Sunteți pe pagina 1din 23

UNIVERSITATEA POLITEHNICA DIN BUCURESTI

FACULTATEA DE TRANSPORTURI

SECŢIA TELECOMENZI ŞI ELECTRONICĂ ÎN TRANSPORTURI

PROIECTARE ASISTATĂ DE CALCULATOR

PROIECT

Student:
Cuprins

1. Schema electrica a amplificatorului cu tranzistoare si caracteristici


tehnice

2. Analiza in current continuu

3. Analiza in frecventa

4. Analiza Fourier

5. Definirea subcircuitelor

6. Parametrii hibrizi ai tranzistoarelor – modelarea tranzistoarelor

7. Analiza de senzitivitate

8. Analiza parametrica

9. Functia de transfer

10. Concluzii si recomandari

11. Bibliografie
1.Schema amplificatorului:

2.Analiza in curent continuu:

ANALIZA IN DC
VCC 6 0 DC 3V
VIN 1 0 AC 0.5 SIN 0.5V 5KHz
R1 2 3 10K
R2 3 0 100K
R3 3 7 68K
R4 6 5 1.5K
R5 5 4 3.3K
R6 8 0 330
R7 6 9 4.7K
R8 7 0 2.2K
C1 1 2 1U
C2 5 7 100U
C3 6 0 470U
Q1 4 3 8 BC547C
Q2 9 4 7 BC369
Q3 6 9 7 BC368
.LIB "EBIPOLAR.LIB"
.DC VCC LIST 1V 2V 3V
.PROBE
.END

3.Analiza in curent alternativ pentru amplificator, in functie de


frecventa:
ANALIZA IN CA
VCC 6 0 DC 3V
VIN 1 0 AC 0.5 SIN 0.5V 5KHz
R1 2 3 10K
R2 3 0 100K
R3 3 7 68K
R4 6 5 1.5K
R5 5 4 3.3K
R6 8 0 330
R7 6 9 4.7K
R8 7 0 2.2K
C1 1 2 1U
C2 5 7 100U
C3 6 0 470U
Q1 4 3 8 BC547C
Q2 9 4 7 BC369
Q3 6 9 7 BC368
.LIB "EBIPOLAR.LIB"
.AC DEC 10 100 500k
.PROBE
.END

4.Analiza Fourier:

ANALIZA FOURIER
VCC 6 0 DC 3V
VIN 1 0 SIN 0 0.5V 5KHz
R1 2 3 10K
R2 3 0 100K
R3 3 7 68K
R4 6 5 1.5K
R5 5 4 3.3K
R6 8 0 330
R7 6 9 4.7K
R8 7 0 2.2K
C1 1 2 1U
C2 5 7 100U
C3 6 0 470U
Q1 4 3 8 BC547C
Q2 9 4 7 BC369
Q3 6 9 7 BC368
.LIB "EBIPOLAR.LIB"
.TRAN 1us 4ms
.four 3K V(7)
.PROBE
.END

ANALIZA FOURIER

**** BJT MODEL PARAMETERS

BC547C BC369 BC368


NPN PNP NPN
IS 7.049000E-15 13.010000E-15 14.060000E-15
BF 543.1 191.1 187.6
NF 1 1 1
VAF 24.76 100 100
IKF .09496 2.253 4.103
ISE 78.170000E-15 105.000000E-15 137.200000E-15
NE 1.679 1.695 1.468
BR 1 9.046000E+06 4.541
NR 1 1 1
IKR 3.321 116.1 1.701
ISC 27.510000E-15 853.300000E-15 44.130000E-15
NC 1.775 9.905 1.471
NK .5381 .5176 .5507
RC .9706 .1694 .091
CJE 11.500000E-12 261.000000E-12 156.000000E-12
VJE .5 .5 .5
MJE .6715 .3333 .3333
CJC 5.250000E-12 87.730000E-12 52.240000E-12
VJC .5697 .5 .5
MJC .3147 .3333 .3333
TF 410.700000E-12 998.500000E-12 964.800000E-12
XTF 26.19 15.37 1.001000E+03
VTF 10 10 10
ITF 1.12 14.84 595.3
TR 10.000000E-09 10.000000E-09 10.000000E-09
XTB 1.5 1.5 1.5
CN 2.42 2.2 2.42
D .87 .52 .87
ANALIZA FOURIER

