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Symposium Ceramica i sticla ntre tradiie si contemporaneitate

Ediia a VIII-a, 2011

Noile tehnologii i aplicabilitatea lor n ceramica artistic


Autor: Dan Alban
Un cunoscut editorialist din Romnia, spunea: Computerul nu tie altceva dect s te serveasc, dac tii ce s i ceri. Nimic mai adevrat a putea spune. Computerul nu poate gndi n locul tu. El poate ns s reprezinte unealta avangardist de care artistul are nevoie pentru a trece arta peste pragul postmodernismului. Tehnologia ce actualmente reprezint un labirint pentru artistul de rnd are toate ansele sa devin prietenoas ct de curnd. A face o parantez i a spune c ansele sunt aceleai ca i atunci cnd te ntlneti cu un cine aparent agresiv; dect s dai cu piciorul mai bine ncerci s comunici cu el. E posibil s scapi nemucat, ba chiar s v mprietenii. La fel vd eu tehnologia modern pe care avem tendina sa o respingem. Este firesc, doar suntem fiine create de Dumnezeu nu o aduntur de cip-uri, procesoare, etc. Lum ca exemplu grafica computerizat. Este una dintre ramurile artistice ce au mbriat tehnologia modern, fr de care nu ar putea exista. Ne putem imagina astzi o lume fr tipar digital? Fr website-uri? Cu siguran ar fi destul de greu. Gndii-v de exemplu la afiul expoziiei dumneavoastr? Ct de uor este de realizat i tiprit un astfel de afi astzi, datorit tehnologiei moderne aplicate n art! Dar cazul fotografului? Un alt exemplu n care tehnologia modern a produs o revoluie. O ramur artistic n care unealta principal a devenit tocmai tehnologia. Ce se ntmpl cu fotografia clasic?! Devine i mai valoroas! Am ncercat s dau cteva exemple pentru a contura mai bine direcia spre care ncet ncet ne ndreptm n art. Doresc s ilustrez ct de important este s inem pasul cu tehnologia, s ne dezvoltm mpreun, s controlm aceast putere care ne st la dispoziie Trebuie s ncercm s umanizm tehnologia pentru a putea lucra cu ea, s ne punem n armonie cu uneltele i materialele pe care le folosim. Revenind insa la zona care ne intereseaza, respectiv ceramica artistica, putem distinge amprenta pe care au lasat-o chiar si aici aceste inovatii in domeniu. Artistii, au acum la dispozitie, pe langa varietatea de materiale ce natura o oferea, o multitudine de materiale mixate, dezvoltate in laborator, pe care le pot utiliza in scopul artei. Unul dintre aceste domenii este reprezentat de cel al glazurilor, unde datorita progreselor facute, paleta sau mai bine zis oferta, s-a extins considerabil. Glazuri ori decoruri a caror retete de secole erau pastrate secrete sau, care erau greu de obtinut, sunt acum accesibile oricarui ceramist. Efecte care puteau fi obtinute in material cat si pe suprafata lui printr-un anumit proces adesea anevoios, pot fi acum realizate prin simpla acoperire a

