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PIERDERI TEHNOLOGICE N REEAUA DE TRANSPORT

TECHNOLOGICAL POWER LOSSES IN TRANSMISSION NETWORK


Alexandru VASILIEVICI
Technical University Timioara, Romania
Str V. Parvan nr 1 cod 1900 Timisoara, sandi@et.utt.ro

Constantin POSOIU

Carmen STNESCU

Dorel STNESCU

Transelectrica S.A. Marketing Division


Transelectrica S.A. OMEPA Branch
SDFEE Sibiu
Bd. Coposu, nr. 3, Sibiu 2400 , Tel 0269 210928 , Fax 0269 210928, carmen@sts.ro

Rezumat: In cadrul CNTEE Transelectrica SA Sucursala OMEPA


stabilete schimburile de energie electric tranzitat pe piaa angro
i ntre Sucursalele de Transport din cadrul Companiei, pentru
acestea calculnd i consumul propriu tehnologic. Lucrarea prezint,
pentru fiecare Sucursala de Transport, contururile energetice,
harta digitla a reelei de transport precum i baza de date tehnice,
metrologice si de mentenan, pentru echipamentele din sistemul
de msurare al energiei electrice, integrate n aceeai structur
de pagini WEB. De asemenea, se prezint pentru anul 2002
schimbul de energie electric activa i a consumului propriu
tehnologic la nivelul ntregii reele de transport a Romniei
i pentru fiecare Sucursala de Transport.

Abstract: OMEPA Branch is part of CNTEE Transelectrica SA


organization and its task is to establish energy flow on wholesale
market and between subsidiaries inside the company and energy
loses for each of them. This paper present, for each subsidiary,
a WEB representation of energy transfer boundaries, digital
maps and metering equipment technical database. Next section
contains statistical data about energy flow and power losses in
transmission network in 2002.

1. Introducere
Sucursala OMEPA este Operatorul sistemului de telemsurare al C.N. TRANSELECTRICA S.A, avand ca
principal obiect de activitate efectuarea de servicii de
msurare a energiilor electrice tranzitate prin punctele de
msur de pe piaa angro si alte puncte de interes pentru
TRANSELECTRICA.
Pentru ndeplinirea acestei sarcini trebuie s fie procesat
un numr foarte mare de date provenite din surse diferite
(Fig. 1). Pentru accesarea rapid a informaiilor este necesar
ca datele s fie stocate ntr-o structur coerent. n acest
scop am dezvoltat o interfa grafic care utilizeaz ca
suport tehnologia Internet.
Conturul energetic al unei sucursale este alctuit din
participanii la schimbul de energie grupai pe nivele de
tensiune i punctele de schimb aferente, n care se msoar
efectiv energia tranzitat. Punctele de schimb au o importan deosebit pentru determinarea cantitii de energie
electric primit i cedat la ceilali participani pe piaa
angro de energie electric. n Tabelul 1 se prezint o situaie
sintetic a punctelor de schimb.
O parte dintre partenerii de schimb pot fi uor evideniai
cu ajutorul harilor geografice (Fig. 3.). Aceast reprezentare
nu evideniaz ns toate punctele de schimb.
n lucrarea de fa propunem o reprezentare grafic a
conturului energetic pentru a organiza i clarifica situaia
curent pentru fiecare sucursal.
Reprezentarea exemplificat n figura 4 este util i
pentru determinarea relaiilor dintre participani precum i
poziia fiecruia pe pia. Ea conine toate punctele de
schimb dintre sucursale i celelalte entiti, grupate pe
staii de transformare i nivele de tensiune.

1. Introduction
Metering Branch OMEPA main task is to accurate
measure the energy flow between participants in wholesale
market of electricity. Because OMEPA is a part in
Transelectrica organizational structure it inherits the
metering task from the Transmission Subsidiaries.
To achieve this goal is necessary to process a large
amount of information from different sources as shown in
Fig. 1. In order to have quick aces to relevant data we
needed to embed all types of information in a coherent
structure. The solution presented in this paper shows a
graphical interface developed for Internet Explorer intended
to solve this problem.
Energy transfer boundary for one subsidiary contains
the participants, voltage levels and exchange metering
points where the actual measuring of energy takes place.
Exchange metering points are very important to determine
the quantity of electric energy received from or delivered
to other participants in the wholesale electricity market. A
synthesis of exchange metering points is presented in Table1.
For a subsidiary some exchange partners can be easily
located using geographical maps (Fig. 3).
Still, this type of representation cannot reveal all
exchange metering points.
This paper proposes a graphic representation for energy
transfer boundaries in order to organize and clarify the
current situation for each subsidiary.
This representation (figure 4) is also very useful to
determine the relations with other participants and market
position for each of them. It contains all exchange points
between subsidiary and other entities grouped according
to substations site and voltage levels.

