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PROBLEMATICA SERVICIILOR DE SISTEM ASPECTS OF ANCILLARY SERVICES

Lucian TOMA*, Mircea EREMIA, Constantin BULAC


University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest Spl. Independenei, Nr. 313, Sect. 6, 77206, Bucharest, Tel: 021/4029850 *E-mail: lucian_toma_ro@yahoo.com Rezumat: Sistemele electroenergetice din lumea ntreag trec printr-un proces de reorganizare ce are ca scop introducerea competitivitii n scopul minimizrii preului energiei electrice. n acest sens, s-au creat diverse tipuri de piee de energie electric n care diveri participani prezint oferte putere-pre. O problem aparte, nc n dezbatere, o constituie serviciile de sistem care au ca scop asigurarea parametrilor de calitate a energiei electrice. n lucrare se prezint problematica celor mai importante servicii de sistem att prin felul n care sunt furnizate ct i prin costurile pe care le implic. Avnd n vedere modul diferit de asigurare a acestor servicii trebuie proiectate piee de servicii de sistem diferite i n acelai timp gndirea mecanismelor optime de tarifare care s-i mulumeasc att pe furnizori ct i pe Operatorul de Sistem, care coordoneaz aceste servicii i care are interesul s le achiziioneze la preul cel mai mic. Keywords: servicii de sistem, piaa de energie electric, competitivitate Abstract: The power systems from worldwide undergo to changes of organizing and aim the introducing of competitively in order to minimize the price of electrical energy. In this respect, several types of electricity markets have been created where different participants bid for amount-price of electrical energy. A special problem that arise, yet to be discussed, is the management of ancillary services which aim to ensure proper quality of electrical energy. In this paper some aspects about the most important ancillary services are presented from supplying point of view as well as the costs involved. Taking into consideration different ways of ensuring these ancillary services, specific markets must be designated and in the same time realizing of optimal mechanisms for cost based price markets that would satisfy both suppliers as well as System Operator, in order to coordinate these services and purchase it at the lowest price. Keywords: ancillary services, electricity market, competition.

1. Introducere Din dorina utilizrii eficiente a surselor i resurselor de energie, sistemele electroenergetice sunt supuse unor schimbri de organizare n ceea ce privete structura, prin faptul c exist mai multe entiti cu destinaii diferite (producere, transport, distribuie, etc.) ct i prin responsabilitile pe care le are fiecare. Astfel, prin procesul de deregularizare, s-au format mai multe companii de electricitate avnd funcii independente de producie, transport sau distribuie dar i obligaia ndeplinirii parametrilor de fiabilitate indicai n normativul PE 013/1994. n acest context, Operatorul de Sistem (OS) are obligaia, dup cum se prevede n Directiva 96/92/EC, articolul 7.3, s asigure securitatea, fiabilitatea i eficiena sistemului energetic, s supravegheze fluxurile de energie i s asigure disponibilitatea unor utilizatori de reea n scopul furnizrii serviciilor de sistem. Odat cu introducerea pieei de energie electric a aprut, OPeratorul COMercial, cu rolul de a coordona ncheierea aranjamentelor comerciale cu energie electric referitoare la cantitile tranzacionate i la pre. Att utilizatorii ct i coordonatorii sistemului i ndeplinesc responsabilitile n conformitate cu normativele i regulile stabilite de Autoritatea Naional de Reglementare a Energiei electrice. Pentru o funcionare n condiii de siguran att a sistemului electroenergetic ct i a consumatorului, trebuie ndeplinite standardele de calitate a energiei electrice i anume: ncadrarea frecvenei i a tensiunii n benzile admi-

1. Introduction From the desire of efficient using energy sources and resources, power systems undergo to different changes of organizing concerning the structure, by the fact that there are several entities with different destinations (generation, transmission, distribution, etc.) and through responsibilities of each participant. Therefore, through deregularization process, several electricity companies have been created having independent functions of generation, transmission or distribution and also the obligation to meet reliability requirements given in normative PE 013/1994. In this context, System Operator (SO) is responsible, as it is indicated in Directive 96/92/EC, article 7.3, to ensure the security, reliability and efficiency of power system, to follow the power flows and to ensure the availability of some network users with the purpose of supplying the ancillary services. In the same time, by introducing electricity market it has been also created, COMmercial OPerator, having the responsibility to coordinate commercial agreements of electrical energy related to trade amount of power and price. Network users as well as system coordinators meet their responsibilities according to normative and rules settled by National Regulatory Agency of Electrical Energy. For a safe operation of power system as well as consumers, it must fulfill normative related to power quality such as: maintain the frequency and voltage in admissible limits, continuity of supplying etc. In order to

