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Autor: POP SILVIA






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Suportul de nvare este un rezultat al proiectului Calitate i complementarita-
te n nvmntul profesional i tehnic transfrontalier HURO/1001/119/2.3.1

Proiectul este implementat prin Programul de Cooperare Transfrontalier Unga-
ria Romnia 2007 2013 (www.huro-cbc.eu i www.hungary-romania-cbc.eu)
i este finanat de Uniunea European prin Fondul European de Dezvoltare
Regional



This learning support is one of the main result of the project Quality and
Complementarity in Cross-border Technical Vocational Education-
HURO/1001/119/2.3.1

Project implemented by Cross Border Cooperation Programme Hungary - Ro-
mania 2007 - 2013 and co-financed by the European Regional Development
Fund


Partners:
Colegiul Tehnic Valeriu Branite Lugoj
Szegedi Mszaki s Krnyezetvdelmi Kzpiskola s
Szakkpz Iskola Gbor Dnes Szeged







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Cuprins
1. Sesiunea de lucru AutoCAD ............................................................................................................................. 7
1.1 nceperea unei sesiuni de lucru n AutoCAD ............................................................................................. 7
1.2 Prezentarea interfeei AutoCAD ................................................................................................................ 8
1.3 Configurarea mediului de lucru ............................................................................................................... 10
1.4 Sistemul de coordonate AutoCAD ........................................................................................................... 11
1.5 Salvarea i exportul desenelor................................................................................................................. 11
2. Mediul de desenare ....................................................................................................................................... 12
2.1 Lucrul cu straturi (Layer) .......................................................................................................................... 12
2.2 Opiunile comenzii ZOOM ....................................................................................................................... 13
2.3 Localizarea punctelor importante de pe obiecte .................................................................................... 14
3. Comenzi pentru desenarea 2D ...................................................................................................................... 18
3.1 Punctul ..................................................................................................................................................... 18
3.2 Linia .......................................................................................................................................................... 18
3.3 Arcul ......................................................................................................................................................... 19
3.4 Cercul ....................................................................................................................................................... 21
3.5 Polilinia .................................................................................................................................................... 22
3.6 Desenarea textelor .................................................................................................................................. 23
3.7 Haurarea ................................................................................................................................................ 23
3.8 Desenarea poligoanelor regulate ............................................................................................................ 23
4. Comenzi de editare ........................................................................................................................................ 24
4.1 Comenzi de selectare i tergere ............................................................................................................. 24
4.2 Comanda Copy ......................................................................................................................................... 26
4.3 Comanda ARRAY ...................................................................................................................................... 26
4.4 Comanda OFFSET ..................................................................................................................................... 28
4.5 Comanda MIRROR ................................................................................................................................... 29

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4.6 Comanda MOVE....................................................................................................................................... 30
4.7 Comanda ROTATE .................................................................................................................................... 31
4.8 Comanda SCALE ....................................................................................................................................... 32
4.9 Comanda TRIM ........................................................................................................................................ 33
4.10 Comanda ERASE ..................................................................................................................................... 34
5. Cotarea unui desen ........................................................................................................................................ 34
5.1 Cotarea liniar ......................................................................................................................................... 35
5.2 Cote aliniate ............................................................................................................................................. 36
5.3 Cotare poziional ................................................................................................................................... 36
5.4 Cotele nlnuite bazate .......................................................................................................................... 37
5.5 Cotele nlnuite succesive ...................................................................................................................... 38
5.6 Cotarea razelor ........................................................................................................................................ 38
5.7 Cotarea diametrelor ................................................................................................................................ 38
5.8 Cotarea unghiurilor .................................................................................................................................. 39
6. THE AUTOCAD WORK SESSION ...................................................................................................................... 42
6.1 Starting an AutoCAD work session .......................................................................................................... 42
6.2 AutoCAD interface presentation ............................................................................................................ 43
6.3 Configuration of the working environment ............................................................................................. 45
6.4 AutoCAD coordinate system .................................................................................................................... 46
6.5 Saving and exporting drawings: ............................................................................................................... 46
7. DRAWING ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................................. 47
7.1 Working with Layers ................................................................................................................................ 47
7.2 Zoom command options .......................................................................................................................... 48
7.3 The location of the important points on the objects .............................................................................. 50
8. COMMANDS FOR THE 2D DRAWINGS ........................................................................................................... 53
8.1 The point .................................................................................................................................................. 53
8.2 The line .................................................................................................................................................... 53

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8.3 The Arc ..................................................................................................................................................... 54
8.4 The circle .................................................................................................................................................. 56
8.5 THE POLYLINE .......................................................................................................................................... 57
8.6 The text drawing ...................................................................................................................................... 58
8.7 The hachure ............................................................................................................................................. 58
8.8 Drawing of regular polygon ..................................................................................................................... 58
9. EDITING COMMANDS .................................................................................................................................... 59
9.1 Select and delete commands .................................................................................................................. 59
9.2 COPY command ....................................................................................................................................... 61
9.3 ARRAY command ..................................................................................................................................... 61
9.4 OFFSET Command ................................................................................................................................... 63
9.5 MIRROR Command .................................................................................................................................. 64
9.6 MOVE Command ..................................................................................................................................... 65
9.7 ROTATE Command ................................................................................................................................... 66
9.8 SCALE command ...................................................................................................................................... 67
9.9 TRIM command....................................................................................................................................... 69
9.10 ERASE command .................................................................................................................................... 69
10. DRAWING QUOTATION ............................................................................................................................. 69
10.1 The linear cote ....................................................................................................................................... 70
10.2 Aligned cotes ......................................................................................................................................... 71
10.3 Positional quotation .............................................................................................................................. 72
10.4 Based chained cotes .............................................................................................................................. 72
10.5 Chained successive cotes ....................................................................................................................... 72
10.6 The quotation for rays ........................................................................................................................... 73
10.7 The quotation for diameters ................................................................................................................. 73
10.8 The quotation for angles ....................................................................................................................... 74


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INTRODUCERE




Pachetul de proiectare AUTOCAD reprezint un instrument puternic utilizat n activitatea de
desenare. Sunt executate instruciuni pentru realizarea rapid a desenelor. Sunt puse la dispoziie me-
tode de corectare pentru eliminarea erorilor din desene. Nu este adugat nimic "din proprie iniiativ".

Privire de ansamblu
AUTOCAD-ul furnizeaz un set de entiti pentru utilizarea n construcia desenelor. O entitate repre-
zint un element al desenului; segment, cerc, ir de caractere , etc. Pentru desenarea entitilor se intro-
duc comenzi specifice.
Acestea se pot introduce de la tastatur, se pot selecta dintr-un meniu ecran, se pot introduce cu un
push-buton prin selectarea dintr-un meniu al unei mese de digitizare sau cu un dispozitiv multibuton al
unui digitizor. Entitile pot fi terse, mutate sau reproduse. Se pot obine copii ale desenelor executate
cu ajutorul plotterelor i imprimantelor.

Necesiti de echipament
Suplimentar sistemului de calcul de baz (incluznd procesor, tastatur, display alfanumeric i uniti
de disc), AUTOCAD-ul necesit un monitor grafic de nalta rezoluie i un port serial de comunicaii
RS-232C.

Monitor de afiare
Pe anumite calculatoare, AUTOCAD-ul utilizeaz dou monitoare de afiare; unul pentru comenzi i
texte i altul pentru partea grafic. Pe aceste sisteme, monitorul grafic poate afia i un meniu ecran.


















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Rapiditatea i uurina cu care se pot crea sau modifica desenele cu ajutorul calculatorului
reprezint avantaje enorme in raport cu modul clasic de lucru. Tot ceea ce pn ieri era desenat n
vechiul mod tradiional, astzi se poate genera foarte uor cu AutoCAD. Pentru a ne uura munca pe
viitor este foarte important cunoaterea i stapnirea cat mai bun a programului AutoCAD.
Specialitii n CAD sunt foarte cutai n majoritatea companiilor moderne care se ocup de proiectare,
producie sau planificare. AutoCAD este destinat utilizatorilor din domeniile: mecanic,
electromecanic, arhitectural, construcii, cartografie, educaie etc.

1. Sesiunea de lucru AutoCAD

1.1 nceperea unei sesiuni de lucru n AutoCAD
O sesiune de lucru se deschide prin lansarea n execuie a fiierului ACAD.EXE.
Crearea pe baza unui ablon se face prin selectarea comenzii NEW din Meniul File sau tastat
n linia de comand, sau cu ajutorul combinaiei de taste CTRL+N va fi selectat un ablon furnizat
odat cu programul AutoCAD sau salvat anterior de ctre utilizator.
Un ablon este un fiier cu extensia dwt ce conine un set de setri standard.

Utilizatorii i pot crea abloane proprii ce conin de regul setri pentru unitile de msur i
precizia acestora, setri ale mediului de lucru, chenare, logo-uri, tipuri de linii, stiluri de text, de
dimensiuni, hauri, etc. ablonul se creeaz ca un desen obinuit iar fiierul respectiv se salveaz cu
extensia dwt.
Pentru a crea un desen nou pe baza ablonului uzual va trebui ca n meniul derulant File s se
aleag New n iar dup deschiderea casetei de dialog Select Template s fie selectat ablonul uzual.




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Un desen creat anterior se poate deschide
- cu comanda OPEN din meniul File sau tastat n linia de comand;
- cu butonul Open din bara de instrumente principal;
- cu combinaia de taste CTRL+O
- cu clic dublu pe fiier din afara aplicaiei
- prin tragerea cu cursorul mouseu-lui din afara ferestrei n fereastra principal a aplicaiei;
- din paleta Design Center.





1.2 Prezentarea interfeei AutoCAD

In editorul de desenare (drawing editor) ecranul este mprit n patru zone:
- Zona de stare;
- Zona de desenare;
- Zona de dialog (sau de comand);
- Zona meniu ecran (opional).

Principalele ci de comunicare cu AutoCAD-ul sunt:

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- Fereastra AutoCAD-
ului n care bara cu instrumente Standard i meniurile sunt asemntoare cu cele ale
aplicaiilor Windows.



Barele de meniu:

- Bara de titlu, situat n partea superioar a ecranului afieaz numele programului i al
fiierului deschis. AutoCAD-ul ca i alte aplicaii permite deschiderea concomitent a mai multor
fiiere. Tranziia ntre fiierele deschise se poate face prin accesarea meniului Window din bara de
meniuri derulante


- Bara de meniuri derulante se afl sub bara de titlu i permite accesarea rapid a meniurilor
derulante pe categorii: File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Draw, Dimension, Modify, Window,
Help, se mai pot aduga de asemenea
diferite aplicaii care vor aprea sub form
de meniuri derulante.

-










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- Barele cu instrumente reprezint o scurttur a meniurilor derulante, acestea se pot organiza
i edita n funcie de necesitile fiecrui utilizator pentru a avea un acces ct mai rapid la comenzile
uzuale. Astfel barele de instrumente organizate lucrul cu AutoCAD-ul va deveni o joac.



- Fereastra de comand este situat n partea inferioar a ecranului, aceasta are rolul de a
permite utilizatorului introducerea comenzilor specifice programului AutoCAD. n aceeai fereastr de
comand utilizatorul primete n permanen mesaje i diverse informaii generate de AutoCAD, legate
de comanda activ. Astfel, programul cere ca utilizatorul s stabileasc anumite opiuni ale comenzii
curente, s introduc diverse valori necesare n procesul de desenare etc.