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The 5 International Power Systems Conference

554

Tabelul 1. Participanii pe piaa de energie angro


Table1. Participants on the wholesale market
Participants
TRANSELECTRICA
ELECTRICA
TERMOELECTRICA
HIDROELECTRICA
NUCLEARELECTRICA
RET CONSUMMERS
INTERCONEXIONS
TOTAL

Parteners
8
39
10
5
1
5
8
76

Exchange metering points


750kV

400kV
16
12

220kV
18
1
27
14

110kV

MV

LV

117
6
1

167

9
1
70

1
8
133

3
1
1

6
37

4
2
171

2. Baza de date pentru echipamente


Lanul de msurare pentru fiecare punct de schimb conine transformatoare de masurare de tensiune, transformatoare de masurare de curent i contoare. Baza de date
asociat acestor echipamente conine :
Caracteristicile tehnice necesare pentru msurarea corect
a valorii energiei tranzitate, conform cu cerinele legislaiei
n vigoare implementate de ctre ANRE (Autoritatea
Naional de Reglementare n domeniul Energiei)
Cerinele prevzute de legislaia n domeniul metrologiei
implementate de BRML (Biroul Romn de metrologie
Legal)
Cerinele privind mentenana echipamentelor, implementate de TRANSELECTRICA

2. Equipment data base


In each exchange point we will find several measurement
groups consisting of voltage transformers, current transformers and, of course, meters. For these equipments data
base contains:
Technical characteristics required for exact measurement
of energy flow values according to legislation implemented by ANRE (National Authority for Energy
Reglementations)
Metrological requirements according to legislation
implemented by BRML (Romanian Bureau of Legal
Metrology)
Maintenance procedures according to legislation implemented by TRANSELECTRICA

3. Structura paginilor WEB


Dup completarea reprezentrilor grafice pentru fiecare
sucursal acestea au fost exportate ntr-un format compatibil
HTML pentru a asigura accesul rapid la informaie. Prin
intermediul legturilor se pot accesa pagini ce conin hrile
digitale ale reelei de transport i pagini dedicate rapoartelor
privind calculul CPT. Pentru fiecare punct de schimb sunt
disponibile informaii despre caracteristicile tehnice ale
echipamentelor de msurare. Aceast structur de pagini
HTML este foarte util pentru localizarea rapid a informaiilor privind piaa angro de energie electric.

3. WEB structure
After the completion of the graphic representation for
each subsidiary we integrated them into a HTML based
structure in order to provide a quick access to information.
Hotlinks provide connection to geographical maps of
transmission network and to pages dedicated to energy
loses reports. For each transfer point are available technical
information about metering equipments. The WEB structure
is very useful to quickly locate complete information about
wholesale electricity market.

4. Calculul pierderilor tehnologice


Transportul energiei electrice, ca orice proces fizic,
implic un consum de energie aferent unor conversii termodinamice ireversibile. In exploatarea reelelor electrice
consumul propriu tehnologic n transport reprezint un
indicator care reflect condiiile de funcionare ale reelei,
determinant pentru eficiena economic a procesului de
transport a energiei electrice.
Transferul de energie prin conturul sucursalelor determin consumul de energie necesar funcionrii reelei de
transport. Astfel se poate determina nivelul de performan
al reelei i al grupurilor de msurare n scopul mbuntirii
activitii de mentenan. Pentru ST Sibiu se determin
lunar transferul de energie i pierderile tehnologice pentru
fiecare staie de transformare, component a reelei de
transport conform foilor de calcul exemplificate n Fig. 16.
Rezultatele sunt apoi publicate n format HTML i
introduse n structura de pagini HTML descris.
Aceast aplicaie flexibil va fi adaptat n viitor pentru
a ntruni cerinele Proiectului de Reabilitare i Modernizare a
Sistemului Transport-Dispecer pentru piaa angro de energie.

