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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

3/2011

EVALUAREA IMPACTULUI THE ASSESSMENT OF THE


ACTIVITILOR DESFURATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES
N CARIERA BUSTUCHIN THAT TAKE PLACE IN THE
ASUPRA FACTORILOR DE BUSTUCHIN QUARRY
MEDIU

Conf. univ. Daniela Crn, Assoc. prof. Daniela Crn,


UniversitateaConstantin Brncui Constantin Brncui University of
din Tg.-Jiu, Romnia. Tg. Jiu, Romania
Ing. Ramona Mitran, Eng. Ramona Violeta Mitran,
UniversitateaConstantin Constantin Brncui University, Tg.
Brncuidin Tg.-Jiu, Romnia. Jiu, Romania

ABSTRACT: Industria minier contribuie ntr-o


ABSTRACT: The mining industry contributes a great
msur deosebit la poluarea factorilor de mediu
extent to the pollution of environment factors, both
nconjurtor, att prin cantitile mari de reziduuri pe
through large quantities of waste they produce and by
care le produce, ct i prin diversitatea lor. Exploatarea
their diversity. coal mining so far is undertaken by the
crbunelui prin lucrri miniere la zi desfurate n
bustuchin mining objective over the period of
cadrul obiectivului minier Bustuchin de-a lungul
operation, it has and will have an impact on all
perioadei de exploatare are i va avea un impact asupra
environmental factors: water, air, soil, human
tuturor factorilor de mediu: ap, aer, sol, aezri
settlements, land and aquatic ecosystems. soil is the
umane, ecosisteme terestre i acvatice. Solul este
main factor that suffers significant damage from
principalul factor care sufer deteriorri semnificative
carrying out activities in the area of coal extraction
n urma desfurrii activitii de extracie a crbunelui
Bustuchin quarry in present and future. Impact on soil
n perimetrul carierei Bustuchin, n prezent i viitor.
is reflected by its occupation by the career, external
Impactul asupra solului se concretizeaz prin ocuparea
and internal landfills, utilities serving the career, in
acestuia de carier, hald exterioar i hald interioar,
terms of quantity and quality by destroying topsoil
utiliti care deservesc cariera, din punct de vedere
structures and lithological changes.
cantitativ, iar calitativ prin distrugerea stratului fertil i
modificri ale structurii litologice.
KEYWORDS: impact, environment, human activities,
quarry.
CUVINTE CHEIE: impact, mediul nconjurtor,
activiti antropice, carier.

1. INTRODUCERE 1. INTRODUCTION

Perimetrul minier Bustuchin este The exploitation perimeter mining


situat n bazinul carbonifer Gilort-Amaradia coal of the Bustuchin basin is located in the
pe teritoriul comunelor Bustuchin, Roia de territory of communes Bustuchin, Roia of
Amaradia i Prigoria, judeul Gorj, la distana Amaradia and Prigoria, Gorj county, at a
de cca. 55 km de municipiul Tg. Jiu i de 35 distance of approx. 55 km from the city
km de oraul Tg. Crbuneti. Sediul Trgu-Jiu and 35 km from Trgu-Crbuneti.
obiectivului minier este amplasat n The headquarters is located in the locality
localitatea Prigoria, sat Corbu, judeul Gorj. Prigoria, Corbu village, Gorj county. The
Cariera Bustuchin se nvecineaz cu Bustuchin mining area is located north of
perimetrul minier Seciuri la nord, cu mina Seciuri mining area, in south and west of