1.3 Configurarea mediului de lucru



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Configurarea mediului de
lucru const n setarea unor variabile de sistem, care se refer la unitile de desenare, limitele
desenului, scara la care se va lucra, rezoluia sau marimea pasului cursorului etc. Cteva dintre
principalele comenzi sunt:
- LIMITS stabilete limitele desenului
- UNITS stabilete unitile de lucru (arhitecturale, inginereti, tiinifice etc.)
-
- SNAP stabilete mrimea pasului cu care se va deplasa cursorul pe ecran
- GRID determin afiarea pe ecran a unei reele de puncte ajuttoare
- ORTHO trece n (sau revine din) modul de lucru ORTHO (deplasarea cursorului doar
orizontal sau vertical)
- OSNAP stabilete modul de selectare a punctelor de pe ecran, n funcie de entitile pe
care va fi poziionat cursorul.

Starea curent a sistemului AutoCAD poate fi aflat prin comanda STATUS, iar informaii
despre una sau mai multe entiti prin comanda LIST.


1.4 Sistemul de coordonate AutoCAD

n mod normal AutoCAD-ul lucreaz cu sistemul de coordonate cartezian, dar utilizatorul i poate
defini un sistem propriu. Sistemul de coordonate cu care se deschide sesiunea de lucru este numit
WCS (World Coordinate System); are originea n punctul 0,0,0 i unghiuri drepte ntre axe.
Coordonatele punctelor pot fi specificate n modurile: cartezian absolut, cartezian relativ i
polar. Coordonatele absolute sunt distane msurate de la origine (0,0); coordonatele relative se
msoar fa de ultimul punct anterior introdus; cele polare sunt de asemenea relative la punctul
anterior, dar se introduce lungimea i unghiul, msurat n sens trigonometric.

Exemple de introducere a punctelor n aceste moduri:

Command: LINE
From point: 10,10 (coordonate carteziene absolute)
To point: @10,0 (coordonate carteziene relative)
To point: @10<45 (coordonate polare; 10 este distana, 45 este unghiul n grade)


1.5 Salvarea i exportul desenelor
Salvarea manual a unui desen se face cu comanda SAVE care deschide caseta de dialog
pentru salvare, cunoscut din alte aplicaii Windows.



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Pentru salvarea unui desen se alege calea, se stabilete numele fiierului i se alege extensia.
Pentru desene extensia este dwg. Un desen se poate salva nversiunea curent de AutoCAD sau ntr-
una anterioar. Pentru comunicarea cu alte aplicaii se poate opta pentru salvarea n format dxf.
Pentru salvarea unui desen ca ablon se folosete extensia dwt.


Un desen salvat anterior dac va fi salvat cu comanda SAVE va suprascrie veriunea salvat
anterior. Dac se alege ns comanda Save As din meniul File se va deschide fereastra de dialog pentru
salvare, n care exist posibilitatea alegerii unei alte adrese i a unui alt nume pentru fiier.
Un desen poate fi salvat automat n timpul lucrului la intervale de timp ce pot fi modificate
deutilizator. Aceast opiune se seteaz la pagina Open and Save din fereastra Opiuni

Se pot exporta desene pentru a fi nglobate n documente generate cu alte aplicaii:
- dwf (pentru publicarea pe Internet);
- wmf pentru nglobarea desenelor in documente Office;
- Bmp imagine

Pentru aceast operaie se utilizeaz comanda Export din meniul File.

2. Mediul de desenare
Desenarea n AutoCAD este influenat de anumii factori de mediu. Astfel, o linie desenat cu
comanda LINE va avea o anumit culoare, va fi ntrerupt sau continu, n funcie de starea sistemului
n acel moment. Aceast stare este determinat de valoarea unor variabile, numite variabile de sistem.
Valorile variabilelor pot fi modificate fie prin intermediul comenzii SETVAR, fie prin comenzi
specifice in cazul variabilelor "read-only".

2.1 Lucrul cu straturi (Layer)
Stratul poate fi asemnat cu o foaie transparent, pe care se deseneaz ceva. Mai multe foi
suprapuse dau desenul final. Astfel, ntr-un strat se pot desena toate liniile groase, ntr-altul toate liniile
subiri, sau cele ntrerupte etc. Fiecare strat este o colecie de obiecte (entiti); apartenena la un strat
este una din proprietile asociate entitii.
Fiecare strat (layer) este identificat dup numele su. Se pot crea diferite straturi (oricte),
pot fi redenumite, pot fi "ngheate" sau fcute invizibile, sau pot fi terse straturile neutilizate. La
nceperea unei sesiuni de lucru, stratul implicit are numele "0". Acesta nu poate fi eliminat, chiar dac
este nefolosit. Numele stratului curent (n care sunt desenate noile entiti) este scris pe ecran in colul
din stnga-sus. Fiecare strat are asociat o anumit culoare i un tip de linie. Dac la desenarea unei
entiti nu se specific culoarea acesteia, va fi asumat culoarea stratului curent (la fel i pentru tipul de
linie).
Manipularea straturilor se face cu ajutorul comenzii LAYER. AutoCAD-ul va rspunde cu o list de
opiuni:
?/ Make/ Set/ New/ ON/ OFF/ Color/ Ltype/ Freeze/ Thaw:
Dintre aceste opiuni, culoarea (Color) i tipul de linie (Ltype) se refer la entitile din stratul
respectiv (sau, altfel spus, entitile pentru care stratul respectiv este una din proprieti), iar celelalte
determin starea stratului, sau creeaza unul nou.

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Numele unui strat
poate s aib cel mult 31 de caractere. Sunt acceptate caracterele alfanumerice i, n plus, -,_ i $. Nu
poate fi atribuit acelai nume mai multor straturi. Redenumirea se face cu comanda RENAME, iar
schimbarea stratului corespunzator uneia sau mai multor entiti selectate cu CHANGE sau CHPROP.
Schimbnd culoarea sau tipul de linie
asociat, toate entitile din stratul respectiv (pentru care nu s-au specificat n mod explicit aceste
proprieti) vor fi redesenate.



2.2 Opiunile comenzii ZOOM
Zoom All
Aceast opiune determin afiarea desenului cuprins ntr-o fereastr determinat de coordonatele
maxime ale desenului. Acestea sunt specificate de variabilele LIMMIN, LIMMAX (setate prin
comanda LIMITS) sau EXTMIN, EXTMAX (stabilite automat n timpul desenrii), astfel nct
fereastra rezultat s fie cea mai mare.
Zoom Center
La alegerea acestei opiuni, AutoCAD creeaza o noua vedere (imagine) a desenului, bazata pe un nou
punct central, ales de utilizator.
Zoom Dynamic
Alegnd ZOOM Dynamic, pe ecran vor fi marcate mai multe ferestre (imagine temporar; dispare
dup nchiderea comenzii). Un dreptunghi alb marcheaz limitele desenului (corespunztoare
variabilelor EXTMIN si EXTMAX), un dreptunghi verde punctat marcheaza imaginea afiata n
momentul apelrii comenzii ZOOM-D, patru coluri rosii indic limitele ecranului virtual, adic n care
comanda ZOOM nu are nevoie de o regenerare; un dreptunghi cu X n centru reprezint o fereastr
dinamic, pe care o putem deplasa pentru a alege noua imagine; cand comanda este consumatoare de
timp, n colul stng de jos apare o clepsidr. Fereastra dinamica are raportul lime/ nlime egal cu
raportul ecranului util. Dup apsarea butonului selector al mouse-ului (sau tasta Enter), X-ul din
mijlocul ferestrei este nlocuit de o sgeata, ceea ce nseamn c deplasnd mouse-ul, se va modifica
mrimea ferestrei (raportul rmne acelai). Apsnd din nou butonul selector (sau Enter), reapare X i
putem deplasa fereastra dinamic (modul PAN) n poziia dorit i apoi apsm al doilea buton al
mouse-ului (sau Enter de dou ori) i comanda va fi executat.
Zoom Extents
Fereastra afisat de ZOOM-E este determinat de valorile variabilelor EXTMIN i EXTMAX. Colul
stng de jos (colul de baz) este dat direct de EXTMIN. Colul din dreapta-sus este calculat n funcie
de valoarea variabilei EXTMAX i raportul lime/ nlime al ecranului util.
ZOOM-Extents determin de fiecare dat o regenerare a desenului. Dac limitele date de EXTMIN i
EXTMAX le depesc pe cele date de LIMMIN si LIMMAX, ZOOM-Extents va avea acelai efect cu
ZOOM-All.

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Zoom Left
Aceast opiune a comenzii ZOOM presupune introducerea colului de baz al ferestrei afiate
(stnga-jos) i a nlimii ferestrei (limea va fi apoi calculat n funcie de raportul ecranului).




Zoom Previous
AutoCAD memoreaz 10 imagini afiate succesiv (prin ZOOM sau PAN). Opiunea "Previous"
determin afiarea imaginii precedente. Astfel, dac suntem la a 8-a imagine, dupa ZOOM-P o
revedem pe a 7-a, dup nc un ZOOM-P pe a 6-a s.a.m.d.
Zoom Vmax
Aceast opiune permite afiarea unei imagini care depete dimensiunile ecranului virtual, fr a
regenera desenul; din aceast cauz, este uneori preferabil optiunilor "Extents" sau "All". Vmax (view
max) este imaginea maxim afiat. Limitele ei se modific dup afiarea unei imagini mai mari.

Zoom Window
Dup cum i spune numele, aceast opiune afieaz imaginea continut ntr-o fereastr (Window =
fereastra) definit de utilizator. Dac raportul lime/ nlime al ferestrei este diferit de cel al
ecranului, se va pstra colul de baz neschimbat (stnga-jos) i se va ajusta colul opus.
Zoom Scale
Opiunea "Scale" determin mrirea sau micorarea ferestrei afiate, pstrnd acelai punct
central. Dac la factorul de scar introdus se adaug "X", mrirea sau micorarea se va face relativ la
imaginea afiat n momentul respectiv. Daca lipsete "X", factorul de scar se va referi la limitele
ntregului desen (LIMMIN i LIMMAX).
2.3 Localizarea punctelor importante de pe obiecte
Introducerea modurilor osnap este posibil:
- prin scrierea de la tastatur,
- din meniul flotant care se activeaz prin combinaia <Shift>+butonul drept de mouse,
- de pe bara de instrumente ("Toolbar") denumit Object Snap



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Bara
de instrumente Object Snap

Dac pe parcursul lucrului, un anumit mod osnap este referit de multe ori, acesta poate fi activat,
evitnd astfel repetarea lui pe linia de comanda. La punctarea pe un obiect, AutoCAD va aplica
automat modul osnap activ obiectului i va intercepta punctul adecvat. Spre exemplu, cu modul osnap
"ENDpoint" activ, la indicarea unui segment, AutoCAD va sri automat la captul cel mai apropiat al
acestuia. Prin optiunea "NONe", se dezactiveaz modul sau modurile osnap active.


Pentru setarea unor moduri osnap permanent active, este folosit caseta "Drafting Settings", prin
panoul ei Object Snap. Caseta este activabil prin comanda DSETTINGS sau din meniul derulant
"Tools", linia adecvata. Aceeai caset se deschide dac se poziioneaz cursorul pe butonul
"OSNAP" al barei de stare i se apas butonul drept al mouse-ului, selectndu-se linia "Settings".