suprafetei cu o anumita glazura procurata de la magazine de specialitate. Merita amintit aici programul pentru computer Glaze Simulator. Acesta face realizabila o mixare virtuala a materiilor prime pentru a obtine glazura dorita. Programul face chiar si sugestii, artistului ramanandu-i doar sa isi deschida imaginatia. Acest suport tehnologic insa, a avut o importanta deosebita in sensul in care artistul nu mai este un mestesugar. Acest avans i-a permis sa se concentreze strict pe idee, pe mesaj, procesul tehnologic fiind mult simplificat, ajutat fiind de tehnologie. Unul dintre cei mai importanti pasi pe care artistul ceramist ii urmeaza il constituie arderea lucrarii. Importanta diagramei de ardere, a temperaturii atinse, influenteaza in mod decisiv obiectul final. In trecut se punea accent pe priceperea si cunostiintele dobandite in timp de catre ceramist. Nu prea mai este cazul astazi, cand majoritatea cuptoarelor folosite in domeniul ceramicii sunt controlate electronic, dupa diagrame prestabilite si memorate de microprocesoare. Termocuplele indeplinesc rolul de veghe in timpul arderii, astfel ceramistul este absolvit de orice vina in interpretarea gresita a semnelor care il ajutau sa aproximeze etapa in care se afla arderea ori temperatura cuptorului. Rolul termocuplei este de a citi temperatura din cuptor si de a o transmite controller-ului care, in functie de semnalul primit, ia o anumita decizie. Chiar si cuptorul ceramic s-a schimbat mult in ultimul secol. Acum majoritatea cuptoarelor folosite de ceramisti sunt pe baza de rezistenta electrica. Insa poate cea mai importanta descoperire in domeniul ceramicii a reprezentat-o nu cuptorul ci roata olarului. Primele vase de lut erau modelate manual. Odata cu inventarea rotii olarului, ceramica se dezvolta puternic in zona utilitarului. Vasele ceramice erau practice si foloseau celor mai variate scopuri. Astfel a luat nastere primul utilaj tehnologic folosit in domeniul ceramicii. Proiectarea computerizata, este un alt atuu pe care ceramistul contemporan il poseda. Poate mai mult in industria ceramicii decat in cea a artei, computerul si-a dovedit importanta in producerea unor imagini 3D, realizand o simulare perfecta a unui produs viitor. Insa, desi la inceput deocamdata, exista si artisti ceramisti care utilizeaza computerul pentru a produce o schita, o forma tridimensionala a lucrarii. Speculeaza astfel un avantaj imens pentru artist, caci poate decide din timp eventualele modificari pe care lucrarea le va suferi, ori poate anticipa eventualele probleme, care tin de partea tehnica, ce ar putea sa apara. In acelasi timp ii confera artistului ocazia de a experimenta diferite texturi si culori care sa se armonizeze perfect cu forma lucrarii fara a mai fi nevoie de un consum suplimentar de timp, energie si materiale. Eu personal am folosit de multe ori programe de proiectare 3D pentru a imi putea crea premergator o viziune exacta a ansamblului de elemente ce vor compune lucrarea finala si a putea realza eventualele corectii de proportie, textura sau culoare. Dar, putem merge si mai departe si sa aducem in discutie imprimantele 3D. Aceasta este o tehnologie relativ noua care permite revelarea fizica a unor obiecte modelate virtual. Exista mai multe tipuri de astfel de imprimante, cu rasina, cu pudra, sau cu capete de frezare. Aceste imprimante ne-ar putea interesa pe noi ca si artisti in special ceramisti si sculptori. Una dintre aceste imprimante este cea dezvoltata de o echipa de ingineri si artisti de la Solheim Rapid Manufacturing Laboratory, care au reusit sa creeze obiecte de sticla folosind o imprimanta tridimensionala conventionala. Procesul denumit Vitraglyphic process, foloseste o pulbere si un liant pentru a crea treptat forma finala. Este vorba asadar, despre alaturarea dintre traditie si tehnologie. Potentialul pentru interactiunea unor forme si suprafete complexe este astfel mijlocit de tehnologia computerizata. Este de la sine inteles faptul ca toate aceste tehnolgii nu vor putea, foarte curand, sa reprezinte un substitut viabil

pentru ceramica ori sticla. Insa merita cu siguranta o atentie deosebita din perspectiva noastra, a artistilor ceramisti. Este o zona care se cuvine exploatata de catre noi artistii. Cu siguranta ceea ce confera in primul rand unicitate si frumusete unui obiect ceramic este caracterul sau teluric combinat cu maiestria artistului. Este imposibil deocamdata de realizat acest lucru de catre o masinarie. Asta deoarece, in cazul ceramistului, pe langa idee, munca de creatie necesita si un exercitiu al mainii deosebit. Fabricarea vaselor este poate cea mai veche utilizare constienta a unei transformari chimiceV.Gordon Childe.

Symposium ceramics and glass between tradition and contemporaneity New technologies and their applicability to Art Ceramics By Alban Dan
A well known editorial journalist from Romania once said: Computer doesnt know anything else but to serve us, if we know what to ask for. We could say nothing more true than this. Computer cannot think for you, but it can be the avant-garde gadget which artist needs to transcend art beyond postmodernism. The technology that today represents for the simple artist a labyrinth, has all the chances to become friendly very soon. I will paranthesize saying that the situation is similar to the case when you meet an apparently aggressive dog, and instead of kicking it, you better try and communicate with it. Its possible it wont bit you, and even to become friends. Likewise I see the modern technology that we all tend to reject. This is natural for some human beings created by God and not a kit of chips and processors. Lets take for example the computerized graphic art (?). This is one of the Art disciplines that embraced the modern technology, all- important for its existence. Can we imagine today a world without digital print? Without websites? Undoubtedly it would be quite hard! For example, think of your exhibit posting. How easy to make and print is such a posting due to modern technology applicability in Art. What about the photographer? Another example when the modern technology produced a revolution. An artistic discipline in which the important instrument is exactly the technology. What happens to the classic photography? It becomes more appreciated / valuable.