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Albeni la sud i vest, cu perimetrul Amaradia Albeni mining area and in est Amaradia and
i cariera Ruget la est. Ruget quarry.
Din punct de vedere morfologic, Of morphologically, belongs
perimetrul carierei Bustuchin aparine zonei Bustuchin quarry hilly area, with heights
colinare, cu nlimi variabile, cuprinse ntre varying between 375 m and 520 m. The land
375 m i 520 m. Morfologia terenului este morphology is influenced by the constitution
influenat de constituia i de structura and structure of Pliocene deposits which have
depozitelor pliocene care prezint o a pronounced lithological monotony (marl,
monotonie litologic pronunat (marne, clay, sand) and little resistance to the action
argile, nisipuri) i o slab rezisten la of external agents.
aciunea agenilor externi. Perimetrul propus Perimeter of the proposed operation
pentru exploatare a fost delimitat, n funcie was defined according to the objectives of the
de obiectivele de suprafa existente n zon, existing surface area of geotechnical
de caracteristicile zcmntului i de characteristics of the deposit and minimum
parametrii geotehnici minim admisibili, allowable parameters as follows:
astfel: - The eastern and southeastern side:
- Pe latura estic i sud-estic: cursul stream during Amaradia, Seciuri village built,
prului Amaradia, intravilanul localitii the 110 kV overhead power line, the county
Seciuri, linia electric aerian de 110 kV, road DJ 675C;
drumul judeean DJ 675C; - On the western side and south-west:
- Pe latura vestic i sud-vestic: limited reserve area approved for mining
limita rezervelor omologate pentru perimetrul Bustuchin;
minier Bustuchin; - On the northern side: confirmation
- Pe latura nordic: limita de limit layers of coal, conventional limit
confirmare a stratelor de crbune; limita initially set between careers and Seciuri
convenional stabilit iniial ntre carierele Bustuchin, tailings storage space for Bane
Bustuchin i Seciuri, spaiul necesar pentru Valley, heavy machinery mounting platform,
depozitarea sterilului pe Valea Bnesei, corridor access equipment necessary for
platforma de montaj utilaje grele, culoarul career Ruget Bustuchin career;
necesar pentru accesul utilajelor din cariera - On the southern side: the limit of
Ruget n cariera Bustuchin; economic exploitation under the couch base
- Pe latura sudic: limita de exploatare layer deepens at rates below 300 m, and the
economic n condiiile n care culcuul surrounding landscape remains rates between
stratului de baz se adncete la cote sub 300 420 m and 500 m, the county road DJ 675C.
m, iar nivelul reliefului nconjurtor se
menine la cote cuprinse ntre 420 m i 500
m, drumul judeean DJ 675C.

2. IMPACTUL ACTIVITII CARIEREI


BUSTUCHIN ASUPRA CALITII 2. THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITIES
FACTORILOR DE MEDIU
BUSTUCHIN QUARRY ON THE
Impactul asupra aerului
QUALITENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
Activitatea carierei produce un impact
Impact on air quality
ce se concretizeaz n modificarea calitii
Career Activity produces an impact
aerului prin: creterea emanaiilor de gaze
which is reflected in changing air quality
(metan, gaze de eapament de la mijloacele
through: increased gas fumes (methane
de transport); emisii de praf de la depozitul de
exhaust from transport) dust emissions from
crbune, depunerile sterilului n hald, zonele

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de excavare; drumurile de acces din carier i coal storage, tailings deposits in the landfill,
hald, taluzele i bermele de hald i carier, excavation areas, roads access the career and
neacoperite vegetal prin aciunea vntului sau landfill, and landfill slopes and bermele
cldurii mari devin generatoare de emisii i career covered by vegetation or wind are
praf; o alt posibil nox este generat de emitting high heat and dust, another possible
autoaprinderea crbunelui din depozite sau auto-ignition Hazard is generated by coal
strate care afloreaz, prin degajarea de gaze deposits by gas release with high percentage
cu procent ridicat de CO provenit din arderea of CO derived from incomplete combustion,
incomplet; traficul rutier polueaz cu emisii road traffic exhaust emissions polluting NOx,
de noxe NOx, CO2, Pb, zgomot, hidrocarburi, CO2, Pb, noise, oil, smoke, etc. [1,2].
fum, etc. [1,2]. The test results of Bustuchin career
Rezultatele analizelor pulberilor sedimentary powders are shown in Table 1.
sedimentabile din cariera Bustuchin sunt
redate n tabelul 1.
Tabelul 1. Rezultatele analizelor efectuate
comparativ cu valorile admisibile
Table 1. Analytical results compared with
allowable values

Anul Valoarea msurat C.M.A Standard de Metoda de analiz


referin
2009 13,24 g/m2/lun 17 g/m2/lun STAS 12574/87 STAS 10195/75
2010 30,4 g/m2/lun 17 g/m2/lun STAS 12574/87 STAS 10195/75

Year Measured value C.M.A Reference Method of


Standard analysis
2009 13,24 g/m2/month 17 g/m2/month STAS 12574/87 STAS 10195/75
2010 30,4 g/m2/month 17 g/m2/month STAS 12574/87 STAS 10195/75

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
2009 2010

sedimentable powders C.M.A

Figura 1. Reprezentarea grafic a Figure 1. Graphical representation of the


concentraiei pulberilor sedimentabile. sedimentable powders.

Conform fig.1 se observ c din cele According to fig.1. is noted that the two
dou msurtori efectuate doar una a depit measurements exceeded only one C.M.A.
C.M.A. Rezultatele analizelor pulberilor de The test results of Bustuchin quarry sterile
steril din cariera Bustuchin sunt redate n powders are shown in Table 2.

