autonomy and
self regulation.
Chapter 7
Interdictions of practicing pharmacy
The penalty of the interdiction of practicing pharmacy has been set successively
by art. 5 of Law no. 81/1997, art. 10 of Law no. 305/2004 and art. 562 of Law no.
95/2006. This penalty may be imposed to the pharmacist by the professional
organization as a disciplinary sanction or by the court following the final conviction for
wilfully committing a crime against humanity or life in circumstances relating to the
practice of pharmacy, as a complementary sentence (according to art . 53 par. 2 let. a,
art. 64 let. c, art. 65 and art. 66 of the Criminal Code) for any offense for which the
principal penalty imposed is at least two years, as an accessory sentence (according to
art. 64 let. c and art. 71 let. b of the Criminal Code) for any offense for which the
penalty imposed was any length of detention time, a safety measure (art. 111, 112 and
115 of the Criminal Code) for any offense even if no penalty was applied or following
the challenge in court of the decisions of the professional organization.
Applying the penalty of the interdiction of practicing pharmacy to the
pharmacist, found in one of the situations presented in the paper, is fully justified
because his act has a high social danger, threatening social values and legal order,
acting in the opposite purpose of the pharmacist himself, to protect health and human
life.
Chapter 8
The incompatibilities of practicing pharmacy
The incompatibilities of practicing pharmacy were set successively by art. 6
par. 1 and 2 of Law no. 81/1997, art. 11 par. 1 of Law no. 305/2004 and art. 563 par. 1
of Law no. 95/2006.
Today, according to art. 563 par. 1 of Law no. 95/2006, the practice of
pharmacy is incompatible with: the practice of medicine, any occupation that can harm
the dignity of the pharmacist profession or the morality, and, according to the
Pharmacist's Code of Ethics, with inadequate physical or mental health for practicing
pharmacy.
The incompatibility between the practice of pharmacy and the practice of
medicine, provided by Law. 95/2006, should be reformulated so as to establish
consistent rules for the needs of practice. Although not required by Law no. 95/2006
and has not been provided in previous laws, the most common case of incompatibility

19

still remains one in which a person has engaged in the profession of medicine, while
being the owner of a pharmaceutical unit. To prevent infringement to the patient right
to choose the pharmacy, the provisions should be modified in the sense of
acknowledging this incompatibility.
The incompatibility with any other profession or occupation liable to harm the
dignity of the profession of pharmacy or morality, provided by art. 563 par. 1 let. b of
Law no. 95/2006, is justified and is due to features derived from these professions or
occupations, which would harm the relationship with the patient, either by lowering the
patient's confidence in the pharmacist, either through an attitude contrary to fostering
the health.
The incompatibility of practicing pharmacy with the pharmacists inadequate
physical or mental health, provided by art. 563 par. 1 let. c of the Law. 95/2006 arises,
in this case, on one hand, from the fact that a poor state of health of the person in
question leads to failure in satisfying the legal conditions for the validity of the College
of Pharmacists of Romania membership certificate (art. 564 par. 3 let. b of Law no.
95/2006) and the conditions of exercising the profession (art. 560 par. 1 let. b of Law
no. 95/2006), and on the other hand, a poor state of health challenges the ability of the
pharmacist to exercise correctly the profession for the benefit of the patients. A
problem in this regard is the lack, in the present law, of a working procedure for
referral to proper experts, to expertise and to issue the decision to suspend or withdraw
the right to exercise the profession of pharmacy for the pharmacist in question.
The causes of the incompatibilities are:
- the lack of specific legal provisions on the ownership of pharmaceutical units;
the poor functioning of the specialized institutions of the Ministry of Health and of
the professional organizations involved in the monitoring of compliance with legal
requirements and the legal applicable penalties;
- deficiencies in medical and pharmaceutical compliance with professional ethics.
The provisions of art. 37 let. c, e and f of the Pharmacist Code of Ethics should
be reformulated or repealed, to be consistent with current pharmaceutical legislation.
III. FINAL CONCLUSIONS
This paper studies the norms on criminal liability in the pharmaceutical domain,
with special regard to the practice of pharmacy.
The working hypothesis is the legal issues in pharmaceutical domain, which
can be classified into three broad categories: problems that need to be legislated,
problems that require changes to the laws in force and problems in the application of
the laws in force.
For the proposed research we have studied the following legal and regulatory
texts: Law no. 81/1997 on the practice of pharmacy, establishment, organization and
functioning of the Romanian College of Pharmacists, Law no. 305/2004 on the practice
of pharmacy, and the organization and functioning of the Romanian College of
Pharmacists, Law no. 95/2006 on healthcare reform, Title XIV on the practice of
pharmacy, organization and functioning of the Romanian College of Pharmacists, the
Pharmacist Code of Ethics and the Criminal Code.
The research of the pharmaceutical legislation requires the use of the legal
methodology, of which the methods of legal interpretation and the comparative method
were especially applied. These methods were applied to the legal provisions concerning
the illegal practice of pharmacy, the interdictions to practice pharmacy and to the

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incompatibilities with the practice of pharmacy.