I have tried to give you some examples in order to outline the direction towards we slowly direct to in Art. I would like to exemplify how importan it is to keep up with technology, to form together, to control this power at our disposal. We must try to humanize the technology in order to work with it, accordant to the tools and materials we use. Coming back to the area we are interested in Art Ceramics we can distinguish/ notice the marks these innovations left in this field. The artists have now at their disposal besides the variety of materials that nature provides, lots of mixed materials produced in laboratories which they can use towards Art. One of this area is represented by enamels/ glazing, where due to the evolution made so far, the offer extended considerably. Glazings or decorations whose recipes were kept or not secret for centuries or hich ere hard to obtain, are now available to any ceramist. Effects that could be obtained inside the material or on its surface through a troublesome process, now can be made by a simple coverage of the surface with a special glazing you find yourself in appropriate shops. Its worth reminding you about the computer programme Glaze Simulator. This programme can make achievable a virtual mixing of the basic materials to obtain the reuired glazing. The programme can even make suggestions to the artist who only has to give free scope to his imagination. This technological base has a real relevance only if the artist is no longer an artisan. This advance permitted him to concentrate on the idea, on the message, the technological process being very much adapted by the technology. One of the important steps that the ceramist follows its the kilning process of the art work. The importance of kilning diagram and of the temperature limit decisively influences the final art work. In the past the skills and knowledges acquired by the ceramist were very important. Today these features are not relevant anymore when the ceramic kilns are under electronic control using preset diagrams that are memorized by microprocessors. Thermocouples watch over the process of kilning, so the ceramist is absolved of any guilt in misinterpretation of data that once helped him estimate the stage of the kilning process or the oven temperature. Thermocouples function is to read the temperature in the oven and send it to the controller which according to the receiving signal makes the decision. Even the ceramic kiln has changed a lot in the last century. Now almost all the ovens used by ceramist have electric resistance. Although maybe the most important descovery in Art ceramics is not the oven but the

potters wheel. First clay pots were hand-made. Once the potters wheel was created, the pottery which before created art objects turns into consumer goods. The clay pots were practical and allpuposes. Therefore the first pottery machinery was contrived. The computerized design is another advantage for the modern art ceramist. Thereby the computer is more important in the ceramic industry than in any other Art discipline in order to provide the ceramist tridimensional images of the final art work. There are also artists that use the computer programme to make sketches of the ceramic work in tridimensional form. So the ceramist can decide in good time the possible improvements in the execution process and even anticipate eventual technological difficulties. The programme also provides the ceramist to experience different textures and colors that match perfectly with the shape of the art work without wasting time, energy and materials. I often used tridimensional computerized programmes to have an accurate preview of the elements assembly that compose the final work and to rectify proportions, textures or colors. We can go even further and brink up the tridimensional printers. This new technology allows the material revealing of the virtual objects. There are more types of printers: with gum, with powder, and with capete de frezare. These kind of printers regard mainly the ceramists and the sculptors. One of it is contrived by an engineer and artist team from Solheim Rapid Manufacturing Laboratory, who managed to create glass objects using a conventional tridimensional printer. The technological process so-called Vitraglyphic uses a powder and a ceramic bond to gradually create the final shape.

Obiect din sticla realizat prin procesul Vitraglyphic Glass object created through Vitraglyphic technique

Aplicatii in ceramica a proiectarii computerizate ceramic application of the computerized design

David Krings, prototip(prototype) 3D

Obiect ceramic, print 3D Ceramic object, tridimensional print

We talk about the juxtaposition of the tradition and technology. The potential for interaction of complex shapes and surfaces goes with the computerized technology. It goes without saying that all these technologies couldnt be a viable substitute in ceramics or glass making, but they definitely deserve a special attention from the ceramic artists. It is an area that worth being explored by the artists. Undoubtedly what gives identity and beauty to a ceramic work is its telluric feature harmonized with the ceramist artistry. This is impossible to achieve with a machinery, mainly because the ceramist has the finesse that the machine lacks. V.Gordon Childe said: Pottery is probably the oldest conscious application of a chemical transformation.