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Micromanagemen t.

ro
Organizatii, Proiecte si Evenimente

Elaborarea Deciziilor
Tipuri de decizie:
-dup importana obiectivelor urmrite: decizii strategice: vizeaz activitatea de ansamblu, problmele majore ale firmei. decizii tactice: se refer la activiti practice, la problemele simple derivate din obiectivele generale. decizii curente: se refer la problemele curente. -dup frecvena elaborrii lor: decizii periodice: se iau la anumite intervale de timp decizii neperiodice: nu sunt regulate decizii unice: se iau n situaii excepionale -dup nivelul ierarhic la care se iau: decizii la nivel superior: elaborate de conducere decizii la nivel mediu, de secii, ateliere decizii la nivel inferior, de ef de echip sau birou -dup gradul de cunoatere a probabilitii rezultatului: decizii luate n situaii de certitudine decizii luate n situaiii de risc decizii luate n situaii de incertitudine -dup sfera de cuprindere a decidentului: decizii individuale, luate de manager pe baza experienei i competenei sale decizii colective, cu caracter startegic i tactic, luate de conducerea firmei -dup factorii care influeneaz: decizii anticipate decizii imprevizibile

Caracteristicile deciziei
Decizia trebuie s aib mai multe nsuiri: Decizia trebuie s fie fundamentat tiinific, n concordan cu cerinele sistemului i cu cerinele economice. Decizia trebuie s fie luat de cei care au drepturi legale i atribuii n acest sens. n cazul delegrii trebuie s se in cont de competenele i aptitudinile celor care primesc delegarea.

Decizia trebuie s fie precis, coordonat cu deciziile anterioare, s nu permit alte interpretri. Decizia trebuie luat la timp, atunci cnd este nevoie. Deciza trebuie s aib un enun corespunztor pentru c se adreseaz categoriilor diferite de persoane i trebuie s fie neleas de toi cei crora li se adreseaz.

Modele folosite n luarea deciziilor

Modelele folosite n luarea deciziilor pot fi de mai multe feluri: raionale (utilizate n prima jumtate a acestui secol, care consider procesul de decizie strict raional, iar toate elementele necesare lurii deciziei sunt cunoscute) i neraionale (strngerea i prelucrarea informaiilor face dificil luarea deciziilor pentru manageri). Modelul neraional are trei variante: modelul satisfaciei bazat pe conceptul de raionalitate limitat, modelul ameliorrii (problema este dus la un nivel tolerabil), modele aleatorii. Mai avem modele descriptive, care arat cum ar trebui luate deciziile i modele normative, care arat cum se iau efectiv deciziile. Luarea deciziei se desfoar astfel n patru etape: 1. Identificarea problemei, care presupune examinarea (monitorizarea situaiilor pentru a vedea circumstanele n care apare problema), clasificarea (nelegerea semnelor care indic existena unei discrepane ntre situaia actual i cea dorit) i diagnoza (adunarea informaiilor i specificarea naturii cauzei problemei). 2. Generarea soluiilor alternative- acestea sunt soluii mai bune din punct de vedere calitativ. Fiecare alternativ trebuie evaluat i aleas cea mai bun, n funcie de avantaje i dezavantaje. 3. Evaluarea i selectarea alternativelor presupune stabilirea fezabilitii ei, calitii, acceptabilitii, costurilor, reversibilitii, compatibilitii cu cultura organizaiei. 4. Implementarea i monitorizarea soluiilor alese. Aceasta presupune o planificare atent i luarea n consideraie a tuturor celor afectai de decizie. Monitorizarea este necesar pentru a vedea dac aciunea decurge conform planului. Metodele utilizate n luarea deciziilor variaz n funcie de natura i complexitatea problemelor. Putem avea: metode tradiionale, care pun accent pe pesonalitatea i calitatea decidentului, pe experien, documentare i informare metode comparative, care au la baz principiul continuitii fenomenelor i compararea elementelor metode de optimizare, care vizeaz obinerea optimului economic i care se bazeaz pe instrumente matematice. Modelele matematice utilizate n fundamentarea deciziilor sunt: modele de programare liniar, n care resursele trebuie alocate pentru una sau mai multe activiti. Combinarea resurselor depinde de o funcie obiectiv, care poate fi minimizat sau maximizat. modele bazate pe teoria firelor de ateptare, folosite pentru a prezice comportamentul sistemelor de ateptare. Are restricii legate de distribuiile sosirii clienilor, timpul de sosire, mrimea sistemului.

modele concureniale- presupun c factorii necontrolabili sunt independeni de variabilele de decizie. Factorii pot fi controlai de concureni cu interese contrare modele euristice, care ncearc s deriveze soluii suboptimale, adoptnd un mod de abordare satisfctor. Se folosesc acolo unde decizia este prost structurat modele de simulare care se bazeaz pe imitarea realitii. Simularea nu recomand direct decizia ci exploreaz consecinele ei i sunt utilizate pentru o mai bun nelegere a deciziilor.

Etapele procesului decizional


Managementul este un proces ciclic decizional. ntreaga activitate de management este o nlnuire de decizii. Luarea deciziei a fost definit ca alegerea raional a unei alternative din mai multe posibile, pentru a obine un rezultat dorit. Pregtirea i luarea deciziei este un proces raional, de cunoatere, strns legat de actvitatea practic, cu aciunea de obinere a rezultatelor dorite n procesul decizional. Totodat, pe lng abordarea raional mai exist i abordarea creativ a rezolvrii problemelor. Deciziile sunt luate la toate nivelurile organizaiei, acest proces avnd mai multe etape. Ioan Ursachi definete atpe etape le acestui proces: Definirea problemei: este una din cele mai importante etape pentru c de ea depind i celelalte. Dac problema este definit incorect atunci din start va fi luat o decize proast. Identificarea factorilor limit presupune analiza problemei i a factorilor care pot duce la eliminarea anumitor alternative. Elaborarea alternativelor presupune determinarea tuturor soluiilor posibile ale problemei. Analiza alternativelor presupune analizarea avantajelor i dezavantajelor aduse de fiecare alternativ. Selectarea celei mai bune alternative, cea care avantajeaz cel mai mult firma. Selectarea se face n urma analizei, testrii, cercetrii acelei alternative. Implementarea soluiei Stabilirea sistemului de control i evaluare pe baza cruia se fac coreciile necesare. Decizia implic mai multe elemente: existena unui obiectiv ce trebie realizat ntr-o anumit perioad de timp, evidenierea soluiilor posibile de aciune, alegerea variantei optime, structurarea coninutului acestei variante pentru a furniza toate indicaiile necesare realizrii obiectivelor. Decizia este un instrument de conducere foarte important pentru c prin intermediul ei se activez personalul n funcie de obiectivele existente. Ea ocup un rol central, marcnd trecerea de la gndirea creatoare la aciune. Elemente constitutive ale procesului decizional: Decidentul: n prezent se constat o cretere a capacitii decizionale a acestuia datorit numrului mare de specialiti antrenai n acest proces. Decidentul este reprezentat de organele de conducere i personalul din funciile de conducere existente.