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sibile, continuitatea n alimentare etc. Pentru a satisface aceste standarde Operatorul de Sistem are obligaia de a asigura urmtoarele servicii de sistem: reglajul frecvenputere activ, reglajul tensiune-putere reactiv, compensarea pierderilor de putere din reeaua de transport, restaurarea sistemului la rmnerea total sau parial fr tensiune, managementul congestiilor etc. Asemntor modului de comercializare a energiei electrice, achiziionarea serviciilor de sistem se face n mod competitiv prin diferite forme de pia. De aceea, accesul utilizatorilor la reea trebuie s se fac nediscriminatoriu. De menionat c, n Romnia, nu exist nc o pia a serviciilor de sistem, prezenta lucrare fiind un punct de vedere, bazndu-ne pe experiena altor ri, n ceea ce privete problematica serviciilor de sistem. 2. Tipuri de piee de energie electric Avnd n vedere particularitile pe care le prezint fiecare serviciu de sistem a fost necesar organizarea tranzaciilor pe mai multe tipuri de piee de energie electric n care diveri participani prezint oferte putere pre. Ofertele obinute de la toate entitile productoare sunt introduse ntr-un program de calcul care simuleaz distribuia optim de puteri pe baza preurilor fcute i a prognozei de sarcin astfel nct se va obine preul marginal de sistem pe perioade de o or pentru ziua urmtoare. Esenial este faptul c operatorul pieei structureaz ofertele n ordine de la cel mai mic pn la cel mai mare pre ofertat, corelate n acelai timp cu prognoza de sarcin. Licitaia se nchide la un punct n care cererea de energie electric prognozat este satisfcut prin oferte de producie cumulat. Cel mai mare pre ofertat la care se nchide licitaia determin preul de nchidere al pieei. Procedura de stabilire a Preului Marginal de Sistem este prezentat n figura 1. n acelai timp, se stabilete i ordinea de merit, stabilit pe baza ofertelor putere pre i a caracteristicilor tehnice ale productorilor, necesar pentru stabilirea ordinei de dispecerizare a grupurilor generatoare.

satisfy there those standards, System Operator have the responsibility to ensure the following ancillary services: active frequency active power control, voltage reactive power control, power loss compensation in the transmission network, black-start capability, congestion management etc. Likewise to electrical energy market, purchasing of ancillary services is made in a competitive way through different types of markets. Because of that, users access to the transmission network must be done in a nondiscriminatory manner. It should be mentioned that, in Romania, there is no ancillary services market, the present paper being a point of view, based on experience of other countries, concerning the problem of ancillary services. 2. Types of electricity markets Taking into consideration the particularities that involve each ancillary service was necessary organizing of energy trade on several types of electricity markets where participants bid for amount-price of energy. The obtained bids from all the generating entities are introduced into a simulating program to achieve optimal dispatch of supplier in terms of the bid price and load forecasting in order to obtain the system marginal cost on a basis of one hour for the following day. Essential in the fact that market operator rank the power bid of participants from lowest to the highest bidding price, taking into account of load forecast. The auction is ended in a point where the forecasted demand of energy satisfies the amount of supply. The highest price where the auction is ended determines the market-clearing price. The procedure of establishing System Marginal Cost is presented in figure 1. In the same time, the merit order is established, on the basis of power price bids and technical characteristics of generators, necessary to establish the merit order of generator units dispatching.

prognoza cererii preul de nchidere al pieei

load forecasting Market clearing price

preul ofertat de generatoare Oferta de energie electric, MW per 1 h


Figura 1 . Stabilirea preului marginal de sistem

generators bids Electrical energy bid, MW per 1 h


Figure 1. Establishing system marginal cost

Modul de achiziionare a serviciilor de sistem prin licitare de oferte reprezint un mecanism corect de stabilire a preului att din punctul de vedere al furnizorului ct i din punct de vedere al consumatorului. ns, acest mecanism nu este aplicativ n cazul furnizorii de putere reactiv avnd n vedere faptul c reglajul tensiunii este o problem local i se realizeaz cu suport de putere reactiv ct mai aproape de zona cu probleme.

