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Novigation Advanced for MoloMastrs Fogulstory Requkernanis “The tats nc verfelion a the aesuraay and he duration and resoverabily of the recorded data In edlion, tects and inspections must ba condted to determine Es sonssby oa protone encase and dass To prevent an over wring of dala, Kis important to urn of te VOR shorty after aval Into the testis to be performed ere During an emergency, tis important for tie Waster ts downoad the data earty on ta prevent any over-writng. This f important for investigation and evidence purposes. If {hs emergency stuation continuas for a significant period subsequent downlcads, at intervals of less than twelve hours, should bs parformed. Some companies nave procedures for VDR data to be downloaded al less than twelve hours in order hhave access to entle voyage data for analysis and investigation, when required, 14 j Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masters Passage Planning 2 Passage Planning Safely at sea is the primary’conier of any mariner, but it must be actleved. alongside the commercial yaquirements of a voyaga. Therefore itis erica thet 2 ‘vessel Completes its operations safely and effcienly. The majority of studies into maritime casualties have highlighted human efror as one of the most significant. Contributory factors in an incident. Careful planning plays a signficent part in the reduction of these errors, eating an environment forthe safety and commercial ‘success, Passage Planning's a recommendation for ensuting safely atsea.- ‘There are intemational, national and company spaciic recommendations for passage planning, These may be in the form of IMO guldatines, ICS - Bridge Procedures Guide, MCA - A Guide to the Planning and Conduct of Sea Passages, MCA MGNs and MSNs znd part of Company Safety Management System. In particular, the SMS will provide detalled instructions fori A bridge team consists of several individuals who may be at different levets of individual knowledge, skills and experience. As well as being @ requirement, passage planning Serves e useful purpose in ensuring thatthe bridge team follows ‘agreed consistent procedures and standards. In looking at the technical skis, ‘consideration must be given to the techniques involved in preparing for and ‘conducting the proposed passage. “The passage plan should make it easier for the bridge team to navigate the ship safely. It should be comprehensive, detailed and easy to interpret. The full procedure has four stages: + Appraisal Planning > Execution = Monitoring ~The frsttwo are the preparatory stages. Items three and four are the essential ‘elements of voyage execution and confirm that tha voyage is being conducted ‘according to the pian. The procedure must be supporied by good information and data 6 ‘Novigalon Advanced for Mates and Masters Pessoge Planning 2.4 Appraisal Before embarking-on any venture; those persons controling for playing'a part in i), ‘must have an understanding of the lkoly risks involved. During appraisal, ell information relevant to the passaga is gathorod-andthe-iskeare examined, 2.1.1 Use of Publications Detaiied information is required in order to make decisions regarding the overall ‘conduct of the passage. This information is taken from @ number of sources, such as Fegular publications or notices provided in response to events. Instructions fram parties influencing the venture (e.g. owners, charlerars) wil aleo be part of the appraisal. Choosing which authority's publication to use depends upon the Chart Outfit carried on board; the availabilty of local publications and legal requirements far cariage, for exemple, charts for coastal or inland waters, 24.4.4 Chart Catalogue ‘The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) publishes The Catalogue of ‘Admiralty Charts and Other Hydrographic Publications (NP121) annually. It shows the area of coverage of BA charis and other BA publications. The Defence Mapping ‘Agency (DMA) of the USA produces a similar document, tled as CATP2VOTU. The US version shows the areas of coverage of US charls end other publications. vessels carry UKHO or US charts. Some areas of the world are coverad in greeter detail by charts that are published by local hydrographic authorities. in some parts of the word it may bbe 2 requirement to use local charts ‘UKHO charts are published on a large scale thet allows sate navigation in the Coastal waters of the UK, the Commonwealth and some Middle Eastern countries For other areas the policy is to publish enough charts to enable the mariner to cross the oceans and proceed along the coasts to reach the port approaches safely. 2.41.3 Sailing Directions and Pilot Books ‘Admiralty Sailing Directions’, or ‘Plot Books’ as they are cammonly known, are Published in volumes by the UKHO. These provide worldwide coverage and are intended to complement the Admiralty charts, 16 Novigatlon Advances for Males and Masts Passage Planning ‘They contain descriptions of: the coast offlying features + tidal streams and currents + directions for navigation iv complicated waters ‘© information about channels and harbours + navigational hazards ‘2 buoyage systems = pilotage = regulations ‘= general notes on counties covered by the voluma = portfaciities ‘= seasonel currents ‘© climatic conditions with direct access to tha sea. Salling directions are published by the DMA in the series SDPUB 121-200. Some of these provice information similar to Ocean Passages for the World and are referred to as Planning Guides. Other publications contain information similar io Pitot Books and are referred to en-route. 24.1.4 Ocean Passages for the World (NP136) Published by the UKHO, i contains information on planning ocean passages, ‘oceanography and current. It also provides recommended routes and distances between the principal pots ofthe world and includes details of winds, weather, ‘currents and ice hazards thal may be encountered, Ocean Passages also contains grams uid chatlets fer the main oesan rules for power vassals and saling ships, 24.1.5 Routeing Charts and Pilot Charts ‘These contain basic routeing instructions, togathar with metaorological details, and ‘are published for the min oceans for he twelve-month period. The information Includes limits of load-iine zones, routes and distances between principal ports and focal points, ocean currents, wind roses and ice limits. Inset charilets and texts, include air, dew point and sea temperatures, barometric pressure, diumal variation ‘snd the incidence of fog. gales and storms, Routaing charis are published by the UKHO as Chart numbers §124-8. Similar meteorological charts are published by the DMA and ere known as Pilot Charts and they are available on the web at htiov/pollux.nss.nima.rnl 7 Navigation Advancod for Males Mastors Passage Planing 24.4.6 Admiraity List of Radio Signals (ALRS) = ‘The UKHO publishes this list in 6 volumes: + Volume 1 - Maritime Radio Stations NP281, 2 Paris Global marine communications sence, Ship-reporing systoms-Medical Advice by radio, quarantine reports, locust reports, CRSs, coastguard stations, piracy and armed robbery repars, alen.smuggling reporting, Radio regulations in teritosial waters = Volume 2 - Radio Aids to Navigation, DIF, Radar beacons, Satelite Navigation Systems, Legal Time, Ratio Time Signals and Electronic Position Fixing System + Volume 3 - Maritime Ssfety information Services, 2 Parts Radio facsimile broadcasts end weather services, Navigational warnings (WWNWS and NAVTEX), Weather routsing services, Gicbal marine ‘meteorological services, meteorological codes for shipping use. (Seo (Chapter 14 for more on this) «Volume 4 - Meteorological Cbsarvation Stations + Volume 5 - Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) (Sea Chapter 11 for more on this) “+ Volume 6 - Pilot Services, Vesset Tralfi Services and Port Operations, 5 Paris Similar lntormation is avaliable the DMA publications of the USA. AAT List of Lights and Fog Signals, ‘Thess are published by the UKHO in eleven volumes and provide worldwide ‘coverage. A UKHO digital version ofthe List of Lights and Fog Signals is also available, covering the word in ten areas. The digital version is corrected using icketies, which are issued weekly. The US Coast Guard (USCG) pubishes seven volumes of Light Lists and Fog Signals, covering the US coast and Great Lakes, Light Lists published by the DMA cover the rest of the word, 24.4.8 Notices to Mariners “The UKHO and the OMA publish notices to mariners in weekly editions. The ccontants include: = Index: + Admiralty notices to mariners + Navigational warnings = Corrections to the Admiralty sailing directions, + Corrections to the Admiralty lst of ights and fog signals “+ Corrections to the Acimiraty lst of rao signals (ALRS) Navigation Avoneed for Mates and Mastrs Pessege Planing Digital versions of Notices to Mariners are also avallabla~‘Thessare"used for ‘correcting digital charts (ECDIS, ENC, and ARCS) and cgttal fists of lights. 24.4.9 Ship's Routeing ‘This book is published hy the IMO. It cantains information on all routsing, trafic ‘separation schemes, deepwater routas-and-areas fo be avoided. Similar information is also shawn on chests and is contained in the sailing directions. 2AAAD Tide Tables ‘The UKHO annualy publishes four volumes of the Admiralty Tide Tables (ATT), ‘These cover the work, ‘TOTAL TIDE’. a digltel CD version of UKHO Tide Tables uses computers to provides tidal information and covers the world in ten aress. Paper and digital versions also provide tidal stream data. The US National Oceat ‘Service also publishes worldwide tables, 241.11 Tidal Stream Atlases ‘These are published by the UCHO and cover the waters of North West Europe and Hong Kong, Total Tide provides tidal stream information worldwide. Some port ‘suthoriies publish thelr own tial stream atlases, The US National Ocean Service publishes tidal current tables that cover the Atlantic Coast of North America and the Pacific Coast of North Amarica and Asia. 2A4AA2_ Co-Tidal and Co-Range Charts ‘Those are published for wate's where tidal conditions are particularly significant: safety -ertieal navigation. 2AAA3_ Load Line Chart Load line zones are shown In Ocean Passages for the World, and on the BA Chart 1D6083, Tha charl provides tne boundaries ofthe zones and the applicable dates for ‘Seasonal Zanes. 244.14 Nautical Almanac and Tables Provide essential navigatione! information of certain events, for example, sunrise, 2AAA8 Distance Tables ‘The UKHO and DMA produce tgbles giving coastal and ocean distances. Some independent companies, suet as Reed’ oF BP, also produce distance tables. 24446 The Mariner's Handbook ‘This book is published by the UKHO. It contains advice and recommendations on ravigation and general information that is of interest to the mariner 18 Navigation Advancod fr Mates ond Mots Pssaye Planing 24447 Passage Planning Gharts—S500-Serles———— ——--—— ‘These are available for certain parts othe world (for example, Dover Strat, Malacca Strait) and contain useful information in the form of text and dlegrams, 24.448 Annual Summary Of Admiralty Notices To Mariners Published by the UKHO. it contains information arid UK legIslaon that Is relevant to Bish shipping, Merchant Shipping Notices ‘These are a series of notices published by the MCA and MAIB, MSN (while) contain statutory information that must be complied with MGNs (blue) contain advice and recommendation on matters conceming Safaty of life al soa and pollution prevention. MINs (green) contain information that is fr limited readorship and is Intended ‘o support infortiation about the services available to the industry. These have an expiry date 24.2 Other Sources of information Climatic information (Climatic information can be obtained from: = Pilot books = Plotcharts © The Mariner's Handbook ‘+ Ocean Passages for the Wold ‘+ Meteorology for Mariners. Weather Reports ‘These are of significance just before the commencement ofthe voyage and during the voyage. They are used for raviawing the passage plan once the ship has ‘embarked on the voyage. Sources of weather information include: = Radio weather repcris + NAVTEX (See Chapter 11) © Port authorities Other shipping 20 Nevigaton Advanced fr Mates ard Mastors Pssope Plannicg ‘Navigational Warnings These contsin up-to-date changes to navigational aids and hazards, They are obtained from +» Radio ‘= INMARSAT / SefetyNET (See Chapter 11) © NAVTEX ‘+ Vessel Traffic Servcas (VTS) + Harbour authorities, Navigational warnings are also published in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners and the weekly editions of Notices to Mariners. 2.4.24 Onboard Navigation Systems Technical and User Manuals Those are supplied with the navigational equipment when itis installad on board. The user manusis should be thoroughly understood by all oficars whe ara using the equipment 24.28 Manoeuvring Data and Draught Information Full manosuvring characieristcs information in various conditions throughout the voyage are needed to determine the whesl-over positions and the ably of the ship. {o Tollow the trac in safety, while taking into account the width of channels and planned speeds. These characteristics will determine the amount of sea room ‘required by the ship, and the clearances over and undar abstructions 24.28 Owner's and Chartoror’s Instructions Instructions relating to bunkering, storing and rousing from the CIP may leave the Masier with fmited choice. In complying with these instructions, it must be remembered thatthe ultimate responsibilty for the safety ofthe ship rests with the Masier-who has overriding authority in all oa6e8 conceriiiy safely end pullin, 24.2.7 Routeing Advice Some rouising agencies may provide advice on the route to be followed, based upon the vessel and the weather Ikely to be experianced, Passage Records and Personal Experience Records of past performance of the vessel under similar conditions are of valus ‘when deciding upon the route, Personal experianeas af the Master, officers and craw members who have been tothe intended ports and areas may also be useful sources of information ‘Navigston Advanced for ates and Masters oe PPessege Panning Other Publications-ane:- Authorities information from-other Ships ~ ~ ‘Consult the Guide to Port Entry, any Port handbooks and information from Agents ‘and P&l correspondents regarding local reguiations, facillies, approaches, mooring ‘and watchmen requiremenis. Observations made by other ships regarding weathor ‘encountered and conditions axpsriencea in We sreas aNd ports ts be Viste’ may be considered up-to-date, but should always be used with caution. Use an appropriate checklist to ensure that nothing is left to chance and that al aspects have been covered. Table 2.1 is combined checks for appraisal, planning ‘and other aspects of passage planning and provides a good example Table 2. ~Checklist crectist sions —_| | 7 Ganea hist iets my PePoshgeniCrars Feoedonstr oes 2 Benth Congay Rey socalnsriclo |_feanie eae zener von peter manow? Roforencas/Remarks Tia tie afi bean toe psa destination por) a fs past? (fs, ho Foca of pvious passage can help Kentiy te routaandire |S nsvgatonoffesr an Const an updated pan ‘ith mension)? Dale of Voyone/Gopy of provious Passage lan 5 Teihiee any Watches” |) onesronboouivnntes |_| apgscortot infomation ‘randy bean fo at [rf NamerRecont of nfo otter aroalpert? 2 Pibiesone 4. there any requroment for ‘heure ofleca publcalonsinavgatonal share 1 | Yesmwergt YES, Sheet No a 2. Re there any ost putlatonsfemived & ‘alate fx departure and Seatnatin por? a | Yes uve, snect No.) present on beers & carecod "pied? 3 Riathe ttovang punweaons | 3 fs 4. Cha Catalogu (NP 13) 2 Navigational Chis the © lerpost esate avalabie 3 Routoing Chars A Raaly Noses = Manner Boal ‘Summary 0 | Conected w AN Edn. Lalost ANM onboard 8. Ustef Radio Signals "Th Manes nando, "Osean Passes foe word 13, Ships Routing (MO) 14, Load ne chat fi aher. (MSN. NG, tae | 2. Manual or a he ‘navigational equipment ‘rtarstonat Goce Senet 430, Sulde Pert Eny | 4 Aamirlyloter Discs |] | Salina Orta ic Cored AT Tide abies Ean Tidal Sam AS Ef "Listas Ean. Coneesed io AN Edy. Coneciod'e AN Ean. Ean, Sor) Tables bial Chant Coreston Lag Ein (rasa) ao & lAlABuovae sistem [7g SEE (NP735), oe 7. Symbos and -ABbrevetone sacra || ean, taal and Cargo is there any unker port iverson to consider bunkorng? 4 Whathartia ship is toa or In ballast Foe chips ‘manoeuvning cai} ve | 2 Hae a sated en Updeted? (posse, obn copy ancalach wit passage plan) 3. Would he ship have sufiesent UKC? © | Yesio (tes, se 28 Navigation Advanced fr Males and Mestrs Passoge Planing Navigation Advanced fr Malos and Maters Passage Penning die a _ bennconsceed or ntmiem po i manoouvring te provide lee) 2 | YesiNo (If YES, Sheet No. baer gape hapless) o ‘or pilot boat? ‘ : berths bosn considered’? 5° Hans Rol Aousomet ia 5h rea and — 3 ried ul ary Predcee Seer SBentnapeatn te 1 Seneotange? passage for consideration of |x | Vash f YES,Shoet No}: Pian toa Vive ti loving been ee _* favtiom onthe chat a ay open eae | ir Soars a oconendd by a Sonetonerement et : ] beatieratona Sonstenmenaremeris at, |. | Yesnto (YES, Set) 4 etme | | Relteet8 ns mann {| teeters | | ar | a” Vangie of yw oad | Tpay a Pe Bons te an ake 4 oT byMseercempary.. |S | Releeneeto ns cnon Retcoiegen conions | q + ie Whael over pont : ee teeoa | fois orc cpap ganis [-$——— “ive aaa Waar > fred nthe Passage Pian Shoat Teccossmaringsosen |, Seat Cited ond omcioss . il aag pan © ee ote EEE Eee Bera ps booiog 3 Baar i ow aes son trcase of adtret Panay wecterroaens |, secon new ctos . senvco? | vi Speed reccton points Soe 1 Vie teat Navigate [J an VE Noteas o engine rom, —4 ening bom acs | | fact aero 3 Pal ere GRATE Woacieepina Feronel rehearing ta Fas the requitemant or 50 Sequence of cha forthe | COWMLookout doubling Up See eree eet wrathos been condor’ (5 [2 BS sateen ben coir st Gas doe Range (RVG weatherrestricted visibility? ee a Eis & caro a 2 Faea ww slg pme a = 5 {oramherbortng stirs aes 5 | aed on charts eee | tate Sa RE ae mp ee een EL Beare | ceaceon ce auecenere sar Transl ceaing besa” [| manedon dane 5 si Poston rom whorl reve ——.- [iretcLral fn so eraraang wr | | markod on char weuanegs Hemera ! pe inant siaran ae | - 7 FRE mn © | sated on chars Pay manainy ba Pesce sx caw [gta nde Salona euigttn acre [| matted on cara Haste Postion of plat seouled sudchd on 7 ‘boarding/disembarkation ac Specie meteorological Searing Seana Ebmeitnrcedtoany |_| mao on cers | 5 penne Sorog fare ustetnrs, |° | Ratwoncos ‘epee to woeal mes been |g —szae stress vis | | ‘Shatees ant wnch dios 7 Nagata wares, | _Bodvenecrlard gost? | eee ero me a ticeomane” || m 4 | Fs Pessage Planning —Hraaa oFepaia mare ‘environmental preston | conetderaton sali. imum under eal ‘searanen (UKE) Fequled — peradaly shalo waters bb Have the psmary ang Secondary means of positon | 0 xing been agreed ween? || "= Hias the posiongfotng ister been agreed upon | foreachieg? 4. Have moans bach isrtned to vonty datum on . evigetinal char withtne | Baum inthe Ges | feats any Caningoiay plana svelte fhe, foowing? 1 Fallre of elseonie savigai tan overboard ‘marked on chars Recorded in passage plan he | [panronn hes NE ‘Siesta ‘Radar Fares: caine RobberyTarreret Activity | Je Biaese, x Unavaisiliy of Pit? SoniLookousterae | —___sn_ zt aaa aa estat Rival fier an ew fama wiser eae" | cutie se pocelies ‘oODauLoe beet TOR atbat is pasage [| Sonate om paige pln sheet ‘Yee! NO, not relsrence company procedure Have al OOWs seen tindasiood and sgnadtne || Skgnsture on passage plan shect peseage plan? Tas the Master chased ona et - proved the gan? SigRaITS OT PSEEITE TT — ‘Through appraisal, the Master should be satisfied thatthe charts are the largest scele for the passage, are onboard and that all charts and publications are corrected ‘up to date, having taken the navigational warnings into account. Apply all T & P ‘corrections that are in fores. 