AutoCAD poate localiza precis puncte importante de pe obiecte, prin funcia Object Snapping.
Posibilitatea localizrii exacte a punctelor de osnap este deosebit de util n execuia desenelor cu
precizie maxim. Cteva dintre aceste puncte importante sunt:
- CENter Intercepteaz centrul unui arc, al unui cerc sau a unei verigi de tip arc dintr-o
polilinie;

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- ENDpoint - Intercepteaz captul cel mai apropiat al unui segment, al unui arc sau al unei
verigi de polilinie;


- MIDpoint - Intercepteaz mijlocul unei obiect de tip segment, arc, verig de polilinie;


- NEArest - Intercepteaz punctul cel mai apropiat al obiectului indicat, obiect care poate fi
segment, arc, cerc, polilinie, punct;

- NODe Intercepteaz un obiect de tip punct;
- PARallel Intercepteaz un punct de pe paralel la o linie; distana dintre punctul curent i
extremitatea a doua a paralelei este specificat de utilizator;

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- PERpendicular Intercepteaz:
piciorul perpendicularei ridicate de pe obiectul indicat (care poate fi segment,
cerc, arc, polilinie, elips) spre un anumit punct;
piciorul perpendicularei duse din punctul curent pe obiectul indicat (segment,
cerc, arc, polilinie, elips);

- QUAdrant - Intercepteaz cel mai apropiat dintre punctele de 0, 90, 180 sau 270, de pe
un cerc sau de pe un arc, puncte care se numesc quadrani;


- TANgent Intercepteaz:
piciorul tangentei duse la obiectul indicat (cerc, arc, arc de polilinie, elips) spre
un anumit punct;
piciorul tangentei duse din punctul curent la un obiect de tip cerc, arc, elips, arc
de polilinie;

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- Apparent Intersect - Intercepteaz intersecia aparent a dou linii, cercuri, arce, elipse,
polilinii, etc., care nu se intersecteaz n spatiul 3D, ci doar aparent, pe imaginea curent.
Dac punctul de intersecie aparent este situat n afara imaginii obiectelor, AutoCAD
intercepteaz "intersecia aparent extins" ("Extended Apparent Intersection");

- From - Dezactiveaz moduri osnap eventual active n momentul respectiv al sesiunii de
lucru.




3. Comenzi pentru desenarea 2D

3.1 Punctul

Desenarea unui punct se face prin introducerea coordonatelor acestuia (explicit sau prin punctare -
deplasarea cursorului pe ecran i apsarea tastei Enter sau a butonului selector al mouse-ului).
Command: Point
Point: 10,10 (coordonatele punctului)
Punctele se folosesc n special ca entiti temporare, pentru marcarea anumitor coordonate, cum ar fi
interseciile dintre alte entiti (linii, arce, cercuri, polilinii etc.), puncte de inserie pentru blocuri etc.
Pentru a selecta cu uurin punctele marcate pe ecran, este indicat folosirea modurilor OSNAP.

3.2 Linia


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Linia AutoCAD este un
segment de dreapt, cu capetele definite de utilizator. Limea liniei este 0. Pentru linii cu lime
nenul se va folosi comanda TRACE (sau PLINE).
Exemplu de secven de desenare a liniilor:
Command: Line
From point: 1,1
To point: 2,1
To point: 2,2
To point: 1,2
To point: c
Command:
Rezultatul este un ptrat cu latura de o unitate.
3.3 Arcul
Comanda ARC este una din cele mai complexe comenzi de desenare; ea permite 11 variante
de creare a arcelor. Modul cel mai simplu i mai rapid este introducerea a 3 puncte de pe arc (cele dou
capete i un punct intermediar). Dup introducerea primelor dou puncte, va apare punctat arcul care ar
fi desenat dac cel de-al treilea punct ar fi indicat de poziia curent a cursorului (modul DRAG).
Apsnd apoi Enter, se va relua comanda ARC ateptndu-se doar introducerea ultimului punct; arcul
va fi trasat n prelungirea celui anterior. n meniul ecran, alegerea comenzii ARC determin trecerea
ntr-un submeniu cu 10 opiuni de desenare.
SSE (Start- Second- End): arcul va fi definit prin introducerea a 3 puncte:

Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: punct
Center/ End <Second point>: punct
End point: punct

SCA (Start- Center- Angle): arcul va fi definit prin punctul de start, centrul cercului din care face
parte i unghiul care l subntinde (mrimea arcului n grade).
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: punct
Center/ End/ <Second point>: C
Center: punct
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: A
Included angle: unghiul in grade
SCE (Start- Center- End): arcul va fi definit prin punctul de start, centrul cercului si punctul de sfarsit.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: punct
Center/ End/ <Second point>: C

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Center: punct
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: punct
SCL (Start- Center- Length): arcul va fi definit prin punctul de start, centrul cercului din care face
parte si lungimea corzii.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: punct
Center/ End/ <Second point>: C
Center: punct
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: L
Length of chord: distanta (lungimea corzii)
SEA (Start- End- Angle): arcul va fi definit prin punctul de start, punctul de sfarsit si unghiul care il
subintinde (marimea arcului in grade).
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: punct
Center/ End/ <Second point>: E
End point: punct
Angle/ Direction/ Radius/ <Center point>: A
Included angle: unghi (in grade)
SED (Start- End- Direction): arcul va fi definit prin punctul de start, punctul de sfarsit si tangenta la
arc prin punctul de start.

Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: punct
Center/ End/ <Second point>: E
End point: punct
Angle/ Direction/ Radius/ <Center point>: D
Direction from start point: punct (punctul care determina directia tangentei)
SER (Start- End- Radius): arcul va fi definit prin punctul de start, punctul de sfarsit si raza.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: punct
Center/ End/ <Second point>: E
End point: punct
Angle/ Direction/ Radius/ <Center point>: R
Radius: raza (numar real pozitiv)
CSA (Center- Start- Angle): arcul va fi definit prin centru, punctul de start si unghiul care il
subintinde (marimea arcului in grade).
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: C

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Center : punct
Start point: punct

Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: A
Included angle: unghi (in grade)
- arcul va fi trasat in sens trigonometric daca unghiul are valoare pozitiva si orar daca valoarea este
negativa.
CSL(Center- Start- Length): arcul va fi definit prin centru, punctul de start si lungimea corzii.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: C
Center : punct
Start point: punct
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: L
Length of chord: distanta (numar real pozitiv)
CSE (Center- Start- End): arcul va fi definit prin centru, punctul de start si punctul final.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: C
Center : punct
Start point: punct
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: punct

3.4 Cercul
Cercul ar putea fi privit ca un caz particular al arcului, dar un arc de 360 de grade nu se poate
desena cu comanda ARC. n schimb, dac printr-o alt comand vom elimina o poriune din cerc
(BREAK), acesta va fi automat transformat n arc. Exist totui o comand separat pentru cerc pentru
c un cerc este mai uor de definit dect un arc, deci mai uor de introdus i ocup mai puin
memorie. Ca i la ARC, comanda CIRCLE permite mai multe moduri de introducere a datelor:
Center- Radius: cercul este definit prin introducerea centrului i a razei.
Command: Circle
3P/ 2P/ TTR/ <Center point>: punct
Diameter/ <Radius>: raza (numar real pozitiv)
Center- Diameter: cercul este definit prin introducerea centrului i a diametrului.
Command: Circle
3P/ 2P/ TTR/ <Center point>: punct
Diameter/ <Radius>: D
Diameter: diametrul (numar real pozitiv)

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2P : cercul este definit prin
introducerea a dou puncte diametral opuse.
Command: Circle
3P / 2P / TTR/ <Center point>: 2P

First point on diameter: punct
Second point on diameter: punct

3P : cercul este definit prin introducerea a trei puncte oarecare de pe circumferin.

Command: Circle
3P / 2P / TTR/ <Center point>: 3P
First point: punct
Second point: punct
Third point: punct

TTR (Tangent- Tangent- Radius): cercul este definit prin introducerea a doua puncte n care cercul
este tangent la un obiect existent (o linie, un alt cerc etc.) i raza.

Command: Circle
3P / 2P / TTR/ <Center point>: TTR
Enter Tangent spec.: punct
Radius: raza (numar real pozitiv)


3.5 Polilinia

Poliliniile se deseneaz cu ajutorul comenzii PLINE. O polilinie este o succesiune de segmente
de dreapt i eventual arce de cerc, tratate ca o singur entitate. Pentru a defini o polilinie trebuie
introduse punctele prin care trece aceasta i eventual mrimea arcului dintre dou puncte succesive.
Punctele care definesc o polilinie se numesc "vertexuri". O polilinie poate avea i grosime nenul, i
chiar grosime variabil ntre dou vertexuri succesive (variaie liniar).
Iat cum ncepe dialogul:
Command: Pline
From point: punct
Current line width is 0.
Arc/ Close/ Halfwidth/ Length/ Undo/ Width/ <End point of line>:
Putem alege ntre opiunile de mai sus.
- Arc nseamn c urmeaz s introducem un arc;
- Close determin nchiderea poliliniei ncepute, similar cu Close de la LINE;
- Halfwidth i Width ateapt introducerea jumtii limii i respectiv a limii poliliniei;
- Length nseamn lungimea segmentului urmtor, direcia fiind aceeai cu a segmentului
anterior este o opiune util cnd se deseneaz o polilinie tangent la un arc;

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- Undo terge ultimul
segment desenat, fr s abandoneze comanda.
3.6 Desenarea textelor
Pentru desenarea textelor se pot folosi comenzile TEXT sau DTEXT. Comanda QTEXT (Quick text)
permite regenerarea rapid a desenului (QTEXT ON), desennd textele sub forma unor dreptunghiuri.


Text
Aceast comand permite introducerea cte unei linii de text. Pentru introducerea mai multor linii,
trebuie repetata comanda. La apelarea comenzii TEXT, apare cererea:
Justify/ Style/ <Start point>:
Implicit, AutoCAD-ul ateapt introducerea punctului de start al textului (colul din stnga-jos al
dreptunghiului care ncadreaza textul). Alegndu-se opiunea Justify, AutoCAD-ul va afia
urmtoarele opiuni de aliniere a textului:
Align/ Fit/ Center/ Middle/ Right/ TL/ TC/ TR/ ML/ MC/ MR/ BL/ BC/ BR:
3.7 Haurarea

Comanda HATCH se folosete pentru haurarea unei suprafee mrginite de un contur nchis.
Conturul se definete prin selectarea entitilor care l compun. Comanda funcioneaz i dac conturul

nu este perfect nchis, dar pot aprea probleme (linii de haur care depesc conturul). Textura (sau
modelul) haurii (pattern) poate fi selectat dintre cele predefinite, sau poate fi definit de utilizator.
Hatch style
Sunt permise trei moduri de hasurare:
- normal - dac am selectat mai multe contururi, se haureaz spaiul dintre primul contur (exterior) i
al doilea, se las liber spaiul dintre al doilea contur i al treilea, se haureaz urmatorul s.a.m.d.
- outermost - se haureaz numai poriunea dintre cel mai exterior contur i urmatorul (outermost = cel
mai exterior).
- ignore - se haureaz toat poriunea delimitat de conturul cel mai exterior; este echivalent opiunii
"Normal" la care nu se selecteaz obiecte din interiorul conturului.