Personalul salariat executant: n prezent gradul su de receptivitate a crescut, la fel i nivelul de pregtire Cadrul sau mediul ambiant reprezint pe de o parte economia naional, ramura n care firma i desfoar activitatea, iar pe de alt parte condiiile tehnice din ntreprindere.

Elementele de baz ale procesului decizional sunt:

Decidentul: cel care ia decizii poate fi o persoan individual sau un grup decizional. El trebuie s se angaeze n aciune i s fie motivat de ceea ce face, s se implice. Opiunile decizionale: sunt variantele de alegere, care pot prezenta avantaje i dezavantaje. Dup Mintzberg opiunile unei decizii pot fi: date, gata elaborate, fcute la comand sau modificate. Factorii necontrolabili: nu pot fi controlai de decident i influeneaz decizia final. Ei trebuie identificai, trebuie stabilite nivelurile la care pot aciona i trebuie prevzute efectele pe care ei le produc. Consecinele deciziei: pot fi primare, echivalente sau evaluate. Influena decicentului crete pe msur ce se trece de la primul nivel ctre nivelurile superioare. Decidentul se confrunt astfel cu mai multe tipuri de probleme: Probleme stringente, care reprezint dificulti majore ce necesit a intervenie imediat, neputnd fi amnate. Probleme mai puin stringente care mai pot fi amnate o perioad de timp. Oportuniti, care nu trebuie omise pentru c ofer firmei posibilitatea de ctig. Totodat pot exista mai multe situaii decizionale: De certitudine: evoluia procesului poate fi anticipat cu precizie n toate etapele, rezultatul final este cunoscut. De risc: atunci cnd o parte din evenimente au o probablitate mai mic de realizare, dar pentru realizare obiectivului final se poate calcula o probabilitate cert. De incertitudine: cnd nu se poate calcula probablitatea realizrii obiectivului i certitutdinea realizrii obiectivului final dispare. Riscurile pot fi reprezentate de:

fluctuaii n activitatea economic. Acestea pot fi: trendul (tendin ce se manifest pe perioade ndelungate, cu variaii pe termen scurt), schimbrile sezoniere datorate anotimpurilor i ciclurile economice. schimbri n cererea consumatorului. aciunile ntreprinse de concuren. Guvernul, adminstraiile locale, prin restriciile impuse i politica fiscal. dezastrele naturale. managementul deficitar care poate duce la pierderi financiare.

Decizii programate i decizii neprogramate

Caracteristicile deciziilor programate: Sunt decizii luate n situaii repetitive, de rutin, bine structurate pe baza unor norme anterioare.

Regulile care stau la baza acestor decizii se bazeaz pe obinuin, tehnici de calcul sau proceduri deja stabilite. Ele rezult din experina anterioar. Deciziile programate se iau mai mult la nivelurile inferioare i mai puin la cele de vrf. Sunt luate prin intermediul politicilor manageriale. Caracteristicile deciziilor neprogramate: Normele determinate anterior nu pot fi folosite pentru c situaiile sunt noi sau altfel structurate. Sunt decizii semnificative cu grad mare de incertitudine i de risc. Soluia aleas poate aduce avantaje sau pierderi. Sunt caracteristice mai ales nivelurilor superioare. Implic un proces creativ, un consum mai mare de resurse. Sunt luate prin derularea unor procese de rezolvare a problemelor n echip.

Deciziile de grup

Gndirea de grup a fost studiat de-a lungul timpului de muli autori, Gustave Le Bon structurnd n Psihologia mulimilor cel mai bine caracteristicile acesteui tip de gndire. n cadrul gndirii de grup membrii sunt tentai s ignore deciziile ce pot crea dispute, doar pentru a menine coeziunea grupului. n cadrul deciziilor de grup pot exista i avantaje i dezavantaje. Avantaje: - pot fi folosite mai multe informaii i cunotine. - pot aprea mai multe variante, care nu ar fi observate de o singur persoan. - poate aprea o mai bun nelegere sau acceptare a deciziei. - membrii grupului i dezvolt abilitile pentru viitor. Dezavantaje:- necesit mai mult timp. - nenelegerile pot ntrzia deciziile. - discuia poate fi monopolizat de o singur persoan. - gndirea de grup se poate centra mai mult pe realizarea consensului dect pe luarea deciziei. n cazul deciziilor neprogramate luate n grup s-au observat urmtoarele: n stabilirea obiectivelor, grupurile sunt superioare indivizilor datorit volumului mare de informaii. n identificarea alternativelor eforturile individuale ale membrilor grupului sunt necesare pentru a asigura o cercetare n domenii diferite. n evaluarea alternativelor raionamentul colectiv e superior celui individual. n alegerea celei mai bune alternative, datorit dorinei de a realiza consensul, grupul e tentat s accepte un grad mai mare de risc, comparabil cu decidentul individual. implementarea se realizeaz de obicei de ctre manageri individuali.

Mediul decizional

Teoriile clasice consider c eficiena intern este esenial n realizarea eficienei generale. Opiniile moderne consider c firma este un sistem deschis, aflat n relaie cu exteriorul. Mediul specific este mediul n care i

realizeza organizaiile activitatea , mediul general fiind format din caracteristicile care sunt comune unui numr mare de firme. Mediul poate fi: a) simplu, cu elemente puine i asemntoare - complex, cu un numr mare de factori diferii b) static, nu se schimb - dinamic, n schimbare MEDIU STATIC DINAMIC Simplu
INCERTITUDINE PERCEPUT SCZUT INCERTITUDINE PERCEPUT RELATIV RIDICAT

complex
INCERTITUDINE PERCEPUT RELATIV SCZUT INCERTITUDINE PERCEPUT RIDICAT

Cauza incertitudinii este de obicei lipsa informaiilor. Timpul, efortul necesar i banii investii influeneaz cantitatea disponibil de informaii.

Stilurile de conducere i luarea deciziei


Stilul de conducere variaz de la extrema autoritar- dictatorial la cea democrat- participativ, modern i performant. n funcie de aceste stiluri deciziile se iau n mod diferit. Managementul autoritar presupune c: puterea este atribut al liderilor, organizaia este piramidal, nu exist colaboratori ci subordonai, se conduce prin ordine date, avansarea se face prin obediena fa de superiori, inferiorul respect ordinele superiorului. Managementul prin persuasiune este varianta modern, care presupune: c puterea se dobndete prin competen, organizaia funcioneaz ca sistem, exist colaboratori, se conduce prin convingere, inferiorul poate pune n discuie ordinele primite.