28 Nawomton Advanced for Mates anders Paseage Panning “The appraisal process should esti inthe navigation offic and tha Master gaining knowledge of the following (but not limita t): ‘+ The general choice of routes that can be followed ‘© The avalebilly ofthe largest scafe charts and the relevant publications on board, alang with any corrections + The distances between departure and destination pesitions on the various route options The draught at departure and various stages of the passage, taking into account the passage consumption, bunkering options and any transfers of ‘uel and cargo on pessage ‘© Minimum depths on tha various route options ‘©The tidal conditions at citical stages of the various raute options © Proximity to hazards on the various route options ‘© Relabilty of the ship's machinery and equipment ‘+The load line zones to be passed on the vatious route options '* Recommendations in Ocean Passages and Sail 1+ Advice from shore routeing services ‘+ The climatic conditions on various route options ‘+ Past, present and forecast weather ‘+ The routeing schemes expected to be used on various route options ‘+ Type, volume and direction of flow of trafic likely to be encountered ‘+ Times af sunrise, sunset and duration of daylight and darkness ‘© Navigational alds, radio and terrestrial, that will be avaiable for position ‘monitoring ‘+ The ship's manoeuwing characteristics and how she would manoeuvre or ‘name ivaferant areas + Search and Rescue arrangements along the route + Likely ports of refuge, shelter locations or anchorages __.# Considarations for a suitable landfall forthe various route options. + Restrictions created by the nature ofthe cargo or the type of operations ‘Security threats or guidance from flag or coastal states Having studied the relevant sections ofthe applicable publications, anc ell associated material, reports, requirements and wamings, the navigation officer wil provide outline route options bo the Master. Based upon the available information, \while Keeping the safety of vessel, crew, passengers and cargo 2s a pearly, the Master wil select the most aporopriate option. oF Navigation Advanced for Malet ane Masts Pessage Pinning 24.3 Chart 5500 ‘The 5000 series of charts isthe British Admiralty (BA) Series of World Passage Planning Charts. Chart 8500;__ + Is ofertical importance forall vessels transiting the English Channel and using the ports of NW Euro + Contains details to assist with the passage planning and to ensure a safe passage through the Channel. 2 Includes advice on appraisal, planning, execution and monitoring. ‘= Has pllot boarding areas specially marked for deep draught vessels, where the pilot comes aboard by helicopter. 24.3.1 Passage planning for special classes of vessels + Dep draught vessels and vessels bound for Europort are given spectic instructions regarding the routes to be followed by them, reporting points, pilot boarding points and alteration points for joining and leaving the TSS ‘+ For vessels constrained by thelr draught, information is given regarding the need for adequate UKC 24.32 Routsing ‘+ Routes used by ferries and passenger vessels are mated General recommendations 1+ Tha Dover strat is an area of high trafic congestion and the delals of the ‘TSS in use and the Masier's legal obligations under Colegs are discussed In deta ‘Specific reguiauons +The special regulations that apply to the TSS are summarised within the passage plan chert + With regard to the electronic position fixing equipmenttobe fed on board to improve the navigation, recommendations for vessels of aver 300GT are Included + The limits of he chart and the numbers used for he passage are printed on the chart 28 Navigation Avanced for Maine ae Rastars Passage Parsing Radio Reporting System + Allvessels using the English Channel ara required to report at various points to the UK and French maritime authorities while using the TSS off ‘Ouassant, Cape Gris Nez and Dover coast guard ‘+ Guidance regarding special reporting arrangaments and reporting points for vessels carrying ol or dangerous cargo is-givan in detail ‘+ Radio reporting procedures to the port of destination, along with complete Clils of cargo and vessels navigation capabilies, are mentioned ‘+ Tanker checkists and documents ta be produced to authorities are given, 2434 Maritime Radio Service + Details of statins operating in the area, together with thelr times of ‘transmission, lypes of messages (Navigafional warnings, weather ‘messages, siorm warnings) are given, Details of NAVTEX service 2.4.38 Radio Beacon Service, Tidal Information and Services + Offshore tidal data with anilustratfon/oxamples of the use of co-l, co- range lines are explained ‘+ Maximum tidal steam rates in relation to HW Dover are included, 24.36 Pilotage Services + Details of requests for deep sea pilois for respective parts, and the relevant ‘communications required, are available + Rendezvous points for helicopterpilt transfer and procedural action are, provided, 2.1.4_Charts and Associated Publications ~ Reliance ‘The Admiralty (and other establishmants that publish charts and associated publications), ry to maka sure that thelr published information is aceurate, However, itis possible that the information may nal always be compiete, and so the Master ‘decides how much reliance should be placad on a chart or publication. 24.44 Factors Affectng Chart Rellabllty ‘Fo-establish reliallty, examine the chart. The mariner checks: Source Data: ‘A chart uses information from many sources, the most Important of whichis the survey. Recent charts vill ether have source data information printed on tham or will Include a source data dagram, 29 Navigation Advanced or Matos and Pessogo Planning Careful examination will show: ‘+ When the survey was done +The method of the survey (by echo sounder, hand lead, side sonar) +The authority conducting the survey (Royal Navy, port authorities, foreign ‘governments, oil companies) 1+ The method of determining positions (for example, DGPS or other, close tolaway from land, the accuracy of survey of positions on land) + The scale of the survey. ‘A major factor that contibutas to the accuracy of a chart is the ability of the hydrographer (o acsimilate/collate all he information. In this respec, Information ‘Technology hes added to the rellabilly to 2 published chart. However, the mariner should note that certain sreas of a chari may not have been covered by any survey. Scale: ‘The scale of the chart is vary Important, Use the largest scale charts as they contain the most-detalled information and are generally corrected first. On smaller scale charts (especialy of ocean areas), the information Is sparse and charted dangers may ba in error with regard to postion, least-depth and extent. ‘The scale ofa chart is normally the same as the scale of the survey, especially with the modern larger-scale charts, Small-scale charts may be published from a larger scale survey, but tis unlikely that an older smal-scsle char will have been ‘pubished fram a larger scale survey. ‘Area Of Usage Ifa particular area of a sea or ocean is not frequently usad for navigation, itis Unlikely that detailed information on it wil be avaiable. Positioning: “Tho datum is relates to 2 particular positioning system ((or example, WGS 84 or Pz 90}. Pastion-txing devices Nave the iacilly 10 relate WIGS O¢ to another datum, but positions may net always agree wilh the cheried positions used by the Hydrographic Office, even ifthe stated horizontal datum was the seme. Graduation On Plans: Some older charts di not have gradaations'on therplans of ports and harbours. On such un-graduated plans, it wil be dificult to determine position with accuracy. However, newer charts have been published with graduations on the plans and older charts are being revised. Distortion of Paper: ‘The paper on which 2 char is printed can become cistorted, athough the resulting errors are unlikely to be significant 30 Navigation Avance for Maes and Masts Poseags Pioning Depth Criteria: Many hydrographic offices use diferent depth criterie for dangerous and non- dangerous wracks. Soundings: ‘The normal method of obtaining soundings of the seabed uses the survaying vessel {o produce a systematic aries of profiles that cover the-entire-area, The Seale of survey shauld allow sufficient plot lines to indicate the configuration of ine sezbad, + Aline, which could be many miles wids on a chart, only represents the ‘arrow width of the beam af the echo sounder. Soundings by lead line only represent an wea of a few centimetres + Older exploratory surveys indicate random soundings where checks were carried out, Changes in Depths: ‘An unstabla seabed may cause a change of soundings. Quality of Bottom: On @ chart, the nature othe bottom shown only represents the upper layer Magnetic Variation: Charts indicate the magnetic variation and yearly change. The aclual change can be very different to the charted change. Corrections: ‘Some charted areas genorate many corrections. Always ask these questions: + Is the chart corected up to date? © Have all the ccrractions been made? 2.2 Planning ‘A plan cannot be made without the requited information being available, The planning stage must necessarily flow the appraisal, This involves laying out tracks, Calculations, insuctione, setup of equipment and programmes and relevant references. A plan may be prepared in a number of formas. Almost all companies lnder the ISM Code have taid down detailed procedures in tha SMS sbout passage planning. 8 key io be combination of tabular, narrative, poting an egal fe format 34 Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masters Passage Pisning 2.2.1 Berth-to-Berth Planning [At all times, the responsibilty for safe navigation ofthe vessel rests with the Mester ‘and OOW. During the planning stag i.possible dangers of rravigation. The passage plan acts as @ benchmark for the bridge team and the ‘Master must ensure that all relevant Information was considered in the preparation of the plan, Then the bridge teary car execute the pessage plan-and monitor the progress of the ship effectively. If there is no plan, execution and monitoring have no ‘comparison paints. “The passage between the pilot ground snd the barth is critical. It may be through congested waters, in clase proximity to hazards and with much reduced UKC, The passage may algo take the vessel close to expensive property, in the form of port facitios and other vessels, Plots are employed for their local knowledge and expertise and may have more information than the bridge team. The pilot arives on board with 2 plan to guide the vessel and outlines the planned the passage to the tberth (or plot station} to the Master. The pilot also advises the Master of the passage that the vessel wil folow as advised. A berth-\o-berth pian provides: + Knowladge of all hazards and actions to be taken during voyage ‘+ Agreement on e common plan for use in plotage waters + Allows pasion of the vessel to ba monitored at all imas + Anawareness ofthe pilo’s intention at all times. ‘+ The pilot's adviee, which can be cross-checked and clarified by the pilot in case of doubt If the pllt is unable to perform his duties (for whatever reason), this plan helps the bidge team fo maintain the vessel in safety untl a replacement pict arrives. 22.2 Passage Plan Format “The end produet sho. few the prefermd format of the company SMS. The best ‘approach is to: ‘© Complete the plan on the largest-scale navigational charts, ‘+ Document the plan in a tabulat format (Table 2.2 is a suggested format) + Provide instructions to the bridge team in a passage plan note book (reler to Table 2.1). Computer-based fles are also useful paises ints ‘Navigatlon Advanced for Mates and Nass ‘Table 2.2 - Recommended Format for Passage Plan Notebook — Waypoint or Log No Roferences. Notas | Instructions ‘Namasinaribers and |» Goasial Features for postion | Speaite nstustons to postions of fing ‘he bridge team about ‘waypoints Navigational Aids ‘conductof pascaga Directions Hazards Weather Currants Tidee/Tidal Sveams Security threats Routing schemes Regulations LogrTrack references ‘There have bean debates conceming the inclusion of too much information on the chart. A navigator usually rellee upon thrae basics: ‘+ Sight and hearing ‘= Instruments ‘+ Navigational charisipians. Itmay be prudent to have the naximum amount of deta on the chert, while leaving ‘enough room for plating fixes. Datalls can be let in the documents or booklets backing up the chart, with charts marked with references to thern, In congested ‘walters, where the navigator doss not have the time to read a file of papers, more Information may be added to the chart. To avoid overcrowding, write the information 1m land or away from the intended course line, with arrows pointing to the track. 38 Neigalon Advanced for Motes and Masts Planning Novigaton Advanced fer Males andNattors Passage Panning Table: = Passage Planning Table Bis oj 2.3 Summary of General Principles ‘The navigation officer must adopt: ‘© @ consistent patlemn for work and then adhvere to throughout the passage plan, Frequent changes in the symbols/iegends or abbreviations used on chatts or passage plan lead to confusion. | = an advance waming system on charts and in passage plan Sheets, for ‘example, Next chart No. Similaily other hazards, such as high trafic density, fishing grounds, crossing traffic, shallow waters, etc. can be indicated well before they are expacted, Al charts should be studied carefully in conjunction with the sailing irsctions, ‘navigational warnings end weather reporis and areas of canger should be identified ‘These predicted areas of danger should be marked as No-go areas. WO. | rain ratia ‘Courses should be plotted on the largest scale cherts clear of pradicied araas of ‘danger allowing fore margin of safety as determined by local, campany ragulations and the Masters instructions. When establishing margins of safety, tne navigation officar must keep contingencies in mind, for example, fallure ofthe vassel's Steering ‘gear or an engine breakdown Pa] nde ‘Whenever alterations of couree are shown on the charts, identify the WO (whee! over positions and rango(s)taaring(s) from clearly identifable, conspicuous shore objects/radar targets. Where visual means of position fixing are available, use of the GPS should be secondary. Remember, the visual or even radar position fixing is from-he-objects you can physically observe, Where possible, try ta use beam bearings for alterations, \When transfacring positions o° courses hetwaen charts, ranges and bearings from ‘eed abjects must be used, Establish ‘Poinis of no relum’, especialy in approaches to narrow passages, night passage or wien passing over river bars wilh critical height of tiée, Thase must be finalised by the Masters’ speafic instructions and preferences with respect to their ‘own vessel handling characteristics. In any circumstances, these points ara the ‘areas beyond which vessel cannot be returned back to sea and must proosed to he next available exit where she can safely berth, anchor or return to sea, Use this guideline fo place marks on charts that will not cause clutter or confusion: + Courses, always TRUE and in three digit notetion and distance of each leg, DTG to destination, for example, plot Boarding ground ‘+ Margins of safety as required by the Masterleompany ‘+ Position xing frequency for each leg of the passage B é ‘char ‘Non £ £ : 1% 35 Navigation Advanced fr Mates sn Msi Passage Planning = Wheelover (WO) points ‘+ Reporting points. If there are any stations to be called, thelr IDs, VHF channel and the position at which its to be called ‘Pilot boarding/disembariation posivan(s) ‘© Speed reduction points ‘+ Position where notice is given to engine room ‘+ Abort Points / Poinis of no return ‘+ Incication-on the course line where notices are to be given to adaitional ‘waichkespers, helmsmen and lookouts ‘+ Soquence of charts for the passage ‘+ Parallel Index Lines along with PI distances ‘+ Sot and rate of current, height of tida, tidal window for crteal areas ‘+ Areas ot dangar and nag6 areas ‘+ Radar/visually conspicuous objects, For example, paaks of mountains, RACONS, lighthouses ‘+ Next Chart, along with its number and an indication ofthe position from where to move fo the next chart + Transit bearings for quick check of compass error and Clearing bearings, to clear a specific hazard, particularly when making approaches in narrow channels + Waypoint number on each waypoint to refer i to the passage plan sheet and to the GPS and ECDIS (if used) + Position on the chart where its required to switch on certain navigation aids (such as the echo sounder) ‘+ Navigation wamnings, preliminary and temporary chart corrections from notices to mariners ‘Specific métaorological information avallable, ¢.g., dust storms, rasticted Visibility, sea, swell and wind conditions ‘+ Radio frequencies/channels, staion deniers and message types ‘+ Areas requiring specific marine environmental protection considerations ‘+ Minimum UKC, particularly shallow water areas *+ Chart datum is usualy gvan on char. Highlight any chart that has afferent datum to natiy the COWS ‘+ Refarances to contingency plans for alternative actions to maintain the safety of life, environment, vessel and the cargo. Where an approved ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display Information System) is used for passage planning, routes and hazards can be marked on the display itselt, 38 Navigason Advanced for Mates and Masers Passage Planning 2.3.1 Explanation Of Pianning Methods 2.3.44 Wheel-Over (WO) {At the planning stage, the wheel-over point calculations require thase factors: © Loaded condition of ha ship (loaded, ballast or intermediate, This to select the tuming circle diagram / appropriete table) + Change of course in degrees (between one track and the nex!) ‘© Helm angle ta be used (this may vary with the proximly of hazards, The nearer the hazard, the larger the angle, to keep the vessel as close as possible to the planred track or to make a tight turn) ‘© Speed of the ship wiile making the turn ‘= Depth of wator (for the effect of shallow water on the turning circle end the: Increase in draught while turning) used Obiain the advance and transior rom the appropriate tumning circle diagram or the fabulated information. For example, a ship on a course of 270°T has to aller course fo 310°T. Assuming the advance Is 4.7 cables and transfer is 0.9 cables for a 40 alteration based upon 20° hel: ‘© At the way point ‘B’ extend the present course lina 270° 7 ‘+ Atany point °X’ on this lin, draw a perpendicular line XY" towards the alteration, so that XY" = Transfer Figure 2. - Wheelover Point Determination ‘+ ALY, draw a line perallel to BX, 60 that it cuts the next course line S10°T, ‘The point at which the parallel line cus the next course line is ‘D Now if tine was drew at 'D’ which was parallel fo ‘XY’, point ‘C° would be oblained on the extension ofthe present course line ‘= From’C, measure the Advance backwards, ie, in direction 080° T {reciprocal of 270° T} o oblain point‘A’, ‘A’ is the wheelover point, where ‘OR equals Advance 37 on Advanced for Matos nd Mastars Pesage Panning +A setsquare marked with the required transfer can be used to eblain point ‘C’ and 'D’ by simply siding it across the original couree line until the transfer mark colncides with the new course line Figure 2.2- Marking Wheslover with a Set Square ‘A formula can be used to datermine the wheel over distance from the waypoint Distance backwards from WPT (AB) = Advance - (transfer + tan of course alteration?) Please not: ths method based upon te advance and tansfer rth halm snl sed ard des not allow or any stacying heim to counteract te swing ot ah Futter dig he execterand monte, sa sat, cen ort Seaman wind eect onthe shi may cause errs, Cross rack eror woul equ seh of wheel-over point. = er Another method that can be used for planning whael-over Is the constant radius tum, “The aistance travelled by the ship or lime taken by the ship bsfore she Degins to tun the inertia distances (AC). It wil be diferent for different speeds and helm angles ‘sed, During the turn as the speed reduces, the helm angle should be adjusted (feduced) to maintain radius, Typ AC ni) ae ‘Sl soe =| ye Lipo shes © resent Goune VOT Lame Sips = om t wot DO=R=Raduseftumin rn | PVE pie orsiscine git Figure 2.3 - Wheelover -Constant Radius Tur Penning Parallel indexing can be used to moniior the ship durlig tre tun (see 6.5.1) AAllemately, VRM set at the required range from a fixed object (clearing range) may aiso be used fo monitor the turn, especially if itis a constant recius turn. The abject, selected In this case should be at the centre of curvature ofthe turn Position Fixing Frequency Decide this frequency for every leg of the passage. These are the main factors affecting the frequency of the fh + Proximity to hazerds hazards are close to the intended passage, pit positions more frequently to take corrective action before the vessel gets too closa, © Speed ‘A faster vessel will cover more distance in a given tims than a slower one, ‘and may get close 0 dangers more raplaly. © Draught ‘Vessels with deeper draught have limited sea-room to manoeuvre. Plot postions more frequently to ensure that the vessel remains win the Iniended channel. © Displacement Larger displacement means more momentum and such vessels wil take {ime to turn oF mangeuvre, = Environmental factors In aroas where extraordinary set, drift or leeway Is being experianced, ‘specially towards a hazaré, the fing frequency should be increased. © Tratle Density ‘© Manosuvring characteristics ‘The fx frequency should be set so thatthe ship is notin danger between fixes and to Quarantee that avoiding action can be leken to maintain the safely ofthe ship in case ‘La deviation There should he enough fime and sea-room from a worst-case postion to sill take avoiding action. Generally, use continuous-monitoring Techniques in hazardous areas where fixing is time-consuming, but do not treat it as an alternative to position fing, | Authors Ni A ule of thumb on coastal passages is that the position fixing frequency should be ‘such as to space positions zbout 5 cm apart. Navigation Advanced for Malas and Masters Passage Pianning Abort and Point of Ne Return ‘An abort is @ position from where the ship may abandon her passage and maintain safety or return, This may be used in a case of: + Change or deviation from the approach line + Machinery, equipment or instrument malfurition or fallare + Instructions by the harbour euthority ~ pilot, tug or berth evalabitty + Change in the elaments of nature —wind, poor visibilly, ete + Blockage of the approach, channel or berth ~ navigationel hazard, other ship or for reasons of securty, ‘The marking of an abort requires careful consideration and there should be suffciant ‘sea room for the ship fo undertake any of these manoeuvres in safaty: + Tum around + Stop in safe waters + Anchor. ‘A passage plan should incorporate a ralurn or manceuvre plan for execution at this postion, should it become necessary. (Once the abort has beon passed, the ship enters the no return part of the passage and remains fully committed. Any problems or changes to circumstances have to be dealt with through the initiation of contingency plans for the pas 40 Navigation Avance for Mates nd Mastars Passage Panning Under Keel Clearence (UKC) Use this formula to calculate the "east-charted depth’ a ship should be able to navigate in safely: UKG+ Draught = Least-charted depth + predicted height of tie ‘When determining UKC, consider: ‘+ Weather conditions and stale of sea, on all legs of passage ‘+The vessel's roling and pitching movement ‘+ Uncertainties in charted depth ‘+ Unceriainios in vessa''s draught, the accuracy of draught measurement, Variation in consumption and resulting errors in draught oF change of tim ‘+ Tidal lavels below expected (negative tidal surges) ‘+ Squat of the ship ata given speed (maximum speed should be sisted) ‘+ Possibie alterations in depth since the last survey ‘+ Areas of mobile botiam ‘+ Offshore areas wih development resuiting n reduced depths (sometimes Up to 2m.) over ppalines and simller underwater objects ‘+ Recommend routes for deep draught vessels “© Inaccuracias in tidal predictions and affhore depths ‘+ Possibility of determining tat haight in all arsas (including offshore) ‘= The fact that high pressure is known to reduce the water level by fow centimetres | Skits ofthe navigator to determine tidal height and refer corectly to the chert datum. 2348 Squat AA ship experiences different effects in shallow water, often knawn as shallow water effect, The speed in shallow water leads to 2 lowering of the water level around net hull ang may cause @ change of trim. This is called squat and itis quite difficult to quantify. It 18 expected to otcur when the depth is less than 1.5 the dreught AA ship's manoeuvring data provides information on squat values, During passage planning, the UKC should take squat into account a Navigation Aevances for Mates and Masters ‘The allowance for squat shouid ie the greater of thase values ~— 23.4.8 Landfall Consider these factors wien planning for landfal: Passage Planing Value of squat irom the ship's mancouvring data ‘Speed? (in knots) + 100 in metros 10% of the draught 0.3 metres for every 5 knots ofthe ship's forward speed Use the largest-scale charts At landfall points, there should be clear waler all round and in the vicinity of the line of approach Avoid areas of poor visibility if fal is to be made on a lighthouse “When-making tandfall on a light, raising distances should be determined for : the various conditions of visibility you may encountar \Whare ground Is open to weather, low clouds may form, Avoid approaching {and or islands from windware Use caution in areas subject to strong tidal streams. Points of landfall and approaches should provide more than one method of ‘monitoring your position, visual, radar and electronic aids to navigation, 4 including the echo sounder Avoid low-ying islands as they mey not be visible at a reasonable distance, ‘even during clear daylight ‘Avpid straight coastlines. instead, go for areas with prominent headlands or coastal features ‘Avoid lee shores with strong onshore winds ‘Avoid (or consider carefully) areas of high trafic density ‘Avoid the use of floating aids (even LANBY's with RACON), unloss absolutely necessary. If you have to use them, confirm thelt position by other means Celestial observation can be used for checking landfall approaches Determine conditions, contingency plans and abort positions. When a landfall position hes been chosen, assess its adequacy for daylight, darkness and reduced visibly a2 Navgaion Advancod for Matos andastors Pacsage Panning 23.1.7 Changing Charts Use the range and bearing from a common fixed point to transfer position from, fone chart to the next, aa [As an allemative, use the latitude on a common meridian to transfer the course from ‘one chart to the next. Use meridional parts (MP) of the falitude sthe camman meridian, For a cium fine, the tangent value of course is always the seme: long is abtained between the initial longitude 'A’ and the common meridian between two charts ‘C pap2 MP2 longitan course MP1 3-OMP2 Figure 2.5 - Plotting 2 Course Using DMP ‘his mathod can be used for laying courses on the charis in general. Between two waypoins, the course may nct be an exact degre of the trus direction from 000° to 360°. If any fraction is involved, using the above method simplifies tha platting 23.4.8 Traffic Separation And Routsing Schemes, ‘This is an extract from the IMO Routelng Gulde for Ships. The purpose of ships" routeing is fo improve the safety of navigation in converging areas and in areas where the density of traf is great or where freedom of ‘movement of shioping is inktited by restricted sea room, te existence of obstructions to navigation, limited deaths or unfavourable meteorological conaltions. ‘The precise objectives of any rouleing scheme will depend upon the particular hazardous circumstances which itis inlended to alleviate, bul may include some or all ofthe following 43 Navigation Advanced fr Males and Maoists “Thi Separation GF opposng Steams OF Fale So a fo FSdUEe the incidence of heac-on encounters + The reduction of dangers of colsion between crossing Wale and shipping In establishad trafic-lanes ‘© The simplification ofthe pattems of traffic flow ‘+ The organisation of safe trate Rew in areas ‘exploration oF exploitation ‘+The organisation of traffic lows in or around areas where navigation by all ships or by certain classes of ship is dangerous or undesirable ‘+ Organisation of safe traffic flow in or around or at safe distance from environmentally sensitive area(s) + Ths reduction of risk of grounding to providing special guidance to vessels in areas where water depths are uncertain or erillcal * To.route trafic clear of fishing grounds or the organisation of traffic through fishing grounds converging areas ‘Coniventratad offsho‘e Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS) Apply the provisions of Rule 10 when navigating in (or in vicinity of a TSS. Figure 2.6 ilustrates the preferred tracks that ships should follow for their intended passages. Where the presence of navigational hazards does not allow full ‘compliance, the preferred tracks may be adjusted. When navigating within the TSS, ay particular altention to colsion-avoidance manoouvres. Nate that a vessel must ‘Comply with Rule 10 and all other callision avoldance rules simultaneously Exercise care in precautionary areas and at roundabouts, where tratfe could bs converging and exiting in cifferent directions. Comly with thess rules: + yourvesearis rer uenge TSS, ava I by a wise THE + Avessel using a TSS should procead in the anpropriate trafic lane in the general direction of trafic fow for that fane, This means that the track of the vessel should be parallel or nearly paraliel to the sides of the lane +The vessel should try to joltor aaverat tis terInATOr OIA Of His TSS. ut when joining or leaving from the side, it should do so at as small an angle as possible to the general direction of traffic flow. a Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masters Poasoge Penning 7a 1 Trohie Tk aieusg ai hdoeesra ae strech ‘res 6 ate mg TSS Siegen ‘Yea Tae pingn Some ek etn ie [reznm ocr tne theppaig scosr Boost sang {ek aan te Eeasemon Figure 2.6 Tracks for Navigation Through a TSS + Ife vessel has t cross a TSS, it should cross at ight angles to the general direction of trafic ow for that lane. If possible, tye full ane should be crossed in one go. in cases where one lane is erassad to join the next, ‘course shoul be altered within the separation zona. When proceeding in 3 lane, itis poor practice to make @ 80° turn within that lane fo cross, party cross or join another lane ‘+ The penalty for yessels in UK waters not complying with 2 TSS is, £250,000 GBP ($90,000 US) Figure 27 -Crossing a TSS 45 Mavigaton Advanced for Males and Masters Passage Planning ‘+ Avvessel should keep clear of separation lines or zones. Unless the ship is joining or leaving from the sides, tis rule suggests that the course should be plotted clear of the sides,. At the pessage planning staga, navigators should pay:particularationtion towards-positioning the ship's track on the appropriate side of the TSS to avoid disrupting other trafic ‘+ Atthe termination points.of the Janes. SbipE-BHOUIA navigate with caution ' Ships should avoid anchoring within a separation schome or in areas near the termination of the TSS ‘© Additional routsing measures are In the form of deepwater routes, Vessels salsiying the citeria for thelr use should folow the deep water ‘oule. Other vessels should avoid the deep waler channel by a reasonable margin. Adopted and Non-Adopted Routsing Schemes ‘Some schemes are not IMO adopted and only local regulations apply. i such ‘cese8 a clear understanding of the local regulations is essential, Adopted Schemes: + These are routaing schemes adopted by IMO © Provisions of Rule 10 of COLREGS apply fully They are intended for use by all vessels, by day, by night, in all weathers, In ice-free weters or under light ica consitions where no extraordinary manoeuvres o° assistance by ice-breakers Is required ‘Non-Adopted Scheme: + These are rouieing schemes established by national governments or local authorities and have not been adopted by the (MO + The mules and regulations are laid out by these authorities and may not ‘conform to Rule 10,-Modifications of 2ule-10, a6-wellas-othertules.of the COLREGS may be applied by the local administration and it is ‘important that they arefully understood. 23441 Anchor Plan Peto eee eee Er Various factors influance the choice of an area for anchorage. For routine ‘ancharing, when the vessal is required to wel outside or inside the harbour area, the port authority usually defines the anchorage area. Por, pilotage or VTS ‘authorities may advise the ship to proceed to 8 particular anchorage or postion for anchoring. Some ports have clearly charted anchorages for use by vessels. For ‘commercial reasons, a vessel may be required fa anchor within the commercial linvits of the port 48 Navigation Advancod for sand Masters Passape Planniog ‘There may be circumstarces when the vessel will have [o anchor either without ‘appropriate instructions or in cases of emergency. Careful appraisal of the ‘navigational char, Pilot Books and current and forecasted weather conditions wi tenable the Master to choose a safe area for anchoring, The choice of anchoring position depends upon the folowing factors: Size of the vessel inctuding wincage ares of the vassals hull, superstructure and cargo ‘+ Depth of waterfor maximum anchoring depth as wall as for draught ane UK ‘+ Holding grounc, which depends upon the nature of seabed ‘© Type of anchor and its holding power ‘© Strongth of wind, current or tidal stream Length of time the vessel intends to stay at anchor ‘= Sea room availabe for swinging ‘© Draught and windage ares ‘= Proximity to dangers, submerged or on the surface Underwater obstructions ‘+ Proximity io routes taken by passing or harbour tate. + Forecast and actual weather conditions. + Availabilty of shelter = Commercial limits of the port + Availabilty of position monitoring landmarks (Iransi/anchor bearings) ructions from the port authority, agent or owmere/charterers + Security, as piracy is common in some sreas + _Health, a8 vessels should stand off ports where malaria Is prevalent + Onatival at the anchorage area! © Distance from other vessels already at anchor ©. Distance from the ine aster of vessels already al anchor ‘The plan shouig include 3 marking of the anchoring postion, eny wheelover besrings, slesring bearing, lat-go bearing end distanoas to go. You can also add 7 indicates that the rato is Over half @ knot but less than 1 knot, < % indicates the rata is less than haifa knot, 402 Navigation Advanced for Matos and Masters Ocean Routing ze Toa Raa Soe RYO eet eT Unies or ea Figure 42 - Predominant Current Arrows on Routelng Charts xtreme iceberg limits and Maximum pack ie limits are shown in red Eien eae] | Motenmtntsal Paks | Figure 4.3 - Iceberg and Pack Ice Limite on Routoing Charts Wind information is in rad and is presented in a wind rose format (See Figure 4.4), {generally at 5 of latituce and longitude, with more on some coastal regions. The Frequaney is shown on a scale on the charts, which is 2 inches to 100%. Wind sirangth Is incicated by length of the arrow. From the arrow head to the circle, the frequency Is 5%. “The direction of wind is indicated by the direction ofthe arrow. Arrows fy with the wind. The thickness and style of the arrow indicates the force ofthe wine. Nuts in he cle “op tigure = Nba of eserratons Figure 4.4 -Wind Rose with Wind Foree Arrow a3 Navigation vanced for Males ond Masts Qoean Routing 44.2.2 Gromonic Charts ‘On Gnomonic charts, Great Circle tracks appear as straight ines. When plotting Great Circle tracks, these can be uses to datermine the maximum tettude to be Teached and the proximty fo hazards. Composite. Great Circle routes can also be plotied o ablain a general idea about the longitudes where the track joins and leaves {he limting latitude. In both the eases waypoinis can be selected for transfer to Mercator charts. 44.2.3 Ocean Charts “These are the 4000 Series of charts that cover the oceans’ areas. The Catalogue of ‘Admiralty Charts and Publications can be used to select the appropriate ocean ‘Gharts, The eharis ere based upon limited information and may not contain every fucord, But the known hazards, such as islands and rocks, are included. Sean the chart carefully before plotting @ course on an ocean chart. Authors Note: When crossing the oceans, ii important fa plot courses on the charts a6 it allows the chart to be scanned for hazards. itis poor practice to steer to a GPS waypoint without having 2 course on an ocean chert Limit the use of Mercator plotting sheets to navigalion-celated plots. They are nol for plating positions or coureas, 44.2.4 Load Line Zone Chart “These provide the limits of the International Load Line Zones. Where used wrth (Gnomorie and ook ches, they alow the planning of legal passage that complies Sith load line zones. The dates of seesonal zones must be checked carefully. A copy bftne load line zone chart is included In the Ocean Passages of the World and the boundaries are shown an routeing charts as vel, i t Navigation Advanced for Mies endMastera ewan Routzing fagotto Gasenbuaccsen | Figure 4 - Resultant Direction “The charts are used to indicate general circulation. In addition, they can be: ‘+ Used to find tha average dit of objects ovar a long period of time: ‘©. Diiftng ships or other deralcts © Survival erat for search and rescue purposes © lesberg movarnent, + They are also used to ind the overall movement of water over 8 glvan ‘period for example, the speed of a current in miles-per-day. Upper igus heseeraih (neatcal mies per ey) 6-2 Lower four isthe ramet of beavis Centre of arow she meen tien of obserabon Poston afebsera 13-24 Pe Lowe oe SK cet 44.3. Current Charts 44.34 Vector Mean Current Chart ‘The mean veetors indicate the overall movement of water atthe point of observation, which is at mid-length of the vactor. The arrow represents the long term Siaplacoment of water, indicated by the direction and thickness of the arrow. The Veeior mean current isthe resul ofall components of the observations considered ora given area. The components ere differences of northisouth, and eastwast ‘movements, Figure 48 -Vector Mean Current Predominant Current Chart ‘This isthe format used to indicate currenis on cosan rouieing charts. The arrow points in the appropriate direction and the main body of the arrow indicates the ‘change in direction In that locality. The rate may be indicated atthe tai, ether as @ whole figure (or as a fraction), 405 Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masters sean Rautaing “The constancy is represented by the thickness of the arrow. + High constancy is whan a large percentage (over 75% or 67%) of ‘observations confirm the water movement inthe indicated direction + Low constancy, where a small percentage (less then 50% or 33%) of ‘cbservetions confirm water movement in the indicates direction, shows 3 \ariabilly in rate and direction. ae ar Geng i ray Senden on ts erst Under 53% OF 25% = 50% ae z Irsutent observations Figure 4.7 - Predominant Current Arrows “The predominant direction is established by examining the number of oecasions the ‘urrent sets within @ 90° sector of compass, say between north to east. The sector is Foiated by 15°50 that data ofa total of 24 sectors is availabe, “The sector with the maximum number af observations provides the direction of the predominant current. It indicates the current that is most ikely to be experienced at B pont of expressed interest and will be most useful fo navigators. t would be used for: = Passage planningiroiteing “+The direction ofthe mostfraquent currants in an area (approximate onty) The current valuos in knots, which can be converted to nautical miles-por- day. am 4.4.33 Current Rose Chart ‘Those charts provide data on the vatlation of ocean currents at the point of bservalion or interest. The Information is presented ithe form of @ current rose. It {e based on all cbservations recorded at 0.5 knots or more. “The data is presented in 16 divisions of the compass and may present elther ‘emalgamated or further sub-divided directors. “The length of the arrow is determined by caloulating an average rate based upon the percentage flequency of all observed figures in that direction. For passage planning and routeing purposes, thase are used fo determine the ‘Variation ikely to be experianced in the currents in a given locally. 