The way of purchasing ancillary services through auction is a fair mechanism manner of establishing the price form the seller point of view as well as from the buyer. Instead, this mechanism can not be applied in the case of reactive power suppliers taking into consideration the fact that voltage regulation is a local problem being achieved through reactive power support as close as possible from the area with voltage problems.

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n continuare se prezint principalele tipuri de piee de energie electric [2]. a) Piaa Forward n cadrul pieelor de energie electric, piaa forward cu o zi nainte este destinat programrii resurselor pentru fiecare or a zilei urmtoare. O pia forward intra-zilnic este destinat corectrii deviaiilor de la programul stabilit cu o zi nainte. Att energia electric ct i serviciile de sistem pot fi comercializate pe pieele forward. b) Piaa de Echilibrare (Piaa n Timp Real) Pentru a garanta fiabilitatea sistemelor electroenergetice, producia i consumul de energie electric trebuie s fie echilibrate n timp real. Totui, valorile n timp real ale consumului i produciei pot fi diferite fa de programele pieei forward. n consecin, piaa n timp real are scopul de a satisface cerinele de echilibrare producie-consum. Piaa n timp real este de obicei administrat de OPCOM. Acesta primete oferte de energie electric pentru acoperirea curbei de sarcin. Totui, dac exist congestii pe piaa n timp real, preurile sunt stabilite pe zone. OS are rolul de a dispeceriza unitile generatoare, ierarhizate prin ordinea de merit, pornind de la cele cu preul ofertat cel mai mic, cu condiia s nu apar constrngeri n reea. n cazul n care consumul depete producia n timp real, se pot efectua ajustri prin oferte de scdere a consumului. Furnizorii care i-au folosit capacitatea de producie a energiei electrice, exceptnd cea de reglaj, pentru una din pieele de servicii de sistem sunt pltii pentru energia furnizat suplimentar la folosirea capacitii. c) Contractele Bilaterale Contractele bilaterale sunt acorduri negociabile de livrare sau consum de energie electric ntre doi actori de pia. Aceste contracte stabilesc termenii i condiiile acordului, independent de Operatorul de Sistem. n cadrul acestui model, OS trebuie s verifice dac exist o capacitate de transport suficient astfel nct s se asigure securitatea sistemului electroenergetic. Modelul contractelor bilaterale este foarte flexibil deoarece ambele pri i pot specifica condiiile dorite privind livrarea energiei electrice. Totui, dezavantajul provine din costul de negociere mai ridicat dar i din contractul scris. 3. Prezentarea principalelor servicii de sistem Serviciile de sistem sunt acele servicii furnizate de ctre instalaii de producie, transport i control, necesare asigurrii transportului energiei electrice de la productor la consumator. Aceste servicii sunt necesare pentru asigurarea responsabilitilor pe care le are Operatorul de Sistem n ceea ce privete sigurana, securitatea i fiabilitatea funcionrii sistemelor electroenergetice interconectate. 3.1. Reglajul frecven - putere activ Reglajul frecvenei n sistemele electroenergetice se realizeaz pe mai multe niveluri, n funcie de semnalele primite i de timpul de rspuns al grupurilor generatoare la o abatere a frecvenei de la frecvena nominal. n momentul n care n sistem se produce o perturbaie (ex: variaia puterii consumate), se creeaz un dezechilibru ntre puterea produs i puterea consumat, urmat de o scdere a frecvenei. Scderea frecvenei este urmat instantaneu de o ajustare a puterii active produse prin