Sistemul informaional i rolul lui n procesul decizional


Elaborarea deciziei depinde de informaiile existente. Sistemul informaional reprezint complexul de activiti care nregistreaz informaii, le sistematizeaz, prelucreaz, analizeaz, stocheaz i transmite, contribuind la realizarea obiectivelor organizaiei. El face posibil transpunerea n practic a deciziilor. Informaia este esenial n procesul decizional. Ea trebuie s fie exact, complet, continu, s soseasc la timp, s fie transmis pe canalul cel mai scurt, s corespund din punct de vedere calitativ i cantitativ, s aib o form de prezentare adecvat fiecrei situaii. Informaiile pot fi: dup provenien: -interne (date de ansamblul activitii din ntreprindere -externe (provin din alte sisteme cu care firma e n relaie) dup modul de exprimare: - orale, scrise, audio-vizuale dup sensul circulaiei: ascendente, descendente, orizontale dup gradul de prelucrare: primare, semiprelucrate, prelucrate.

Circularea informaiilor d natere circuitului imformaional, aceste circuite fiind oblice, verticale sau orizontale. Fluxul de vehiculare al informaiilor depinde de mrimea organizaiei i de modul de organizare al sistemului informaional. Cu ct informaia e mai bun cu att sunt mai bune deciziile. Un management deficitar poate avea la baz mai multe cauze: un volum mare de infrormaie eronat, un volum mare de informaoe rspndit n ntreaga unitate, sau faptul c informaiile sosesc cu ntrziere. Cercetarea de marketing ofer informaiile pe baza crora se pot lua mai multe tipuri de decizii: de planificare- informaiile provin din surse externe i se refer la factori ca starea economiei mondiale, disponibiliti, resurse. Aceste decizii se iau la nivel superior. de control, luate la nivel mediu i menite s asigure compatibilitatea standard-performane. Informaiile provin din surse interne. operaionale intene, bazate pe studiul conjuncturii internaionale, i care se refer a eficiena utilizrii resurselor. Informaiile provin din contabilitate, inventar, i sunt folosite de managerii operaionali.

Etapele procesului de adoptare a deciziilor


Etapele procesului de adoptare a deciziilor Orice proces decizional presupune existenta urmatoarelor elemente: . decidentul: individul sau grupul de indivizi care urmeaza sa aleaga varianta cea mai avantajoasa din mai multe posibile; . multimea variantelor decizionale care sunt supuse comparatiei; . multimea criteriilor decizionale: punctele de vedere pe care le foloseste decidentul pentru alegerea variantei optime; . mediul ambiant: ansamblul conditiilor interne si externe organizatiei, care, influenteaza si sunt influentate de decizie; . multimea consecintelor: ansamblul rezultatelor potentiale care s-ar obtine, potrivit fiecarui criteriu decizional, prin aplicarea variantelor decizionale. Procesul de adoptare a deciziilor reprezinta ansamblul etapelor pe care le parcurge decidentul atunci cand face o alegere. Calitatea deciziei este influentata corectitudinea etapelor procesului decizional. atat de decident, cat si de

Decidentul este persoana sau grupul care alege alternativa dorita. In practica, putem intalni decidenti competenti sau incompetenti. Decidentii competenti sunt cei care, in procesul de adoptare a deciziei, isi valorifica talentul si cunostintele pentru a asigura performanta organizatiei pe care o conduc. Decidentii incompetenti au, de regula, una dintre urmatoarele patru orientari: . receptiva, . exploatatoare, . de tezaurizare, . de marketing. Decidentii care au o orientare receptiva considera ca sursa tuturor lucrurilor bune se afla in exteriorul lor si, drept urmare, se bazeaza in mare masura pe sugestiile formulate de catre ceilalti membrii ai organizatiei. In esenta, ei vor ca altii sa ia decizia pentru ei. Decidentii care au o orientare exploatatoare considera, de asemenea, ca sursa tuturor lucrurilor bune se gaseste in exteriorul lor, fiind dispusi sa fure idei pentru a lua decizii bune. Ei isi construiesc organizatiile pe ideile altora si, in mod specific, isi aroga in intregime meritul pentru aceste idei, neglijandu-i complet sau aproape complet pe cei care le-au formulat. Decidentii care au o orientare de tezaurizare sunt caracterizati de dorinta de a pastra starea actuala cat mai mult timp posibil. Ei accepta putin ajutor din exterior, se izoleaza de alti oameni si au o extrem de mare incredere in propriile puteri. Ei sunt obsedati de pastrarea postului si statutului prezent. Decidentii cu o orientare de marketing considera ca valoare lor depinde de valoarea deciziilor adoptate. De aceea, in alegerile pe care le fac, ei vor urmari maximizarea propriei valori si vor fi foarte preocupati de ceea ce gandesc altii. Managerii eficienti sunt aceia care nu incearca sa rezolve toate problemele cu care se confrunta, ci sunt capabili sa delege altora responsabilitatea luarii unor decizii, rezolvand doar problemele care au o influenta puternica asupra atingerii obiectivelor organizationale. Este nevoie de un proces sistematizat de luare a deciziilor pentru rezolvarea situatiilor-problema neprogramate dificile sau complexe. Desi conditiile in care sunt luate deciziile sunt variate, exista o serie de elemente comune ale tuturor deciziilor manageriale. O decizie reprezinta alegerea unei variante dintr-o serie de alternative. Procesul rational de luare a deciziilor consta dintr-o serie de pasi pe care managerii ii urmeaza, fie formal, fie pe baza intuitiei, in alegerea alternativei considerate optima. Acesti pasi sunt: identificarea problemei,

generarea de solutii alternative, selectarea alternativei celei mai benefice, implementarea alternativei alese obtinerea de feedback in vederea evaluarii eficacitatii deciziei. Pasul intai: identificarea problemei. Una dintre dificultatile pe care le ridica rezolvarea de probleme o reprezinta identificarea corecta a problemei. Se intampla uneori ca managerii sa se grabeasca sa aleaga alternative inainte de a fi identificat problema fundamentala. Obstacole in calea definirii corecte a problemei . Problemele nu sunt intotdeauna evidente, si in calea identificarii lor pot sta o serie de obstacole, a caror depasire permite managerilor sa vada care este cu adevarat problema. Printre aceste obstacole cele mai intalnite sunt: - Acordarea de atentie efectelor, iar nu cauzelor . Prea frecvent se intampla ca managerii sa defineasca problemele in termenii simptomelor, iar nu in termenii cauzelor. - Perceptia selectiva. Datorita faptului ca fiecare dintre noi detinem o serie de perceptii bazate pe experienta personala, managerii au adesea tendinta de a defini problemele in termenii dictati de trecutul si instruirea lor. Pentru a depasi obstacolul pe care il constituie perceptia selectiva, managerii trebuie sa ia in considerare mai multe puncte de vedere inainte de a defini problema. - Definirea problemelor prin solutii. Problemele trebuie sa fie definite precis, fara asocierea lor cu anumite solutii. Ce este o problema? Procesul identificarii problemelor este esential pentru selectarea celei mai bune alternative. Managerii eficienti cauta in permanenta sa identifice ocaziile si problemele care apar in mediu. In acest stadiu al luarii deciziei managerii se pot ajuta de una dintre urmatoarele abordari: 1. Abateri de la performantele anterioare . Daca exista un tipar stabilit al nivelului satisfacator de performante si acesta se modifica, managerii sunt alertati de aparitia unei probleme. 2. Abaterea de la plan. Problema sau problemele pot fi sugerate de aparitia unei discrepante intre performante si rezultatele prevazute. 3. Primirea de feedback. Managerii pot descoperi existenta unei probleme din discutiile cu furnizorii si clientii organizatiei sau cu subalternii sau superiorii lor ierarhici.