106 Navigation Advanced for Mat 4.8- Current Rose with Current Rate Arrows 4.2 Choice Of Routes ‘Saiety is the most importart consideration in routeing, However, in addition to safety, 2 number of other factors need to be considered. n particular, there are the Sconomic and commercial conetraints. The ship and her cargo are expensive brepery anc et ea naa to aot 3 perinsrence cai ocr ‘and labity claims. 4.2.41 Operator Considerations ‘The company concerns ca be summarised as: +A gooe-weather route cen help to avoid wear and tear and ensure the ‘safely ofthe vessel, This will also reduce the risk of damage fo the ship ‘and het cargo. Maintenance costs and Insurance claims will be minimised + Where engines run at optimum cos! effective speed, 2 route thal minimises: {uel consumption is economical ‘+ Passenger comfort is important and this is only possible ifthe routs avoids heavy weather 1+ Asship can only proceed to ice aroas whera strength and classification allow it = Due to commercial considerations, the owners will generatly want to spend the least time on passage, which requires the ship's speed on passage fo be the maximum, Howaver, berth availabilty, weather conditions (1. fog for heavy seas) and fuel consumption may determine @ more optimum speed = The reputation of owners or operators may be affected if an incident attracts adverse public. 107 Nevigoion Asvancad fo Mates ed Mastors een Rousing 4.2.44 Commercial Questions Commercial managers work within a number of paramaters: «The company policy on routeing, which is the basis Instructions to the: ship. ae + Freight against fuel and running costs 1: The passage of the ship through diferent ious line zones? How much extre cargo can be lifted the vessel reeds to follow a longer passage lo Keap within a desired zone? + Freight against fuel and running costs 2: How much extra fuel is going to be ‘consumed to achieve comfort on a longer fair-weather route?. + CIP: can the ship proceed a the agreed spesd as determined by the CIP ‘and can the ship reach port within Layiime Cancaliaion (LAYCAN)? ‘+ Expert advice: what are costs and benefits of shore routing? + Damage or delay: wil the cost of insurance claims or repair bits on 2 least: {ims roule excacd the claims for a delay on a fair weather route? 4.2.2. Master's Considerations “The Master can select from a choice of ocean routes, These roules may be based fon constant or variable factors. 42.24 Constant Factors ‘+ Displacement of the ship + Draught ofthe ship + Engine power ofthe ship + Ports tobe called at + Least depthishellow water along the route + Hazards slong the cout ‘© Lang; islands or reefs along the route = Load Line zones: + Tidal heights and times + Currants of the cosan + Climatic conditions © lee Hits «+ Cargo andior passenger care requirementsyinstructions, 108 sia li att ik iialbislstal Se ot ciuiiselabliay Navigon Advanced for ‘Ocean Rowtong 4.22.2 Vatlable Factors. ‘+ Present and forecast weather, which affects (or may affect) the sea state vind the swell may requite a reduction of the speed or may cause damage «+ Effects of reduced visibility on speed of progress (safe speed) + Navigational warnings or reports + War zones + Piracy attacks or other hostile activities Shipboard Routeing 1 Waster can choose a route from the shortest, quickest, at a constant speed oF tased upon weather. Information on the weather being experienced wil also diotata rouleing, A route may be 2n optimum route based upon favourable current, distance ‘and eimatic condiions. Tre weather forecests can be used to stratenically modify the route further, reducing the risk of damage fo the ship and her cargo. 4.22.4 Facsimile Charts “The fecsimie recelver can provide the ship wih significant weather-related information thal can be used for routelng decisions. These ara the common types oF facsimile charls that are transmitted for the use of ships: ‘+ Surface Weathe: Analysis is a synoptic chart that provides weather pattems for a specific te, based upon observallons made a few hours before transmission «Surface Weather Prognosis Is @ 24 or 36 hour outlook of expected future weather ‘+ Extended Surface Prognosis provides projected weether for 2 to 5 days «Satelite Weather Images provide an indication of any disturbances through cloud cover and the TRS view from space fe ce.Charis show the limits of pack ice and any known iceberg locations 1+ See Temperature chuns provide surface temporature eontoure and forecasts fora spacified period © Wave Analysis charts provide contours of wave heights and direction of ovement, based upon a synopsis made a few hours before transmission + Wave Prognosis chars forecast weve contours with heights and direction ‘of movement. [Allof these can influence routelng dacisions and, in particular, the wave analysts and prognosis chars help esimate the ship's speed from the ship's performance curves. Provided the information was oblained on a regular basis, 2 knowledgeable Master ‘should have no dificuly in taking routeing decisions 408 Navigation Avance for Matos anc Masters coan Rousing 42.3 Shore-Based Routeing Forecasters and rovteing experts use these technical developments tor routeing advice to ships: + Weather sateites + Evignsive databases on oceanographic and meteorological conditions © Weather and wave modelling on computers « Anextensive knowledge of the ship's behaviour in varying circumstances + Better communications. Services are provided by a number of government agencies and private establishments, The METROUTE’ service of the UK is provided only on receipt of 2 ‘special request. 42.34 Typos Of Routes ‘These form the basis of the aimed level of service provided by the routelng service: + ‘Constant spead is often a C/P requirement and, i not mainizined, could incur a finencial penalty + ‘Least Sime! is used to keep the passage time to @ minimum and is @ preferred choice for large ships carrying liquid bulk cargoes, large parcels Gr dry bulk cargoes, Such routes may incorporate a fuel saving option + “Least damage’ is preferred for vessels that carry cargo that is lable to be damaged by the movement ofthe vessel in heavy sea, for example, Ro-Ro ships carrying expensive cars + ‘Least time and feast damage" is intondad for keeping both damage and {inancial claims Tow and is prefarrad by most users of shore based routeing. Some vessels may have special requirements: = Deen watorroute » leotree route ‘+ Allweather route (e.g.. passenger ships) 4.2.32 Considerations for Advice ‘Ths considerations of routelng service when advising the vessels are: «Safety of the vessel, passengers, crew and cargo ‘+ The dangers [rom ice, fog end storms + Speed and past performance of the vessel + Classification of vessel + Company and chertorer’s preferences + Master's experiance and preference 110 Navigation Advances for Matos and Mas bean Fowteing © Present weather + Forecast weather for time ofthe voyage ‘+ Proximity to hazarcs ‘+ Endurance and bunker capacity ‘© Economies of cargo and operations + Prognosis chars of wave heights «+ Recommendations from Ocean Passages for the World and rouleing charts. 42.3.3 Routeing Procedure "The serviea may be contracied far a single voyage, period of time charter, for @ ship throughout or for the entire leet. Usually, the contract is made by the company, but sometimes it may be made ay the Master. 4.23.4 On Contract ‘Once a vessel contracts for service, the routaing servies requires some basic information for entesing into their database. The service has to be advised of the ‘Company's preferences anc given the vessel's particulars and performance under ‘ferent condition, that is tre epoed of the ship at afferent draught or displacement ‘conditone. They wil aiso need the ship's til manoeuvre data, date from fog books tnd observations, the time since crydacking and the performance curves. The Getale of method of obtaining the service and the Information that wil be required ‘when this is done are available in ALRS Vol 3. preg permed SOLARA Sd ann sprint SEs een Figure 49 - Performance Curves for Head, Beam and Fotiewing Seas Navigation Advanced fr Matos ana Masters ‘onan Routoing Subsequent information Before sailing + Ship's particulars (name, call sign, contact details) + Port of departure + Port of destination + Dato and time of departure “+ Condition of the vessel loaded/balast, draught, freeboard, summer displacement) Type of cargo (weather sensitiveldangerous — angle of repose, high density cargo} + Vessels required ETA, if ny ‘+ Vessels speed ~ CIP requirement © Weatherand sea condiiions to be avoided = Other requirements ~ maintenance, passenger comfort + Vessels meteorological equipmert (if the vessel is @ meteorological ‘observation station). ‘While on passage, noon position reports are sent from the vessel wit these details: Date/Time UTC ‘+ Nome of the vessel | call sign + Position + Course and speed (daly average and present speed) + Avarage and Present meteorological conditions (pressure, wind, swell) + ETA based on present / predicted average speed 4.236 Routeing Advice + Before sailing the provisional route wil be sent to the ship + Althe time of salling, when the Master advises the routeing service of the {ime of departure, the route is confirmed, or updated if necessary. Weather reports are gent to ship and updated every 48 hours «+The vessel updetes ts position to the rouleing service every 24 hours (oF atlior Hf required) and routeing advice fs recsived every 48 hours or earlier, as necessary. 4.2317 Voyage Assessment ‘Shora weather routeing Is based en information regarding the ship and the actual ‘weather as well as ne forecast weather conditions. When the voyage is complete, 12 ‘Ocean Routing ‘Navigation Advancns fr Voyage Assessment Information is provided by the rouieing service to tne vessel or is owners. Preliminary Voyage Analysis ‘Fis fea desoripive accourt ofthe route, explaining the reasons forthe choice of the shised route ard including a surnmary of relevant weather conditions, It compares {he estimated average spe20 with the performance spead of the vessel using direct routsing. Voyage Abstract taetes the vessel's noon positions along the route, the weather experianced and provides estimates of how weather and currents afecied the vessel's progress. Routeing Chart ais isa plot ofthe vessels noon positions and the weather experienced. Hindcast Charts ‘These are provided on requast and compare weather and progress along the advised route with that likely o have been experienced along an appropriate Sitemnative rovie. Tho comparison shows how much time the ship may have saved by following the advised raute. Voyage Analysis “Tho can be provided on raquest for any vayage, whether or not it has been routed by the service. It ls dasigred to be used for bunker or spead claims and is similar to a Voyage Abstac! Routeing Summaries Fhis ipa seasonal summery ofthe routes followed by a client's vessel(s) an procuced on request. It sels in assessing the benefits of using the service. 423.8 Least Time Track One ofthe essential oleriants of any routeing is the development of Least Time ‘Flack. Using experionce and the available Information onboard, t can be produced ty tne navigator. The Information required by the navigator for consirucing o feast fine track isthe ship's performance curves with different relative wave directions and how the waves and swellvil affect speed with a change in wave height. A wave ‘prognosis chart is also required. ‘A Least Time Track can 2e bul from the guidance in Figure 4.10: «+ From the departure positon, several tracks towards the general rection of destination are ganetated al approximately 15° intervals «© The tracks are drevmn on a traneparont overlay and are placed over a prognosis char fo analyse the conditions that will be encountered by the ‘vessel during fie voyage on the above tracks 113 Navigation Advanced for Malas and tasers (Ocean Routsing Figure 4.10 - Construction of Timas Fronts for Least Time Track + After studying the prognostic wave height charts and the vessel's performance curves, pio the estimated 12 hour run distance on each of the racks «These postions are joined together fo form a fine known as The Time Front ‘+ Obviously bad tracks are discarded + From each of several positions on tha time front, tracks are drawn at 15° intervals and the estimated 12 hour run is plotted again + This procedure is repeated twice more at intervals of 12 hours. This enables a 48 hours contour to be drawn up + The position on the 48 hours contour that is nearest to the vesset's destination is the point that the Master is advised to route by + Afier 12 hours, the ship's actual position is marked on the chart and the oxercise is repeated «When estimating distance and speed on the projected tracks, allowance is ads for fog 1ea_stnrme wines curionts-wave-heights-ané-awelrand the thee navigational hazards expected to be encounlared, in accordance with the forecast 42.39 Advantages Se Routeing advice from shore is based on stratagic decisions by well experienced professionals who have at their disposal extensive databases of oceanographic and freteoroiogicel information, However, the ship’s Master may be taking decisions on the basis of present weather and near-future expectations. 14 Navigation Advanced for Mss and Mastars cean Routing Routeing advice can be useful towards: ‘+ Safely as the ship keeps claar of extreme weather conditions reducing the probabilty of severe catastrophic damage ‘+ Reduction in ship's hull metal fatigue 1+ Reduction in shig and cargo damage fewer emergency repairs |+ Reduction in machinery wear and tear, extending ship-operating life «+ Saving in ual consumption and costs leads to lower operating costs + Saving of ime providing lower operating costs «Better scheduling of port operations and routine dry docking meaning no lost-passage time = Passenger and erew comfort, enhancing the efficiency and heath of the crew and the wel-being of the passengers. + Scheduled maintenance 1+ Reductions in insurance premiums due to a reduction in cisims = Reduction in tigation due to @ reduction of claims against ships. 42340 Disadvantages |+ Routeing advice is for guidance only and final responsibly rests with the Mester. Therefore, the Master needs to consider the advice carefully before using ito select the vessers route + Itis possible that, even with rautzing advice, the vessel s unable to avoid the worst weather on the strategic route. Beiter average weathar would have been possible on the more traditional optimum route «As a result of poor strategic planning, the advice may take the vessel {towards an impossible positon with no possibilty of better options «The Master ané the rest of the bridge team have to spend time on extra repnis and communication with the routeing service |n certain pars ofthe word where the weather remains fair, i can be ah tunnecessary expense. 4.3 Oceanographic and Climatic Data Its not necessary for navigator to fearn the oceanographic and climatic data of the tenlire world, But he should knaw how to find the data and use ito its full advantage. He must aporeciate tha the conditions being experianced ala given t me may not be the Same as the information in the published data. The variation may be due 10 vifferences in weather conditions ftom the stated climatic conditions, seasonal changes and extra (ot insuficient) heating of the landmasses and the se. 18 Navigaon Advanced for Males and Wastars (eaan Reuteing “The navigator must always be ready for any deviation from the norm and take Torectve action in time to Keep the ship away from danger. Variations may affect fhe performance ofthe vessel and the navigatar should be ready to adjust the plan to accommodate those differences and minimise waste. “The following sections provide a brief summary of the general eceanographic and Glimatic date of the main frequented ocean areas by using brief text notes, simple ‘maps and bullet points in a tabulated format. ‘As January and July representthe extremes of climatic data and its effects on the ‘Goean currents, these are the maps that have bean provided. The maps are only ‘approximate and may not show all the isiands or the exact coastines. Navigation Advanced for Mists an Masters Figure 4.11 - Oceanographic and Climate Dats Map 4 er T20W 720 ore ene vier aackcl = 4 Locaton of Highs ard Lows, TZ, Wind dkotions and Gal frequency GANUARY "7 Osean Routing Wins uno -a-++ Enclosing areas with Gale Frequency > 10 daysimanth i t t i ' t { 1 — — — — = - endsing areas with Gate Frequency 5-10 daysimontn qujenieeg mene siaqoo, oa slespeg -————= === == sean Rousing joan WAL <= fiogyo seave Bujsojug-— — —- — — 119 Figure 4.13 - Oceanographic and Climate Data Map 3 Navigation Advanced for Males and Masts RAFT ‘Ocean Rousing ZOU sommmnnnn= queystep 9} 5 fouonbaus es yya ses Busopg » — — — — — pan ouystep of < Savona} uy soo sg -——— m= ———— = 118 ‘and Climate Data Map 2 Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masirs Figure 4.12 - Oceanographis Navigation Advonced fr Matos and Mesiere Figure 4.14 = Oceanographic and Climate Data Mapa 3 q i & i i E 8B i j i 120 Ocean Routing > Current exetion — = =~ = + Encosingiroas of Fog meenenenes Pack oil onan = === Extreme in af eabergs calla iid i Novigaton Advaneod for Mates andasiers esan Roxseing 43.1 Ocean Currents and Climatic Data 4.3.44 Currents in the North Atlantic “The North Equatorial Current originates northward of the Cape Verde Istands and flows almost due west at an everage rate of 0.7 knots. This current goes through the Antilles and enters the Gulf o' Mexico. “The South Equatorial Current originates off the west coast of Africa, south ofthe Gulf of Guinea and has 2 generally westerly flow at an average rate of 0.6 knots, although tmay reach more than 2.5 knots off the east coast of South America, where it ‘divides in two, flowing north and east of Brazil. The northern branch mainly turns ‘round from Nay to Navember to form the Equatorial Counter Gurrent, while some {valor goss past Guyana. The water entering the Gulf of Mexico exits in the form of Flocida Current, wich becomes the Guli Siream going NNE to NE at 3 to 3% knots. ‘The remnants of the Gulf Steam and water from the St Lawrence and the Labrador Currant, form the North Allantic Current, going east ‘The North Atlantic Current splits fo form the Azores Current, the Portugal Current and the Canary Current going S to SE and, in part to NE to form the Irminger Current. ‘Fhe Inminger turns counter-clockwiss on to the east coast of Greeniand to form the ‘East Greenland Current, which continues to the west coast of Greenland, forming the West Greenland Current. Part f the North Attic Currant that reaches the North Sea spiis into two. A smell ‘|emount of water flows south past the Thames Estuary and the rest flows north as the Norwegian Current. ‘South of about 10°N, currar's show @ seasonal variation. Between the west-lowing Norin and South Equatoral Currents, the Equatorial Counter Current flows East only during May to Novernber. Jnorthem winter there is ro Equatorial Counter Current and the water generally ‘emerges with an extension of the Guinea Current ‘When gales have been blowing SWV to W, 2 set of up to 114 knots may be expected towards the entrance to the Engish Channal from the west ‘The current at the NW of the Bay of Biscay is SE to S, forming part of the Portugal Current. A branch enters the bay and goes west aiong the north coast of Spain. Whore the gales have been blowing from W to NW, east-going sets may be cexpetienoed on the north ccast of Spain. 