In the following the main types of electricity markets are presented [2]. a) Forward Market In the framework of electricity markets, day ahead forward market is designated for dispatching of energy sources for each hour of the following market. A hour ahead is market designated to meet load disturbances from the forecasted schedule on day ahead basis. The electrical energy as well as ancillary services can be traded on a forward market. b) Balance Market (Real Time Market) In order to ensure the reliability of power systems, generation and demand of electrical energy must be balanced in real time. However, the amount of real time generation and demand can be different comparative with forward market schedule. Consequently, real time market aim to satisfy the requirements of generation - demand balance. Commercial Operator - OPCOM, usually coordinates real time market. This one receives energy bids to cover load demand. However, if there are congestion in real time, the prices are established on areas. SO have the responsibility to dispatch generator units, ranking them on the basis of merit order, starting form the lowest price units, with the condition not to appear any constrains in the network. When consumption exceeds generation in real time, adjustments through load decreasing bids are performed. The suppliers that has used their capacity of electrical energy generation, aside from the regulation one, for one of the ancillary markets, supplementary to capacity payment these are paid for energy generation. c) Bilateral Contracts Bilateral contracts are negotiated agreements for consumption of electrical energy between two market actors. These contracts establish agreement terms and conditions, independent of System Operator. For this model, SO must check if there is sufficient transmission capacity in order to ensure the security of power systems. The model of bilateral contracts is very flexible because both parts can specify the desired conditions concerning supplying of electrical energy. However, the disadvantage is the higher negotiated price and the written contract. 3. The main ancillary services Ancillary services are those services supplied by generating units, transmission and control, necessary to ensure electrical energy transmission from the generation point to the consumer. These services are also necessary meet the responsibilities of System Operator concerning safe, security and reliability of interconnected power systems. 3.1. Frequency active power control Frequency control into power systems is made on several levels, in terms of received signals and speed of response of generating units to a deviation of frequency from the nominal value. When a disturbance occurs in the system (i.e. variation of demanded power), imbalance between generated and consumed power is produced followed by decreasing of frequency. Decreasing of frequency is instantaneous followed by an adjusting of active generated power by

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aciunea regulatorului de vitez al turbinei care are rolul de a realiza un reglaj fin al frecvenei. Aceast aciune este, n general, cunoscut sub numele de Reglaj Primar de Frecven (eng: governor regulation). Rezerva de reglaj primar trebuie s poat fi mobilizat ntr-un timp pn la 30 secunde i trebuie s fie meninut n funcionare pe o perioad de cel puin 15 minute. n condiiile interconectrii cu reeaua UCTE, factorul de participare al SEN la reglajul primar de frecven este de 0,02 avnd o sensibilitate de 423 MW/Hz, rezerva necesar pentru acest reglaj fiind de 85 MW [8]. Att n Romnia ct i n alte ri, capacitatea de reglaj primar al frecvenei constituie o cerin de conec-tare a grupurilor generatoare la reea i nu face obiectul unei pli ca serviciu de sistem. Reglajul Secundar de Frecven (cunoscut i sub numele de Controlul Automat al Produciei) este de tip centralizat i poate fi realizat numai de acele grupuri generatoare care sunt conectate la regulatorul central i care au capabilitatea de a rspunde la semnalul primit ntr-un timp mai mic de 15 minute. Scopul acestui reglaj este de a reface rezerva de reglaj primar i de a readuce frecvena i soldul puterii de schimb cu celelalte sisteme la valoarea programat. n ultima perioad de timp s-a discutat introducerea, n Romnia, unei piee a rezervelor de putere (care mai este numit i pia de echilibrare) prilej cu care stadiul serviciilor de sistem n ara noastr va deveni mai clar din punct de vedere al competitivitii i al serviciului oferit dar i al modului de tarifare al acestora. n acest sens, se definesc mai multe rezerve de putere [3] care au scopul de a reface rezervele de reglaj primar i secundar: rezerva de reglaj secundar, rezerva turnant, rezerva teriar rapid i rezerva teriar lent. Reglajul frecvenei la acest nivel se numete Reglaj Teriar de Frecven. Acesta se deosebete de reglajul primar i cel secundar prin faptul c este activat manual adic prin apel telefonic sau fax. Operatorul de Sistem achiziioneaz aceste rezerve de putere ca serviciu de sistem n mod competitiv, iar dispecerizarea grupurilor generatoare care au ctigat licitaia este fcut dup ordinea de merit. Pe lng productori, la reglajul frecvenei ca serviciu de sistem pot participa i consumatorii de putere mare pentru care exist un sistem automat de deconectare a sarcinii pentru a rspunde unei variaii majore a frecvenei. De aceea, pentru a stimula consumatorii s participe la acest reglaj, este necesar tarifarea energiei electrice la consumator n funcie de gradul de continuitate n alimentare care este un factor de calitate al energiei electrice. n Australia [2], asigurarea cerinelor reglajului de frecven este fcut de NEMMCO (National Electricity Market Management Company) pe baza unor contracte cu diveri actori, iar compensarea financiar a acestora se face pe baza urmtoarelor componente: componenta de activare, compensare fcut pe baza cantitii de putere activ disponibil stabilit prin contract n procesul de dispecerizare i componenta de utilizare, compensare fcut pentru anumite servicii (n special delestajul de sarcin) pe baza utilizrii serviciului respectiv asemenea pli nu se fac n cazul reglajului instantaneu de frecven care const n acionarea valvelor turbinei. n acelai timp, energia activ produs ca serviciu de sistem este tarifat la preul energiei electrice stabilit n ziua respectiv i care reprezint Preul Marginal de Sistem.