4. Concurenta. Performantele organizatiei din care face parte managerul in raport cu cele ale concurentilor sai reprezinta un indicator al existentei unor eventuale probleme. Pasul al 2-lea: generarea de solutii alternative . Odata ce problema a fost identificata, al doilea pas in procesul de luare a deciziilor il reprezinta generarea de solutii alternative. In aceasta faza a procesului decizional este esentiala creativitatea. O abordare care permite stimularea creativitatii in faza de generare de solutii alternative o reprezinta brainstormingul. Intr-o sedinta de brainstorming, un numar de indivizi cheie sunt adunati cu scopul de a genera abordari alternative pentru rezolvarea unei probleme date, indiferent de cat de nepotrivite ar putea parea aceste alternative. Una dintre regulile brainstorming-ului o reprezinta faptul ca nu sunt permise evaluarea sau criticarea sugestiilor, astfel ca participantii se simt liberi sa isi exprime parerile. Ideile generate in sedintele brainstorming reprezinta uneori alternative importante si demne de luat in seama in procesul de luare de decizii. In cautarea de alternative, decidentii se confrunta cu o serie de constrangeri care limiteaza numarul de alternative, si care pot fi cauzate de resursele financiare limitate, de factorul uman din organizatie, care poate limita posibilitatea de implementare a anumitor alternative, sau de facilitatile materiale neadecvate. Este important ca decidentii sa cunoasca aceste constrangeri, in asa fel incat sa nu fie consumat in mod inutil timpul cu evaluarea unor alternative care nu sunt viabile, si sa fie eliminata posibilitatea ca alternative semnificative sa nu fie luate in calcul datorita faptului ca managerii nu cunosc obstacolele pe care aceste alternative le pot intampina. Pasul al 3-lea: selectarea alternativei optime. Dupa identificarea solutiilor alternative, acestea trebuie sa fie evaluate si comparate in termenii fezabilitatii si consecintelor lor. Este apoi aleasa cea mai buna decizie pentru obiectivele organizatiei. Selectarea alternativei optime poate parea un proces de identificare a avantajelor si dezavantajelor fiecarei alternative si de alegere a alternativei preferate sau a celei optime. Din nefericire, alegerea este dificila atunci cand decizia este complexa si implica mari grade de nesiguranta sau risc. Iata cateva dintre aceste dificultati: 1. Doua sau mai multe variante pot parea la fel de atractive. In aceste conditii este nevoie de o mai atenta analiza si evaluare a acestor alternative de catre decident. 2. Este posibil ca nici o alternativa sa nu permita atingerea in intregime a obiectivului stabilit. In aceste conditii, este de dorit implementarea a doua sau chiar trei alternative.

3. In situatia in care nici una dintre alternative nu ar permite atingerea obiectivului stabilit, este nevoie de o revenire la etapa cautarii de alternative. 4. Decidentul poate fi confuz din cauza numarului mare de alternative atractive, fiind nevoie in aceasta situatie de o mai atenta comparare si evaluare. Datorita faptului ca managerii nu au cunostinta de toate alternativele existente si de consecintele acestora, ei pot alege prima alternativa care le va da impresia ca poate rezolva problema. Pasul al 4-lea: implementarea solutiei alese . Odata ce a fost aleasa o alternativa, trebuie luate masuri de implementarea a acesteia, deoarece chiar si cea mai buna decizie cu putinta este inutila daca nu este transpusa in practica in mod eficient. Cheia implementarii eficiente o reprezinta buna comunicare si planificarea actiunilor. Indivizii care sunt afectati de decizie trebuie sa fie informati si trebuie sa li se solicite sprijinul pentru implementarea planului. Resursele trebuie obtinute si alocate (impartite intre departamente si proiecte in asa fel incat sa permita atingerea obiectivelor organizationale). Managerii stabilesc bugetele si planurile operationale detaliate, permitand monitorizarea progreselor. Se atribuie apoi responsabilitatea indeplinirii sarcinilor anumitor departamente si persoane. Implementarea, desi a fost identificata ca etapa distincta a procesului decizional, este legata de toate etapele acestuia si reprezinta legatura cu fiecare dintre functiile manageriale. Pasul al 5-lea: urmarire si evaluare . Evaluarea este o etapa a procesului decizional neglijata de obicei, desi reprezinta un element esential. Managerii eficienti vor dori intotdeauna sa compare rezultatele reale cu cele prevazute pentru a vedea daca problemele au fost rezolvate cu adevarat. Atunci cand decizia aleasa nu pare sa functioneze, managerul poate avea reactii diferite. Poate fi adoptata si implementata una dintre alternativele identificate in etapele anterioare; managerul poate alege de asemenea sa astepte, considerand ca nu a fost acordat suficient timp implementarii planului. O alta reactie pe care o poate adopta managerul este aceea de a decide ca problema a fost gresit identificata de la inceput, si ca procesul luarii deciziei trebuie reinceput. Evaluarea le permite managerilor sa invete din experienta, crescandu-le astfel capacitatea de a lua si implementa decizii eficace. De aceea acordarea de atentie evaluarii permite rezolvarii de probleme sa devina o activitate dinamica si continua pentru managerii performanti.

Managementul resurselor umane


Managementul resurselor umane 1 Resursele umane, principala resursa a organizatiei Rolul primordial al resurselor umane la scara intregii societati se regaseste si la nivelul organizatiei, fapt recunoscut si argumentat de numerosi oameni de stiinta din diferite tari si de practica manageriala a firmelor competitive pe plan national ( Unii specialisti abordeaza resursa umana drept capital uman al organizatiei. Consacrarea unui subcapitol special managementului resurselor umane in cadrul managementului de ansamblu al organizatiei are in vedere si faptul ca oamenii reprezinta, alaturi de informatii, principalele materii prime ale managementului. Ca atare, este absolut firesc sa fie abordate in mod special de sine statator, asigurand o tratare sistemica a ansamblului problematicii manageriale. Data fiind importanta si specificul lor deosebite, resursele umane fac, in ultimele doua decenii, si obiectul special de studiu al unei subramuri de baza a managementului managementul resurselor umane. 2. Creativitatea resurselor umane in cadrul firmei In ciuda literaturii foarte bogate consacrate creativitatii, asupra conceptului de creativitate nu s-a ajuns la cristalizarea unui punct de vedere acceptat de majoritatea specialistilor. Procesul inovational are o sfera larga de cuprindere. Practic, se manifesta in toate activitatile ce se desfasoara in organizatii, nerezumandu-se la produse si tehnologii Din analiza definitiilor elaborate de diversi specialisti se desprinde concluzia ca principalul element definitoriu al creativitatii este generarea de idei noi. Inovarea, in schimb, se caracterizeaza atat prin aparitia de idei noi, cat si prin efectuarea de schimbari in organizatie pe baza acestora. 1. Sensibilitatea la probleme, in sensul disponibilitatii si deprinderii de a privi cu ochi cercetatori situatii, fenomene, informatii, evidente cele care se presupun intelese de la sine in vederea modificarii lor. 2. Flexibilitatea in gandire, manifestata in obisnuinta de a opera cu concepte si informatii indiferent de modelele de rezolvare stereotipe, folosite in mod

