Sunteți pe pagina 1din 8

Politica, geografie si geografie

politica

Caracteristici ale contextului geopolitic contemporan


Tendinte contrastante si inegalitati in crestere
Conflicte sociale si miscari de rezistenta
Schimbarile de mediu ca subiect politic
Noi forme de guvernanta si democratie
Accentuarea dimensiunii etice si politice a drepturilor
omului
Relatia dintre nativi si imigranti
Semnificatia globala a genului si rasei
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

geopolitica a derivat din geografia politica, care este o


ramura a geografiei

Geografia este studiul sistematic al localizarii in spatiu. Geografii


profesionisti sunt interesati de unde si de ce diverse fenomene sunt
localizate in spatiu. In plus, ei examineaza si compara caracteristicile unice
ale locurilor luand in consideratie relatiile dintre acestea si economia
globala.
Localizarea absoluta si relativa
Distanta si directia
Distributia
Difuzia
Atributele locurilor si regiunilor
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Geografia fizica studiaza localizarea si distributia diverselor componente ale


mediului natural: clima, vegetatia, solul, formele de relief, hidrografia

Geografia umana se concentreaza pe relatiile dintre societatea umana si spatiul in


care traieste aceasta

Geografia politica este analiza caracteristicilor geografice ale fenomenelor


politice, ca marimea si forma diferitelor state-natiuni, localizarea oraselor-
capitala, trasarea frontierelor, comportamente electorale sau planificarea
teritoriala (Yves Lacoste, 1993)

Geopolitica este un domeniu de cercetare geografica care considera spatiul


ca fiind important in intelegerea configuratiei relatiilor internationale
(Johnston et al., 1994)
Geopolitica este un subset al geografiei politice care studiaza relatiile
internationale, conflictele internationale si politicile externe ale statelor
(Braden and Shelley, 2000)
Geopolitica este studiul realitatii geopolitice (Chauprade and Thual, 2003)
Geopolitica este un sub-domeniu al geografiei politice care analizeaza
relatiile politice dintre state, strategiile externe ale statelor si balanta
globala a puterii (Jones et al., 2004)
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Geopolitica

Dimensiunea politica a politicii externe

Geografie politica aplicata

interpretarea jocurilor dintre marile puteri

Geopolitica concept al secolului XX, inventat de Rudolf Kjellen in 1899: teoria


statuluiu ca organism geografic sau fenomen in spatiu.
THE RISE, THE FALL, THE RISE AND THE
POSSIBLE FALL
OF GEOPOLITICS
The notion of geopolitics has helped to shape the nature of political geography over time. The term came to
prominence during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and referred to the way in which ideas
relating to politics and space could be used within national policy. The growing importance of the term
during this period was not an historical accident. In the period subsequent to the scramble for Africa, there
were few opportunities for additional European territorial expansion and, in such circumstances,
international politics became increasingly focused on the struggle for relative efficiency, strategic position,
and military power (OTuathail 1996: 25). It was in this world that political geographers could aid state
leaders in their efforts to increase the political influence exercised by individual states on the global stage.
This period of geopolitical involvement in statecraft reached its apogee in Germany during the 1930s and
1940s, where ideas concerning the need for German territorial expansion were easily incorporated into Nazi
ideology (Parker 1998: 1). Of necessity, perhaps, the period subsequent to the fall of that regime witnessed
a waning of the star of geopolitics, both within the subject of political geography and, to a lesser extent,
within policy circles. The re-emergence of geopolitics as a legitimate frame of enquiry took place during the
1970s, particularly in the United States and France (Parker 1998: 1). Its use during this period was very
much based on the all-pervading, yet largely unconsummated, conflict between East and West that
characterised the Cold War. Here again, it was the need for international political alliances, and the political
geographies of influence that underpinned them, that acted as the much needed shot in the arm for
geopolitical debates. Geographers were to contribute to these. Since the mid-1980s, however, classical
geopolitics has, once again, come under fire, in academic circles at least. Rather than supporting
international and national political structures of domination, political geographers, affiliated to the subject
area of critical geopolitics, are beginning to question and undermine these structures and the discourses
and ideologies that surround them (see OTuathail 1996). Depending on ones perspective, therefore, this
has either signalled another downturn in the fortunes of the notion of geopolitics within geography or has
re-energised it in exciting and radical new ways.
(Jones, M., Jones R., Woods, M. (2004), An Introduction to Political Geography Space, Place and Politics, Routledge, p. 45)
Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Vechi si noi factori geopolitici

De la localizare, marime si forma, climat, populatie si forta de munca,


resurse si industrie, organizatii sociale si politice (Russel P. Fifield
Geopolitics in Practice and Principle, 1944; Nicholas Spykman The
Geography of Peace, 1944)

La cunostinte, tehnologie, bani (Alvin Toffler Powershift, 1991)


Politica, geografie si geografie politica

Alte abordari in afara de geopolitica

Cronopolitica spatiul nu mai apartine geografiei, ci electronicii Are


loc o tendinta de miscare de la geo la cronopolitica din moment ce
distributia teritoriilor devine distributia timpului (Virilio, 1998)
Geo-economica - noua lume va fi dominata de capitalismul fara
granite care marcheaza sfarsitul statului natiune (Luttwak, 1998)
Eco-politica pentru a gestiona deteriorarea mediului natural la nivel
global, umanitatea nu are nevoie de o Initiativa Strategica de Aparare,
ci de o Initiativa Strategica de Mediu (Gore, 2000)
Geo-guvernanta lumea se misca rapid de la geopolitica spre o
realitate integrata economic, cultural si politic (Falk, 1995)
Geopolitical Images after the Terrorist
Attacks of 11 September 2001 on NEW
YORK
One of the clearest recent examples of the significance of cultural messages for global
patterns of geopolitics came in the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States
that took place in September 2001. President George W. Bush, for instance, was keen
to use images and rhetoric appropriated from the culture of the American west,
referring to the need to smoke out terrorists holed up in the caves of Afghanistan.
Famously, there was much disagreement about how to conceptualise the terrorist
threat to the United States. By describing the United States as a civilised country of
freedom and democracy, commentators in the United States were seen by many to
be describing the states or peoples supporting terrorism as uncivilised. That the
terrorists themselves can be considered uncivilised is not especially controversial but
there was a too common assertion that all Islamic states should be viewed as
uncivilised when compared with a civilised West. The most extreme example of
statements like this came from Silvio Berlusconi, the Italian Prime Minister, who
asserted that the West is bound to occidentalise and conquer new people, thus
presumably leading to the dissolution of all Islamic states. Berlusconis viewpoint was
seen to be unhelpful for the formation of a coalition of states united against the
threat of international terrorism, especially since the coalition would be strengthened
immeasurably by the inclusion of moderate Islamic states. As a result, the United
States was keen to portray Al-Qaeda as an organisation supported by one rogue
state, Afghanistan. Berlusconi, however, was not the only person to use unhelpful
images and phrases during this period. Operation Ultimate Justice, the original title
used to describe the US-led attack on the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, was
objected to by Islamic clerics on the grounds that ultimate justice can be dispensed
only by Allah. This, once again, had the potential to antagonise Islamic members of