means of governor auction having the role of accurate frequency control. This action is, in general, known as Primary Frequency Control. Primary reserve regulation must response in a timeframe of 30 seconds and must be maintained in operation at least 15 minutes. For the conditions of interconnection with UCTE network, participating factor of National Power System to primary frequency control is 0,02 having a sensitivity of 423 MW/Hz, the necessary reserve power for this type of regulation being 85 MW [8]. In Romania as well as in other countries, the capacity of primary frequency control is a connection rule of generating units to the network and does not make the object of payment as ancillary service. Secondary Frequency Control (known also as Automatic Generation Control) is a centralized one and could be achieved only by the generating units connected to central regulator having the capability to respond to the received signals in a time less than 15 minutes. The goal of this type of control is to restore primary frequency control reserve and to bring back the frequency in the admissible band and the frequency bias to scheduled value. In the last period of time have been discussed the introducing, in Romania, of reserve powers market (also called balanced market) being an opportunity ancillary services state in our country become more clear form the competitively point of view and of the offered service but also form their payment point of view. In this regard, several power reserves are defined [3] having the destination to restore primary and secondary power reserve: secondary control reserve, spinning reserve, rapidly tertiary reserve and slowly tertiary reserve. Frequency regulation at this level is called Tertiary Frequency Control. This is distinguished from the primary and secondary frequency control by the fact that this is activated manually that is by means of phone or fax communication. System Operator purchases these power reserves in a competitive manner, and the dispatching of the winners generating units of auction process in terms of merit order is made. Additional to generator units, to frequency control as ancillary service can also participate the big consumers for which there is an automatic control system of load shedding in order to respond to a major frequency disturbance. For this reason, in order to stimulate the consumers to participate to this type of frequency control, the cost of electrical energy at the consumer in terms of supplying continuity, being a power quality parameter, must be performed. In Australia [2], Ensuring of frequency control requirements is performed by NEMMCO (National Electricity Market Management Company) on the basis of the agreements with different market actors, and their financial compensation is made on the basis pf the following components: activation component, compensation made on the basis of the available amount of active power established through contract in process de dispatching and using component, compensation made for those services (especially load shedding) on the basis of the respective service used such payments are not made for instantaneous frequency control which consists in turbine valve action. In the same time, the generated electrical energy as ancillary service is financial compensated at the energy price established for the respective day at the System Marginal Cost.

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3.2. Reglajul tensiune putere reactiv Tensiunea este un parametru de calitate a energiei electrice i trebuie meninut n limitele admisibile. n acest sens, Operatorul de Sistem are rolul de a realiza o coordonare a surselor de putere reactiv. Pn n prezent, n ara noastr, optimizarea producerii puterii reactive n vederea realizrii reglajului de tensiune a fost neglijat. Avnd n vedere faptul c reglajul teriar de tensiune se realizeaz pe baza unor coeficieni de sensibilitate, asigurarea suportului de reactiv n vederea controlului tensiunii ca serviciu de sistem este dependent de amplasarea n sistem a potenialilor actori. n cazul reelelor electrice din UCTE, se are n vedere s nu existe circulaie de putere reactiv, iar producerea acesteia trebuie s se fac local; ns, acest aspect este condiionat att de disponibilitatea ct i de capacitatea surselor de putere reactiv. n ceea ce privete SEE Romnesc, liniile electrice de transport fiind slab ncrcate prezint o surs important de reactiv, fapt ce trebuie luat n considerare n planificarea reglajului de tensiune. Cel mai important mijloc de reglare a tensiunii l reprezint generatoarele sincrone deoarece, prin structura sistemelor electroenergetice, acestea constituie elemente existente; instalarea altor surse de putere reactiv la fel de eficiente necesit noi investiii care, n ara noastr, reprezint o problem deosebit. n ara noastr [3], prin criteriile tehnice de calificare a grupurilor generatoare n vederea furnizrii puterii reactive ca serviciu de sistem, se impune ca acestea s fie capabile s furnizeze puterea activ nominal pentru un factor de putere ntre 0,85 inductiv i 0,95 capacitiv. Dealtfel capabilitatea generatoarelor de reglaj a tensiunii prin producerea / absorbia de putere reactiv constituie o condiie de conectare la reea. Funcionarea generatorului sincron se urmrete cu ajutorul diagramei de performan a generatorului sincron care mai este numit domeniu de ncrcare, pentru care se definesc benzile primar, respectiv secundar de reglaj a tensiunii. Dac generatorul va funciona n banda secundar, adic n zonele indicate prin Q1 i Q2, apar pierderi suplimentare de putere activ, iar deintorul grupului generator respectiv va solicita o compensare financiar.