4. Energy Loses Calculation


Electric energy transmission implies, like any other
physical phenomenon, a energy consumption due to
irreversible thermodynamic conversion. Internal energy
loses are an important indication of technical condition of
transmission network and determine economical eficiency
of transmission process.
The energy flow over the boundaries of subsidiary
determines the energy used in operation by the high voltage
network. With this amount we can calculate the performance
for network and measurement group, which is a real help
for our maintenance. In the ST Sibiu boundaries we can
see for each substation the energy flow and loses during a
month, on each component of high voltage network, like
in figure 16.
This flexible aplication will be adapted to mach the
requirements of Roumanian Project Rehabilitation and
Modernisation of the Transmission Dispatch Systems Wholesale Market Metering System .

06-07.11.2003, Timioara, Romania

555

Fig. 1. Participanii la piaa angro de energie


electric
Fig. 1. Wholesale market participants

Fig. 2. Structura paginilor


HTML
Fig. 2. WEB structure

Fig. 3. Harta reelei de transport ale ST Sibiu


Fig. 3. Digital map of ST Sibiu transmission network

Fig. 4. Conturul energetic pentru ST Sibiu


Fig. 4. ST Sibiu energy transfer boundary

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The 5 International Power Systems Conference

556

Fig. 5. Date tehnice ale echipamentelor


de msur
Fig. 5. Metering equipment data base

Fig. 6. Fluxul de energie electric la nivelul


Transelectrica
Fig. 6. Transelectricas energy flow
* Din care

857.677 MWh pentru consumatorii


eligibili.
** Din care 1.785.238 MWh pentru consumatorii
eligibili.

En cedata din conturul RET


Romania in 2002

En primita in conturul RET


Romania in 2002

1% 6%

7%

15%
45%

0%
0%

9%

Termoel

Termoel

El Deva

El Deva

Hidroel

Hidroel
Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni
22%

RED

RED

Vanzare RET
84%

11%

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


Romania in 2002
CPT
Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET
Consum RED

En. cedata

En. primita
0

10,000,000

20,000,000

30,000,000

40,000,000

Fig. 7. Sinteza schimbului


de energie n anul 2002 la
nivelul reelei de transport
Fig. 7. Charts referring to
energy transfer in
transmission network for
2002

06-07.11.2003, Timioara, Romania

557

En primita in conturul RET


ST Bacau in 2002

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Bacau in 2002

En primita in conturul RET


ST Bucuresti in 2002

0%
0%

0%

0%

26%

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Bucuresti in 2002
0%
3% 0%

15%

0%

Term oel

Termoel

Termoel

Termoel

El Deva

El Deva

El Deva

El Deva

Hidroel

Hidroel

Hidroel

Hidroel

0%

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

0%

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

0%

RED

RE D
Vanzare RET

74%

0%

RED

RED

Vanzare RET
97%

85%

100%

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Bacau in 2002

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Bucuresti in 2002

CPT

CPT
Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita
0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita

2,500,000

5,000,000

10,000,000

Fig. 8. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Bacu Fig. 9. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Bucureti
Fig. 8. Charts referring to energy transfer in ST Bacu for 2002 Fig. 9. Charts referring to energy transfer n ST Bucureti for 2002
0%4%0%

En primita in conturul RET


ST Cluj in 2002

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Cluj in 2002
5%

En primita in conturul RET


ST Constanta in 2002

2%

0%

12%

2%

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Constanta in 2002
0% 0%

0%

10%

0%
Term oel

Termoel

Term oel

Termoel

El Deva

El Deva

El Deva

El Deva

Hidroel

Hidroel

Hidroel

Hidroel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

RED

RED

RED

RED
Vanzare RE T

Vanzare RET
95%

96%

90%

84%

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Cluj in 2002

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Constanta in 2002

CPT

CPT
Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita
0

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita

3,000,000

1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000

Fig. 10. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Cluj Fig. 11. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Constana
Fig. 10. Charts referring to energy transfer in ST Cluj for 2002 Fig. 11. Charts referring to energy transfer in ST Constana for 2002
1%
0%

En primita in conturul RET


ST Craiova in 2002

7%

En primita in conturul RET


ST Pitesti in 2002

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Craiova in 2002

Termoel
31%

30%

61%

0%
0%

Termoel

Termoel

El Deva

El Deva

El Deva

Hidroel

Hidroel

Hidroel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni
70%

Termoel
El Deva

41%

Hidroel
Nuclearel
59%

Interconexiuni

RED

RED

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Pitesti in 2002

0%5% 0%
0%

0%
0% 0%

Interconexiuni
RED

RED

Vanzare RET

Vanzare RET

0%
95%

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Craiova in 2002

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Pitesti in 2002

CPT

CPT
Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita
0

5,000,000

10,000,000

15,000,000

Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita

20,000,000

5,000,000

10,000,000

15,000,000

20,000,000

Fig. 12. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Craiova Fig. 13. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Piteti
Fig. 12. Charts referring to energy transfer in ST Craiova for 2002 Fig. 13. Charts referring to energy transfer in ST Piteti for 2002
14%