3.8 Desenarea poligoanelor regulate
Accesarea comenzii:
Meniul DrawPolygon
Se d clic pe butonul Polygon din bara de instrumente Draw
Se tasteaz POLYGON n linia de comand

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Aciune: Se solicit numrul de laturi al poligonului, dup care aplicaia solicit indicarea centrului
poligonului sau alegerea dintr-un set de opiuni:

Center of Polygon
Se specific centrul poligonului, dup care se stabilete dac poligonul este nscris sau circumscris
unui cerc a crui raz urmeaz s se indice. Dup ce se specific raza, va fi desenat poligonul. Dac
raza este indicat n desen cu ajutorul mouseului, direcia razei va determina i unghiul de rotire al
poligonului.
Edge poligonul va fi definit prin indicarea capetelor primei muchi


4. Comenzi de editare

4.1 Comenzi de selectare i tergere
Comenzi de selectare
Comanda de selectare a obiectelor este cel mai des utilizat n AutoCAD, dei nu apare
ntotdeauna n mod explicit.
Sintax: SELECT

Aciune: Cursorul va lua forma specific operaiilor de selecie, iar n linia de comand va aprea
solicitarea de selectare a obiectelor.

Metode de selecie:

- individual, indicnd cu ajutorul cursorului fiecare obiect.
- prin trasarea unei ferestre n spaiul desenului. Fereastra se definete indicnd dou puncte
reprezentnd dou coluri diagonal opuse ale acesteia. Dac fereastra se traseaz de la stnga ladreapta,
vor fi incluse n selecie doar obiectele complet incluse n fereastr. Prin trasarea ferestrei de la dreapta
spre stnga, n setul de selecie vor fi incluse toate obiectele parial sau total incluse n fereastr.
- prin introducerea de coordonate n linia de comand, pentru a defini fereastra de selecie.

Parametrii comenzii:
- Window - se va defini o fereastr de selecie. Vor fi incluse n selecie doar obiectele
complet incluse n fereastr indiferent de direcia de trasare a acesteia.
- Last - va fi selectat ultimul obiect creat
- Crossing - se va defini o fereastr de selecie. Vor fi incluse n selecie toate obiectele
parial sau total incluse n fereastr indiferent de direcia de trasare a acesteia.
- Box - se va defini o fereastr de selecie. Comanda funcioneaz similar modului de selecie
prin indicarea ferestrei de selecie, fr alt parametru.
- All - vor fi selectate toate obiectele aparinnd layerelor vizibile.
- Fence - vor fi selectate toate obiectele ce traverseaz o barier de selecie. Aplicaia solicit
utilizatorului s defineasc bariera sub forma unei linii poligonale deschise, care se poate
autointersecta.

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- WPoligon - se va
defini un poligon de selecie. Acesta va trebui s aib toate laturile neadiacente disjuncte.
Vor fi incluse n selecie doar obiectele complet incluse n poligon.
- CPoligon - se va defini un poligon de selecie. Acesta va trebui s aib toate laturile
neadiacente disjuncte. Vor fi incluse n selecie toate obiectele complet sau parial incluse
n poligon.
- Group - Vor fi selectate toate obiectele dintr-un grup de selecie. Se va introduce n linia de
comand numele grupului. Grupurile de selecie se creeaz cu comanda FILTER introdus
linia de comand.
- Add - reprezint modul curent de selecie. Obiectele nou selectate vor fi adugate la selecia
existent.
- Remove - se pot elimina din setul de selecie obiecte prin indicarea cu mouseul. O
alternativ la aceast opiune o reprezint indicarea obiectelor cu mouseul n timp ce se
menine tasta SHIFT apsat.
- Previous - selecteaz cel mai recent set de selecie. Acest set este anulat de operaiile de
tergere a obiectelor de pe desen. AutoCAD memoreaz dac seleciile au fost fcute n
spaiul model sau spaiul hrtie, i sunt ignorate, corespunztor dac se comut imediat
lucrul n alt spaiu.
- Auto - comut pe modul de selecie automat aplicabil fr lansarea comenzii SELECT de la
- tastatur.
- Single - va permite selecia unui singur obiect, prin indicare cu mouseul. Dup selectarea
acestui obiect, n linia de comand nu va mai aprea promptul pentru selectarea altor
obiecte.

Pentru selectarea multipl a obiectelor pe baza proprietilor acestora sau dup tipuri de obiecte
se utilizeaz comanda Quick Select:
- care se acceseaza din meniul derulant Tools.
- se da click pe pictograma Quick Select din paleta Properties
- se tasteaza n bara de comanda QSELECT.


Dup lansarea comenzii Quick Select prin metodele prezentate mai sus se va deschide o
fereastra unde utilizatorul poate alege obiectele care se doresc a fi selectate n funcie de strat, culoare,
tipul obiectului, tip de linie, etc.



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4.2 Comanda Copy
Comanda COPY realizeaz copii ale obiectelor n noi locaii, rmnnd reprezentate i n vechea
poziie.
Sintaxa comenzii este:
Command: COPY
Select objects: se selecteaz obiectul ce urmeaz a fi copiat
Specify base point or displacement or [Multiple]: M
Specify base point: cen of (punctul C)
Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: se selecteaz pe rnd
punctele P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4


Dup alegerea primului punct de baz, pe ecran apare o imagine dinamic, legat de cursorul
grafic; introducerea punctului urmtor de deplasare conduce la apariia pe ecran a unei copii n aceast
poziie, iar n linia de comand apare cererea pentru urmtorul punct de deplasare, unde se realizeaz
copierea.



Copierea se poate repeta ori de cte ori se dorete, ncheierea fcndu-se prin apsarea tastei
ENTER n loc de precizarea unui nou punct.

4.3 Comanda ARRAY
Comanda ARRAY creeaz copii multiple ale unui obiect, ntr-o reea de dispunere rectangular
sau polar.

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Reeaua rectangular (R) permite aranjarea pe linii i coloane a copiilor create, iar cea polar (P)
le dispune circular.
La lansarea comenzii ARRAY, AutoCAD solicit selectarea obiectelor care trebuie aranjate n
reea.
Pentru o reea dreptunghiular, prompturile sunt urmtoarele:
Number of rows (---) <1> (numrul de linii): se specific numrul de rnduri pe care
sunt desenate obiectele, inclusiv obiectul iniial;
Number of columns ( ) <1> (numrul de coloane): se specific numrul de coloane
pe care sunt desenate obiectele.
O reea dreptunghiular are cel puin dou linii sau dou coloane, n care se include i obiectul
iniial selectat;


Unit cell or distance between rows (---) (celula de baz sau distana dintre linii): dac
este pozitiv, determin copierea obiectelor de jos n sus, iar dac este negativ, obiectele sunt copiate
de sus n jos;
Distance between columns ( ) (distana dintre coloane): dac este pozitiv, copierea
obiectelor se face spre dreapta; dac este negativ spre stnga.
Crearea unei reele polare
Sintaxa comenzii este:


Command: ARRAY
Select objects: se selecteaz obiectul care urmeaz a fi multiplicat
Enter the type of array [Rectangular / Polar] <R>:
Specify center point of array: se indic centrul P de dispunere polar
Enter the number of items in the array: 7
Specify the angle to fill (+ =ccw,
-
=cw) <360>:
Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes / No ] <Y>:


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Dac n ultima linie de comand
se tasteaz N (Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes / No ] <N>: ), rezultatul este o reea polar cu obiectele
nerotite n jurul centrului de polaritate P.
Rezult c, pentru crearea unei reele polare, elementele definitorii sunt:
Center point of array (centrul reelei): punctul n jurul cruia sunt copiate obiectele.
Copiile sunt dispuse circular i echidistant;
Number of items (numrul de articole): numrul total de obiecte care sunt desenate n
reea;
Angle to fill (unghiul de umplere): unghiul la centru pe care sunt dispuse obiectele.
Pentru unghiuri mai mici de 360
0
, valorile negative determin dispunerea obiectelor n sensul acelor de
ceasornic fa de original, iar cele pozitive n sens contrar acelor de ceasornic;
Rotate arrayed objects? (se rotesc obiectele multiplicate?): se specific dac obiectele
din reea sunt rotite fa de centrul de polaritate.

4.4 Comanda OFFSET
OFFSET deseneaz un obiect
de acelai tip cu cel selectat la o distan
d indicat fa de obiectul iniial.








Copierea unui obiect la o distan dat decurge dup urmtoarea sintax:
Command: OFFSET
Specify offset distance or [Through] <Through>: 10
Specify object to offset or < exit >: se selecteaz obiectul ce va fi duplicat
Specify point of side to offset: se indic punctul P


Distana poate fi introdus prin valoarea sa, sau prin selectarea a dou puncte distincte ale cror
coordonate definesc extremitile distanei impuse, dup care, se selecteaz obiectele pe rnd pentru a
crea copii; duplicarea se indic prin intirea unui nou punct P
1
de partea n care urmeaz a se face
reproducerea obiectului.


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Pentru unele tipuri de obiecte nu poate fi folosit comanda OFFSET (textele i blocurile). De
asemenea, comandnd copierea cu OFFSET a unui arc mic pe o distan mare, se poate obine o raz
negativ, caz n care AutoCAD nu execut operaia.

4.5 Comanda MIRROR
MIRROR deseneaz simetricele obiectelor selectate, n raport cu o dreapt sau un plan de
oglindire.
AutoCAD creeaz imaginea reflectat a unui obiect dac se specific dou puncte care s defineasc
linia (planul) de reflexie (de oglindire). Linia de oglindire solicitat de comanda MIRROR poate fi o
dreapt imaginar definit de dou puncte arbitrare ale obiectelor selectate. Comanda MIRROR
permite, dup necesiti, pstrarea sau tergerea obiectelor existente prin opiunile (Y/N).
Sintaxa comenzii pentru oglindirea unui obiect este urmtoarea:
Command: MIRROR
Select object: se selecteaz obiectul ce trebuie oglindit
Specify first point of mirror line: se indic punctul P
Specify second point of mirror line: se indic punctul P
1

Delete source object? [Yes / No] <N>:

Elementele eseniale realizrii unei oglindiri sunt:
First point of mirror line primul punct al axei de simetrie;
Second point al doilea punct al axei de simetrie;
Delete old objects? stabilete dac se terge vechiul obiect (cel al crui simetric a fost
desenat).






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Cu ajutorul comenzii MIRROR pot fi oglindite i obiecte text i mtext. n acest sens, aceste
obiecte apar inversate, ca i cum s-ar ine o pagin de text n faa oglinzii. Pentru a evita inversarea
textului, trebuie s i se atribuie valoarea zero variabilei de sistem Mirrtext la promptul Command

Oglindire de text cu variabila de sistem Mirrtext avnd valoarea 1 i valoarea 0
4.6 Comanda MOVE
Permite mutarea obiectelor selectate, prin translaie, ntr-o nou locaie (poziie), disprnd din
vechea dispunere.
Command: MOVE
Select objects: se selecteaz obiectele ce trebuie mutate
Specify base point or displacement: int of (se selecteaz P
1
)
Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: se selecteaz P
2


Translaia se face dup un vector definit prin dou puncte:
- Base point of displacement originea vectorului de translaie (P);
- Second point of displacement vrful vectorului de translaie (P1) .





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4.7 Comanda ROTATE
Servete pentru rotirea unor entiti (dup axa OZ, deci n planul XY) n jurul unui punct de baz,
numit centru de rotaie, cu un unghi cunoscut. Prin aplicarea acestei comenzi, entitile rotite dispar din
vechea locaie, rmnnd numai n poziia rotit. Rotaia poate decurge n dou moduri:
1. Prin definirea unghiului de rotire:
Command: ROTATE
Select objects: se selecteaz obiectul ce trebuie rotit (pendulul)
Specify base point: se indic punctul C
Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 30

Dac unghiul are semnul minus, atunci rotirea se face n sens orar.