frecvent. 3. Acceptare de experiente noi, calitate ce se fundamenteaza de fapt pe precedentele. 4. Motivatie puternica pentru succes si forta de convingere, manifestate prin consecventa in realizarea ideilor noi. 5. Capacitatea de a suporta presiuni si conflicte din partea celor care "apara" mentinerea starii de lucru precedente in intreprindere. Accentuam asupra creativitatii, intrucat reprezinta suportul fundamental al inovarii, cea care intereseaza cu prioritate intreprinderile. Inovarea nu este conditionata insa numai de aptitudinea creativa a personalului, ci si de o serie de alte elemente ce depind intr-o masura apreciabila de managementul organizatiei. Sintetic acestea sunt prezentate in figura 2. din a carei examinare reiese complexitatea si dificultatea sarcinii cu care este confruntata organizatia, de unde si rolul sau decisiv pentru dezvoltarea si valorificarea potentialului inovational al personalului incorporat. Intensificarea inovarii in cadrul firmei, in scopul cresterii "productiei finite" de tehnologii, produse, solutii organizatorice noi sau modernizate implica multiple perfectionari. Intensificarea inovarii impune fundamentarea intregii munci manageriale pe baza unui set de reguli ce reflecta atat necesitatea realizarii obiectivelor organizatiei, cat si specificul procesului inovarii si particularitatile ce se intalnesc frecvent la persoanele ce poseda la un nivel apreciabil capacitatea de a crea. O alta directie principala de amplificare a potentialului de inovare al organizatiilor o reprezinta utilizarea metodelor de stimulare si "invatare" a creativitatii pentru personal din intreprinderi cum ar fi: brainstorming, Delphi, sinectica, matricea descoperirilor, analiza morfologica. . 3. Selectia si incadrarea personalului 3.1. Notiuni de baza, premise si criterii de selectionare si incadrare Selectia si incadrarea personalului reprezinta componente majore ale functiunii de personal, ce se desfasoara cu participarea managementului organizatiei sau se efectueaza nemijlocit de catre aceasta. Desigur, incadrarea nu trebuie redusa la latura formala. O eficace incadrare a personalului implica facilitarea contactului si cunoasterii cu noii sefi si colegi de munca, cu sarcinile, competentele si responsabilitatile ce-i revin. si familiarizarea cu principalele componente ale culturii organizationale specifice respectivei organizatii. Pentru accelerarea integrarii in noua colectivitate, luarea in considerare a aspectelor psihosociologice implicate este esentiala.

Selectia si incadrarea - prima avand ponderea principala - conditioneaza intro masura apreciabila calitatea resurselor umane ale organizatiei, in ultima instanta resursa sa hotaratoare. Din examinarea practicii mondiale si autohtone al managementului resurselor umane rezulta ca, in esenta, selectionarea si incadrarea personalului se bazeaza pe patru elemente, ce reprezinta fie numai premise pentru selectionarea Prin selectionarea personalului intelegem ansamblul proceselor prin care se aleg persoanele ce intrunesc calitatile, cunostintele, deprinderile, aptitudinile si comportamentele necesare realizarii obiectivelor, sarcinilor, competentelor si responsabilitatilor circumscrise anumitor posturi. Incadrarea personalului consta in ansamblul proceselor de atribuire efectiva a posturilor prevazute in structura organizatorica persoanelor selectionate, inclusiv intocmirea tuturor formalitatilor necesare. si incadrarea personalului, fie numai criterii de selectie, fie ambele. Aceste elemente sunt: - studii atestate de certificate sau diplome; - vechimea in munca; - postul detinut anterior; - calitatile, cunostintele, deprinderile, aptitudinile si comportamentele persoanelor in cauza. 3.2. Metode si tehnici de selectie a personalului In conditiile efectuarii selectiei, in principal pe baza calitatilor, cunostintelor, deprinderilor, aptitudinilor si comportamentelor, deci a potentialului personalului, incearca a se diagnostica potentialul personalului pentru a vedea daca este in se utilizeaza un ansamblu de metode si tehnici de selectie. Cu ajutorul acestora se masura sa realizeze in mod eficient obiectivele ,sarcinile, competentele si responsabilitatile ce-i revin in cadrul organizatiei. Metodele si tehnicile se concep si se folosesc diferentiat , in functie de natura posturilor pentru care se efectueaza selectia si de calitatile, cunostintele, aptitudinile, deprinderile sau comportamentele ce se testeaza. Pentru selectionarea muncitorilor, componentii principali ai personalului de executie din majoritatea firmelor, se utilizeaza cu prioritate testele si probele practice. In selectionarea personalului de specialitate accentul cade indeosebi asupra identificarii cunostintelor necesare. Modalitatea cel mai frecvent utilizata in acest scop este sustinerea de probe de examinare, scrise si orale, a cunostintelor posedate in domeniul respectiv. In afara acestora, se mai utilizeaza si elaborarea unei lucrari tipice domeniului in care va lucra - un fel de proba practica - si bateriile de teste. Ultima modalitate, frecvent folosita in intreprinderile din tarile dezvoltate, este utilizata inca intr-o masura redusa in firmele romanesti, dar cu tendinta de crestere in conditiile avansarii tranzitiei la economia de