0%

En primita in conturul RET


ST Sibiu in 2002

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Sibiu in 2002

0%
4% 1%
6%0%

0%

En primita in conturul RET


ST T imisoara in 2002

En cedata din conturul RET


ST Timisoara in 2002
0%

0%
Term oel

Termoel

Term oel

Termoel

El Deva

El Deva

El Deva

El Deva

Hidroel

Hidroel

Hidroel

Hidroel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Nuclearel

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

RED

RED

RED

RED

Vanzare RET
100%

86%

Interconexiuni

Interconexiuni

Vanzare RET
100%

89%

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Sibiu in 2002

Energia electrica activa prin conturul RET


ST Timisoara in 2002

CPT

CPT
Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita
0

1,000,000

2,000,000

3,000,000

4,000,000

5,000,000

Termoel
El Deva
Hidroel
Nuclearel
Interconexiuni
RED
Vanzare RET

En. cedata

En. primita
0

1,000,000

2,000,000

3,000,000

4,000,000

5,000,000

Fig. 14. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Sibiu Fig. 15. Sinteza schimbului de energie n 2002 la nivelul ST Timioara
Fig. 14. Charts referring to energy transfer in ST Sibiu for 2002 Fig. 15. Charts referring to energy transfer in ST Timioara for 2002

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The 5 International Power Systems Conference

558

Fig. 16. Calculul CPT pentru staia de transformare 400/220/110/20 kV Sibiu Sud
Fig. 16. Spreadsheet used for energy loses determination in Sibiu Sud 400/220/110/20 substation

4. Calculul pierderilor tehnologice


Transportul energiei electrice, ca orice proces fizic,
implic un consum de energie aferent unor conversii termodinamice ireversibile. In exploatarea reelelor electrice
consumul propriu tehnologic n transport reprezint un
indicator care reflect condiiile de funcionare ale reelei,
determinant pentru eficiena economic a procesului de
transport a energiei electrice.
Transferul de energie prin conturul sucursalelor determin consumul de energie necesar funcionrii reelei de
transport. Astfel se poate determina nivelul de performan
al reelei i al grupurilor de msurare n scopul mbuntirii
activitii de mentenan. Pentru ST Sibiu se determin
lunar transferul de energie i pierderile tehnologice pentru
fiecare staie de transformare, component a reelei de
transport conform foilor de calcul exemplificate n Fig. 16.
Rezultatele sunt apoi publicate n format HTML i
introduse n structura de pagini HTML descris.
Aceast aplicaie flexibil va fi adaptat n viitor pentru
a ntruni cerinele Proiectului de Reabilitare i Modernizare a
Sistemului Transport-Dispecer pentru piaa angro de energie.

4. Energy Loses Calculation


Electric energy transmission implies, like any other
physical phenomenon, a energy consumption due to
irreversible thermodynamic conversion. Internal energy
loses are an important indication of technical condition of
transmission network and determine economical eficiency
of transmission process.
The energy flow over the boundaries of subsidiary
determines the energy used in operation by the high voltage
network. With this amount we can calculate the performance
for network and measurement group, which is a real help
for our maintenance. In the ST Sibiu boundaries we can
see for each substation the energy flow and loses during a
month, on each component of high voltage network, like
in figure 16.
This flexible aplication will be adapted to mach the
requirements of Roumanian Project Rehabilitation and
Modernisation of the Transmission Dispatch Systems Wholesale Market Metering System .

Bibliografie (References)
1. **** ANRE 22.2.130.01.05/07/99, Codul Comercial al pieei de energie electric(Comercial Code of electric wholesale market)
2. **** ANRE 22/06/02, Codul de masurare a energiei electrice(Electric energy metering Code)
3. **** C.N. Transelectrica SA -Sucursala OMEPA-Procedura Operationala- Stabilirea i raportarea schimburilor de energie
electric activ intre reeaua de transport i participanii la piaa -cod : OMEPA-002 (Operational Procedure Determination
and report of electric energy transfer between transmission network and market participants)
4. **** P.E. 139/97- Instruciunea privind determinarea CPT n reelele electrice (Instructions for determination of transmission
network energy loses)