**** INITIAL TRANSIENT SOLUTION


TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C

NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE


NODE VOLTAGE

( 1) 0.0000 ( 2) .7515 ( 3) .7515 ( 4) 1.3291

( 5) 2.4778 ( 6) 3.0000 ( 7) 1.3176 ( 8) .1151

( 9) 1.9386

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME CURRENT

VCC -9.553E-04
VIN 0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 2.87E-03 WATTS

ANALIZA FOURIER

**** FOURIER ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE =


27.000 DEG C
FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE V(7)

DC COMPONENT = 1.715920E+00

HARMONIC FREQUENCY FOURIER NORMALIZED


PHASE NORMALIZED
NO (HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (DEG)
PHASE (DEG)

1 3.000E+03 3.917E-01 1.000E+00 7.155E+01


0.000E+00
2 6.000E+03 6.646E-01 1.697E+00 -1.253E+02
-2.684E+02
3 9.000E+03 2.017E-01 5.148E-01 -1.409E+02
-3.555E+02
4 1.200E+04 5.726E-02 1.462E-01 -1.541E+02
-4.403E+02
5 1.500E+04 2.926E-01 7.469E-01 -1.794E+02
-5.372E+02
6 1.800E+04 5.885E-02 1.502E-01 1.706E+02
-2.587E+02
7 2.100E+04 1.269E-02 3.241E-02 -5.424E+01
-5.551E+02
8 2.400E+04 8.850E-02 2.259E-01 1.240E+02
-4.484E+02
9 2.700E+04 4.920E-02 1.256E-01 -8.152E+01
-7.254E+02

TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 1.952858E+02


PERCENT
5.Definirea subcircuitelor pt analiza schemelor complexe:

Consideram ca subcircuit circuitul dat de fiecare tranzistor in


parte, desfasurat ca cu parametrii hibrizi, dupa care vom vace ca
exemlu analiza in domeniul timp.

Forma trazistorului desfasurat cu parametrii hibreizi:

Pentru tranzistorul BC547C avem urmatorii parametrii:


R11=h11=2,2k ;
h21 Ii=F ; h21=170
R22=1/h22=36k

Pentru tranzistorul BC369 avem urmatorii parametrii:

R11=h11=2k ;
h21 Ii=F ; h21=150
R22=1/h22=35k

Pentru tranzistorul BC360 avem:

R11=h11=2k ;
h21 Ii=F ; h21=200
R22=1/h22=38k

6.Parametrii hibrizi ai tranzistoarelor


ANALIZA IN TIMP
VCC 6 0 DC 3V
VIN 1 0 SIN 0.5V 5KHz
VPERT 2 1 AC 2mV sin 0 2mV 60KHz
R1 3 4 10K
R2 4 0 100K
R3 4 8 68K
R4 7 6 1.5K
R5 6 5 3.3K
R6 9 0 330
R7 7 10 4.7K
R8 8 0 2.2K
C1 2 3 1U
C2 6 8 100U
C3 7 0 470U
X_Q1 5 4 9 SUB1
X_Q2 10 5 8 SUB2
X_Q3 7 10 8 SUB3
.LIB "EBIPOLAR.LIB"
.TRAN 0 100U 0 10N
.SUBCKT SUB1 13 10 11
R11 10 12 2K
VAD 12 11 0V
F 13 11 VAD 150
R22 13 11 40K
.ENDS SUB1
.SUBCKT SUB2 14 15 16
R11 15 17 2K
VAD 17 16 0V
F 14 16 VAD 150
R22 14 16 40K
.ENDS SUB2
.SUBCKT SUB3 18 19 21
R11 19 20 2K
VAD 20 21 0V
F 18 21 VAD 150
R22 18 21 40K
.ENDS SUB3
.PROBE
.END

7.Analiza de senzitivitate:

ANALIZA de sensibilitate
VCC 6 0 DC 3V
VIN 1 0 SIN 0.5V 5KHz
R1 2 3 10K
R2 3 0 100K
R3 3 7 68K
R4 6 5 1.5K
R5 5 4 3.3K
R6 8 0 330
R7 6 9 4.7K
R8 7 0 2.2K
C1 1 2 1U
C2 5 7 100U
C3 6 0 470U
Q1 4 3 8 BC547C
Q2 9 4 7 BC369
Q3 6 9 7 BC368
.LIB "EBIPOLAR.LIB"
.sens V(7,0)
.PROBE
.END