piata. Forma organizatorica in cadrul careia se folosesc tehnicile prezentate mai sus este de regula concursul, anuntat din timp si desfasurat conform prevederilor legii. In mod firesc, un arsenal sensibil mai bogat de metode si tehnici de selectie se intrebuinteaza in cazul personalului managerial , corespunzator complexitatii cerintelor fata de acesta si implicatiilor majore pe care munca sa le are asupra stabilirii si realizarii obiectivelor organizatiei - teste Wechsler, Binet - Standford , interviuri, chestionare, intocmirea unui dosar etc. 4. Formarea si perfectionarea personalului 4.1. Definirea formarii si perfectionarii In conditiile contemporane ale fundamentarii activitatii umane pe principiul educatiei continue, al transformarii informatiilor intr-o resursa de baza a firmei si - mai recent - a conturarii organizatiilor care invata si a firmelor bazate pe cunostinte, formarea si perfectionarea personalului devin prioritare pentru fiecare organizatie. In stransa legatura cu activitatea de formare se desfasoara activitatea de perfectionare a pregatirii personalului. Formarea si perfectionarea salariatilor, cu tendinta de extindere la stakeholderii organizatiei, conditioneaza decisiv calitatea resurselor umane ale acesteia si implicit, performantele economice obtinute. 4.2. Modalitati de formare si perfectionare Concret, formarea personalului in cadrul organizatiei se realizeaza prin licee de specialitate si scoli profesionale pendinte de aceasta, prin calificare la locul de munca (ucenicie) si cursuri serale de calificare . Din enuntarea modalitatilor frecvent folosite rezulta ca activitatea de formare a personalului in organizatie se rezuma la personalul de executie, de regula muncitori. Celelalte cadre calificate necesare firmei - ingineri, economisti, tehnicieni etc. - precum si o parte din muncitori, se pregatesc prin sistemul de invatamant. Perfectionarea pregatirii personalului firmelor se efectueaza, de regula, prin institutiile de invatamant superior, firmele private sau publice de pregatire a personalului, care realizeaza cursuri sau programe proprii, special organizate in cadrul lor. In conditiile tranzitiei la economia de piata necesitatea perfectionarii personalului se amplifica substantial. In acest context, o atentie deosebita se impune perfectionarii managerilor si specialistilor, ale caror cunostinte, aptitudini si comportamente necesita o innoire radicala. Prin formarea personalului, in calitate de activitate, al unei organizatii desemnam ansamblul proceselor prin care salariatii isi insusesc intr-un cadru organizat, pendinte de organizatia respectiva, cunostintele, aptitudinile, deprinderile si comportamentele trebuitoare exercitarii unor ocupatii necesare respectivei firme.

Prin perfectionarea pregatirii personalului desemnam ansamblul proceselor prin intermediul carora salariatii organizatiei isi imbogatesc, de regula pe baza frecventarii unor programe special organizate de organizatie, arsenalul de cunostinte, metode, aptitudini, deprinderi si comportamente in domenii in care au deja o calificare de baza, in vederea realizarii la un nivel superior a obiectivelor si sarcinilor ce le revin. Programele de formare si perfectionare, indiferent de locul organizarii, in functie de esalonarea realizarii se impart in continue si discontinue. Un tip de pregatire care cunoaste o rapida amplificare in ultimii ani il constituie programele organizate si desfasurate in cadrul organizatiei ("on the spot") la care pot participa un numar mare de manageri si specialisti si care contribuie substantial la remodelarea culturii firmei. 4.3. Metode didactice utilizate in formarea si perfectionarea Personalului Calitatea formarii si perfectionarii personalului organizatiei depinde intr-o proportie apreciabila de arsenalul pedagogic utilizat. In functie de continutul lor, de calitatile pe care le solicita cu precadere participantilor la procesul deinvatamant, metodele didactice se divid in doua categorii principale: clasice; moderne sau active. Metodele didactice clasice. Mai frecvent utilizate sunt prelegerile sau expunerile si seminariile. Caracteristic lor este concentrarea asupra prezentarii de cunostinte si asupra insusirii acestora. Deci, se are in vedere, in principal, doarcomponenta cunostinte a potentialului uman, ignorand in buna masura componentele aptitudini, deprinderile si comportamentele care, de fapt, conditioneaza decisiv eficacitatea muncii in cadrul societatilor comerciale si regiilor de stat. Metodele didactice moderne sau active se axeaza asupra formarii si dezvoltarii de aptitudini, deprinderi si comportamente solicitand cu prioritate capacitatea de analiza, puterea de sinteza, abilitatea de a stabili obiective si a concepe realizarea lor, formarea de stereotipuri dinamice in legatura cu utilizarea unor metode, dezvoltarea capacitatii de a operationaliza sarcini, metode etc. Intre metodele active semnalam cazul, simularea manageriala, metoda incidentei, bateriile de teste s.a. Investigatiile efectuate au relevat ca eficacitatea procesului de formare si perfectionare a personalului, a utilizarii metodelor active creste cand se au in vedere mai multe elemente: continutul programelor este strans legat de munca participantilor din firma in conditiile actuale ale tranzitiei la economia de piata; problemele abordate intereseaza si sefii ierarhici si subordonatii participantilor;

participantii la programe dispun, in cadrul organizatiei, de libertatea si competenta de a utiliza cunostintele, deprinderile si aptitudinile dobandite; participantii sesizeaza existenta unor relatii intre folosirea unor elemente asimilate si realizarea obiectivelor individuale si ale compartimentului din care fac parte; personalul participant la programele de formare si perfectionare obtine satisfactii in munca curenta, ceea ce constituie un imbold pentru aplicarea noilor cunostinte si metode. Luarea in considerare a acestor elemente de managementul superior al organizatiei si de compartimentul personal este de natura sa favorizeze sensibil atat derularea in conditii superioare a formarii si perfectionarii personalului, cat si cresterea competitivitatii firmei. 5. Evaluarea si promovarea personalului 5.1. Definirea evaluarii si metode de evaluare Din aceasta definire rezulta implicatiile multiple pe care le are evaluarea asupra functionalitatii si profitabilitatii firmei. Mai intai, evaluarea asigura un important suport informational, atat pentru decizii de recompensare, promovare, perfectionare etc. privind personalul intreprinderii, cat si pentru decizii cu caracter strategic si tactic referitoare la viitorul profil al organizatiei, la abordarea anumitor piete de desfacere, care se bazeaza intr-o proportie apreciabila pe calitatea resurselor umane. De rationalitatea acestor decizii depinde sensibil competitivitatea firmei. Implicatiile evaluarii personalului nu trebuie reduse doar la nivelul organizatiei. Deosebit de importante sunt consecintele evaluarii asupra vietiiprofesionale a componentilor firmei asupra satisfactiei lor in munca, perspectivelor si evolutiei acestora si, in general, asupra realizarii lor pe toate planurile. Evaluarea, datorita amplorii si complexitatii implicatiilor sale, cunoaste o constanta extindere in organizatiile moderne. De altfel, dupa opinia unor specialisti, problema numarul unu a managementului organizatiei este evaluarea cadrelor, ceea ce se reflecta si in constituirea de noi discipline: docimologia, doxalogia, erogologia si altele. O reflectare a rolului crescand pe care il are evaluarea in organizatiile moderne moderna o reprezinta numeroasele metode si tehnici utilizate in acest scop. In functie de sfera de aplicabilitate, metodele si tehnicile de evaluare se impart in: generale si speciale. Metodele de evaluare generale sunt aplicabile la orice component al organizatiei, indiferent de postul detinut. Evaluarea personalului poate fi definita ca ansamblul proceselor prin intermediul carora se emit judecati de valoare asupra salariatilor din organizatie, considerati separati, in calitate de titulari ai anumitor posturi, in vederea relevarii elementelor esentiale ale modului de realizare a obiectivelor si sarcinilor conferite si de exercitare a competentelor si responsabilitatilor, a acordarii de recompense si sanctiuni, a stabilirii modalitatilor de perfectionare a pregatirii, a conturarii perspectivelor de promovare.