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tabelul 2.
Tabelul 2. Rezultatele analizelor pulberilor Table 2. The test results of sterile powders.
de steril.

Anul Punct de prelevare Valoarea C.M.A Metoda de


msurat (8 ore) (8 ore) analiz
Excavator cabina 1 3,65 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
1400
platform de 12,59 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
rotire
2009
Abzeer IH- cabina 1 3,54 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
6500 platform de 12,45 mg/m 3
10 mg/m 3
Gravimetric
rotire
Excavator cabina 1 2,49 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
1400 platform de 11,48 mg/m 3
10 mg/m 3
Gravimetric
rotire
2010
Abzeer IH- cabina 1 2,71 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
6500 platform de 13,05 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
rotire

Year Sampling point The measured C.M.A Method of


value (8 hours) (8 hours) analysis
Excavator 1400 cabin 1 3,65 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
rotating 12,59 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
platform
2009 Abzeer IH- cabin 1 3,54 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
6500 rotating 12,45 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
platform
Excavator 1400 cabin 1 2,49 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
rotating 11,48 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
platform
2010 Abzeer IH- cabin 1 2,71 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
6500 rotating 13,05 mg/m3 10 mg/m3 Gravimetric
platform

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15

10

0
2009 2010

Sterile powders excavator 1400- cabin 1


Sterile powders excavator 1400 platform rotation
Sterile powders abze er IH 6500-cabin 1
Sterile powders abze er IH 6500-platform rotation
C.M.A

Figura 2. Reprezentarea grafic a Figure 2. Graphical representation of sterile


pulberilor de steril la locurile de munc. powders jobs.

Conform fig. 2 se observ unele According to Fig. 2 we can see some


depiri ale pulberilor de steril la locurile de exceedances of sterile powders at the
munc din cariera Bustuchin. workplaces in Bustuchin quarry.

Impactul asupra calitii apei Impact on water quality


La cariera Bustuchin, datorit
activitii de exploatare a crbunelui, se va At the Bustuchin career due to coal
manifesta un impact produs la apele de mining activity, there will be a product
suprafa i apele subterane. Apele de impact surface water and groundwater.
suprafa sunt afectate prin:lucrrile Surface waters are affected by:
hidrotehnice efectuate pentru regularizarea hydrotechnical works made for regulating
cursurilor de ap permanente sau toreniale permanent and torrential streams or outside
din perimetru sau din afar; modificri ale the perimeter, changes in surface water
calitii apelor de suprafa prin evacuarea n quality by discharge into the river Jiu (final
rul Jiu (emisar final) de ape ncrcate cu emissary) of water laden with pollutants from
poluani provenii din activiti miniere de mining activities of mining and storm water
exploatare i a apelor pluviale de pe from industrial facilities and administrative
suprafeele unitilor industriale i areas (coal storage, waste, equipment, etc.)
administrative (depozit crbune, deeuri, increasing the dilution of surface waters from
utilaje, etc.); creterea gradului de diluie a water discharges from sewage quarry [3].
apelor de suprafa n urma evacurilor de Evaluation of water quality from
ape din carier i ape menajere [3]. Bustuchin career by monitoring the quality
Evaluarea calitii apelor din cariera indicators and compare concentrations
Bustuchin prin monitorizarea indicatorilor de determined with the C.M.A, as NTPA
calitate i compararea concentraiilor 001/2005, as determined from chemical
determinate cu CMA, conform NTPA indicators of waste water samples from
001/2005, indicatorii chimici de calitate Bustuchin career, which are discharged into
determinai din probele de ap uzat din the Jiu River are presented in Table 3.
cariera Bustuchin, care sunt deversate n rul

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Jiu sunt prezentai n tabelul 3.


Tabelul 3. Indicatori fizico-chimici de Table 3. Physico-chemical indicators of
calitate ai apelor uzate. wastewater quality.