The actual situations of illegal practice of pharmacy are: the dispensation from
the druggist shop of other medicines than those not requiring a medical prescription,
the functioning of the pharmacy or the drugs warehouse without a pharmacist, the
practice of pharmacy by a person who doesnt have this quality. The causes of the
illegal practice of pharmacy are: the lack of a precise definition, in a legislative
measure, of the profession of pharmacy and of the pharmacy assistant, their
attributions, duties and professional competencies, the lack of clear legal provisions for
the pharmacist intern, the inadequate organising and functioning of the Pharmacy
Inspection in monitoring the compliance with the legal requirements and the legal
penalties applicable, the inefficiency of the activity of the Romanian College of
Pharmacists regarding the compliance by the pharmacists with the Pharmacist Code of
Ethics, the lack of professional conscience for some pharmacists.
The penalty of the interdiction to practice pharmacy may be imposed to the
pharmacist by the professional organization as a disciplinary sanction or by the court. It
is mandatory to be applied by the court for final convictions for intentionally
committing a crime against humanity or life in circumstances relating to the practice of
pharmacy. As a complementary sentence, it is applicable to any offense for which the
principal penalty imposed is at least two years. As a safety measure, it can be applied
with a preventive role, although the pharmacist is not yet convicted, but he is
incapable, unprepared, etc., endangering the society or if there is a significant risk of
committing criminal acts.
Applying the penalty of the interdiction to practice pharmacy to the pharmacist,
found in one of the situations presented in the paper, is fully justified because his act
has a high social danger, threatening social values and legal order, acting in the
opposite purpose of the pharmacist himself, to protect health and human life.
The causes of the incompatibilities are: the lack of specific legal provisions on
the ownership of pharmaceutical units, the poor functioning of the specialized
institutions of the Ministry of Health and of the professional organizations involved in
the monitoring of compliance with legal requirements and the legal applicable
penalties, deficiencies in the medical and pharmaceutical compliance with professional
ethics.
Romanian pharmaceutical legislation is not sufficiently well studied, structured
and implemented, is insufficient for some problems, inappropriate and inconsistent for
others. For a good conduct of pharmaceutical activities and to reduce their threat to the
public health, it is necessary that the pharmaceutical law to be known and applied
correctly and that such legislation is harmonized and adapted to the current health
system
needs.
SELECTIVE REFERENCES
23. Crian Ofelia, Profesiunea de farmacist Probleme de legislaie, Ed. Medical
Universitar Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 2007, p. 18 - 127;
24. Legea nr. 81 din 9 mai 1997 privind exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist,
nfiinarea, organizarea i funcionarea Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia,
Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 89 din 14 mai 1997;
25. Legea nr. 305 din 28 iunie 2004 privind exercitarea profesiunii de farmacist,
precum i organizarea i funcionarea Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia,
Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 578 din 30 iunie 2004;
26. Legea nr. 95 din 14 aprilie 2006 privind reforma n domeniul sntii, Monitorul

21

Oficial, Partea I, nr. 372 din 28 aprilie 2006;


27. Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Exercitarea fr drept a
profesiunii de farmacist, Clujul Medical, 2004, 1, p. 162 165
28. Ordonana de urgen a Guvernului Romniei nr. 152 din 14 octombrie 1999
privind produsele medicamentoase de uz uman, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 508
din 20 octombrie 1999;
29. Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Interdicii de exercitare a
profesiunii de farmacist, Farmacia, 2005, 4, p. 112 120;
30. Murean Anamaria, Crian Ofelia, Polinicencu C., Incompatibiliti n exercitarea
profesiunii de farmacist, Farmacia, 2005, 5, p. 136 141;
31. DEX, Dicionarul explicativ al limbii romne, Ediia a II-a, Ed. Univers
Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1996;
32. Crian Ofelia, Profesiunea de farmacist - Probleme de legislaie, Ed. Medical
Universitar Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 2001, p. 69 80;
33. Ordinul Ministrului Sntii nr. 626 din 11 septembrie 2001 pentru aprobarea
Normelor privind nfiinarea i autorizarea unitilor farmaceutice, precum i a
Condiiilor de organizare i funcionare a acestora, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr.
629 din 8 octombrie 2001;
34. Ordinul Ministerului Sntii nr. 679 din 16 iulie 2003 pentru aprobarea
Reglementrilor privind clasificarea pentru eliberarea produselor medicamentoase
de uz uman, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 556 din 1 august 2003;
35. Legea nr. 266 din 7 noiembrie 2008 farmaciei, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 765
din 13 noiembrie 2008, republicare Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 448 din 30
iunie 2009;
36. Crian Ofelia, Legislaia privind eliberarea medicamentelor n Romnia, n volumul
Farmacistul furnizor de servicii de sntate, Ed. Medical Universitar Iuliu
Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, p. 24 - 34;
37. Colegiul Farmacitilor din Romnia, Filiala Cluj, Legislaie farmaceutic, vol. I,
Codul de etic i deontologie al farmacitilor din Romnia, Tipografia Universitii
de Medicin i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 1998, p. 74 - 80;
38. Colegiul Farmacitilor din Romnia, Filiala Cluj, Legislaie farmaceutic, vol. I,
Statutul Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia, Tipografia Universitii de
Medicin i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu, Cluj-Napoca, 1998, p. 51 - 59;
39. Colegiul Farmacitilor din Romnia, Filiala Cluj, Legislaie farmaceutic, vol. I,
Regulamentul de organizare i funcionare al Colegiului Farmacitilor din
Romnia, Tipografia Universitii de Medicin i Farmacie Iuliu Haieganu,
Cluj-Napoca, 1998, p. 60 - 73;
40. Decizia Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia nr. 2 din 15 iunie 2009 privind
aprobarea Statutului Colegiului Farmacitilor din Romnia i a Codului deontologic
al farmacistului, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 490 din 15 iulie 2009;
41. Ministerul Justiiei, Codul penal, Codul de procedur penal, Ed. Lumina Lex,
Bucureti, 1997, p. 59 61;
42. Criu C., Codul juristului - Codul penal, Ed. Juris Argenssis, 2000, p. 535 - 654;
43. Legea nr. 143 din 26 iulie 2000 privind combaterea traficului i consumului ilicit
de droguri, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 362 din 3 august 2000;
44. Constituia Romniei, Monitorul Oficial, Partea I, nr. 233 din 21 noiembrie 1991;
AnamariaMuresan