24 Novigaton Advanced fr Males and Masters 4.34.2 North Atlantic Weather ‘o2ean Reusing throughout he yar + Thigle an area of eam and baht ‘arabia wines, also called the | __ Erb ree and Dats ‘+ Vieitys very good exoeptin rain | «te monsoon during te sumer s the SW ransoen. + Cloudy weather, heavy ala 1 Duing Apilans Moy, svore equals, olen undetsonrs axing summer. © Winds ae Siry Wz and up 0 30K, + Tre ermal vind forco i, bu it may Ineraage to 7 or docreess to 2 Indie NE trade winds aes, there fie ‘Weethereean, all amount of oud 4+ Haze occurs tequeily 1 Visbityi2g0ed, exzeptin in [SUMMER (MAY - SEPTEMBER) | WINTER (NOVENIBER - MARCH) Wot = Pyne CZ romeina Nel bw equator | + The TCZcemels Nof the equator throvghoul he your ‘Ts lean area a im and baht variable winds, alo called te Esguatrial ough or Bold. — tity every 900d, excent in ain “The mansaen dung te wines he NE montoon ‘Winds aa dry an gt Ny over Libera and Mauanis era'S and Win {he Gur of Guna Weabrer goneray ne, moderate ‘iy wah haze During Gctober and November, there fon be sovere squalls ardent | thunderstorms WETRADES SSCS NETRADES: The NE hate winds extend fom te | + The NE todo winds extend irom the GZ ana upto a0. “Tne normal wind forces 4, but may Inoreaue to 7c decrease fo 2. Inthe Gul ofa ie phenomenon of very tong or gale fores winds Soeur calle the Noshors. inthe NE Wade winds area, there ‘aiewester fi an, one’ smal ‘sraunt of lou Haze occurs eaventy. ‘isa is good, except nan 2 Uphtof variate winds area exten from NE trade wind Nitto 32. The predominant win is bates and HE. 1+ Frans occur inthe W pad of the ‘laiie Ocean, + ‘Ateas affected are the Caibean Se Gur ef Mexien, Flora, G2namas anc Berra 1 «+ They cee rom By to December Greatest fequency i For Aug ts Getter 122 URRINSLES GR GREE TUDES — VARI ABLES ORTORSELETEES—} ight or variable winds ste {tem NE trode wn N tit io 28. ‘The predominant wind fs between 1 and NE- Hurieanes occur inthe W par ofthe ‘tone Ocean dress affected ae tie Gartbean Se, Gat of endo, Flos, ahamas snd Bermuda ‘Tay occur fom May ta December Navigation avarice for Mites and Masters zeae Reutoing WESTERLES: WESTERUES: eS prenaffecedts tho Npatof Avene | + Afaaavfecied te Npart of Ante Osean ‘Ocean. | 4+ Unsatlied weatheras aresut ot |» Uneeled wontner as resu of tamtneuspasoape of cepaaslonin © | "continous passage of depression n {ONE dresion Er NE decor. ‘+ duiyis the quietest month. | + Thetis high fequancy of song 1 nly the strongest oes remain SW inde! goes re eotizon especslyin fies, wate + Th tequncy of winds of force Tt only about? daye 3 reat + Qverosa tes in oF enow, orgs ‘sous, + The stamioet bolt extands roughly fromthe veety of ewfounane fo the chon! between lelned anc Faroe 4+ Slory winds of face T or over can. De expectad 1220 days par month Janus ANB VISIBILITY: [Fos +) Thares & ard 5 of Newoundland is + aberg nts ar rods and are most afeced by fog frozen ito pack ce. + Fegie vor pravaient spring snd + ee informal sevice is avatable | catty summer from CSS (slo ALFS} « Rreppevanesd more han 1.eays per | + Iamstonal ie polis operated by ron i USCG (Detale n ALAS and Seling ‘rection + lee advisory sence is operated by Canadian coastguard (Refer to Sang froctons, ALAS, io Navigation in Ganasian Water. 43.4.3 Currents in the South Atlantic ‘The Senguela Current sets NW on the SW coast of Arica. The South Equatorial Current is fed by the Benguela Current and the Guinea Current. The brench of South Equatorial Current going SSW on the east coast of South Ameria is the Brazil Current ‘Te Fain Currant flows to NNE on the east coast of Argentina and Uruguay. Treat Bran carent ara tey both tm eset fo form the very stowemowng Sou Alanile Curent. ‘The Southern Ocean Current flows E to ENE from 55°S south of Cape Hom to 40°S, close to south coast of Aiea Novigatlon Advanesd for Mates and Masters South Atiantic Weather Ocean Ranteing SUMMER (NOVEMBER - MARCH) WINTER (MAY.=SEPTEMBER) ‘The SE trade winds extond fm the quater 6 30°S + The average wind frco i 2103. 4 Slant to moderate swe ‘VARIABLES! + Siti of SE trades 0 3°S Shanta moderate sae, TCS TOL aT TST Senaes oe eer enact equator to 20'S, | The average wind ore is 20 3 | VARIABLES: The Sinilof ha SE trades to 28°. ‘WESTERLIES OR ROARING FORTIES Wy inte paominato $8 3°S 1 Tihs contruaierasage oh Sess Fam Wives se ‘Recon ard song of we + Dapresions move fom Cab de | 7 Beneie Seige and en ona ore | + Gotsare vey poln’ $f" ‘tm summer nor. nd nce Trevor? 8 cave @ rent. = Sans ante otaow he fcqucncy teste obout 15 eye per roa 4 Fopiscommen in syne anda [SbiSa wands fom warm ities + 73 1950'S may materi bt fon ith ansoy ev + Sct ao" nen swan WESTERLIES GR ROARING FORTIES Pry ics eimai 95 1 Treeite coumus posse o reckon rom isso dachon SB Sem of he wind vo = Bopesbe mots tr Gao de Homes BE Geos ana men aang So. + Soeeue vey rvs a0" ton rll Somer ae «+ inate? pve or7-9aays0 oath = SanS cance awn resaney Sooo seul toaay perme «uty tseeey eer ne finan ia ne ape Son Hoe + SE bt0 80'S many moderate btn siya tense i «+ Sorsia so nen ect, sora Semelwores beonyorsost | ‘iow Sais) ‘de and abnormal waves (ne ‘ony of shen weters~ Gough is.) 1 1 Tho approx moan ls of pack ie 2 ingested on routeng chars, ciate hatand US. Maree clmaic atl the cost dusty tho summer. Bes |, ix mane cneig a wa + leoberge ar of mmanse size end are ‘most key fo be encountered inthe (owe Istudes, Thay have boon sighted ‘Srfaras 31S of coast ofS ‘meses (Argatna, Bra, «The normal eee init re 5°. «The pan ee srs usualy 10onm Tz: 1 Te approx mean is of psc ea are incieates on routing cha, climate (ha ane, 5. Matos cial alas ‘Tesla shipping routes of he S. Hemaehore sre not fected by pack ce buat hs presence prevents the usp of GC {tack betwasn Gape of Geos Hope and ‘Gaba da Haro sspecily i we (aap «+ Ibeberge ore of nmanse sae and are ‘most ely toe encounired ine {ower lates. Thay have bean sighted Soir as 21° of tn cost ofS. America (fegonne, 8122). + The normal caer its are 35°S. ‘Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masters cena Fauteing 43:45 Currents in the North indian Ocean during Summer (SW Monsoon) “The Equatorial Jet between 2°N to 2°S goes east and spears twice during the transition periods between the monsoan seasons. “There is a clockwise flow on the coastal regions of the Arebian Sea end the Bay of Bengal to clear the water thai has been pushed by the SW monsoon. The Some Currant flows in 2 NE direction at high rates averaging 3 knots with @ maximum of 8 knots. At times, the actual Somali Current differs from is general rend. During June, this current usually sels up another clockwise flow, between 2°N and 6°N and south ‘of Suguira, as It leaves the coast of Africa. This usually happens into July as wel Late July and August see @ change as the Somali Current {urs al about 10°N. ‘General easterly sets occur n the open waters of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of ‘Bongel. During June, the Equatarial Jet gradually ceases and @ weak westeriy set replaces i In later parts of Saptember, the next phase of Equatorial Jet may begin to set. Currents in the North Indian Ocean during Winter (NE Nlonsoon) Goncral westerly sets accurin the open waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. The Equatorial Jet usually continues east up to late December, then is replaced by a broad westery flow in January which continues up to March. The coastal currants change direction: + Anticlockwise in December and January + Cloclavse in February and March. Early February in Bay of Bengal and end Maren for Arabian Sea, “There is a SW flow off the coast of Somalia south of about 8°N and tothe north sels NE. The NE flow shifts io about 4°N in March. During the northern winter, tne North Equatorial Current flows west. 4.4.7 Currants In The South Indian Ocean ‘The South Equatorial Current of the Indian Ocean runs west well south of the ‘equator when compared ta similar currents in the Allantic and Pacific Oceans, To the north of the South Equatorial Gurrent, an east-going Equatorial Countersurrent, 10 4 knot ~ sate during the NE monsoon season, especialy in the west pars of the indian Ocean. This Counte current merges inio the Equatorial Jet, at 1 to 2 knots, at the start and and of the NE monsoon, ‘The South Equaiorial Current splits twice. Once when a small branch fows along the east coast of Madagascer end second, at the African east coast. Some wator Branches N into the East African Coast Current and the other forms the SSW flow in the Mozambique Channel es tha Mozambique Current. The SSW flow on the east ‘and west sides of Madagascar join to form the Agulhas Current, averaging 2 to 3 knots with & maximum of Ska. A part of Aguihas Current he)ps to form the Benguele Current and a small part turns to flow east with the Southern Ooaan Current 408 Navigation Advanced fr Mates and Mists Ocean Routing During auturin and winter on thé wesl coast of Australi, sets off te coact are south ‘and tur south eest off Cape Leeuwin, During spring and summer, soma coastal ‘e6dy and some northerly how (N of 35°S)is present. To the wast of 113°E, there is a tendency for a No NV set which joins the South Equatorial Current. When this N to NW current Is more constant, ts termed the West Austraian Current. 4.348 Indian Ocean Weatnor SUMMER (MAY - SEPTEMBER) WINTER ( NOVEMBER - MARCH) (S.winter) (S.summer) WORTHINDIAN OCEAN TWORTHINOIAN OCEAN “+ The SW manoon preva "Tha NE reansoon preva {Patio is June to September, {Paros is November to March, Inthe Arabian Sea, TRS season is The Now Equatorial Curent Nayiuuniiufocttoy Teplaood bythe NE nsoon Custent | + fee Ofcengel Rs arsed owing west. November «+The Equatorial and Souh Equatodal | + Teno Equator caret absent Garents ate ako prasont, 1 The Equstoral Counter Cuentls 1+ Wind foreae 3 4 dfection N snd brent. RE 4 Bolnare replaced by the Indian S|» The wasther in the Aratian Sea and per Soncrentfowng W.atiotneN | "Bay of Bengalis genera fe ‘of Equator. | 6 Thetnter-monsoon season prevails i + Strengbof winds averages force 6—7, | Oelobes PESO daye emonh The worst” | = Visits reduced by rain winter sess Suquta The swe gaverned bythe prevalent Inthe arblan See, the wing foresie4— |” monsoon. and above foes 7 Tor 10 10 days per rons, The Bay of Bengal wind force ia 4-5 Snetrectoe tree 7, § 10 10.yS Soy. + Douay and unsettled wean th heavy al + Good visbityexceptin ain, jac Ap by duct. “+ Inler monsoon saason pre pile. + The swell govemed by tne prevalent 128 Novigatlon Advances for Males and Masts cean Rauteing ‘SOUTH INDIAN OCEAN + ITCZ's Sof tho equator TRS season's rom tov to Apa 1 Tropial storms are liana eyo. Inthe Auerlan area, bey are calla purreanes, 1+ Weather iia ta Dols: im ‘weather, ight arab weds, Meavy ‘Shower, squalls and thunderstorm + The NW monsoon erocts (VE rmonzoon fn N Hemisphore) + Wd at int ore, except TRS, (Cloudy unsetod weather Good: ly, exeapt ra, | + Good vitality. exc in ain ‘SOUTH INDIAN OCEAN | + Mczie Sot equator TRS sassan's Nov — Apt {Tropical storms are known 6 Cytones. tha Austin ees bey ‘te called Fsicanes. ‘+Weather aa alo Dold; Calm ‘weather, gh variable whes, heavy ‘Shower, squalls, thunderstorms ‘+ Nivmancoon prevas (NE monsoon In 8 Hemisphere) “+ Wind igh fr, except in TRS. Cloudy unseitad woah 1+ Light and veriabie wines. Fairweather. ‘SE TRADES: ‘SE TRADES: Extends irom the aquaria ougnto | + Exists rom oqualoial tough ws as. 2 Force 3-4, + Fore 4-5 VARIABLES: ‘VARIABLES: TExlends baboon the Stent the SE | + Extends bet trade wi and 38'S. ‘winds end 30°S. + Wont ane valle winds + Fairweather [WESTERLIES: ‘and W Lit of Polar estates. + Wands araweetorly and epand on tho ast maving gale pase to the Sof 50°S + Wind fore 7's exporenced for >8-12 ays per month Sof. © Weathers vatabla wih oveeas! lies, fain or anow associa wih rts of ast moving depresses. ‘Extends batwoon the S kei of variables e cae of ost ofthese dopcessions | casi moving gales WESTERLIES. 1 Extends between the Slt of ‘arable ord N Lit of Polar tasities 1 Wins a westerly aed depend on +The conte of most of these depressions pass tote Sof S'S. + Gals ao prevalent in wintr whor the winds ators Tor 126 days peemmonth. ‘= Wonther's vet Ovaroast kis, ‘alm eranow are associat wih ons ‘Auatatn ae cbsturse + eobergs mean Imi aches farthest N bbenwoun 20° and TO in Nov and Dee, ‘whan trons from 4 ne longus ef Cape Aguhes. 1 ‘Steas-motng depressor TCE: ee =a Te gatet extent ofpackice som |‘ The GC ruts btnaan South Aca [ig Sepand una fam about 25'S nc Altai ae obs tof toBe'S OSE, 67S TICE «aber meamintiseveryanere + Thectroutes beeen SNe an orn ee 27 Navigation Advanced for Males and Masts evan Reueing Currents in the North Pacific Ocean 7 “Tho North Equatorial Current fows westward in the general area of the NE Trades. ‘The South Equatorial Current also flows wosivard in the area of SE Trades. In atween the two Is the weaker east going Nort Equatorial around 5°N to 7PN. “The North Equaterer Current curves towards the Philippines and Taiwen, wher qeteste futher north to become Kurashio (also called Japan Current), which moves NE the Tsushina Current flows NE along the west coast of Japan. Water from Koroshio curvee east and widens between the Aleutians and the Hawalian Islands, hs is known as Ine North Padi Current. As the North Pacific Current approaches: the viet coast of North America, it tins SE to become the Celfornia Currant, During the winter the Davidson Current flows northerly inside of the Cakfomia Gurren “The Aleutian Gutrent flows east and the Alaska Current lows north along the coast sfaska, The Kamchalke Current flows SW along the Russian coast to the north of Japan. Currents in the South Pacific ‘The Southern Ocean Current flows easterly around lattude 45°S, The Peru Current flows N to NW and feeds into the South Equatorial Current, which is west-going at the equator. “The East Australian Current flows § along the coast, From Australia to New Zealand, fisealled the Tasman Front and on the east coast of New Zealand, it becomes the East Aucktand Current Navigation Advanced for Mates ane Masters ‘ose Rousing 43441 North Pacific Weather “jne ITCZ remains permanenlyW ofthe equator at Lonatude E of 160°W- Fear er or Lee dente S, nemigpnera fom about Nov of Dec unit Apr 0: May {reve Northem surnmar. 9 vrualy non-svitent of 150°. TN wade weds blow on tb equatria ise 10 30° Ving ree 84, put eon rehens 05-8 Wing aossoo begins gnaral in Septambe nthe nathan lose to gute. Inthe summer of ta N.barsphere, the SW mensacn spree Foo is prevalent dung summer. 5 Fog My gecnonreatheats maximum in Apr ff Hong Keng, Angin the Japan Sea. Tee ey eays per monn and 5-7 days par math off Northern Honshu ‘er July tba fog nies drop share ‘Mind tare ies 4in tne South Cie Sea and force 3 etsowhere. “TS sc preva in summer when winds may reech free 7 en os TRS sab non oe Typhoon’ nine West part nd Hurianes nthe East pert. Tee at oses by rychoon are the Careline stands, be Mariana [ando,the Fee eo. Chine Sea er the consis of China and Tehran the China Sea sand Japan, {TRS ecivity lbetwaen Jone and Oxtober. Eeplomnber is the month ct eeaistiequency of TRS. FeeNpaty along the Chinas coasts reduced by 5800, Tehatle ts tom 25°Wto 30° in wala ard 35-40 in summer, | {ght end moserata winds ae prevatert. San a Tomer ace geteraty ght anc arly roach ore 7, unlass associated wh | topkal stom. 4. Tathatelght of weer season in January, wind fores each 7 or above inthe areas | ° craow! « Thesvather conldorably varios in the westeries Gxng summer and winter 1 TRSSNGIN no i a canthuous passage depressions fromthe vicinity of Chins and see noe dkculon tarde the Aluetan [lacs and south of ASI, = Beeigiwods ne goles me FequentE of Japan, of Aletan anc the Aso aera where tne van foes reaches fore 7 oF above more than 12 days math «»Visbany ie reaucad by en and anon. aaa eprselone ars ts frequent ara thelr ooks ae urbe North than Fy ‘inte “5 Balovcaslesis.n winter, srt mt doprssions aval South of ANvetian stands, ne tnd inthe Bering Seaare asl cooky. Narigetion Avan for Mates en 43142 South Pacific Ocean Weather 1+ ITCZ remains North of Equator Evoughout te year when {2 Tothe W of 160°W, i hes fe S. hersphare om about Now/Doc unl Apa. | 1 Weather ie typical of TC2, calm. Sh arabes and fe soathor- aerating With sual, heavy rain and thunderstorms, “The vessel wil be i the SE Trage winds zone throughout her p2s3098. Thore ea High on 30°S, Wf Cre The SE ade wind lit is tom the equator to 20'S. ‘The drecon of ade wis south aaa. ‘steep ong te Fancast they ater sno Winds f force 7 of mare ar unily fr more than 2 days per month (Over he open aceans, wasther is fa wih occasional choware ‘Ske are hal-covered wih small cumulus lous. ‘pare Ie slgnt haze thal reduces ihe visbily lo 315 am. Cou went avert aoe cmmen when aprosching the cet ef ou | Fonand mist occur towards the coast of S. Arar over the coll watars of the Peru (Curent but ere arly tune sleshors. 2030'S an aed of vrata woes. {The tropcl storm area is W of 1ESW and sor {The slo pated is rom December to ApAL 1 The resis! Foquoney of tons for Januny to March, However, they ae not Unknown at oer mes. + ‘Tha south equatoralcuent ele WNW WSW at moderate to high constancy. os. 4.4 General Hazards to-be Found on an Ocean Passage ‘This is brief summary of the hazards that may be encountered on en ocean passage. The lists fat exhaustive ————— — + Sparse hydrographic information, some hazards may sill be uicharted + There may be lot of islands at short distances in the archipstagic waters: + Some islands may be unlit and thorefore, not visible during darkness. ‘+ Some islands may be vary low and may not be visible at reasonable distances or pickad up by radar at safe distances + Fishing craft in the vicrty of coasts and small islands. They may have no lights, they may have inadequate lights or they may be improperly marked + Lelsure crafts may be present in the vicinity of coast, small istands and at limes, even in the open seas ‘+ Crulse ships may pass very close to islands or coast and may emerge suddenly, having been obscured by landmarks + Some charts may be besed on very old surveys Novigeton Advanced fer Mates and Masters Ozean Routing ‘© Some charts may be very old and with an inadequate scale «+The discrepancy beimeen charted and actual positions (as derived from rmodern navigation systems or calestiat observations) may be very large. ‘There is no data avaliable for correcting such postions + Cross currents, especialy in vicinty of islends, can set a vessel towards danger. Some of these currents may be very strong ‘+ Trafic may cause concerns, especially when crossing regular shipping lanes (across or going head-on) in frequent-shipping lanes: + Force of wind in areas where gale force or stronger winds are ikely| + Tropical revolving storms. Vessels at times on cerizin headings mey ‘encounter the same TRS twice, both before and afier e-curvature = Large waves and heavy swell + Areas where ebnornal waves or Tsunamis may occur + Visbilly affected by ran, faling snow, fog, sand storms and haze Cloudy conditions er poor visibility may prevent celestial observations. ‘+ Thunderstorms, sudden squalls and water spouts © Ieabargs and other forms of ice + Areas of offshore antivly and survey ‘+ Absence of adequate areas for choosing a suitable landfall position Armed attacks, precy end armed robbery, and other security concems ‘+ Possibility of debris falling following satatite launch, ‘You ri appreciate that ths list is generic and that the actual hazards on passage may not include all these flems. For example, there is no ice in the Caribbean Sea or other low latitudes. Simiaty, there are no TRS or issues with unlit Islands in the South Atlantic Authors Note: | Bo not include irafevant poins lke these in passage plens as their presence undermines the vaiue of the input effort 131 Navigation Advanent for Mates and Masters evan Raising 4.4.4 Recap of Factors for Choice of Routes “The shortest route is not always the quickest, Take these factors ino account when choosing arouie; | — = — + Distances by various routes _ Racommendalions Ton COBEN PASSATES = Load Line zones + Proximity at ‘aaiviy — al hazards such as ice, offshore activity and hostile + Availabilty and consumpticn of bunkers, along with intermediate bunkering ports “+ Prevailing weather conditions, particularly the presence of storms or depressions + Climatie conditions, including géheral wind circulation ai state oft sea + Favourable or adversa currents + Type of cargo + Advice and recommendations by reuteing servicas +The Charterer’s instructions: + Company preferences or limiting factors, including insurance policy warranty limits ime avaliable + Position-fikng ralabilty 2 Damage Wey Be sustained + Maintenance work planned during the voyage «© Comfort of ew and passengers ‘+The points where stores and bunkers are to be replenished «The amount of traffic key fo be encountered + Draught at various stages ofthe voyage. 