2. Prin definirea unghiurilor de referin:
Dac la ultimul prompt se rspunde cu R (de la Reference) atunci dialogul continu astfel:
Specify the reference angle <0>: 90
Specify the new angle]: 120


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4.8 Comanda SCALE
Comanda SCALE (scalare) micoreaz sau mrete proporional dimensiunile
obiectelor existente. Se utilizeaz att un factor de scalare, ct i o lungime de referin pentru a
modifica dimensiunile unei entiti n raport cu un punct de baz dat. Punctul de baz rmne
neschimbat, iar tot ceea ce este n jurul su se mrete sau se micoreaz cu factorul de scalare dat sau
se specific lungimea de referin (Reference).











Sintaxa comenzii pentru metoda ce utilizeaz un factor de scalare este urmtoarea:
Command: SCALE
Select objects: se selecteaz entitatea (dreptunghiul)
Specify base point: P
Specify scale factor or [Reference]: 0.6 (pentru micorarea entitii)
Specify scale factor or [Reference]: 1.6 (pentru mrirea entitii)


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Pentru a aplica metoda lungimii de referin, se definete o lungime curent (n general, pe un
obiect) o linie real sau imaginar prin selectarea punctelor sale de sfrit sau prin introducerea
direct a lungimii.
Sintaxa comenzii pentru metoda ce utilizeaz o lungime de referin este urmtoarea:
Command: SCALE
Select objects: se selecteaz entitatea
Specify base point: P
Specify scale factor or [Reference]: R
Specify reference length <1>: 11
Specify new length: 6 (pentru micorarea entitii) -
Specify new length: 18 (pentru mrirea entitii) -
Prin urmare, elementele eseniale scalrii unei entiti sunt:
Base point punctul fa de care se scaleaz;
Scale factor factorul de scalare;

Reference scalarea fa de o dimensiune de referin.


4.9 Comanda TRIM
Dac ai fcut un desen la care ai trasat linii mai lungi dect trebuia i dorii acum s le "tundei"
capetele, dai comanda TRIM. Ulterior, putei elimina conturul de tundere, dac are numai scop
ajuttor.
Sintaxa: TRIM Select cutting edges(s)...
Select objects: selectati muchiile taietoare (conturul de tundere).
Select objects: Enter
Select object to TRIM: selectati capetele de retezat.


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4.10 Comanda ERASE
ERASE este comanda cu care se pot elimina din desen entitile nedorite. Pentru aceasta, se
selecteaza (cu SELECT) entitile ce vor fi sterse; la apasarea tastei Enter ele dispar de pe ecran.
Dialogul:
Command: Erase lansarea comenzii ERASE
Select objects: select -subcomanda SELECT
Select objects: Enter -acum se sterg obiectele selectate

5. Cotarea unui desen

Scopul cotrii este acela de a furniza utilizatorului informaii concrete despre modul n care se
construiete un element sau un ansamblu de elemente.

Tipuri de cote
Cotele se pot mpri n dou categorii, n funcie de modul n care acestea se comport la
modificrile desenului:

a) cote associative
Ele sunt obiecte complexe ( asemntoare de exemplu poliliniilor ) care i actualizeaz
automat valorile rspunznd tuturor modificrilor din desen. Valoarea cotelor asociative se modific
odat cu extinderea liniei la care se refer cota. Modificarea stilului de cotare conduce la modificarea
aspectului cotelor.Programul AutoCAD creaz automat cote asociative.

b) cote neasociative
Cotele neasociative sunt simple texte, linii, arce, blocuri, etc. Dac se modific lungimea unei
linii cu comanda STRETCH, cota corespunztoare acestei linii va indica valoarea calculat iniial i nu
pe cea a noii lungimi.Cotele neasociative se pot obine fie prin modificarea variabilei ( DIMASO ) fie
prin aplicareacomenzii EXPLODE unei cote asociative.

Elementele cotrii:

a) punctele de referin aceste dou puncte indic locul unde ncepe i unde se termin
dimensiunea care se coteaz;
b) linii ajuttoare sunt obiecte linii care se traseaz ntre punctele de referin i linia de cot;
c) sgeile sunt simboluri care apar la ambele capete ale liniei de cot marcnd nceputul i
sfritul cotei;
d) linia de cot apare ntre liniile ajuttoare i definete valoarea cotei desenate. Textul cotei
este n legtur cu aceast linie fiind poziionat sub, deasupra sau n lateralul acestei linii;


e) textul cotei este un element text care conine valoarea distanei sau unghiul dintre punctele
de referin pentru cotare;
f) marcajul pentru centru este utilizat la cotele radiale i este plasat n centrul razei care va fi
dimensionat;

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g) linia de indicaie ( leader ) este utilizat la cotarea elementelor curbe sau generarea unei
linii de indicaie cu text, un bloc, o copie de text sau o adnotare referitoare la cota geometric sau
cmpul de toleran.

Configurarea geometriei cotelor

Csua de dialog Dimension Style Manager se poate deschide cu comenzile :

Format-> Dimension Style
sau:Dimension-> Style

Prin aceast csu de dialog se definesc toate elementele necesare pentru a defini un stil decotare.



5.1 Cotarea liniar

Aceste cote sunt cele mai utilizate, comanda se gsete n meniul derulant Dimension i este:

Dimension-> Linear

Comenzile executabile sunt:

dimlinear
Specify first extension line origin or <select object>:
Specify second extension line origin:
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated]: m
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated]:
Dimension text = 25.03





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Opiunea implic alegerea punctelor de origine a liniilor de extensie sau se selecteaz obiectul
care va fi cotat. Dup ce se specific primul i al doilea punct de origine al liniilor de extensie ( apare
desenat dimensiunea (inclusiv valoarea dimensiunii), programul cere precizarea urmtoarelor opiuni:
Mtext : se deschide csua de dialog Multiline Text Editor permite editarea unui text care poate fi
nscris n locul valorii cotei ( n cazul n care textul este plasat ntre paranteze <>) sau nainte/dup
paranteze dup cum este plasat textul fa de paranteze;

Text : Se nscrie textul dorit s apar n locul valorii dimensiunii alese.

Angle : Se specific unghiul sau dimensiunea textului dimensiunii ( cotelor ). n cazul specificrii
unghiului cota va fi rotit fa de linia de cot cu valoarea acestui unghi.

Horizontal : Se selecteaz opiunea de a cota valoarea orizontal a dimensiunii ;

Vertical : Se selecteaz opiunea de a cota valoarea vertical a dimensiunii ;

Rotated : Se selecteaz opiunea de a preciza valoarea cotei dimensiunii fa de o dreapt rotit cu
unghiul specificat fa de linia orizonatal ;
Dup finalizarea tuturor opiunilor aplicabile se poziioneaz cu ajutorul mouse-ului poziia cotei
n planul desenului. n acest moment desenul dimensiunii este poziionat complet i operaia de
dimensionare s-a finalizat.

5.2 Cote aliniate

Comanda : Dimension-> Aligned

Cotele aliniate sunt o component a substilului liniar iar linia de cot este paralel cu obiectulselectat
sau cu dreapta care trece prin cele dou puncte de origine a liniilor de cotare.

Comenzile executabile sunt:

_dimaligned
Specify first extension line origin or <select object>:
Specify second extension line origin:
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:
Dimension text = 35.50

Cele trei opiuni disponibile Mtext, Text, Angle au aceai semnificaie ca i opiunile de la cotele
liniare.
5.3 Cotare poziional

Comanda: Dimension-> Ordinate



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Aceast comand permite poziionarea unui punct fa de punctul de referin ( punctul
decoordonate 0,0,0 ) ales.
Comenzile executabile sunt:
_dimordinate
Specify feature location:
Specify leader endpoint or [Xdatum/Ydatum/Mtext/Text/Angle]:
Dimension text=310.25

Prima opiune impune alegerea punctului a crei poziie se determin n raport cu poziia originii(0,0,0
). Cel de al doilea punct specific poziia liniei de indicaie sau cere specificarea urmtoarelor opiuni:

Xdatum : prezint valoarea n raport de axa x;
Ydatum : prezint valoarea n raport de axa y;
Mtext , Text , Angle au aceeai semnificaie ca la cotele liniare .

5.4 Cotele nlnuite bazate


Comanda: Dimension->Baseline

Aceste dimensiuni sunt trasate pornind de la dimensionarea unui obiect deja dimensionat. Toate
dimensiunile care sunt trasate n continuare pornesc de la aceast baz (referin).

Comenzile executabile sunt:
_dimbaseline
Select base dimension:
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 126.83
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 213.4
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 231.87
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: *Cancel*

Dup ce s-a ales baza de cotare se specific, n continuare, urmtorul punct selectat. Toate cotele
urmtoare sunt trasate fa de baza ( referina ) selectat. Acest stil de cotare este un substil de cote
nlnuite.



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5.5 Cotele nlnuite succesive

Comanda: Dimension-> Continue

Aceast cotare pornete de la ultima linie de extensie existent i traseaz cote succesive.


Comenzile executabile sunt:

_dimcontinue
Select continued dimension:
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 58.32
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 58.32
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 59.62
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:

Pentru ambele metode de cotare nlnuit este necesar s se coteze nti un element care va fi baza de
cotare pentru restul cotelor.


5.6 Cotarea razelor


Comanda : Dimension-> Radius

Comanda permite cotarea razelor cercurilor sau arcelor.
Comenzile executabile sunt:

_dimradius
Select arc or circle:
Dimension text = 150.45
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:

Cele trei opiuni au semnificaiile prezentate anterior.

5.7 Cotarea diametrelor

Comanda : Dimension-> Diameter

Comanda permite cotarea razelor cercurilor sau arcelor.
Comenzile executabile sunt:


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_dimdiameter
Select arc or circle:
Dimension text = 300.9
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:

5.8 Cotarea unghiurilor

Comanda : Dimension-> Angular

Se pot dimensiona unghiurile ntre dou drepte. n acest caz comenzile executabile sunt:


_dimangular
Select arc, circle, line, or <specify vertex>:
Select second line:
Specify dimension arc line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:
Dimension text = 70

Trebuie specificat poziia n care va fi poziionat cota pentru unghi. Pentru dimensionarea arcelor de
cerc se selecteaz cele dou capete ale sale, comenzile executabile pentru acest caz sunt:

_dimangular
Select arc, circle, line, or <specify vertex>:
Specify dimension arc line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:
Dimension text = 125
























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Author: POP SILVIA










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INTRODUCTION



The projection package AUTOCAD represents a powerful instrument (tool) used in drawing
activity. There are executed instructions in order to realize drawings faster. There are methods to
correct and cut down the errors from drawing. There is not added anything by chance.
General view
AUTOCAD gives an entity package for utilization of drawings in constructions. An entity represents
just a part of a drawing; a segment, a circle, a line of characters, etc. In order to draw the entities
should introduce particular orders. These orders are introduced with the keyboard selected from the
screen with the push-button through the selection from a timetable or with a multybutton device.
The entity can be deleted, wored or reproduced. You can obtain copies of the drawing helping by
plotters or printers.