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Personal
Information

Professional
experience

Surname/Name: Anamaria Muresan


Address: 22/14 Cutezantei st, Tg. Mures, 540558, Romania
Phone: +40 265 246 137
Email: badeami@yahoo.com
Nationality: Romanian
Date of Birth: December 6, 1978
Occupation: pharmacist

Pharmacy manager
09/2008 03/2009
Pharmacy manager
09/2007 08/2008

Shoppers Drug Mart, Calgary, Canada

Rexall Drug Stores, Olds, Canada

Hospital pharmacist
11/2006 08/2007

Foothills Hospital, Calgary, Canada

Relief pharmacist
11/2006 08/2007

Rexall Drug Stores, Calgary, Canada

Community pharmacist
07/2006 11/2006 WalMart, Calgary, Canada
Community pharmacist and pharmacy intern
04/2006 07/2006
Alberta Clinic Pharmacy, Calgary, Canada
Regional representative
01/2004 01/2005
Montero, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Community pharmacist and pharmacy intern
11/2003 12/2003
Arnica, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Community pharmacist and pharmacy intern
07/1999 01/2005
Novofarm, Tg.Mures, Romania
Skills

Education

1998 2003 Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy


Iuliu Haieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Pharmacy Faculty, ClujNapoca, Romania, Diploma: The Criminal Liability in the Pharmaceutical Domai

Accurate, diligent and quick worker


Fast learner and receptive to changes
Peoples person and team player
Dynamic and innovative

1993 1997 Baccalaureate in English and French


Alexandru Papiu Ilarian College, Tg.Mure, Romania

23

Professional
qualifications

Participations

Publications

Professional
memberships

Computer
knowledge
Languages

Certified in Standard First Aid and CPR/AED level HCP, 01/2009


Authorized by ACP to administer drugs by injection, 12/2007
Diabetes Patient Care Level 1 Certificate Program, 09/2009
Women's Health Certificate Program, 09/2009
Obesity Certificate Program, 04/2008
Pharmacist Conference, Shoppers Drug Mart/Pharmaprix, Calgary, Canada, 200
Summit 07 Expedition To Excellence, Katz Group, Toronto, Canada, 2007
The 24th Annual Calgary Therapeutics Course, The University of Calgary, Cal
Canada, 2007
Demystifying Hospital Pharmacy, Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Canada, 200
Poster Session - The Interdictions of Practicing Pharmacy Situations
Practice, Iuliu Haieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Congress,
Napoca, Romania, 2003
Scientific Communication Session with the paper entitled The Illegal Practi
Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2003
Clinical Abilities competition, The National Congress of Pharmacy Students,
Napoca, Romania, 2003
Communicating with the patient competition, The National Congress of Phar
Students, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2000 and 2002

The Incompatibilities Of Practicing Pharmacy, Farmacia (The Journal o


Romanian Society of Pharmaceutical Science), Romania, 2005
The Interdictions Of Practicing Pharmacy, Farmacia, Romania, 2005
The Illegal Practice Of Pharmacy, Clujul Medical (The Journal of the Univ
of Medicine and Pharmacy Iuliu Hatieganu), Romania, 2004

Alberta College of Pharmacists


Alberta Pharmacists Association
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
Romanian College of Pharmacists

office software (Microsoft Office), Internet


various programs used in pharmacies for dispensing (Simplicity, PDX, Conn
Nexssys, SCM, Centricity, HealthWatch)
Romanian fluent
English fluent
French intermediate
Italian conversational

24