Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Caracteristici ale contextului geopolitic contemporan


Tendinte contrastante si inegalitati in crestere
Conflicte sociale si miscari de rezistenta
Schimbarile de mediu ca subiect politic
Noi forme de guvernanta si democratie
Accentuarea dimensiunii etice si politice a drepturilor omului
Relatia dintre nativi si imigranti
Semnificatia globala a genului si rasei
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

geopolitica a derivat din geografia politica, care este o ramura a geografiei

Geografia este studiul sistematic al localizarii in spatiu. Geografii profesionisti sunt interesati
de unde si de ce diverse fenomene sunt localizate in spatiu. In plus, ei examineaza si
compara caracteristicile unice ale locurilor luand in consideratie relatiile dintre acestea si
economia globala.
Localizarea absoluta si relativa
Distanta si directia
Distributia
Difuzia
Atributele locurilor si regiunilor
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Geografia fizica studiaza localizarea si distributia diverselor componente ale mediului natural: clima,
vegetatia, solul, formele de relief, hidrografia

Geografia umana se concentreaza pe relatiile dintre societatea umana si spatiul in care traieste aceasta

Geografia politica este analiza caracteristicilor geografice ale fenomenelor politice, ca marimea si
forma diferitelor state-natiuni, localizarea oraselor-capitala, trasarea frontierelor, comportamente
electorale sau planificarea teritoriala (Yves Lacoste, 1993)

Geopolitica este un domeniu de cercetare geografica care considera spatiul ca fiind important
in intelegerea configuratiei relatiilor internationale (Johnston et al., 1994)
Geopolitica este un subset al geografiei politice care studiaza relatiile internationale, conflictele
internationale si politicile externe ale statelor (Braden and Shelley, 2000)
Geopolitica este studiul realitatii geopolitice (Chauprade and Thual, 2003)
Geopolitica este un sub-domeniu al geografiei politice care analizeaza relatiile politice dintre
state, strategiile externe ale statelor si balanta globala a puterii (Jones et al., 2004)
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Geopolitica

Dimensiunea politica a politicii externe

Geografie politica aplicata

interpretarea jocurilor dintre marile puteri

Geopolitica concept al secolului XX, inventat de Rudolf Kjellen in 1899: teoria statuluiu ca organism
geografic sau fenomen in spatiu.
THE RISE, THE FALL, THE RISE AND THE POSSIBLE FALL
OF GEOPOLITICS
The notion of geopolitics has helped to shape the nature of political geography over time. The term came to
prominence during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and referred to the way in which
ideas relating to politics and space could be used within national policy. The growing importance of the
term during this period was not an historical accident. In the period subsequent to the scramble for
Africa, there were few opportunities for additional European territorial expansion and, in such
circumstances, international politics became increasingly focused on the struggle for relative efficiency,
strategic position, and military power (OTuathail 1996: 25). It was in this world that political geographers
could aid state leaders in their efforts to increase the political influence exercised by individual states on
the global stage. This period of geopolitical involvement in statecraft reached its apogee in Germany
during the 1930s and 1940s, where ideas concerning the need for German territorial expansion were
easily incorporated into Nazi ideology (Parker 1998: 1). Of necessity, perhaps, the period subsequent to
the fall of that regime witnessed a waning of the star of geopolitics, both within the subject of political
geography and, to a lesser extent, within policy circles. The re-emergence of geopolitics as a legitimate
frame of enquiry took place during the 1970s, particularly in the United States and France (Parker 1998:
1). Its use during this period was very much based on the all-pervading, yet largely unconsummated,
conflict between East and West that characterised the Cold War. Here again, it was the need for
international political alliances, and the political geographies of influence that underpinned them, that
acted as the much needed shot in the arm for geopolitical debates. Geographers were to contribute to
these. Since the mid-1980s, however, classical geopolitics has, once again, come under fire, in academic
circles at least. Rather than supporting international and national political structures of domination,
political geographers, affiliated to the subject area of critical geopolitics, are beginning to question and
undermine these structures and the discourses and ideologies that surround them (see OTuathail 1996).
Depending on ones perspective, therefore, this has either signalled another downturn in the fortunes of
the notion of geopolitics within geography or has re-energised it in exciting and radical new ways.
(Jones, M., Jones R., Woods, M. (2004), An Introduction to Political Geography Space, Place and Politics, Routledge, p. 45)
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Vechi si noi factori geopolitici

De la localizare, marime si forma, climat, populatie si forta de munca, resurse si


industrie, organizatii sociale si politice (Russel P. Fifield Geopolitics in Practice and
Principle, 1944; Nicholas Spykman The Geography of Peace, 1944)

La cunostinte, tehnologie, bani (Alvin Toffler Powershift, 1991)


Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Alte abordari in afara de geopolitica

Cronopolitica spatiul nu mai apartine geografiei, ci electronicii Are loc o tendinta de


miscare de la geo la cronopolitica din moment ce distributia teritoriilor devine distributia
timpului (Virilio, 1998)
Geo-economica - noua lume va fi dominata de capitalismul fara granite care marcheaza
sfarsitul statului natiune (Luttwak, 1998)
Eco-politica pentru a gestiona deteriorarea mediului natural la nivel global,
umanitatea nu are nevoie de o Initiativa Strategica de Aparare, ci de o Initiativa
Strategica de Mediu (Gore, 2000)
Geo-guvernanta lumea se misca rapid de la geopolitica spre o realitate integrata
economic, cultural si politic (Falk, 1995)
Geopolitical Images after the Terrorist Attacks of 11
September 2001 on NEW YORK
One of the clearest recent examples of the significance of cultural messages for global patterns of geopolitics
came in the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States that took place in September 2001.
President George W. Bush, for instance, was keen to use images and rhetoric appropriated from the
culture of the American west, referring to the need to smoke out terrorists holed up in the caves of
Afghanistan. Famously, there was much disagreement about how to conceptualise the terrorist threat to
the United States. By describing the United States as a civilised country of freedom and democracy,
commentators in the United States were seen by many to be describing the states or peoples supporting
terrorism as uncivilised. That the terrorists themselves can be considered uncivilised is not especially
controversial but there was a too common assertion that all Islamic states should be viewed as uncivilised
when compared with a civilised West. The most extreme example of statements like this came from Silvio
Berlusconi, the Italian Prime Minister, who asserted that the West is bound to occidentalise and conquer
new people, thus presumably leading to the dissolution of all Islamic states. Berlusconis viewpoint was
seen to be unhelpful for the formation of a coalition of states united against the threat of international
terrorism, especially since the coalition would be strengthened immeasurably by the inclusion of
moderate Islamic states. As a result, the United States was keen to portray Al-Qaeda as an organisation
supported by one rogue state, Afghanistan. Berlusconi, however, was not the only person to use
unhelpful images and phrases during this period. Operation Ultimate Justice, the original title used to
describe the US-led attack on the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, was objected to by Islamic clerics
on the grounds that ultimate justice can be dispensed only by Allah. This, once again, had the potential to
antagonise Islamic members of the coalition against terrorism and, as a result, the offensive was renamed
Operation Enduring Freedom. These various examples demonstrate the key significance of cultural
messages and images for forging geopolitical visions of the world.
Key readings: Harvey (2003) and Mann (2003).