192 Navigatlon Advanced for Mates and Masons ewan Routeing EXAMPLE 4.1 ‘A vessel has the option of three routas for an ocean passage as follows. Here we ‘can see the effect of distance, wind and curant on passage tine: ‘Speed = 18 Knots [Distance [3130 “Tag 3 ‘Sieamingime /ad sn 3am™ [Bagh Tem | 6d 29h 36m, ‘Current against 2 Kis" [Against 1k | Favour 0.5 Hf Curentime 4 2an 27m [+ 12h sem 6h 44m factor Wind affecion | AganstOS | Against 05 Against OS speed [tgo%m) "| 15%) ‘Wing Sime factor | 8h 7m [+h am. thin “Time on passage [ad 10h 1am, 33 0h 58m 84 17h 55m. “Time lost due to current calculation: Bd Sh SEm x 2knots = 381”.27 + 18 knots = 28h 27m “The time on passage wil give an indication of the optimum choles. in addition, fog and swell may also adversely affect the progress. Other factors from the above list should be considered wien deciding the routs. Author's note [Modem ship designs ari high costs of construction, expensive cargo, ever. | increasing liability payments, increased costs of fuel casts and time-out for repairs, | unnecessary waiting times, cut-throat competition and heightened med interest al! put pressure on the Mester and the ship's operators to demonstrate a performance level at which there would appear to be litle room for error. | Use of efficient methnds of planning a proposed transit before and during the voyage plus @ careful study of al the elements (parfcularly weather) - provides an | opportunity forthe optium conditions to be used fo best advantage, ensuring safely ‘and with reasoneble operating costs 133 ‘Navigation Advanced for Meles aa tasters sige Procedures 5 Bridge Procedures "Fo achieve consistency and-minimise-eccidenis; itis important that-airmariners follow similar procedures. Proper training and avaliabilty of written procedures ‘ensures that operelions ere carried out ssfely and.with-consistency. in addition, the. “Spplication of some basie principles of managemeni can help to create an environment that is mutually supportive and efficient 5.1 Bridge Organisation — General principles of safe manring should be used to establish the levels that are ‘appropriate to any vessel. At all mes, vessels naed to be navigated safely and in ‘compliance with the Intemational Rogulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, “The need to maintein a proper lookout should determine the basic compostion ofthe navigational watch. There are a number of circumstances and conditions that could influence the sctual watchkaaping strangemnents and bridge manning levels at any time. Etective beldge team organisation will manage all of the resources that are available and prometa good communication and teamwork. Eficiant bridge resource and tear manegement should eliminate the risk that an error on the part of one person results in a dangerous situation. 5.1.1. Navigational Watch Compo! “The bridge team may vary in composition, depending on the navigational situation ‘and the human resources availabe. Al various stages of the passage, these may include: aster = ow + Helmsman + Lookout(s) + Additional officer + Pilot “There will be circumstances when the Master is required on the bridge, because of + Passage planning requirements +The Master's watch instructions + Standing orders under developing circumstances = Because the OOW thinks that Master's presence is essential 194 Navigation Advances for Matos and Masters In this case, control remains with the OOW unt the Master expressly takes ‘command, which should always be logged. The OOW now takas the supportive role, bur remains responsible forthe actions of the watch members, There will ba facasions when an addtional officer will be summoned to the bridge 10 double-up the watch, Situations that demand the presence of an addtional aficer on the bridge ‘might be a combination of + Restricted visibility + Heavy trafic + Navigation through congested waters. For prolonged perlads in suca conditions, even the Master will require raliof and = rote should be established where the Master and the junior navigation oficer share fone waich and the senior and junior navigation officers share the other. Thete may bbe cartain high-risk situations when the Master end two watch officers wil be required on the bridge at the same time, In such ciicumstances, the roles af the taam members need to be clearly defined. In mos! cases, these will be ect by company policy, but which may also vary with the individual Master or practice on the vessel and prevailing circumstances. In each case: it is imporative that all mambers of the team fully understand their role to avoid Sither everiapping or even ignoring certain functions. “Tho Master or senior navigalion officer would control movement of the vessel a5 Uafined by the Inemational Regulations for Preventing Colisions at Sea, trafic ‘Schemes and the planned passage, Overall responsibilty for watch orgenisation and safe navigation ofthe vessa resis with this person. “The junior navigation offcertakes up the supportive rola and will report relevant Information to the Master/senior navigation officer and make sure itis acknowledged. “The junior navigation officer wil fix the vessel and advise the Mastes/senior navigation officer of the postion and provide other necessary information. The junior fhavigetor,wtiu way be responsible for al internal snd external communications, wi fngure that helm and engine orders are complied with, make logbook entries and perform the other dulles required of COW. Where an sdcitional officers required, support to the Master and the OOW could be availabe through racar-based information and backup on the chart. Such an officar ‘would be of assistance with both internal and exiernal communications. In compulsory Plitage waters, the Plot becomes an important member of the bridge team. A preliminary plan should be prepared that covers Pilotage waters and the roles of he bridge team pe'sonnel. The responsibly for the safety ofthe vessel femains wilh the Master or OOW, even when pilot is on board. In affect, the Plt is ‘employed in an advisory capacity. However, here are areas i the world (for exampe, the Panama Canal), where the Pilotage authority accepts ful responsiblity forthe vessel in a case where & Pilot's decision may damage ths vessel, her cargo oF other property 135 Navigation Avance fr Mates and Masters Bridge Proceduos Factors for Navigational Watch Composition ‘When determining the adequacy of the navigational watch for ensuring proper Jookout and execution of other routine bridge related cutias, the Master should take ‘the following factors into account: «The size ofthe vessel and flld of vision available from the coning position ‘Tha’ brigge configuration that might Finder detection by Sound Gr vision + State of visibly, state of sea and weather condition + Traffic density and other activites at sea in the vicinity ofthe vessel's track ‘+ Traffic separation or routeing schemes and the attention required in these + The fines for duty + Experience of each OOW + Familitty of each OOW with the vessels equipment, procedures and manoauvting characteristics ‘= Rudder and propaliar control and manoeuvring characteristics + Activities taking place on the bridge, for example, communication and the avaibilty of additonal nelp : ‘© The operational status of bridge insirumentation and conteols, including alarms + Knowledge of, and the Master's confidence in, the professional ‘competence ofthe vossel's oficers and craw + Additional worklosd caused by the nature of the vesses functions, including immodiate operating requirements and anicipated manosuvres: +—-Any-otherralevant standard, procedure or guidance related to Watchkaoping arrangements and fitness for duty. When deciding on the composition of the bridge watch, which may inclide ‘appropriately qualified ratings, thase facars musi he conskdezede + The bridge must not be let unattended at any time + Daylightarkness, visibility and weather conditions 1+ Need for the COW to carry out additional dut hazards Teer to navigational ‘+ Use and operational concion of navigational aids (such as radar or electronic postion indicating devices) and any other equipment affecting the safe navigation of the ship 7 + Ifthe ship is fitted with operational autopilot + The need to perform radio duties ‘© Unattended machinery space (UMS) controls, alarms and indicators provided on the bridge, procedures for their use and any fimitations they may have 196 Navigon Aavenced for Mates ani asters Bia Procoturos ‘+ Any unusual demands on the navigatlonal waich that may arise 2s a result of special operational circumstances, Change in Watch Levels: Circumstances change during the voyage and it may be necessary to review the manning levels of @ navigaticnal waich. The folowing factors can be categorised as a change in circumstances, (but thelist fs not exhaustive). + Prevaling trafic conditions + Prevailing westher conditions +The nature of the waters in which the vessel is navigating ‘Fatigue leveis and workload on the bridge ‘= Changes to the operational status of the bridge equipment © Emergency situations ‘+ Activtias with which the vessel Is involved. 54.1.3 Sole Lookout In open sea conditions or wren well way trom dangers during daytime, the OOW ‘may be the only person responsible for navigation. Although the ookout may be ‘emplayed on olher bridge-related dutes at this time, he may be summoned (when required) by the OW. In such situations the vessel would be steered by autopilot. This is permitted under the STOW '95 Code, If this isto be practised on any vessel, the shipboard operational procedure manual or the Safety Management System should giva clear guidance, The Master's standing orders should also clarify the precise procedure to be followed. This guidance is also required: The circumstances under which sole lookout watchkesping can commence. ‘+ How sole lookout watchkeeping should be supported +The circumsiences when sale look watchkeeping must be suspended. ‘The Master should be satisfied with regard fo the folowing conditions on each occasion before sole lookou wachkeeping may commence, + Thal the OOW has had sufficient rest before commencing his wateh + That the OOW confirms itis wall within their capacity to maintain 8 proper lookout and remain in full control ofthe prevaling circumstances ‘© Thal the OOW is aware of tha back up assistance that has been designated for the bridge and who thay should call for assistance ‘+ That al designated backup personnel are aware of response times, the limitations on their movements, and can hear alarms of communications ‘rom the bridge. There should be two-way radio contact belween the bridge ‘and one of he designated persons ‘+ That all essential equipment and alarms on the bridge are fully Functional 187 Novigaton Advanoed fer Mates and Mastrs Beige Procedures ‘This Is an examplé of a guide to watch-comiposiion in varying conditions: (Open sea~ Day ‘OW on bridge, lockout on call in close proximity to bridge and with a radio. The Master on call. (Open sea — Night ‘OOW and lookout on bridge. The Master on call Coast light traffic ‘COW and lookout on bridge. The Master on call. Coast heavy trae OW, lookout and-helmsman on bridge. The Master where required Congested waters The Master and the 8rd Officer or the Chief Officer and the 2nd Officer, plus lookout and helmsman on the bridge (G hour watches, I for a prolonged period), Restricted visto ‘Master and 31d Offer or the Chief Officer and the 2nd Officer, the lookouts and helmsman on the bridge (6 hour watches, if for a prolonged period). 5.1.2. Engineering Watch Watch arrangements in the engine room depend on whether the ship is UMS Classified or nol, On a UMS classified ship the engine room may be unattended, particularly at right. For ships that are nct UMS classified, round-the-clock watches fre maintained in the angine room. There will be circumsiances where watchkesping arangements willbe over and above the normsl routine of watehkeeping in the fengine room. ‘The Mastar needs to ensure thal adequate waiches are being msintained in the tangine room. This is achieved by advising the Chief Engineer of the prevaling Circumstances and conditions and any factors affecting the safety of the ship. Cireumstances that demand manoeuvring the engine on standby (SBE) vil cal for extra and expert help n the engine room, Any manning constrains in the engine Copartment shouldbe kept in mind when demanding Watchkeeping in the engine room, However, the safely ofthe vessel comes first and foremost “This is @ guide to watch arrangements for machinery spaces: ‘Open sea UNIS Eingisoare on rouline maintenance and allanding {o alarms Coast Light traffic, UMS ~ Engineers on routine maintenance and attending lo alarms Coast- Heavy trafic Engine watch ~ duty engineer in engine room Restited visibilty ‘SBE — duty engineer in engine room Approach channels SBE — senior engineer, junior enginaer Plotage waters ‘SBE ~ senior engineer, junior engineer ‘The beige team should keep the engine room informed of any change in circumstances thal will require a change in machinery stalus or an SBE for ‘manoeuvring. This notice time may be specified in the SMS or, f not, it should be ‘agreed between the Master and the Chief Engineer, based upon engine specifications and manning levels in the engine oor. 138 Novigaion Advaneed or Mates and Mastr Bridge Procedures For SBE, the engineers will ‘+ Change the main engine from heavy fual ol to diese! ol! + Keep the staring-air bottles topped up + Have the start sie compressor running = Check lines and vaves to ensure smooth and uneventful manoeuvring ‘Standby at the engine control and telegraph for running the engine required to the instructions fom the bridge. ‘The bridge team may not have advanced waming of emergencies or dificult conditions developing. Where they do, they should advise the engine room of the required changes as soon 2s possible. ‘The COW should keep the engine room snd duly enginasr informed about developments. Communications between tha bridge and the engine room should include (out not be limited 1) ‘= Synchronisation of clocks + Testing controls © TA and ETD -and any changes to these times ‘+ Exact limes when the SBE is required for ending the sea passage ‘+ Requirements of eny services, for example running pumps, power in deck machinery The development cf emergencies = Time to anchoring or time to berthing ‘+ The ship entering or leaving a spacial area and the distance from land for pollution pravention purposes = Any deviations from normal plans, for example the pil in cae of UMS operations, F enginaare are required to entar the machinery space to aitend alarms, the bridge must be notiied and the ‘dead man alarm’ should be ‘activated immediately on arrival in the machinery space and should be reset within ‘Specified intervals. Fallure tc do so may require a search for the engineer inside the machinery space. 5.1.3 Fitness for Watch and Rest Periods ‘The STOW '95 Code advises governments io set @ maximum blood alcohol level of 0.08% for ship's personnel curing watchkeeping and to protibit the consumption of alcohol within 4 hours of starting a watch. Some companies, fag state ‘administrations and port staies may exercise more stringent polices. ‘The STCW 985 Code has laid down regulations for mandetory rest periods for ‘members of bridge team in order to prevent fatigue. 138 Bridge Procedures ‘The STCW Code has stipulated that «+ Rest periods of al Ieasl 10 hours in any 24-hour period are required + frest Is taken in two periods, one.of those psrinds. must be at least 6 hours +The minimum period of 19 hours may be reduced to not lees than 8 consecutive hours provided thet any such raduction does not extend beyond two days, ar 5 than 70 (in case of UX 77) hours rast is provided during cach seven-day period “The OOW must ensure that the mariner assigned to watchkeeping duties: “+ Has been given instructions in keeping lookout + Knows what is expected of a mariner + Knows how and what observations to report ‘+ Is sutably dressed and protected from the weather + ts complying with the working hours legislation and that frequent rete is possible 5.2 Keeping Watch ‘The oficerin charge of the bridge watch and all supporting the waich should be anare of tha SMS procadures, layout of the bridge and the use of the equipment. 5.2.1 Familiarisation with Bridge Equipment ‘The COW should fully understand the operation of this equipment: + Bridge and deck fighting 4+ Emerganny arrangements ithe event of maitr power fitare——— + Navigation and signal lights, including searchligh's, signalling lamps and ‘morse light and saund signalling apparatus and whistles + Fog bell and gong system + Safety equipment, including LSA equipment , pyroieciniés, EPIRS anc 'SART and bridge fre detection panels + General ani alarm signaling arrangements «Emergency pump, venttation, water-tight door controls and internal ship ‘communications facies, inctuding portable radios ‘+ Emergency hand-powered or wind up phone system ‘© Public address system © Extemal communication equipment, including VHF, GMDSS and AIS 140 Navigation Advanced or Mates an Mastors Bie Procedures + Alarm systoms on bridge ‘+ Echo sounder, electronic navigational position fixing systems gyro compassirepeaters, magnalle compass, offcourse alarm + Radar, Including ARPA ‘+ Spaeditistance rezorder, VOR (see 1.9) ‘+ Steering gear, including manual, auto-pilot, emergency changeover and testing arrangements + Engine and thruster controls {+ IBS functions (filed) and automatic track-keeping system (i fited) (see 34) + ECDIS and electronic chars (if ted) (see 9.3.3) + Lecalion and operation of ancilary bridge equipment (for example, binoculars, signaling fags and mateorological equipment) ‘+ Stowage of chart and hydrographic publications. Steering Gear Tests After prolonged use of the autopliot, and before entering coastal waters, test the: steering gear at all of the manual steering positions on the bridge. In coastal and congested waters more than one steering gear power unit should be used when such units are capable of smultaneous operation. 