Principalele metode de acest fel sunt: notatia, aprecierea globala si aprecierea functionala. Alaturi de metodele de evaluare generala in intreprinderea moderna se folosesc, intr-o masura sporita,metodele de evaluare speciale, utilizabile doar pentru anumite categorii de personal din organizatii, mai ales manageri si specialisti de inalta calificare. Utilizarea lor necesita o pregatire si resurse mai ample, ceea ce explica si folosirea selectiva, pentru anumiti titulari de posturi. Intre metodele din aceasta categorie cele mai frecvent intrebuintate enumeram: cazul, testele de autoevaluare si centrul de evaluare Efectuarea unei evaluari riguroase implica, pe langa cunoasterea si folosirea de metode adecvate, si respectarea unor premise metodologice si organizatorice ce decurg atat din natura evaluarii, cat si din caracteristicile organizatiei. Premise ale unei evaluari riguroase: 1. Criteriile de evaluare ale personalului se diferentiaza in functie de natura posturilor detinute de respectivele persoane, de potentialul organizatiei si obiectivele sale. 2. Evaluarea trebuie sa fie unitara, in sensul ca pentru personalul de aceeasi specialitate sau care exercita posturi identice este necesar sa se aiba in vedere aceleasi criterii, utilizate in acelasi mod. 3. Pentru a fi edificatoare, evaluarea este necesar sa se efectueze pe perioade suficient de lungi, in care persoana respectiva trebuie confruntata cu principalele probleme specifice postului respectiv. 4. Metodele si tehnicile utilizate trebuie sa aiba in vedere specificul fiecaruipost intrucat in evaluarea salariatilor practic nu exista decat cazuri particulare, de unde necesitatea abordarii diferentiate. 5. Evaluarea trebuie sa se bazeze numai pe informatii certe, verificabile, informatiile indoielnice, nesigurese resping sau se au in vedere cu multa circumspectie. 6. Rezultatul evaluarii se comunica de evaluatori persoanei in cauza, insotit de recomandarile necesare, asigurandu-se premisa pentru valorificarea integrala a rezultatelor evaluarii. Respectarea cerintelor enuntate este de natura sa evite aparitia erorilor tipice de evaluare care impieteaza apreciabil asupra eficientei folosirii sale. 5.2. Concepte, tendinte si caracteristici ale promovarii personalului O modalitate principala de valorificare a rezultatelor evaluarii personalului o reprezinta promovarea sa.

Posturile obtinute prin promovare incorporeaza, de regula, sarcini si competente, responsabilitati calitativ superioare, ceea ce se reflecta in rolul sporit pe care-l joaca in ansamblul organizatiei si intr-o salarizare mai mare. Criteriile de promovare a personalului principal sunt aceleasi ca si la selectionarea sa: studiile, vechimea in munca, postul detinut anterior si calitatile, cunostintele, deprinderile si aptitudinile. In functie de modul cum sunt utilizate criteriile de promovare in organizatiile contemporane se manifesta trei tendinte principale. a) Promovarea pe baza varstei si a vechimii in munca. b) Promovarea pe baza rezultatelor este tendinta cu cea mai larga raspandire. c) Promovarea pe baza potentialului personalului reprezinta tendinta care se manifesta in managementul personalului din firmele moderne. 6. Comunicatiile in cadrul organizatiei Etapa de tranzitie spre economia de piata, caracterizata prin reconsiderarea rolului managementului ca principal vector al eficientei economico-sociale, aduce in actualitate comunicarea dintre manager si subordonati ca element dinamizator al proceselor manageriale si, concomitent, conditie a unui climat organizational si motivational adecvat realizarii obiectivelor. Managerul prevede, organizeaza, coordoneaza, motiveaza, controleaza si evalueaza eficace numai daca dispune de informatii, in volumul si de calitatea dorite. Pentru aceasta el trebuie sa comunice permanent cu subordonatii, cu colaboratorii si managerii aflati in "amonte" de postul sau, iar eficacitatea comunicatiilor depinde de sistemul de comunicatii conceput, realizat si utilizat in cadrul organizatiei In esenta, prin promovare intelegem ansamblul proceselor prin care se atribuie personalului din cadrul organizatiei posturi manageriale situate pe un nivel ierarhic superior, precum si gradatii sau clase mai mari in cadrul aceluiasi post. 6.1. Definirea comunicarii Numeroasele definitii date comunicatiei releva faptul ca, la nivelul unei organizatii, intre centrele generatoare si furnizoare de informatii si cele beneficiare se stabilesc multiple legaturi ce faciliteaza transferul acestora si, implicit, derularea proceselor de management si executie. La nivelul organizatiei exista numeroase retele de comunicatii - respectiv grupaje de canale de comunicatii, regasite in configuratii specifice - care alcatuiesc sistemul de comunicatii. Rolul deosebit al comunicarii in asigurarea functionalitatii si eficacitatii activitatilor organizatiei este generat, in principal, de:

volumul, complexitatea si diversitatea apreciabile ale obiectivelor organizatiei si subsistemelor sale, datorate impactului variabilelor mediului ambiant national si international; mutatiile profunde intervenite in caracteristicile dimensionale si functionale ale firmei romanesti, declansate de tranzitia la economia de piata. Schimbarea si implementarea noului economic, managerial, tehnic si tehnologic au devenit o permanenta in majoritatea firmelor, cu consecinte apreciabile asupra complexitatii si configuratiei comunicatiilor; grupurile si modul de concepere si functionare a acestora in cadrul organizatiei, avand in vedere rolul comunicatiilor de a vehicula, de a amplifica legaturile dintre componentii grupurilor, de a consolida coeziunea acestora; activitatea manageriala, modul de structurare a timpului lor de munca in secvente care sa permita rezolvarea decizionala si operationala a problemelor cu care se confrunta domeniul condus. Din acest punct de vedere este unanima aprecierea conform careia un manager afecteaza aproximativ 80% din timpul sau pentru a comunica, situatie ce justifica multiplele tipuri de roluri pe care acesta le indeplineste in cadrul: organizatiei: interpersonal (simbol, lider, agent de legatura), informational (observator activ, difuzor, purtator de cuvant) si decizional (intreprinzator, regulator, repartitor de resurse, negociator). 6.2 Principalele abordari ale comunicarii Comunicatiile si sistemele de comunicatii specifice unei organizatii au constituit obiectul unor ample cercetari. Axate pe aspecte de natura psihologica si apeland la modalitatile de exprimare preluate din informatica si cibernetica, principalele abordari ale procesului de comunicare pot fi rezumate la urmatoarele: a) Schema lui Laswell, ce prezinta, de o maniera foarte simplificata (liniara), procesul de comunicare, conceput sa raspunda la 5 intrebari: cine?; ce zice?; prin ce mijloace?; cui?; cu ce efecte

b) Schema lui Shannon, mult mai complexa decat precedenta, prin aceea ca se introduc si se utilizeaza notiunile de "codificare" si "decodificare". c) Schema lui Wiener, ce completeaza precedentele realizari cu feedback- ul (informatia retur) in posesia caruia emitatorul intra, cunoscand astfel maniera de receptare a mesajului comunicatiei.