3.2. Voltage reactive power control The voltage is a parameter of power quality and must be maintained in admissible limits. In this regard, System Operator has the responsibility to realize a coordination of reactive power sources. Up to now, in our country, optimal generation of reactive power in order to achieve voltage regulation has been neglected. Taking into consideration that tertiary voltage control is done by using some sensitivity coefficients, ensuring the required reactive power for voltage regulation as ancillary service is dependent of location in the system of the potential actors. In the case of UCTE electrical networks, System Operator aim to avoid reactive power flow in the system, its generation must by local; instead, this aspect is conditioned by the availability of the units as well as the capacity of reactive power sources. Concerning Romanian Power System, the transmission electrical lines, being low loaded, presents an important reactive source and must be taken into account in planning of voltage regulation. The most important mean of voltage regulation represent the synchronous generators, through the power systems structure, these are existent equipments; the installing of other sources of reactive power as efficient as the generators needs additional investments, in our country, being a special problem. In Romania [3], through technical criteria for qualifying of generator units in order to be dispatched for reactive power support as ancillary service, is required these to be capable of supplying rated active power for a power factor in the interval from 0,85 inductive and 0,95 capacitive. Furthermore, voltage regulation capability of generator units through generation / abortion of reactive power is a condition for connection to the network. Operation of synchronous generator is analyzed by using performance domain or synchronous generator also known as loading capability, for which primary band, respectively secondary band of voltage regulation are defined. If the generator will operate in the secondary band that is in the areas indicated by Q1 and Q2, supplementary active power losses occur, and the owner of the respective generator unit will ask for a financial compensation.

P
Pmax

P
Pmax
A B C

Q1

PA=PB PC Pmin

Q2

Q1

PA=PB PC

B C

Q2

Q
regim inductiv
QA QB QC

Pmin

Q
lagging regime
QA QB QC

regim capacitiv

Qmin

leading regime

Qmin

Figura 2. Domeniul de ncrcare al generatorului sincron

Figure 2. Loading capability of synchronous generator

Se presupune c punctul de funcionare al generatorului se afl n A(PA, QA). n cazul n care este necesar o absorbie suplimentar de putere reactiv, punctul de funcionare se mut din punctul A n punctul B de coordonate (PB, QB) fr ns a fi necesar o scdere a puterii active. n schimb, funcionarea generatorului n acest punct se realizeaz cu pierderi suplimentate de putere activ. Dac se dorete

Assume that the operation point of generator is located in A (PA, QA). In the case when supplementary absorption of reactive power is required, the operating point is moving from point A to point B of coordinates (PB, QB) not to be necessary decreasing of active power. Instead, operation of generator in a point in this point is performed with supplementary active power losses. If additional increasing

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creterea n continuare a absorbiei de reactiv, de exemplu din punctul B n punctul C de coordonate (PC, QC), pentru ca funcionarea generatorului s se realizeze n condiii de securitate, productorul va fi nevoit s scad puterea activ generat pn la valoarea PC. De aceea, generatorul respectiv trebuie s fie compensat financiar pentru pierderea profitului de pe urma scderii puterii active generate. n scopul de a compensa financiar capabilitatea grupurilor generatoare de a produce putere reactiv, n Australia se folosesc urmtoarele mecanisme de plat [1]: - plata disponibilitii, acordat acelor servicii pentru care se cere o disponibilitate din partea furnizorului pentru asigurarea serviciului atunci cnd este necesar; - plata de activare, acordat n cazul n care serviciul este activat la cererea Operatorului de Sistem; - plata de compensare, bazat pe costul de oportunitate, adic pentru cazul n care productorul este nevoit s scad producia de putere activ n schimbul creterii suportului de putere reactiv. Excepie de la acest tip de compensare financiar o fac compensatoarele sincrone i serviciul de restaurare a sistemului. n figura 3 se prezint grafic costul de producie al generatorului sincron n funcie de puterea reactiv [5]