Indicatori fizico-chimici de UM Concentraia CMA Conf. NTPA


calitate determinat 001/2005
pH uniti de ph 7,38 6,5-8,5
Materii n suspensie mg/l 49 60
Reziduu fix mg/l 442,6 2000
Cloruri mg/l 19,49 500
Azot total mg/l 4,2 15
Sulfai mg/l 42,2 600
Fosfor total mg/l 0,46 2
Detergeni mg/l 0,24 0,5
CBO5 mg/l 25,2 25
CCO-Cr mg/l 51,88 125

Physico-chemical UM concentration CMA Conf. NTPA


quality indicators determined 001/2005
pH uniti de ph 7,38 6,5-8,5
Materials in suspension mg/l 49 60
fixed residue mg/l 442,6 2000
chlorides mg/l 19,49 500
total nitrogen mg/l 4,2 15
sulphates mg/l 42,2 600
total phosphorus mg/l 0,46 2
detergents mg/l 0,24 0,5
CBO5 mg/l 25,2 25
CCO-Cr mg/l 51,88 125

Din rezultatele obinute n urma From the results of analysis are


analizelor se nregistreaz depiri doar n exceeded only for CBO5 indicator.
cazul indicatorului CBO5.

Impactul asupra calitii solului i Impact on soil and subsoil


subsolului The quality of the environmental
Calitatea factorilor de mediu "sol i factors "soil and subsoil" in the mining
subsol" din perimetrele miniere este n perimeters is entirely negative as to direct
totalitate modificat negativ de ctre activities related to coal mining.
activitile directe i conexe de exploatare a Impact of Bustuchin quarry operating
crbunelui. activities on soil and subsoil is local and
Impactul produs de activitatea de regional in size and volume, long term and
exploatare a carierei Bustuchin, asupra refers to:
solului i subsolului este unul local i zonal - Degradation of soils and decrease
ca suprafa i volum, de lung durat i se their fertility class of large areas by land use
refer la: change and forestry original and organizing
- degradarea solurilor i scderea activities related to exploitation;

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clasei de fertilitate a acestora pe suprafee - Physico-chemical equilibrium


ntinse, prin schimbarea destinaiei iniiale a disturbance of the geological environment,
terenurilor agricole sau silvice i organizarea produced by geological prospecting,
de activiti conexe exploatrii; hydrogeological and geotechnical drilling
- deranjarea echilibrului fizico-chimic effects with insignificant surface and small
al mediului geologic, produs de volumes in limited time;
prospeciunile geologice, hidrogeologice i - Affecting the construction activity of
geotehnice prin foraje cu efecte buildings, roads, mining infrastructure and
nesemnificative, pe suprafee i volume mici, mass transportation;
n interval de timp limitat; - Layer of topsoil from agricultural
- afectarea prin activitatea de land is recovered, but it is impossible to
construcie de cldiri, drumuri, infrastructuri recover the cleared forest land and therefore it
i de transport mas minier; is destroyed.
- stratul de sol fertil este recuperat de
pe terenurile agricole, dar este imposibil de
recuperat de pe terenurile forestiere defriate
i prin urmare acesta este distrus.

Impactul produs de poluarea fonic Impact of noise pollution


Emisiile acustice de origini diferite, Acoustic emissions from different
fixe sau mobile, produse de utilajele backgrounds, fixed or mobile, technology
tehnologice sau mijloacele de transport au products and transport equipment have local
efecte locale, limitate la distane de ordinul effects, limited to distances of the order of
ctorva sute de metri fa de surse, iar n timp several hundred meters from the source and
sunt limitate la perioada de funcionare a time are limited to the period of their
acestora. functioning.
n raport cu exploatarea de carier In relation to quarrying Bustuchin,
Bustuchin, dac nu se vor lua msuri speciale, unless special measures are taken, they could
s-ar putea nregistra depiri ale nivelului de record exceeded the permissible sound level
zgomot admis n zona locuinelor din in the dwellings in the vicinity of sterile strips
vecintatea benzilor de steril, n zona de in crossing the DJ 675C. Noise measurements
traversare a DJ 675C. were made with integrating sound level meter
Msurtorile nivelului de zgomot au ACLAN SLS 95, with microphone. The
fost efectuate cu sonometrul integrator results of noise measurements in 2009 and
ACLAN SLS 95, cu microfon. Rezultatele 2010 are presented in Table 4 (fig.3).
msurtorilor nivelului de zgomot n anul Table 4. The results of noise measurements
2009 i 2010 sunt redate n tabelul 4 (fig.3). in the years 2009 and 2010.
Tabelul 4. Rezultatele msurtorilor nivelului
de zgomot n anul 2009 i 2010

Anul Punct de msurare a Valoarea admis ziua Nivelul de zgomot echivalent


nivelului de zgomot LAech dB msurat ziua LAech dB
Excavator 1400 58,6 50
Deversare TH5/TH4 53 50
2009
Abzeer 6500 49 50
Punct de ncrcare Corbu 59 50