Equipment necessities
Supplimentary for the main counting system (including processor, keyboard, figured display and disk
units) AUTOCAD claims a graphic screen and a portable serial for communications RS 232 C.
Bill Sticking monitor
On some special P.C , AUTOCAD uses 2 monitors one for texts and orders , and the other for the
drawing part. On these two systems, the monitor can show a timetable on the screen.













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The quickness and easiness with which one can create or modify the drawings by using the computer
represent huge advantage to the standard procedure. Everything that was traditionally drown can now
be easily generated by AutoCAD. To be able to work easily in the future , it is important that we know
the AutoCAD programme very well. The CAD specialists are very required in most modern
companies that have to plan, produce and develop things. AutoCAD is destined to all users of the
following fields: mechanics, electromechanics, architecture, construction, cartography, education, etc.

6. THE AUTOCAD WORK SESSION

6.1 Starting an AutoCAD work session

We can open a work session by executing the ACAD.EXE. file. Creation is based on a template by
command selection NEW from File Menu or typed on the command line or using key combinations
CTRL+N it will be selected a template provided with the programme or previously saved by the
user. A template is a dwt file extension containing a set of standard settings.
Users can create their own templates usually containing settings for units of measurement and
accuracy , work environmental settings, borders, logos, types of lines, text style, sizes, hatching, etc.
The pattern is created as a regular drawing that is saved with the dwt extension.
To create a new drawing based on the usual pattern will have to choose New from the File Menu
and after opening the Select Template dialogue box to select the usual pattern.










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A previously made drawing can open:
- with the OPEN command of the File Menu or typed on the command line
- with OPEN button in the main toolbar
- with key combination CTRL+ O
- with double-click on the file outside the application
- by dragging the mouse cursor outside the window in the main window of the application
- from Design Center palette.



6.2 AutoCAD interface presentation

In the drawing editor the screen is divided into four areas:
- Status area
- Drawing area
- The Dialogue area (or command)
- The menu screen area (optional)


The main channels of communication with AutoCAD are:
- AutoCAD window in the standard toolbar and menus are similar to those of Windows
applications

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Menu bars:
- the title bar located at the top of the screen displays the name of the programme and of the open
file. AutoCAD, just like other applications, allows simultaneous opening of multiple files.
Switching between open files can be done by clicking on the menu bar window run


- down menu bar is below the title bar and allows you to quickly access down menus by
category: File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Draw, Dimension, Modify, Window, Help, it
can also add different applications which will appear as drop-down menus

















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- the toolbars represent a shortcut of the dropdown menus which can be organized and edited
according to the needs of each user to get faster access to common commands. Toolbars being
organized, work with AutoCAD will become a play











- command window is located at the bottom of the screen which is to allow the user entering
commands specific to AutoCAD. User control in the same window always receives messages
and general information about AutoCAD about the active command. The programme requires
the user to set certain options of the current command, to enter various values required in the
drawing process, etc.


6.3 Configuration of the working environment
Working environment configuration consists of setting system variables that relate to the drawing
units, design limits, the scale that will work, resolution or step size slider, etc.
- LIMITS- establishes design limits
- UNITS- establishes work units

- SNAP- establishes the step size that will move the cursor on the screen
- GRID- causes the display on the screen of a network of auxiliary points
-
- ORTHO- passes in or returns from work ORTHO ( is only moving the cursor horizontally or
vertically )
-

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- OSNAP establishes how to select items on screen depending on the entity that will be
positioned the cursor

Current state of the Auto CAD system can be located by STATUS order and information about
one or more entities by LIST command

6.4 AutoCAD coordinate system

AutoCAD normally works with Cartesian coordinate system but the user can create his own
system. The coordinate system that opens the work session is named WCS ( World Coordinate
System); originated from ground 0,0,0 and zero angles between axes.
Coordinates can be specified as follows : absolute Cartesian, relative Cartesian and polar
Cartesian. Absolute coordinates are measured distance from the origin ( 0,0 ); relative coordinates are
measured to the last point introduced above , the polar ones are relative to the previous point but enter
the length and angle measured counterclockwise.
Examples of entry points in these modes:
Command: LINE
From point: 10,10( Absolute Cartesian )
To point: @10,0( Relative Cartesian coordinates )
To point: @10<45( Polar Coordinates; 10 is the distance, 45 is the angle in degrees )


6.5 Saving and exporting drawings:

Manually saving a drawing is done with the command SAVE which opens save dialogue box
known from other Windows applications



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To save a drawing, you choose the path , filename is set and the extension is chosen. For the
drawings, the extension is dwg. A drawing can be saved in the current version of AutoCAD or in a
previous one. To communicate with other applications you can choose to save in dxf format.
To save a drawing as a template use dwt extension.
A previously saved drawing if saved with the command SAVE will overwrite the previously saved
version. But if you choose SAVE AS command from the File Menu, the dialogue box opens to save
where there is a choice of other addresses and other file name.
A drawing can be automatically saved while working at intervals that can be modified by the
user.
This option sets the page Open and Save from Options window.
You can export drawings to be embedded in documents generated by other applications:
- dwf ( to publish on the Internet )
- wmf ( to embed design in Office documents )
- Bmp ( image )

For this operation use the Export command from the File menu.
7. DRAWING ENVIRONMENT

Drawing in AutoCAD is influenced by certain environmental factors. Thus, a line drawn with the
command LINE will have a certain colour, will be interrupted or continuous depending on the state of
the system at the moment. This state is determined by the value of variables called system variables.
Variable values can be changed either by command or by specific commands SETVAR for
read-only variables.

7.1 Working with Layers

Layer can be likened to a sheet on which you draw something transparent. Several overlapping
sheets give final design. Thus, a layer can draw all lines thick, in other thin lines or dashed. Each layer
is a collection of objects, belonging to a layer is one of the properties associated entity.
Each layer is identified by name, can be renamed, made invisible or be removed unused layers.
At the start of a work session, the layer is named default 0 .It cannot be removed even if unused. The
name of the current layer ( in which are drawn new entities ) is written on the screen in the upper left

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corner. Each layer has associated a certain colour and linetype. When drawing an entity its colour isnt
specified, it will be assumed as the current layer ( as for the linetype ).
Coats handling is done using Layer command . AutoCAD will respond with a list of options.
?/Make/Set/New/ON/OFF/Color/Ltype/Freeze/Thaw:
Of these options Color and Line Type refer to entities in the stratum and the others determine the
status of the layer or create a new one. A layer name can have no more than 31 characters.
Alphanumeric characters are accepted and also-, _ and $. It cannot be assigned the same name to mul-
tiple layers. Renaming is done with the command RENAME and changing layer corresponding to one
or more selected entities with CHANGE or CHPROP. Changing colour or linetype associated with all
entities in the stratum ( for which there werent explicitely specified these properties ) will be
redesigned.
7.2 Zoom command options
Zoom All
This option causes the drawing contained in a maximum window coordinates determined by drawing.
These are specified by LIMMIN, LIMMAX variables set by Command Limits ) or EXTRALIM,
EXTRAMAX ( automatically set during drawing ), so that the new window to be the largest.
Zoom Center
When choosing this option, AutoCAD creates a new image of the drawing, based on a new central
point, chosen by the user.

Zoom Dynamic
Choosing Zoom Dynamic, more windows will be marked on the screen (temporally image, it will
disappear when closing the command ). A white rectangle marks the limits of the drawing
(corresponding to EXTMIN and EXTMAX variables ), a green dotted rectangle marks the displayed
image when calling the command ZOOM-D, four red corners indicate the virtuals screen limits, that
is the one where Zoom command doesnt need a refresh; a rectangle with X in its centre represents a
dynamic window, which can be moved in order to choose a new image; when the command takes
time, a hourglass appears in the bottom left corner. The dynamic window has the width- height ratio
equal to the usefuls screen ratio.
After pressing the selector button of the mouse (or ENTER task), the X in the middle of the window is
replaced by an arrow, which means that moving the mouse, the windows size will be modified (the
report remains the same). Pressing again the selector button, (or ENTER), X reapears and one can


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move the dynamic window (the PAN mode) in the wanted position, then the second button of the
mouse is pressed (or Enter task twice) and the command will be executed.

Zoom Extents
The window displayed by ZOOM-E is determined by the value of the EXTMIN and EXTMAX
variables. The bottom-left corner (the base corner) is given automatically by EXTMIN. The up-right
corner is calculated according to the value of the variable EXTMAX and the width- height ratio of the
useful screen.
ZOOM Extents determines every time a refresh of the drawing . If the limits given by EXTMIN and
EXTMAX overcome the ones given by LIMMIN and LIMMAX, ZOOM-Extents will have the same
effect as Zoom-All.
Zoom Left
This option of the ZOOM command implies the introduction of the base corner of the displayed
window (bottom -left) and the height of the window (the width will be calculated acoording to the
screens ratio ).
Zoom Previous
AutoCAD stores 10 images displayed successively (through ZOOM and PAN). The Previous option
determines the display of the previous image. So, if one is at the eighth image, can see the seventh,
after ZOOM-P, the sixth after another ZOOM-P etc.
ZOOM Vmax
This option allows the display of an image that is larger than the virtual screen, without refreshing the
drawing; this is way, sometimes is preferable to Extents or All option. Vmax (view max) is the
maximum displayed image. Its limits are modified after the display of a larger image.

Zoom window
As it is called, this option displays the image held by a window defined by the user. If the width-height
ratio of the window is other than the one of the screen, the based corner will remain unchanged (the
bottom left corner) and the opposite corner will adjust.
Zoom Scale
Scale option determines zoom in or zoom out of the displayed window, with the same central point
kept. If X is added to the scale factor, zoom in or zoom out will be made relatively at the image
displayed at that moment. If the X factor is missing, the scale factor will refer to the whole drawing
limits (LIMMIN and LIMMAX).

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7.3 The location of the important points on the objects
Introducing osnap mode is possible:
- by using the keyboard
- by the floating menu which is activated by combining Shift and the right mouse button
- by choosing the Object osnap from the toolbar.



The Object osnap toolbar
If, during working, a certain osnap mode is referred several times, it can be activated, to avoid its
repetition on the command line. When pointing an object, AutoCAD will aply osnap mode active for
the object automatically and will intercept the appropriate point. For example, the osnap mode
ENDpoint activated, when indicating a segment, AutoCAD will jump automatically to its nearest end.
By using NONe option, osnap mode is off.

To set some permanent active osnap modes, Drafting Settings cassette is used, through its Object
Snap panel. The cassette is activatable by DSETTINGS command or from the Tools menu, the
appropriate line.
The same cassette opens if you put the cursor on the status bars OSNAP button and you click the
right button of the mouse, selecting Settings.











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AutoCAD can find exactly important points on the objects, by Object Snapping function. This
possibility is very use full in executing maximum precision draws. Some of these important points are:
- CENter finds the center of an arc, of a circle or of a link arc type from a polyline;

- ENDpoint finds the nearest end of a segment, of an arc or of a polyline link;


- MIDpoint finds the middle of a segment type object, of an arc, polyline link;



- NEArest finds the nearest point of the shown object, the object can be segment, arc, circle,
polilyne, point;




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- NODe finds an object point type.