ANALIZA de sensibilitate

**** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE =


27.000 DEG C

NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE


NODE VOLTAGE

( 1) .5000 ( 2) .7515 ( 3) .7515 ( 4) 1.3291

( 5) 2.4778 ( 6) 3.0000 ( 7) 1.3176 ( 8) .1151

( 9) 1.9386

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME CURRENT

VCC -9.553E-04
VIN 0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 2.87E-03 WATTS

ANALIZA de sensibilitate

**** DC SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE =


27.000 DEG C

DC SENSITIVITIES OF OUTPUT V(7,0)

ELEMENT ELEMENT ELEMENT


NORMALIZED
NAME VALUE SENSITIVITY SENSITIVITY
(VOLTS/UNIT) (VOLTS/PERCENT)

R1 1.000E+04 0.000E+00 0.000E+00


R2 1.000E+05 -4.298E-06 -4.298E-03
R3 6.800E+04 7.003E-06 4.762E-03
R4 1.500E+03 -5.044E-05 -7.565E-04
R5 3.300E+03 -5.044E-05 -1.664E-03
R6 3.300E+02 4.942E-04 1.631E-03
R7 4.700E+03 -1.338E-06 -6.291E-05
R8 2.200E+03 2.882E-06 6.341E-05
VCC 3.000E+00 1.509E-01 4.526E-03
VIN 5.000E-01 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
Q1
RB 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
RC 9.706E-01 1.091E-06 1.059E-08
RE 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
BF 5.431E+02 -6.675E-05 -3.625E-04
ISE 7.817E-14 1.333E+11 1.042E-04
BR 1.000E+00 4.080E-10 4.080E-12
ISC 2.751E-14 -5.789E+04 -1.592E-11
IS 7.049E-15 -6.083E+12 -4.288E-04
NE 1.679E+00 -9.096E-02 -1.527E-03
NC 1.775E+00 8.972E-10 1.592E-11
IKF 9.496E-02 -2.975E-03 -2.826E-06
IKR 3.321E+00 5.022E-17 1.668E-18
VAF 2.476E+01 7.307E-05 1.809E-05
VAR 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
Q2
RB 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
RC 1.694E-01 3.287E-05 5.568E-08
RE 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
BF 1.911E+02 8.767E-17 1.675E-16
ISE 1.050E-13 -1.582E+02 -1.661E-13
BR 9.046E+06 -1.823E-15 -1.649E-10
ISC 8.533E-13 6.541E+03 5.581E-11
IS 1.301E-14 -2.943E+11 -3.829E-05
NE 1.695E+00 8.570E-12 1.453E-13
NC 9.905E+00 -1.477E-09 -1.463E-10
IKF 2.253E+00 3.527E-18 7.946E-20
IKR 1.161E+02 -6.347E-11 -7.369E-11
VAF 1.000E+02 -2.348E-07 -2.348E-07
VAR 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
Q3
RB 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
RC 9.100E-02 -1.524E-08 -1.387E-11
RE 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00
BF 1.876E+02 1.852E-07 3.474E-07
ISE 1.372E-13 -2.195E+08 -3.011E-07
BR 4.541E+00 -1.899E-14 -8.625E-16
ISC 4.413E-14 2.786E+01 1.229E-14
IS 1.406E-14 2.847E+11 4.003E-05
NE 1.468E+00 3.356E-04 4.926E-06
NC 1.471E+00 -8.357E-13 -1.229E-14
IKF 4.103E+00 9.052E-08 3.714E-09
IKR 1.701E+00 -1.962E-17 -3.337E-19
VAF 1.000E+02 -4.241E-07 -4.241E-07
VAR 0.000E+00 0.000E+00 0.000E+00

JOB CONCLUDED
TOTAL JOB TIME .02

8.Analiza parametrica:

ANALIZA PARAMETRICA
VCC 6 0 DC 3V
VIN 1 0 SIN 0 0.5V 5KHz
R1 2 3 10K
R2 3 0 100K
R3 3 7 68K
R4 6 5 1.5K
R5 5 4 3.3K
R6 8 0 330
R7 6 9 4.7K
C1 1 2 1U
C2 5 7 100U
C3 6 0 470U
Q1 4 3 8 BC547C
Q2 9 4 7 BC369
Q3 6 9 7 BC368
.LIB "EBIPOLAR.LIB"
.TRAN 1us 4ms
.PARAM R=2.2K
.STEP PARAM R LIST 400 1K 8K
R8 7 0 {R}
.PROBE
.PROBE
.END
9.Functia de transfer:

Analiza tranzistorului BC547C:

caracteristica tranzistrului
Q1 2 1 0 BC547C
.LIB EBIPOLAR.LIB
VCE 2 0 10V
IB 0 1 DC 25uA
.DC VCE 0 10 0.5 IB 5u 25u 5u
.probe
.END
Analiza tranzistorului BC369:
caracteristica tranzistrului
Q1 2 1 0 BC369
.LIB EBIPOLAR.LIB
VCE 2 0 10V
IB 0 1 DC 25uA
.DC VCE 0 10 0.5 IB 5u 25u 5u
.probe
.END
Analiza tranzistorului BC368:

caracteristica tranzistrului
Q1 2 1 0 BC368
.LIB EBIPOLAR.LIB
VCE 2 0 10V
IB 0 1 DC 25uA
.DC VCE 0 10 0.5 IB 5u 25u 5u
.probe
.END

Analiza functiei de transferpentru intregul circuit:


ANALIZA TF
VCC 6 0 DC 3V
VIN 1 0 SIN 0.5V 5KHz
R1 2 3 10K
R2 3 0 100K
R3 3 7 68K
R4 6 5 1.5K
R5 5 4 3.3K
R6 8 0 330
R7 6 9 4.7K
R8 7 0 2.2K
C1 1 2 1U
C2 5 7 100U
C3 6 0 470U
Q1 4 3 8 BC547C
Q2 9 4 7 BC369
Q3 6 9 7 BC368
.LIB "EBIPOLAR.LIB"
.OP
.TF V(7) VIN
.PROBE
.END

ANALIZA TF

**** SMALL SIGNAL BIAS SOLUTION TEMPERATURE =


27.000 DEG C

NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE NODE VOLTAGE


NODE VOLTAGE

( 1) .5000 ( 2) .7515 ( 3) .7515 ( 4) 1.3291

( 5) 2.4778 ( 6) 3.0000 ( 7) 1.3176 ( 8) .1151

( 9) 1.9386

VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENTS


NAME CURRENT

VCC -9.553E-04
VIN 0.000E+00

TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 2.87E-03 WATTS


ANALIZA TF

**** OPERATING POINT INFORMATION TEMPERATURE


= 27.000 DEG C

**** BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

NAME Q1 Q2 Q3
MODEL BC547C BC369 BC368
IB 8.10E-07 -3.30E-11 3.76E-06
IC 3.48E-04 2.22E-04 3.81E-04
VBE 6.36E-01 1.15E-02 6.21E-01
VBC -5.78E-01 -6.10E-01 -1.06E+00
VCE 1.21E+00 6.21E-01 1.68E+00
BETADC 4.30E+02 -6.72E+06 1.02E+02
GM 1.34E-02 -8.58E-03 1.47E-02
RPI 3.51E+04 5.41E+11 8.08E+03
RX 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
RO 7.28E+04 1.17E+02 2.65E+05
CBE 4.28E-11 2.59E-10 3.08E-10
CBC 4.21E-12 2.50E-10 3.57E-11
CJS 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
BETAAC 4.70E+02 -4.64E+09 1.19E+02
CBX/CBX2 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
FT/FT2 4.53E+07 -2.68E+06 6.83E+06
**** SMALL-SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS

V(7)/VIN = 0.000E+00

INPUT RESISTANCE AT VIN = 1.000E+20

OUTPUT RESISTANCE AT V(7) = 1.059E+01


JOB CONCLUDED

TOTAL JOB TIME .02

14.Concluzii:
Din analiza de curent alternativ se observa ca tensiunea de iesire
scade odata cu frecventa. Din analiza caracteristicii de transfer se
vede cum functioneaza tranzistoarele la anumite valori ale tensiunii
si curentului, iar din analiza parametrica observam ca tensiunea de
iesire variaza in functie de valoarea rezistentei care am aleso ca
parametru.

11. Bibliografie:

Practica electronistului amator - Gh. Băluţă, Ilie Mihăescu,


Alexandru Mărculescu

Amplificatoare de audiofrecvenţă – B. Barbat, I. Presură,


T. Tănăsescu,

Dispozitive şi circuite electronice – Th. Dănilă, N. Reus, V. Boiciu

Internet: http://www.radioamator.ro
www.electronica.ro
www.st.com
http://one.lx.ro/amplif.html
Cablaj imprimat