absorbing reactive power is desired, for example from point B to point C of coordinates (PC, QC), in order to achieve a secure operating of generator, the generation owner must decrease the active power up to the point PC. By this reason, the respective generator must be financial compensated for profit losing from the reducing of active power. In order to compensate financial the capability of generator units to generate reactive power, in Australia the following payments mechanisms are used [1]: - Availability payment, given for those services for which the availability of suppliers in order to ensure reactive control service when is necessary; - Activation payment, given in the case when the respective service is activated at the System Operator demand; - Compensation payment, based on opportunity costs, that is in the case when the supplier is enforced to decrease its generation of active power in exchange of increasing reactive power generation. Exceptions from this financial compensation are synchronous compensators and black-star capability. In figure 3 is illustrated the curve of generation cost of synchronous generator in terms of reactive power [5]
Costul pierderilor + Costul de oportunitate Costul pierderilor

QMin

QB

QC

Q
Cost of losses + Opportunity cost Cost of losses

Figura 3. Dependena costului de producie n funcie de puterea reactiv

QMin
n cadrul reglajului de tensiune, n vederea producerii / absorbiei de putere reactiv se mai pot folosi i alte dispozitive cum ar fi: compensatoarele sincrone, bateriile cu condensatoare, bobinele i dispozitivele statice (SVC, STATCOM, etc.) dar i transformatoarele. Din punct de vedere al reglajului de tensiune sunt favorabile generatoarele i compensatoarele sincrone, iar din punct de vedere al costului cele mai interesante sunt bateriile cu condensatoare. n aceast privin, generatoarele sincrone au costuri de funcionare foarte ridicate deoarece ele sunt proiectate s produc putere activ, i nu reactiv. n plus este foarte dificil de separat costul de producere a puterii active de

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Figure 3. Dependency of generation cost in terms of reactive power

In the framework of voltage regulation, for generation / absorption reactive power other devices can be used such as: synchronous compensators, capacitor banks, reactors and static devices (SVC, STATCOM, etc.) bat also transformers. Form the voltage point of view the most proffered devices are generators and synchronous compensators, and from the cost point of view the most efficient devices are capacitor banks. In this regard, synchronous generators have very high operating costs because these are designated to generate active power, not reactive power. Furthermore, it very difficult to separate generation cost of active power from the reactive power

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costul puterii reactive. Dispozitivele SVC i STATCOM sunt foarte costisitoare dei costul lor de funcionare este mai sczut dect cel al generatoarelor ns, au o capabilitate superioar de reglaj a tensiunii. n continuare se prezint cteva din caracteristicile i particularitile puterii reactive pe piaa serviciilor de sistem: Puterea reactiv trebuie s fie furnizat local datorit problemelor tehnice asociate cu transportul pe liniile electrice; Valoarea puterii reactive este dependent n funcie de locul n care este furnizat; de exemplu, influena unui MVAr poate fi diferit de la nod la nod; Localizarea strategic a furnizorilor de putere reactiv poate avea multe avantaje; Exist un numr limitat de poteniali actori pe aceast pia; Piaa pare a fi mai mult un monopson (cu un singur cumprtor Operatorul de Sistem) Introducerea pieei de putere reactiv este o problem dificil avnd n vedere evaluarea costurilor de producere a puterii reactive. Problemele necesare a fi rezolvate n aceast privin sunt urmtoarele: a) Sunt considerate generatoarele / compensatoarele sincrone considerate ca furnizori de servicii de sistem ? b) Sunt companiile de transport / distribuie, ali consumatori i furnizori de puterea reactiv considerai ca furnizori de servicii de sistem ? c) Cum este capabilitatea unui furnizor de a da puterea reactiv cuantificat ntre furnizorii mputernicii n acest scop i serviciul de sistem oferit ? d) Care este structura cea mai potrivit a pieei de putere reactiv i a mecanismului de tarifare ? e) Care sunt problemele implicate n gsirea unui optim al puterii reactive ca serviciu de sistem ? 4. Concluzii n aceast lucrare au fost examinate diverse aspecte privind serviciile de sistem n sistemele electroenergetice n contextul descentralizrii sectorului energetic. Analiza serviciilor de sistem reprezint o problem complex avnd n vedere noua abordare a acestora n funcie de restriciile impuse prin deschiderea pieei de energie electric. Scopul pieei de energie este vnzarea energiei la preul cel mai mic prin crearea competitivitii ntre toi utilizatorii sistemului electroenergetic. Acest lucru se poate realiza printr-un management eficient al serviciilor de sistem i anume prin obinerea optimului de achiziionare a puterii reactive, a rezervelor de putere activ etc., toate n condiii de competitivitate. Trebuie avut n vedere faptul c i consumatorul este un furnizor foarte bun al serviciilor de sistem dar acest lucru asigurndu-se prin scderea productivitii i scderii eficienei economice. ns mult mai important este asigurarea securitii i fiabilitii sistemului. O problem deosebit n tarifarea serviciilor de sistem o reprezint msurarea cantitii i calitii acestora. De aceea, sunt necesare sisteme automate performante de monitorizare dar i reglementri clare care s stabileasc care sunt responsabilitile tuturor participanilor implicai n asigurarea calitii energiei electrice i a securitii sistemului.