PARallel finds a point from a parallel to a line; the distance between a current point and the
extremity of the second parallel specified by the user;

PERpendicular finds:
The foot of the perpendicular raised from the indicated object (which can be a segment,
a circle, an arc, a polyline, ellipse) towards a point;
The foot of the perpendicular drawn from the current point on the indicated object (a
segment, a circle, an arc, a polyline, ellipse);

- QUAdrant finds the nearest between 0, 90, 180, 270 from a circle or an arc, points
named quadrants;

- TANgent finds:
The foot of the tangent drawn from the indicated object (circle, arc, polyline arc,
ellipse) towards a certain point;
The foot of the tangent drawn from the current point towards an object circle,
arc, ellipse polyline arc type;

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- Apparent Intersect finds the apparent intersection of two lines, circles, arcs, ellipses,
polylines etc., which do not intersect in the 3D space, only apparent, on the current image. If
the apparent intersection point is situated out of the objects image, AutoCAD intercepts The
Extended Apparent Intersection
- From disables the osnap modes actives at the moment of the working session.

8. COMMANDS FOR THE 2D DRAWINGS

8.1 The point

Drawing a point can be done by introducing its coordinates (explicitly or by dotting moving
the mouse on the screen and pressing Enter or the selector button of the mouse)

Command Point:
Point 10,10 (the coordinates of the point)
The points are used especially as temporary entities, to mark certain coordinates, such as the
intersections between other entities (lines, arcs, circles, polylines etc.,), intersection points for
blocks etc..
For the easier selection of the points marked on the screen. It is indicated the use of OSNAP
modes.

8.2 The line

The AutoCAD line is a line segment, with the ends defined by the user. The width of the line is
0. For neutral width lines, the TRACE (or PLINE) command can be used.
Example of line draw sequence:
Command: Line
From point: 1,1
To point: 2,1
To point: 2,2
To point: 1,2
To point: c
Command:

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The result is a square with the side of one unit.

8.3 The Arc

The ARC command is one of the most complex command to draw, it allows 11 variants to
create arcs. The easiest and the fastest way is to introduce 3 points on the arc (the two ends and
an intermediate point). After the introduction of the first two points, it will appear dotted the
arc which could be drawn if the third point was indicated by the current position of the mouse
(DRAG mode).
Pressing ten Enter, ARC command will resume, waiting only the introduction of the last point;
the arc will be drawn in extension of the previous. In the screen menu, the choice of the ARC
command determines passing in a submenu with 10 drawing options.
SSE (Start- Second- End): the arc will be defined by introducing 3 points:

Command: ARC
Center/ < Start point>: point
Center/ End <Second point>: point
End point: point


SCA (Start- Center- Angle): the arc will be defined through the start point, the centre of the circle to
which it belongs , and the angle it subtends (the arcs size in degrees).

Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: point
Center/ End/ <Second point>: C
Center: point
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: A
Included angle: the angle in degrees

SCE (Start- Center- End): the arc will be defined through the start point, the centre of the circle and the
end point
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: point
Center/ End/ <Second point>: C
Center: point
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: point

SCL (Start- Center- Length): the arc will be defined through the start point, the centre of the circle and
the chord lenght.

Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: point


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Center/ End/ <Second point>. C
Center: point
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: L
Length of chord: the distance (lenght of chord)


SEA (Start- End- Angle): the arc will be defined through the start point, the end point and the angle it
subtends (the size of arc in degrees).

Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: point
Center/ End/ <Second point>: E
End point: point
Angle/ Direction/ Radius/ <Center point>: A
Included angle: angle (in degrees)

SED (Start- End- Direction): the arc will be defined through the start point, the end point and the arc
tangent through the start point..
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: point
Center/ End/ <Second point>: E
End point: point
Angle/ Direction/ Radius/ <Center point>: D
Direction from start point: point (the point which determines the tangent direction)

SER (Start- End- Radius): the arc will be defined by the start point, the end point and the ray.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: point
Center/ End/ <Second point>: E
End point: point
Angle/ Direction/ Radius/ <Center point>: R
Radius: radius (pozitiv real number)
CSA (Center- Start- Angle): the arc will be defined by the centre, the start point and the angle which
encompass the arc ( the size of the arc in degrees).
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: C
Center : point
Start point: point
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: A
Included angle: angle (in degrees)
-The arc will be marked in a trigonometrical sense if the angle has a positive value and clockwise if
the value is negative.

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CSL (Center- Start- Length): the arc will be defined by the centre , the start point and the tail length.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: C
Center : point
Start point: point

Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: L
Length of chord: distance ( pozitiv real number)

CSE (Center- Start- End): the arc will be defined through the centre , the start point and the final
point.
Command: ARC
Center/ <Start point>: C
Center : point
Start point: point
Angle/ Length of chord/ <End point>: point

8.4 The circle
The circle can be a particular case of the arc, but an arc of 360 degrees can t be drawn with the
command ARC. On the other hand, if by another command will remove a part of a circle ( BREAK ) ,
this will be transformed automatically into an arc. There is a distinct command for the circle because a
circle is easier to define than the arc, so easier to introduce and occupies less memory than CA and
ARC, the command allow more ways of datum introduction.
Center Radius : the circle will be defined through the centre introduction and the ray.
Command: Circle
3P/ 2P/ TTR/ <Center point>: point
Diameter/ <Radius>: radius ( pozitiv real number)
Center Diameter : the circle will be defined the the centre introduction and the diameter.
Command: Circle
3P/ 2P/ TTR/ <Center point>: point
Diameter/ <Radius>: D
Diameter: diameter (pozitiv real number)
2P : the circle will be defined through the introduction of two points totally opus.
Command: Circle

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3P / 2P / TTR/ <Center point>: 2P
First point on diameter: point
Second point on diameter: point
3P : the circle will be defined through the introduction of three certain points from the circumference.
Command: Circle
3P / 2P / TTR/ <Center point>: 3P
First point: point
Second point: point
Third point: point


TTR (Tangent- Tangent- Radius): the circle will be defined through the introduction of two points in
which the circle is tangent to the existent object ( a line, another circle) and the ray.
Command: Circle
3P / 2P / TTR/ <Center point>: TTR
Enter Tangent spec.: point
Radius: radius (pozitiv real number)


8.5 THE POLYLINE
The polylines are drawn with the command PLINE. A polyline is a succession of piston rings and
eventually circle arces , treated by an only entity. For defining the polylines we should introduce the
points through which this passes and eventually the arc size between two successive points. The points
which define a polyline are called ,, Vertexes. A polyline can also have an unnuled thickness and a
changeable thickness between two successive vertexes ( linear variable).
So this is how the dialogue begins :
Command: Pline
From point: point
Current line width is 0.
Arc/ Close/ Halfwidth/ Length/ Undo/ Width/ <End point of line>:
We can choose from the upper options.
- The arc means that follows to introduce an arc.
- Close determines the end of the started polyline, similar to the Close from LINE.
- Halfwidth and Width wait for the introduction of the half of the breadth and respectively the
breadth of the polyline.
- Length means the legnth of the next piston ring, the direction being the same with the previous
piston ring is an useful option when is drawn a tangent polyline to the arc.
- Undo clears the last drawn piston ring, without abandoning the command.

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8.6 The text drawing

For drawing the texts we can use the TEXT and DTEXT commands. The QTEXT command
(Quick text) allow the fast regeneration of the drawing ( QTEXT ON ), drawing the texts
through the of same rectangles.

TEXT
This command allows the introduction of one line text. For the introduction of several lines, we
have to repeat the command. When we appeal to the command TEXT, appears the request:

Justify/ Style/ <Start point>:


Implicitly, AutoCAD UL is waiting for the introduction of the start point of the text ( the cor-
ner from left of the rectangle in which the text is framed). Choosing the option Justify,
AutoCAD ul will post the following options of the ranging of the text:

Align/ Fit/ Center/ Middle/ Right/ TL/ TC/ TR/ ML/ MC/ MR/ BL/ BC/ BR:

8.7 The hachure

The command HATCH is used for hachuring of a limited area of a close outline. The outline is
defined through the entities selection which makes up the outline. The command functions also
if the outline is perfectly close, but it may occur problems( the hachure lines which surpass the
outline). The texture ( or the model ) of the hachure ( pattern ) can be selected from the
predefined, or can be defined by the user.

Hatch style
It is allowed 3 ways of hatching:
- Normally, if we select several outlines, we hatch the space between the first outline( exterior)
and the second, we free the space between the second and the third, we hatch the next etc.
- Outermost we hatch only the part between the outermost outline and the next
- Ignore we hatch the whole part delimited by the outermost outline, it is equivalent to the
option ,, Normal and we do not select objects from the outline interior.

8.8 Drawing of regular polygon

The command access :
Menu draw Polygon
Click on the button polygon from the toolbar Draw

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It types Polygon in the command line

Action : is requests the number of sides of the polygon, and the application requests the
indication of the centre of the polygon or the choosing from a set of options:

The centre of the polygon
It specifies the centre of the polygon, we establish if it is uploaded or circumscribed of a
circle whom the ray follows to be indicated. After we specify the ray, the polygon will be
drawn. If the ray is indicated in the drawing with mouse help, the ray direction will also de-
termine the rotation angle of the polygon.
Edge the polygon will be defined through the heads indication of the first edge

9. EDITING COMMANDS
9.1 Select and delete commands
Command selection
Command selection of the objects is the most frequent used in AutoCAD, although it is not
always appear explicitly.

Syntax : SELECT

Action : The cursor will take the form of specific selection operations, and in the command
line will appear the request of the objects selection.

Ways of selection:

Individually, indicating with the cursor help each object
Through a window trace in the drawing space. The window is defined indicating two points
representing two diagonal opus corners of this. If the window it is drafted from left to right,
will be included in the selection only the fully included objects in the window. By the
window trace from right to left, in the set selection will be included all the objects partially
or totally included in the window.
By introduction of co-ordinate in the line command, for defining the window selection.

Command parameters:
- Window defines a window selection. It will be included in the selection only the fully
included objects in the window whatever the trace direction of this.
- Last it will select the last created object
- Crossing defines a window selection. It will be included in the selection all the objects
partially and totally included in the window whatever the trace direction of this.
-

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- Box defines a window selection. The command functions similar to the way of selection by
indication of the window of selection without another parameter.
- All it will be selected the objects pertaining to the visible layers.
- Fence it will be selected all the objects which crosses a barrier selection. The application
requests the user to define the barrier as an polygonal line open, which can autointersect.
- WPoligon it will be defined a polygon selection. This needs to have all the non adjacent
sides disjoint. It will be included in the selection all the partially or complete included objects
in the polygon.
- CPoligon it will be defined a polygon selection. It will be introduced in the line command the
name of the group. The selection groups are created with the command FILTER introduced by
the command line.
- Add represents the current way of selection. The new selected objects will be added to the
existent selection.
- Remove can be eliminated from the set of selection objects by indication with the mouse. An
alternative to this option is represented by the objects indication with the mouse maintaining
the key SHIFT press.

- Previous selects the most recent set of selection. This set is cancelled by the deleted
operations of the objects from the drawing. AutoCAD memorizes if the selections have been
done in the model space or paper space, and they are ignored, if it is switched immediately the
work in another space.
- Auto switches on the way of selection automatically applicable without the command SE-
LECT initiate from the keyboard.
- Single will allow the selection of an only object, by indication of the mouse. After this object
selection, in the line command it will not appear the prompt for the selection of another
objects.
For multiple selection of the objects in the base of these properties or after types of objects we
are using the command Quick Select :
- It is accessed from the drop down menu Tools
- Click on the icon Quick Select from palette QSELECT.

After the initiation of the command Quick Select by the ways upper presented it opens a
window where the user can choose the objects which want to be selected depending on the
layer, colour, object type, line type.