12 hours before deperiurs, check and test the sleering gear, including the operation of these (as applicable) ‘© The main steering gesr ‘+The auxiliary stoating gear +The remote stosring control systems ‘= The main stecring position on the bridge +The emergency pawer supply The rudder angle Indicators in retation to actual uder postion ‘©The remote steering gear contol system power fafture alarms = The steering gear power unit falure alarms ‘= Auiomatic isolating arrangements and other sutomatic equipment. Conduct similar check end tosis before arrival a) Navigation vanced for Mites and Masters rig Procedures (Checks and tests should also Include: +The full rudder movement (according to the specifications ofthe steering gear) 7 «The timing of udder movement from hardover-io-hardaver, to ensure ‘compliance with the requirement = Avisual inspection of the steering gear and its connecting linkage: +The operation of the means of communication between the steering gear compartment and the bridge/engine room contol Changeover Procedures “Tho change-over from automatic fo manual oF vice-versa should be done by either the Masior or the OOW. If nat, the change shouid be under their supervision. All offcore concemed with the operation of maintenance of the steering gaar should ‘Sequaint themselves with the change-over procedures Instructions for changing- Over from automatic to manuel steering (and vice-versa) should be posted ai the steering control position on the bridge. Emergency Steering Drills Emergency steering dri should teke place at lesst every three months (and 24 hours before entering US Waters). They must include direct control from the steering {gear compartment, the cornmunicalions procedure with the bridge and, where Spolicabls, the operation of atomative power supplies. AS many deck officers, ‘Cadets and ratings as possible that are responsibie for steering should take part in these dis, The datas on which these chacks and tests are conducied and the date dnd details of emergency steering drils caried out must be recorded in the official Tegbook. =~ Auto Pilot Regulations ‘+ Automaficpiiotshoukdnot be used incoastatorestuariat waters unless = change-over can take place within 30 seconds «+ Hancesteering should be engaged ones every watch «+ Ifthe ship is being steored on automatic pot, the services of @ qualified helmsman ehould be avaiable to the GOW: The helmsman may be engaged on dutias in the immadiate vicinity of the bridge so that the COW ‘ran summon him at any moment 1+ The change-over from automatic to manual steering should take placa Inder the supervision of the Master or OOW. Instructions for chango-over ‘Should be dispieyed at (or near) the steering console. (US Regulation: If the ship fs being steered by automatic plat and the hand-sieering ‘wheel is turned, an alarm should sound) Navigation Advonces for Matos and Meer 5.2.2 Keeping the Watch ‘The COW Is the Master's representative and is responsible at all times for the safe ‘navigation of the ship and for compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, ‘As tne Masters representative, the OOW is in cherge ofthe bridge and the bridge team for that wetch unl propoty relieved by the Master or another watchkeaping officer. The OOW should encure that bridge watch manning levels are at all imes safe forthe prevaling circumstances and conditions, in compliance with shipboard operational procedures and the Master's standing orders. Procedures for handing ver the watch and calling for support on the bridge should be in place and understood by the OOW. Duties of the OOW In order to maintain 2 safe navigational watch, the COW wil perform watchkeeping, navigation and GMDSS radio watchkeeping dues, including: ‘© Maintaining a lookout © General survellance ofthe ship ‘Monitoring the progress of the ship and fixing position ‘= Collision avoidance in compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea + Recording bridge ectivitles + Making periodic checks on the navigational equipment in use. ‘The navigational duties ofthe OOW are based upon the needs to execute the passage plan safely and fo montior the progress oi the ship against that plen, Under GMDSS, the COW wil be responsible for maintaining a continuous radio ‘watch at soa. During distress incidents, one of the qualified radio personnal should fhe lasignaled to have primary responsiblity for radio communications. On passenger ships, that person can have no other duties during a distress situation ‘The OOW neads to understand the means and best practices of controlling the speed and direction ofthe ship, the handling characteristics and stopping distances. Helm, engines and sound signaling apparatus are at the OOW"s disposal and he: should not hesitate to use them at any tima. ‘The OOW also needs to be fully conversant with shipboard obligations with regard 10 Pollution peavention, reportig and emergency situations. The OOW should know the Jocation ofall of the safety equipment on the bridge and how to operate that equipment. In certain circumstances, 2 helmsman will have to be employed in addition to the lookout. (Note: @ helmsman is not a lookou!). 143 Navigation vanced fr Mates and Master Bridge Provectres Lis the responsibility of the officer of watch fo ansure thal tha vessel is being steered safaly and efficiently, The OOW also neads to ensure that the heim orders are clearly understood and complied with as required. 5.2.22 Additional Duties “There may alsc-be-2-number of additional duties for the OOW to undertake while on watch. General communications, cargo monitoring, the monitoring and control of machinery and the supervision and control of ship safety systems are typical xamples. Additional duties should, under no circumstances, interfere with the oxercise of primary duties: Bridge Attendance ‘The OOW should not leave the bridge unattended. However, if tis safe to do s0, on ‘a ship with a separate chartrcom the OOW may visit that room for shon periods of time to cary out necessary navigation! duties. Changing Over the Watch “The OOW should not hand aver the watch if there is any reason to believe that the relieving officer is unfit or is temporary unable - to cary out the watchkeeping ules etfectively, If there is any doubt, the COW should call the Master. Reasons for Unflness for duty could be ilness, the effect of drink, drugs er fatigue, “The COW should understand the Master's night orders or standing instructions, i any, before taking over the watch. Before taking over the watch, the relieving officer ‘musi be satisfied as fo the ship's position and confirm is intended track, course ang ‘Speed, and engine contols as eppropriats, noting any dangers to navigation he may expect to-encounter during tne-waich. The relieving officer should also be satisfied that all other members of the bridge tg2m for the new watch are fit for duty, particularly with regards fo thelr adlustment to night vision. fs manoeuvre centher action io svoid_a hazard is taking place 2tthe momont the ‘OOW is being relieved, handover should be: uefewed unl that action has been | completed. 5.2.25 Calling the Master oe eee In accordance with standing orders or spacial instructions, the COW should notty the Mesier If unsure of the appropriate action for the safety of the ship. Guidance on ‘sp2tifc circumstances for caliing the Masiet or other back-up support shouk! be ‘given inthe SMS, supported by standing orders and bridge ordersas appropriate: ‘The Master should shvays be noted in these circumstances: + ifmovement of other ships or trafic condition is causing concer + I éifcuties are experienced in maintaining the course: 1+ restricted visiilty Is encountered or expected + Whan making landfall ee 14 Newgation Advanced forts and Masters Bridge Prosadures = When a distrass signel or Unusual waming is ranived ‘= On filure to sight land, 2 navigational mark or obtain soundings by the expected time ‘= If, unexpectedly, land or a navigational mark is sighted or a change in soundings occurs + On breallown ofthe engine(s), propulsion machinery remote control, sigering ger or any other essential navigational equipment, alarm of Indicator ‘+ Ifradio equipment malfunctions. + In heavy weather, I thers is doubt about the risk of weather damage It the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or a derelict ‘+ Inany olher emergency or position of doubt. ‘The QOW will continue to be responsible for the watch, despite the presence of the Master on the bridge, unti informed specially thatthe Master has assumed that responsibilty end that this is mutually understood, That the Mastar has taken control ‘on the bridge should be racorcad in the Yogbook, 5.2.3 General Watchkeeping Maintaining a Look-Out “The bridge team an watch must give thei full attention to lookout dutias. In compliance with the Iniornstional Regulations for Preventing Colisions at Sea and general watchkeeping standards, a proper lookout must be maintained at all mas to ‘sorve the purposes of: + Acantinuous state of viglance by sight and hearing and by all other Satie means, wating fr any sift change in the operating ‘hvironment Appraisal ofa situation and the risk of colision, stranding and other dangers to navigation ‘+ Detection of ships or eireraft in distress, shipwrecked persons, wrecks, debris and hazards to safe navigation. On shipe with fully enclosed bridges, sound raception equipment should be in ‘operation continuously, and should be correctly adjusies to ensure that all able sounds on the open deck can be clearly heard on the bridge. 5.28.2 Sole Lookout Under the STCWV 95 Code, the OOW may be the sole lookout in daylight provided that on each accasion, “tha siuation has baen carefully assessed and thas been established without doubt that iis safe to operate with a sole lookout 145 ‘Navigation Advancod for Mates and Masi Bridge Procedures “Take full aecount ofall relevant factors; including but nat timited to! + State of weather + Visiitty + Traffic density + Proximity of dangers to navigation +The attention required when navigating in or near traffic separation schemes. When deemed necessary, summon assistance immediately 1 the bridge. Hf sole Tokout watshkeeping practices ars to be folowed, provide clear guidance on how they should operate in the SMS 52.3.3 General Surveillance Itercumstances and navigafionel safety allows, the OOW should endeavour to thsintain general survaliance of the deck and cargo during the watch. The COW Toads to maintain a high level af general awareness about the ship ané its routine — thats, day-to-day operations, This riay include maintaining 2 ganeral watch over the Ship's docks to monitor, where possible, people working on deck, and any catgo or Saigo handling equipment. The OOW may have te cerry out such surveillance before tyaieh, expecally in cases of heavy weather. Special waichkeeping arrangements weay be appronrate in waters where there is thought to be 2 isk of piracy or armed attack Whenever work is being carried out on deck in the vicinity of radar antennae, radio tarale and sound signaling apparatus, the OOW should be particulary observant Beth should post appropriate warning notices on the equipment control. If possible, caucennect the power supply to thal equipment. If hese items of equipment have to be used, the work shoulé stop. Regording Bridge Activities _ P iormal record of navigational aciviies and incidents, whi ere of importance ta {he safely of navigation and are part of passage plan execution, should be kept in ‘appropriate logbooks, Paper racords from course recorders, echo soundors and NAVTEX recelvers should pee Staned for the period stipuiatad in the SMS. These paper records shouk! b= dated and timesmarked. “Fo allow the ship's actual trak to be reconstructed at a later stage, sulficent iMtetmation concerning position, course and spaed should be recorded in the bridge iggbook or using approved eloctronic means. All positions marked on the wavigatonal charts also need to be retained until the end of the vayage. The Voyage Date Recorder (VR) would automatically record most ofthese, but the above practice confirms thet the walch officers are periorming their tasks effcinty, 148 Navigation Advanced for Mates anders Bie Procedures Periodic Checks On Navigational Equipment (Operational checks on navigational equipment should be undertaken when preparing for soa and prior fo por entry After lengthy Ocean passages and before entering restricted coastal waters, itis important also to check that full engine and stesring manoeuvrability is available. The OOW should underiake cally tests and checks on the bridge equipment, including the folowing “+ When the eutorratc plat is in use, manual steering should be tested at least once a watch + Gyro and magnetic eompass errors should be checked once a watch, where possibie, and after any major course alteration ~ + Compass and gyro repeaters should be synchronized. This procedure includes any repeaters mounted off the bridge (such as in the engine control oom) or atthe emergency steting position. ‘Checks on electronic equipment should both confirm thatthe piece of equipment is, funetioning properly and that t Is success‘ully communicating to any bridge system towhich itis connacted, Bull-in test feclties provide 2 useful health check on t functional state of the piace of equipment and should be used frequently. Electronic ‘equipment systems should be checked to ensure that configuration setings, important for correct interfacing batveen pieces of equipment, have not changed. To ‘ensure adequate performance, information from electronic equipment should always be compared and verified against information ftom different independent sources. ‘Goad practice also requires the OOW to check that orders are bing corractly followed. For example, rudder angle and engine rpm indicators provide the COW vith an immediate check an whether helm and engine movement orders are being followed. 52.3.6 Manoewvring Data ‘The ship’s manoeuviing dats is contained on the Pilot Card and Wheelhouse Poste. ‘Some ships also have @ manoeuvring booklet, and the OOW needs to be feria with this data, On the Plot Cato, you must record the ship's draught end any permanent oF temporary idiosyncrasies that could affect manoeuvrabily. For Sxamplo, a ship may have atendency ta sieer to port at full speed and bul steer to starboard at slow speed, To control the main engines eftecvely, the OOW should be familar with thelr ‘operation from the bridge ard with the operation of the propeller mechanism. The ‘OOW should aiso be aware of any imitations the system may have, and appreciate that the fype and configuration of the ship's engines could have implications when changing speed, Direci-drive dissal, diesel through gearboxiclutch, turbo-alectric and {gas turbine engines all have relatively quick responses To change, provided that the engines are on stand-by. Geared lurbings are less responsive, 147 Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masters Bridge Procosures 8.3 Navigation ILis important that the OOW executes thie passage plan 68 prepared and monitors ‘and records the progress of the ship, relalive to that plan. I the OOW has to make @ femporery deviation Irom the pessage plan for any reason, he should return to the original plan es soon as itis cafe to do so. At te first opportunity, the OOW should ‘Sdvise the Master of tha actions teken. The plan will need to be formally amended and 2 briafing made to the other members of the bridge team. In good practice, the ‘amendment should have. been avalable as a contingency plan. Good navigational practice demands that the OOW: ‘+ Understands the capabillies and imitations of the navigational aids ond systems being used end continually monitors their performance ‘+ Uses the echo sounder to monitor changes in water depth ‘= Uses dead reckoning (DR) techniques to check postion fixes ‘+ Cross checks positon fives using independent sources of information. This particulary important whan electronic postion-fxing systems such as GPS or Loran-C are used 26 the primary means of fixing the position of the ship ‘+ Uses visual navigation aids to support electronic positian-fxing methods ie. landmarts in coastel areas and catestial navigation in open waters Does nat bacome over reliant on automated nevigational equipment, including ECDIS, thereby failing lo make proper navigational use of visual information, Care should also be exercised whan taking geographical positions from electron posiion-fxing systems, lke GPS, and piotiing them on to charts. The OOW shouic ‘bear in mind that the chart datum differs from the datum (usually WGS64) used by the slenironie positon.ving eystam, 2.dslum shit wilnave to be-appii position co-ordinates batore they are plotted on the chart. should be Fated that where an appreciable datum shift does exist fora particular char, 2 'satalite-derived position’ note, providing latitude and longitude datum Shift values, will appear on the chart + Of charts whose survey source dateris very old theraccurany of those charts may be poor in certain areas. Under these circumstances, the OOW ‘Should not rely totally on position-fixing using electronic systems, and Should (where possible), use visual and radar navigational techniques to ‘maintain a sefe distance off the land. she 5.3.1. Navigation in Coastal or Restricted Waters ‘As a general rule, navigation should be carried out on the most suitable large-scale ‘chars onboard, and the position of the ship should be fied ata planned frequency. [Al relevant navigation marks should be poslively identiied by the OOW before they 148 Navigaton Advanced fr Males and Masters Brtige Procescas fe usd, Visual and rader poston fing and montoigtecriques should be used whenever possiol In coastal waters, he OOW should be aware thal ship routsing schemes and ship reporting systems, that require reports to be made lo coastradio and vesselrafc stations, may exist Kel of th ship's draught, tabi conditions and manoeuvring charectesos isis important As ine ship enoreshalow water, oqu01 may Rave asia eet One manoenably oft sp anomie an ase dh Su ee ‘aris in proportion fo the squra ofthe ships epeod and il rte veducr ‘speed Is reduced. Eee ee 5.3.2 Anchoring When approaching an anchorage, the passage and anchoring plan should be followed. Account should be taken of the following when preparing the anchor plan: ‘+ Speed reduction in ample ime + Direction and strength of wind, curent and tidal stream + Helght of te +The tidal steam when manoeuvring at siow speeds + That there is adequate sea room, particularly fo seaward +The depo wal tr ad ype seabed end the seope of abe Before entering a resricted area and making the final approach: ‘+ The engine room and ancher party should be informed of the time of ‘ncharing ‘+ Anchors, lights/shapes and sound signaling appliances must be ready. (On ancheding, & fi on the anchor le go position should be made and the chip's Suing ce mares. The snr poston shoud be commune Te ex ‘authority or VTS. While at anchor, the OOW should: Been + Determine ane plete shi's poston on the appropriate chart Tako bearings of The ravgaional marks or ready eeniatle shor ejects to Iaintain a check on bo anchor postion and oonsure hatte ship does Tot drag is ancho: Make chooks onthe UNC. Use the GPS enchor alarm to check the positon, partly when using DGPS made + Obsewe metsordagieal an el condtons andthe sae fhe sea + Pay pareularstenton to the anchor poston afer 9 change of te + Record any wind ehit change of weather + Ensure thatthe site of eecness of he main angines and other machine is in accordance with the Master's instructions, 7 Tt 143 ‘Navigation Advanced for Malas ane Masters frig Procedures +A proper Wooreut must ba waINTATee ans hip epscoOn rounds parioaiealy made. particulary ifthe ship Is enchored in waters thet cout prasent a risk of alack by pirates or ermed robbers «Ensure thal the ship exhibits the appropriate ights-and.shapes and that Sound signals are made in accordance with all applicable regulations = Take measures to protect the environment fem pollution by the ship, compiying with appicable pollution regulstions «+ Noiiy the Master and ake all counter measures ithe s 1+ mmesiately noiy he Master doteriorate. drags iis anchor ity ther sea conditions or vi 5. .3 Towing And Navigation ‘A vessel may be required to use the services of tugs for various reasons. These can te divided info two broad-categorias, Ocean and Harbour/Coastal. These two ccalegories can be subdivided further: Ocean ‘Towing ships in distress or in danger. ‘Towing ships for delivery to repair faites, Fowing dumb lighters (barges) for cargo transport “Towing larger off shore installations (rigs) HarbourlCoastal For ease of ship handling (puting, pusting) Escort services. Towage sarvices Into and out of harbour. Standby services, Supply and handling. ‘Engagement ir avert of grounding or colsion. Factors Influencing Choice of Tugs In harbour tage sil-be- provided! fy-the-portauthery or the terminal speretor-——— Consider these factors: ‘+ Size (displacement) and type of the vessel requiring assistance «See room available for manoeuvring + Proximity of dangers, + Bollard-pull of the tugs avaliable ‘6 Manoeuvringihandling characteristics of the tugs available + Prevailing westher conditions + Effocts of eurrent or tidal stream 1+ Windage area — loaded or in ballasthigh sided (draught, freeboard) 160 Navigation Advanced for Mates ad Masts Bsdga Procedures in the event of ocean towage, the lug will be contracted By the Owinersimanagers. Consider these questions: “+ Size (gisplacemen’) and type of the vessel to be towed + Length of the voyage 1+ Speed at which towage is to take place (power) + Climatic and preveling weather conditions + Power available on the tawed vessel + Whether the towed vessel is to be mannad + Can the towed vessal be steered ‘+ Cam the towad vessel use her anchor + Proximity of dangers + Fuol capacty of the tug ‘+ Fire fighting capabilities ofthe tug ‘+ Handling capabilites of the tug Navigational Considerations Harbour or coastal, consider these points: ‘+ [dentity ofthe tugs © Communications (VHF channels and voeabulary) ‘+ Engagement postion + Engines on stancby + Readiness of ship's ciew (deck perty) ‘+ Location of secuting lugs lines, tugs or ships lines +. Speed and heading atthe point of engagernent ‘© Possibility and awareness uf interaction + Speed during the operation ‘+ Execution of planned manoeuvres + Possibility and awareness of girting = Recommendations in the saling airections ‘= Signals and flags tobe displayed + Command autherity (obviously the ship) = Contingency planning ‘= Area of operation ‘+ Route to be followed 181 Navigaton Advances for Males ai Mas Bike Procedure Proximity of hazards uKe ‘Timas of engagement and termination Prevailing weather Record keeping Identity ofthe twats) Communications (VHF channels) Rendezvous position (in the event of ocean towage the towed vessel would likely be disabled anc will therefore require the tug(s} to came to her) Destination and any impending hazards Any intermediate destinations for refusing Cimate, prevaling and forecast weather Proximity of hazards Preparation and agreement of the passage plan Recommendations laid down in the sailing directions ‘Advice and recommendations (fow is categorised as a low powered vessel) in the Oceen Passages for the Word (shortest route may not be the quickest route) ‘The speed of towing in diferent weather conditions Contingency planning for amargencies / bad weather / parting of tow fine Continuous radio contact between two vessels Command aulhorty i the tow is unmanned all responsibilty ies with the ug) Possitilily af steering the tow Life saving appliances for the crew of tow [Agreement on direction and speed of commencement of towing operation (usually upwind) [Agreement on procedures to be followed while altering course (should be done in small steps, gradually) Monitoring ofthe strain an the towine (on fong ocean passage, preferably ‘some part ofthe towline should be in water) Recommendations obtained from weather rouicing services Hazards (Ice, fog, sttong winds) on the route Expected traffic Allocations of duties 182 Navigation vanced for Matoe and Masters Bridge Procodures Readiness of anchors of tow in shallow waters + Record keeping. Signals and Communications Night: If tho longth of tow exeseds 200 m, the towing vessel will display 8 masthead lights ina vertical line. If she is 50 m ar mora in langth, another masthead light is required. The other ights are side lights, stern ight and 2 towing light voricaly above the stern light. The vessel baing towed will splay side lights ‘and a stom light Day: Ifthe length of tow exceeds 200 m, the towing vessel and the vessal being towed will display @ black diamond where It can bs seen mast clearly {the towing vessel is restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, the fowing vessel wil display red, white and red all round lights in a vertical ine. During deytime, she wit display a black ball, a diamord and a ballin a vertical ine where they can be seen ‘most clearly ‘Atnight, use a search light toilluminate the towiine. ‘A SECURITE message can te transmitted to inform shipping in the Viinity. Itean also be used to keep the coast stations noted of progress. Incase of acaan towage, spcial attention should be paid atthe star, during passage through shallow waters, coastal waters and at the termination. If the tow is in confined waters at the star, it would be essential to use herbour tugs for assistance tl the ship is in clear waters and the ocean-going tug can then exercise Cconiral over her. The same routine may be folowed at the termination # the ship is to [Proceed in confined waters. In confined waters, the length of the lowtline wil have to be shorter as it should never drag along the seabed, As the lenath reduces, slrain wil increase, and so speed should be eased to minimise the strain, 5.3.4 Offshore Navigation Nevigation in the vicinity of offshore inslallations nears careful sansireration, Proximity to busy shipping lanes makes mailers worse, Special care neads to be exercised if approaching this type of vessel Offshore exploration in an area starts with a seismic survey, This may be performed by towing an object at the ené of a vary long wire and caution must be exercised ‘round them, 5.344 Rigs ‘Mobile rigs are used for drilirg wells. Jack-up rigs can be used in depths down to ‘bout 120m and are tawed ino dtiling position, where thal steel legs are lowered to the seabad. The dling platform is kept jacked-up clear of tha water. Sem submersible rigs consist ofa platform on columns that rise fram a caisson submerged deep enough to zvoid many of the effects of se and swall These can 153 Bridge Procedures bbe used in up to 1700nrin arravchored mode: inrdyramic positioning{P}mode, thoy can be used in denths greater than 1700m. Dril ships are used in depts of less than 200m through the use of an 6-polnt anchor system. With dynamic positioning, cling can be done in dapths of between 2000m and 6000 m below the seabed. ‘+ Rigs are marked by iluminaled name panel, ighis, obstruction lights and {og signels. Flares butn at times forthe disposal of unwanted oll or gas. IMiobie rigs on station are-not charted: + Buoys and other obstacles are offen moored near rigs and anchors wires, chains and obstructions often extend as far as one mile 1s Astendby vessel and other small craft may be in attendance. Installations vsvelly have a safely zone +The rig chould be given a wide berth + During the course of development, large siructures may be moved without notes. On some chars, such areas are designated development areas and their mits are shown, Mariners are strongly advises to keop outside of the development areas «+ Dring could be done at an angle fo the vertical, extending well beyond the pase of the rig «+ Positions are glven by Radio navigational werrings or Temporary notices, NAVTEX. in Navarea I these are published weekly in SafetyNET and are reprinted in Seotion Ill of Admiralty Notices to Mariners: 5.342 Wells Numexous wells could be diiled during a development, Some are sealed with Cemont below the seabed and abandonad (Plugged and Abandoned). Those Thutod ata leer date are formed Suspended wells. These usually extend 2m to 8m ‘Ganve the vea bod. In some cases, an extension could be 15m above the seabed. ‘hose in ure are termed Production wels and may be protected by 8 500m dxolucion zone, Producsion wells, and in some cases, Suspended wels, are marked by buoye or ight-bunys. Wells ate shown on a chart és a dangor cis. 5.3.43 Platioims Pilod stet siuctures have les dre into the seabed, Concrote structures stayin postion by gravy, Tension Leg pltforms consist of somi-submarsible platforms craviefo foaded calssons on the seabed below by wires, kept in fensio by tne buoyancy of the platorm ‘Annumber of wells mey be dled fram one rig. A template placed on the seabed below the tig is used to guide the dil A tempiate may be as much as 15m above the soabed. Platforms may stand in singles or in complex Structures connected with bridges or underwater cables, 184 Navigation Advanced for Mates andasters Bridge Procedures Platforms are marked by: ‘+ Iluminated neme panels displaying the registered name (et least one panel visible from any direction) + Auwhite light flashing Morse cods (U) every 15 seconds. Visible 15 miles all round the horizon. Elevalion 12m to 30m + Secondary lights wih the same cheracterstcs, but only visible for 10 miles. Thay are aulomaticaly brought into operation on the failure ofthe lights ‘+ Red lights, flashing Morse code (LU) in unison with each other, every 15 seconds, visible 2 miles, exhibited from the horizontal extremities of the structure that are net already marked by main light or lights (obstruction lights) + Fog signals sounding Morse code (U) every 30 seconds, auaible at a range of at least 2 miles In addon tothe list above, the platform may wall also be burning gas Platforme are charlad and may be mentioned in saling directions. Driling ri barges, which may be up to 1 mile from them, may not be charted. This ancillary ‘equipment may ba marked by buoys. Mooring Systems (Single Point Moorings - SPM) CGatanary Anchor Leg Moorings (CALM) have a large buoy on the surface that does not lum when the ship swings to wind or tide tis moored by 4 oF more anchors which may fe up to 400m from the buoy. Maccing hawsers and cargo hoses lead from the buoy through a tumiable mounted on top. ‘A Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM) has a rigid frame with a buoyancy device at ts Upper end, ts lower end is secured on a large steel or concrete bate resting on the seabed, The upper connecte to @ mooring buoy by 8 chain or wira span, Oil tows into the ftame through a universal joint. The buoy may swing wih the vassal and is Niko to tit in that erection. itis particulary sulted to loading from deep water sub- sea wallheads. {A Single Anchor Leg Storaga (SALS) is a SALMLype of maaring systam thats permanently attached to tha stam or stem ofa storage tanker through a yoke Supported by @ buoyancy tank. Tankers secure to the storage Lenker tc load, ‘An Expased Location Single Buoy Mooring (ELSEM) is used in deep weter were bad weather Is (requent and has a large cylindrical floating structure, which is ‘surmounted by a helicopter lator. It has emergency accommodation and its anchors may lie up to haifa mile irom the structure, A.SPAR mooring is similar to ELSBM, but hes 2 larger floating structure that accounts far te storage capacty, allowing continued production even in adveres ‘weather. tis permanently manned, 185 Navigation Advanced fr Mi ane Masters Bikge Proved An Atticulated Loading Column (ALC)IS = roumreatiorr or SALNT Witte anchor ‘span and buoyant frame or tube replaced by @ meatal lattice tower, buoyant at one ‘end and attached tothe other by a universal joint lo a concrete-iled base on seabed In bad weather, a tawar may be inclined at angles of up to 20 degrees from vertical Mooring Towers are not SPMs and afe secured lo Wis Seabed, surmounted by a tumtabla, and used to moor ships, Submarine Pipelines Laid on the seabed for the conveyance of ci, gas and water, they may extend many miles ilo the sea-and-may be-buried, trenched or stand up fo 2m above the seabed. Pines that were originally buried may become exposed over time. Some pipes have joinis or manifolds that extend up to 10m abova the seabed. Anchoring and trewiing ‘should not be carried out in the viinity of pipelines. Pipes contain dangerous, ‘explosive substances. In addition to the fire hazard, a ship may loose buoyancy due {0 ges leaking from a ruptured pipeline. Navigation in Offshore Areas ‘© Navigational wamings for towing large objects, rig movements, establishment or changes to areas of activity, and seismic survey aro ‘usually provided. Update the charis wih relevant warnings ‘= Ifa vessel needs to transit the area, the passage plan should be prepares to keep the vessal well clear of the safaly zones and within the safety fairways ‘+ Vessels should stay clear of safety zones as marked on the chart or advised by wamings. & minimum safe distance of 50m must be maintained in the absence of information on the safety zone. Safety zones - and-positions cf structures * 600 m should be marked as no-go areas ‘+The passage plan notes should Includs warnings on reduced soundings and the use of echo sounder + Notes should also include: details on. \ieation of structures and ‘warning an problems with identification. Alemate primary and secondary Methods of monitoring, other than through the use of ofishore structures, Should be iste, including the use of visual, radar and electronic systems ‘+ Maintain a sharp lookout in the erea for the movement of support anc ‘supply vesssie and buoys, some of whichrmay not bei *No anchoring’ should be marked clearly. Base contingency plans on cemergeney actions other than anchoring When in the area, mate the dlreétion of set due to eurrent on the-éhart and Update it with the direction of leeway (when in the area) Maximum speed, considering the manoeuvring characteristics of the vessel and proximity to hazards, should be noted in the pessage psn Usual remarks ike, notices, hand steering, the Nastar’s calls, doubling \vatches and lookouts should also be entered in the passage plan. 188 Navigation Advanced for Matas ard Masters Bikige Procedures ‘Aurtars Note While the stipulated safety zone around an offshore platform is 500m, i is better practice (o chart courses 1-2 off such platforms as an approach of 500m wil cause panic fo the Stand-by vessel, 5.3.5 Collision Avoidance Its beyond the scope ofthis book io discuss every regulation concerning collisions. Only the basic practices are given here and these are the ones that apply at all times in any scenario. Signals “Tho COW must always comply with the Intemational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, Compliance not only concems the conduct of vessels under the stecring and sailag rules, but also covers displaying the earract ight, shape, sound ‘and light signals For example, 2 vassal dritirg off a port with her engines deliberately shut down is ota 'vessel not under command’ (NUG) as defined by rule 3(f of the COLREGS. However, a vessel drifting with her engines under repairs is considered NUC. Always observe caution when approaching other vessels. Vessels may not be isplaying their correct light or shape signals or, when approached from a certain direction, their signais could be badly positioned and obscured by the ship's siructure, 5.3.52 Lookout Lookout should be maintained by all available means, including sight and hearing. Rader, AlS-and VHF are ueaful in support. VHF radio'should noi ba used for colision-avoidanee purposes. Valuable time can be wasted atlompting to mak Contact, since positive identfication may be dificult and once contact has boon made, misunderstandings may arise, This should apply even when identity i known through AIS. VHF cals for colision-avoidance should be avoided in rastricted Visibility. Action should be based upon COLREGS, & mutually.agresd solution that's contrary te COLREGS is NOT acceptable, Safe Speed In compliance with the Inter ational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, ships should proceed at a safe speed at all imes. In restricted visibilly, safe speed may require a reduction in service speed to reduce the stopping distance of the ship. Near ice, ships are specifically required lo proceed al maderate speeds. Speed changes may be required fo avoid a collision in circumstances where the ship is unable to alter course. 187 ‘Navigation Advanced for Mates and Masts DBrlge Procederos Risk OF Goilision In clear weather, the rick of collision can bs detected early by taking frequent ‘compass bearings of an approaching vessel to ascertain whather or not the bearing is.stoady and the vassal ison a colision. course Compass bearings eliminate the yaw of the ship's haa. However, care must be taken when approaching very large Ships, & ship under-fow ar ships at close range. An appreciable bearing change may be evident undar these circumstances but a risk of colision may sill remain. In addon toa steady compass bearing, a reduction of range is also a significant factor {or risk of collsion. Time to Take Action “The time to take action is important. The rules only suggest that it should be ‘early’ or li ‘ample time’. There can be no clear mention of tange or number of minutes before the risk of colision or close-quarters situation by when avoiding action should be taken. itll depends on haw close a vossol is and at what rate It is closing. Ifthe beering of @ vessel at 10" is steady and the range is only decreasing at 0.5 per hour, there is no immediate risk of colision. But for the same vessel on a steady bearing, tho range was decreasing 3" in S minutes, the situation is diferent and immediate action would have to be taken, ‘Ample time’ also maans that the Master for the OOW has made @ dacision based on all of the avaiable information, rather than in haste or with incamplets information. The siand-on vessel should be inno ‘doubt at any time about the intentions of the give-way vessel 3.5.6 Large Enough ‘The action should nat just be large enough and realy apparent to another vessel observing, visually or by redar, it should be executed by the appropriate use of the helm as wall-Avoide-suecession of small alterations, A vessal planning fo alter ‘course by 60° and turning a! the rate of S° per minute is not making an alteration, large enough to be reacily apparent Another issue is thet of relative oloting using eafar When awn vessalis altering ‘course, slstive plotting cannot be pefformed. Similarly, if own versal hae not been fon a steady coutse and speed for the periad of observation, another vassel will nat be able lo celculala your course or speed accurately. In general, early and positive ection should always be taken when avotsing colsions, (Once action has been taken, the OOW shpuld always check to make sure that itis having the dasired etfect Passage! Safe Passage [A vessa’s passage ala givan time, can be described as the course being steered to ‘maintain her charted track. Safe passege is based on the margins of safety, and the ‘vessel must remain within thase margins of safety after making an alteration to avoid ‘another vessel. For example, a ship on a course of 0407 is on her passage. Ifthe ‘Same ship has a margin of safety of $ miles either side, and she can take action and 188 oe sl a Navigaton Advances for Malas and Mastors Big Procedures sll stay within the margin of safety, her safe passage is within the margins of safely. ‘This reasoning can also be used for vessels within 2 TSS. + Avvessel engagedin fishing is required fo avoid impeding the passage of ‘any vessel following the taficlane, The vessel engaged in ishing is ‘equired to do so by allowing enough sea room forthe vessel within the Tane to maintain har course, that is, hor passage + Avesset afless than 20m in length (or@ saling vessal) is required to avoid impeding the safe passage of & power-driven vassal following 2 Iane. the power-driven vessel within the lane is able to take action and stay within tha lane hor safe passage the vessel less than-20m (or sailing vessel) may not have to take any action so long as thera Is no risk of oolsion oF @ close-quarters sivation, However, ifthe power-driven vessel within the [ane ‘nas trafic eround her andor isin close proximity to other hazards end may not be able to alter course, then her present course is her safe passage land should not be Impeded. In restricted visbity, conduct of vessels is specifically covered by the Intemational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, in these congitions radar and in panicular, automatic radar, ploting can be used effectively for assessing the risk of Colision, The COW should prectics radar ploting and observation exercises in clear Visbbilty, whenever itis possible, in sea areas where traffic fow is regulated (such as port approaches and trafic soparation schemes}, it may ba possible to anticipate movements fram cartain ship types. In these crcumstances, its good practice o allow extra sea room, fit fs safe todo so, 5.4 Use of Pilot 54 Reasons ‘The employment of a marine pilot is of great assistance to the bridge team for the safe navigation of the ship. Pilots may be employed for 8 number of diffrent raasons: ‘+ Required by law under local regulation + Local Knowledge “+ Expertise in ship-handling and working with tugs. + To overcome language difculies and communication problems during piloting with © shore authorilies, VTS. © Tugs, Mocring Boats, Mooring Gangs 159