cost. SVC and STATCOM devices are very expensive although their operation cost is lower then the cost of generators instead, have high capability of voltage regulation. In the following some characteristics and particularities of reactive power on ancillary services market: Reactive power must be supplied locally due to technical problems associated with transmission on electrical lines; Reactive power value is dependent of supplying point; for instance, the influence of one MVAr can be different from node to node; Strategic placement of reactive power suppliers have many advantages; There is an limited number of potential actors on this market; The market seems to be a monopson (only one buyer System Operator) Introducing of reactive power market is a difficult problem taking into consideration the assessment of reactive power generation costs. Problems necessary to be solved in this regard are the following: a) Are generators / synchronous compensators considerate as ancillary services suppliers? b) Are transmission companies / distribution, other consumers and suppliers of reactive power considered as ancillary services suppliers? c) How the capability of a supplier of reactive power quantified among all such suppliers and the tendered service? d) What is the best structure of reactive power market and their payment mechanism? e) Which are the involved problems in choosing the optimum of reactive power as ancillary service? 4. Conclusions In this paper, several aspects concerning ancillary services into the power systems in the context of energy sector deregularization have been debated. Ancillary service analysis is a complex problem taking into account the new approach of these in terms of the constraints imposed by the opening of electricity market. The purpose of electricity market is selling of electrical energy at the lowest price by introducing competitivity among all users of power system. This can be made through an efficient management of ancillary services namely by achieving the optimum of reactive power, of active power reserves etc., all in a competitive manner. It should be taken into consideration the fact that the consumer is a very good supplier of ancillary services but this can be achieved by decreasing productivity and economic efficiency. Instead, more important is ensuring of security and reliability of power system. A special problem in payment of ancillary services is the measurement of their quality and quantity. By this reason, preferment automatic systems for metering and also clear rules which can establish the responsibilities of all participants involved in ensuring power quality and system security.

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Bibliografie (References)
1. Bhattacharya, K., Boolen, M., Daalder, J., Operation of restructured power systems, Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2001 2. Shahidehpour, M., Yamin, H., Li, Zuyi, Market Operations in Electric Power Systems, IEEE, Wiley, Interscience N.Y., 2002 3. Codul Tehnic al Reelei Electrice de transport. TRANS-ELECTRICA S.A., 2000 4. Bhattacharya, K., Zhong, J., Reactive Power as an Ancillary Service, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 16, No. 2, May 2001 5. Zhong, J., Design of Ancillary Service Markets: Reactive Power and Frequency Regulation, Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg, Suedia, 2001 6. Hirst, E., Kirby, B., Ancillary Services, http://www.ornl.gov/ORNL/BTC/Restructuring/pub.htm 7. Connection Rules for Generation and Management of Ancillary Services, EURELECTRIC, Date: May 2000, Ref: 2000-1300003 8. Studiu UCTE, Load-Flow Analysis with Respect to a Possible Synchronous Interconnection of Networks of UCTE and IPS/UPS, May 2003. 9. Directiva 96 / 92 / EC 10. Glosar de termeni, ANRE, www.anre.ro