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9.2 COPY command
Copy command realizes copies of the objects in new location, remaining represented in the old
position.
Syntax of the command is:
Command: COPY
Select objects: select the object to be copied


Specify base point or displacement or [Multiple]: M
Specify base point: cen of (point C)
Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: are selected one by one the
points P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, P
4



After choosing the first base point, on the screen appears a dynamic picture, attached to the graphic
cursor the introduction of the next point of displacement leads to the appearance on the screen of a


copy in this position, and in the command line appears the request for the next point of displacement,
where it is realized the copying.

The copying can be repeated as many times, the end being done by pressing the key ENTER instead of
specify a new point.


9.3 ARRAY command
ARRAY command creates multiples copies of an object, in a rectangular layout or network logo.







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The rectangular network (R) allows the arrangements on rows and columns of the created
copies and the polar one P displays them circular.
At the realise of the ARRAY command, AUTOCAD asks for the selection of objects that need to be
arranged in the network.
For a rectangular network the prompters are:
Number of rows (---) <1> : to be specified the number of rows where the objects are designed,
including the initial object.
Number of columns (): to be specified the number of columns where the objects are
designed.
A rectangular network has at least two rows and two columns where is included the initial selected
object.
Unit cell or distance between rows(---): if its positive goes to the copy of objects from down-
to-up, if its negative the objects are copied from up-to-down.

Distance between columns(): if its positive, the copy of objects is done to the right, if its
negative- to the left.
How to create a polar network
The syntax of the command is:
Command: ARRAY
Select objects: is selecting the object to be copied


Enter the type of array [Rectangular / Polar] <R>:
Specify center point of array: arrangement shown center pole P


Enter the number of items in the array: 7
Specify the angle to fill (+ =ccw,
-
=cw) <360>:
Rotate arrayed objects? [Yes / No ] <Y>:


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If in the last line of the command is tasted N ( Rotate arrayed objects? Yes/No< N>) the result
is a polar network with the objects unrotated around the polarity center P.
The fact/the result is that, for creating a polar network, the definitory elements are:
Center point of array: the point around which the objects are copied. The copies are circular
and egual-distance displayed.
Number of items: the total number of objects that are drown in the network/array
Angle to fill: the center angle where the objects are displayed. For angles smaller than 360
degrees, the negative values determines the objects to be displayed on the clock-wise direction
from the initial one, and the positive values displays them against the clock-wise direction.
Rotate arrazed objects?: to be specified if the objects in the network/array are rotated around
the polarity center.

9.4 OFFSET Command

OFFSET- draws/designs an object of the same type with the selected one at a d distance
indicated up to the initial object.





The copy of an object at a given distance goes over the follwing syntax/ scheme:

Command: OFFSET
Specify offset distance or [Through] <Through>: 10
Specify object to offset or < exit >: select the object to be duplicated
Specify point of side to offset: indicated point P

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The distance can be introduced through its value or by selecting two distinct points whose
coordinators specify the extreme points of the given distance; after this the objects are selected one by
one in order to create copies; the duplicate is indicated by selecting a new point P1 on the side we
want to reproduce the object.
For some types of objects OFFSET command cannot be used ( the texts and blocks). At the same time,
by copying with OFFSET a small arch on a big distance, we can obtain a negative raw, which denotes
that AutoCad cannot execute the command.

9.5 MIRROR Command
Mirror- designs the symmetrical objects selected, raportated to a line or to a plane of
reflection.
AutoCad creates the reflected image of an object if its specified two points that gives the line (plane)
of reflection. The line of reflection asked by Mirror Command can be an imaginary line given by two
arbitrary points of the selected objects. Mirror command allows, if necessary, to keep or delete the
existing objects using options Y/N

The syntax command for reflecting an object is:

Command: MIRROR
Select object: select the object to be mirrored


Specify first point of mirror line: indicated point P
Specify second point of mirror line: indicated point P
1

Delete source object? [Yes / No] <N>:

The main points in order to do reflection are:
First point of mirror line first point of mirror axis;
Second point second point of mirror axis;
Delete old objects? whether the old object is deleted (one of which was designed sym-
metrically)


Using Mirror command can be reflected text and mtext objects. In this case the objects are
upside-down, as if a page of text is kept in front of a mirror. In order to avoid text inversion we need to
give zero value to the variable point of the system Mirrtext at the prompter Command.


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Reflection of a text with the variable Mirrtext 1 and O.

9.6 MOVE Command
Allows the moving of the selected objects by translation, in a new position/location, by
disappearing from the old position.


Command: MOVE
Select objects: selecting the objects to be moved


Specify base point or displacement: int of (selecting P
1
)
Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: selecting P
2


The translation is done after an arrow given by two points:
- Base point of displacement- the origin of the translation arrow P
- Second point of displacement- the top of the translation arrow/vector P1



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9.7 ROTATE Command

Is used for rotation of entities ( after OZ axis, so in XY plan) around a base point named rotation
center, with a known angle. Using this command the rotated objects/entities disappear from old
location and move in a new position. The rotation can go on in two ways:
1. By defining the angle of rotation:
Command: ROTATE
Select objects: select the object to be rotated


Specify base point: indicated point C


Specify rotation angle or [Reference]: 30

If the angle has minus sign, then the rotation goes on clock-wise direction.




2.By defining the refference angles:


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If to the last prompter is answered with R (From reference), then the dialog goes on as
following:

Specify the reference angle <0>: 90
Specify the new angle]: 120




9.8 SCALE command

SCALE command goes up and down the dimensions of the existing objects keeping the
proportions. It is used as a scaling factor, but also as a reference length in order to change the
dimensions of an entity comparing to a base point. The base point doesnt change and all
around it goes up or down with the scaling factor or its specified the reference
length.(Reference)










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The syntax command for the scaling method is:
Command: SCALE
Select objects: select the entity (rectangle)


Specify base point: P
Specify scale factor or [Reference]: 0.6

(for reducing entity)


Specify scale factor or [Reference]: 1.6

(to increase entity)



In order to use the method of a reference length, a current length is defined( generally using an
object)- a real or imaginar line- by selecting the ending points or bz introducing the length
directly.
The syntax of the command for the method that uses a reference length is :
Command: SCALE
Select objects: select entity


Specify base point: P
Specify scale factor or [Reference]: R
Specify reference length <1>: 11
Specify new length: 6 (for reducing entity)
Specify new length: 18 (to increase entity)
The main elements in order to scale an entity are :
Base point the point for the scale
Scale factor the factor for the scale
Reference the main dimension for scale








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9.9 TRIM command

If you draw and made longer lines and you want to cut the heads, command TRIM lately, you may
eliminate the command if is only for help.

Sintaxa: TRIM Select cutting edges(s)...
Select objects: select cutting edges (contour cutting)
Select objects: Enter
Select object to TRIM: select severed heads

9.10 ERASE command

Erase is the command to delete unpleasant entities from the drawing. For this , select the entities and
push ENTER.
Dialogue :

Command: Erase - ordering ERASE command
Select objects: select - select the object
Select objects: Enter now are deliting the selected objects

10. DRAWING QUOTATION

The purpose of this activity is to give correct information to build and element or many elements.

Quotation types
There are two categories, in function of the way of behavior for the changes of the drawing.
a.) associative quotation
- there are complex objects that update their values automatically. The value for the
associative quotations changes with the quote line. The changes for quotation style leads to
-

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- the change quotes aspect. The AUTOCAD program creates associative quotes
automatically.
b.) inassociative quotations
- there are simple texts, lines, bows, blocks, etc. If you transform the length of a line with
STRETCH command, the quotation indicates the initial value. You can obtain the
inassociative quotation with DIMASO or EXPLODE.
The quotation elements:

a.) the main points- the end and the beginning of the dimension
b.) helping lines- there lines objects that are drown between the main lines and the cote line.
c.) arrows symbols at the both head of cote line and mark the beginning and the end of the cote.
d.) cote line between the helping lines and defines the value of the cote. It can be under , above
or outside of this line.
e.) the text of the cote the value of the distance or the angle between the main dots.
f.) the mark for the centre used for the radial cotes and it is in the centre of the ray.
g.) the leader line- for the curved lines for the tolerance field.

The geometry cotes

The dialogue house Dimension Style Manager can be open with :


Format-> Dimension Style
or:
Dimension-> Style

10.1 The linear cote

Dimension->Linear
The executable commands are:
dimlinear
Specify first extension line origin or <select object>:



Specify second extension line origin:
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated]: m
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated]:
Dimension text = 25.03


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The option implies the original dots or selects the object that can be quotated
The program demands the options :
Mtext open the dialogue house Multiline Text Editor and prints a text that can be written for the
value of the cote.
Text write the text instead of the chosen value.
Angle specify the angle or the dimension of the text. Spin the angle with the value of this angle
Horizontal select the option for the horizontal dimension
Vertical select the option for the vertical dimension
Rotated select the option to set the value for a straight line rotated with the angle for the horizontal
line
After all these options , set the cote with the mouse for the drawing. In this moment the dimension of
the drawing is completely and the work is established.

10.2 Aligned cotes

Command : Dimension-> Aligned
The executable commands are:

_dimaligned
Specify first extension line origin or <select object>:
Specify second extension line origin:
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:

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Dimension text = 35.50
The three options available Mtext, Text, Angle have the same meaning as linear quotas options.
10.3 Positional quotation

Command: Dimension-> Ordinate
This command allows the placement of a point from the reference choisen point (point 0,0,0) .
The executable commands are:

_dimordinate
Specify feature location:
Specify leader endpoint or [Xdatum/Ydatum/Mtext/Text/Angle]:
Dimension text=310.25

The first option requires the choice point whose position is determined in relation to the position of the
origin (0,0,0). The second point determine the position of the indication line ,or request to specify the
following options:

Xdatum: present value relative to the x axis;
Ydatum: present value relative to the y axis;
Mtext, Text, Angle has the same meaning as linear quotas.

10.4 Based chained cotes
Command: Dimension->Baseline
These dimension are drown beginning from an already measured object. All the measures begin from
this reference base.
The commands are :
_dimbaseline
Select base dimension:
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 126.83
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 213.4
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 231.87
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>: *Cancel*
All cotes will be drawn from the reference base selected. This style is a substil chained quota.
10.5 Chained successive cotes
Command: Dimension->Continue
This quotation begins from the last line
The commands are :

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_dimcontinue
Select continued dimension:
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 58.32
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 58.32
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:
Dimension text = 59.62
Specify a second extension line origin or [Undo/Select] <Select>:

For the both cotes you must quote an element that will be the base for the rest of the cotes

10.6 The quotation for rays

Comanda : Dimension-> Radius


The command permits the quotation of the circles rays or arcs.

_dimradius
Select arc or circle:
Dimension text = 150.45
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:

10.7 The quotation for diameters

Comanda : Dimension-> Diameter
The commands are:

_dimdiameter
Select arc or circle:
Dimension text = 300.9
Specify dimension line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:


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10.8 The quotation for angles

Comanda : Dimension-> Angular
It can size the angles between two lines, the commands are:

_dimangular
Select arc, circle, line, or <specify vertex>:
Select second line:
Specify dimension arc line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:
Dimension text = 70


It must be specified how to be positioned quota angle. For dimension the arcs, will beselacted the arc
two ends:
_dimangular
Select arc, circle, line, or <specify vertex>:
Specify dimension arc line location or [Mtext/Text/Angle]:
Dimension text = 125