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Excavator 1400 60 50
Deversare TH5/TH4 54,5 50
2010
Abzeer 6500 50,9 50
Punct de ncrcare Corbu 55,6 50

Year Noise level Admitted value in Equivalent noise level


measurement point day time LAech dB measured in day time
LAech dB
Excavator 1400 58,6 50
Deversare TH5/TH4 53 50
2009
Abzeer 6500 49 50
Loading point Corbu 59 50
Excavator 1400 60 50
Discharge TH5/TH4 54,5 50
2010
Abzeer 6500 50,9 50
Loading point Corbu 55,6 50

60

40
dB

20

0
2009 2010

Excavator 1400
Deversare TH5/TH4
Abze er IH 6500
Loading point Corbu
Addmited value in daytime

Figura 3. Reprezentarea grafic a nivelului de Figure 3. Graphical representation of noise


zgomot n anul 2009 i 2010. levels in the years 2009 and 2010.

n timpul zilei valoarea apropiat de During the day close to the maximum
limita maxim admisibil se nregistreaz allowable value is recorded in a single
ntr-un singur punct de lucru. n celelalte workstation. At other points where
puncte unde s-au efectuat msurtorile, measurements were made, excess noise are
depirile nivelului de zgomot echivalent sunt higher than equivalent limits.
mai mari dect limitele admise.

3. CONCLUZII 3. CONCLUSIONS

Exploatarea crbunelui prin lucrri Coal mining to date undertaken by the


miniere la zi desfurate n cadrul mining Bustuchin objective over the period of
obiectivului minier Bustuchin de-a lungul operation has and will have an impact on all

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perioadei de exploatare are i va avea un environmental factors: water, air, soil, human
impact asupra tuturor factorilor de mediu: settlements, land and aquatic ecosystems.
ap, aer, sol, aezri umane, ecosisteme Not be neglected is the psychological
terestre i acvatice. impact produced over time to the inhabitants
Deloc de neglijat este impactul of the area, both through expropriation of
psihologic produs de-a lungul timpului asupra land and housing and the discomfort caused
locuitorilor din zon, att prin exproprierile by mining activity itself.
de terenuri i locuine ct i prin disconfortul In addition to these negative
generat de activitatea minier n sine. influences that produce them must be taken
Pe lng aceste influene negative pe into account mining and objective economic
care le produce activitatea minier trebuie need for energy to fuel power plants provide
luat n calcul i necesitatea economic Isalnita and Craiova and other users and not
obiectiv pentru asigurarea combustibilului least social protection that provides residents
energetic la termocentralele Ialnia i of a mining target area.
Craiova, precum i ali utilizatori i nu n Greening work area during operation
ultimul rnd protecia social pe care and closure of land consisting of land for the
obiectivul minier o asigur locuitorilor din productive circuit, depending on what is
zon. proposed for, issuing the soil fertilizer,
Lucrrile de ecologizare a zonei pe biological recultivation works, works of
durata de exploatare i la ncetarea activitii afforestation, road access to parcels, desilting
constau n amenajarea terenului n vederea guard channels.
redrii n circuitul productiv, n funcie de Upon closure, in the south-eastern
modul de folosin propus, copertarea cu sol perimeter will be a hole shape retention. For
fertilizant, lucrri de recultivare biologic, draining the excavated space their will be
lucrri de mpdurire, drumuri de acces la used station pumps to limit the accumulation
parcele, decolmatare canale de gard. of water level.
n momentul ncetrii activitii, n
partea de sud-est a perimetrului se va contura
o groap remanent. Pentru evacuarea apei
din spaiul excavat vor fi utilizate staii de
pompe pentru limitarea nivelului
acumulrilor de ap.

REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Fodor, D., Exploitation of mineral
1. Fodor, D., Exploatarea zcmintelor deposits and rocks by work to date,
de minerale i roci utile prin lucrri Vol.I, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,
la zi, Vol.I, Editura Tehnic, 1995.
Bucureti, 1995. 2. Fodor, D., Baican, G.,
2. Fodor, D., Baican, G., Impactul Environmental impact of mining
industriei miniere asupra mediului, industry, Editura Infomin, Deva,
Editura Infomin, Deva, 2001. 2001.
3. ICSITPML Craiova, Plan de 3. ICSITPML Craiova, Development
dezvoltare a exploatrii Plan of operation resources/reserves
resurselor/rezervelor de lignit din of lignite mining area Bustuchin,
perimetrul minier Bustuchin, simbol simbol 906-191/2009.
906-191/2009.

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