Comunicarea este un proces de transmitere a informatiilor, sub forma mesajelor simbolice, intre doua sau mai multe persoane, unele cu statut de emitator, altele cu statut de receptor, prin intermediul unor canale specifice. 6.3 Componentele procesului de comunicare Asa cum a rezultat si din definitie, procesul de comunicare se deruleaza prin intermediul urmatoarelorcomponente: emitatorul; mesajul; canalul; receptorul. Emitatorul, aflat in ipostaza de manager sau executant, este persoana care initiaza comunicatia. Mesajul reprezinta forma fizica a informatiei transmise de emitator spre receptor, ce imbraca mai multe ipostaze (verbala si nonverbala). Canalul este calea de transmitere a informatiei, strans legata de mesaj. Receptorul, executant sau manager, este persoana sau grupul de persoane beneficiare a mesajului informational. De precizat ca procesul de comunicare, in viziunea cibernetica, reclama complexe operatii de codificare si decodificare. 6.4 Tipologia comunicatiilor in organizatie Varietatea comunicatiilor intalnite in cadrul organizatiei este relevanta prin clasificarea in functie de mai multecriterii de clasificare precum: a) canalul de comunicare - comunicatii formale si informale b) directie (sens) comunicatii verticale descendente - comunicatii verticale ascendente, - comunicatii orizontale comunicatii oblice

c) continut comunicatii operatori

comunicatii optionale, desi nu vizeaza cu prioritate realizarea obiectivelor individuale circumscrise posturilor, sunt foarte importante pentru relatiile dintre salariati. Au un rol deosebit asupra. comunicatii generale comunicatii motivationale

d) mod de transmitere comunicatii verbale comunicatii non-verbale

Daca tipologia comunicatiilor este atat de diversa, tot astfel se manifesta si retelele de comunicatii. Acestea se regasesc in ipostaza de: a) retele descentralizate (in "cerc" sau in "lant"), in care membrii grupului sunt egali; b) retele centralizate (in "Y" sau in "stea"), intre membrii grupului existand relatii de supra sau subordonare, deci acestia sunt inegali. Reteaua sub forma de "cerc" corespunde unui stil participativ de management si faciliteaza comunicatii eficiente, in timp ce reteaua in "lant" diminueaza sensibil posibilitatile de comunicare manager - subordonat. La polul opus se afla retelele centralizate, ce corespund stilului autoritar de management si la nivelul carora comunicatiile sunt mai dificil de realizat. 6.5 Deficiente majore in procesul de comunicare Functionarea eficace a sistemului de comunicatii in organizatii este adesea influentata de aparitia si manifestarea a numeroase bariere, circumscrise factorilor perturbatori deja abordati in acest subcapitol. Ele isi au originea in caracteristicile psihologice ale emitatorului si receptorului, in maniera de comunicare, in nevoile, aspiratiile si motivatiile acestora, precum si in caracteristicile situatiilor concrete in care se deruleaza comunicarea. Asadar, cauzele care genereaza asemenea bariere sunt legate de emitator, de receptor, de mesaj, de canalul de comunicare, precum si de contextul in care se desfasoara procesul de comunicare. In opinia majoritatii specialistilor, cele mai semnificative tipuri de bariere comunicationale se refera la: a) limbaj si modul de exprimare folosirea necorespunzatoare a unor elemente ale procesului de comunicare (tonul folosit, gesturi, expresia fetei, pozitia corpului etc.); incapacitatea emitatorului de a-si stapani emotiile in transmiterea mesajului informational; aceleasi cuvinte au sensuri diferite pentru anumite persoane.

b) receptie a mesajelor tendinta de a auzi numai ceea ce ne-am obisnuit sa auzim; ignorarea informatiilor care sunt in dezacord cu ceea ce cunoastem; evaluarea subiectiva de catre receptor a sursei obiective (emitatorul) de transmitere a mesajului; receptionarea, in moduri diferite, cadrul organizatiei, a aceluiasi mesaj. de catre variatele persoane din

c) contextuale comunicarii perceperea diferita a mesajelor in functie de presiunile exercitate de mediu asupra receptorului (zgomot, climatul organizational etc).

d) eterogene discernerea insuficienta a mesajelor relevante transmise sau primite, de cele cu semnificatie redusa sau nula.

Aceste bariere declanseaza o serie de deficiente in sistemul de comunicatii din organizatie, intre care filtrajul, distorsiunea, supraincarcarea canalelor de comunicare cu informatii inutile sunt cele mai importante. 6.6 Modalitati de amplificare a eficacitatii comunicatiilor Depasirea barierelor si, implicit, atenuarea ori eliminarea disfunctionalitatilor majore ale sistemului de comunicatii din organizatii necesita actionarea in mai multe directii. Cercetarile intreprinse in ultimii ani considera ca prioritare urmatoarele modalitati: a) motivarea adecvata a comunicarii b) asigurarea unei comunicari clare, concise in sensul: c) perfectionarea managerilor d) perfectionarea capacitatii de exprimare si de ascultare e) promovarea cu predilectie a unor stiluri participative de management f) perfectionarea structurii organizatorice h) informatizarea managementului
NV S IAU O DECIZIE

Curajul... nceputul biruinei. Plutarh Este evident faptul c n fiecare zi lum decizii. Chiar viaa noastr poate fi considerat un drum lung de diferite decizii. Mai trziu, pe unele le apreciem ca fiind bune, aductoare de satisfacii, pe altele le regretm. Din toate ns nvm cte ceva despre lumea n care trim i despre noi nine. Avem nevoie de abilitatea de a lua decizii potrivite pentru a ne dezvolta abiliti de via: pentru a ne putea controla propria via; pentru a fi respectai de ceilali; pentru a ne pune n valoare i a ne dezvolta propriile posibiliti i capaciti psihice; pentru a ne mbunti imaginea de sine. Ce este decizia? O decizie este o alegere ntre dou sau mai multe alternative (posibiliti), ci de atingere a unui obiectiv. Ceea ce ne determin s optm pentru o alternativ i nu pentru alta este informaia. Atunci cnd aceasta exist, alegerea este mai simpl, uneori chiar evident, alteori alegerea urmeaz numai dup o atent prelucrare a noilor date. Ceea ce trebuie s conteze n luarea unei decizii corecte snt consecinele pe care le va avea aceasta asupra noastr i, uneori, asupra ntregii noastre viei. Destul de frecvent, decizia are consecine nu numai asupra individului care a luat-o, dar i asupra altor persoane. Care este procesul de luare a unei decizii? Procesul de luare a deciziilor, de selecie a unei opiuni din cteva alternative posibile, este un proces frecvent n viaa cotidian. Deseori decidem fr a fi contieni de acest lucru, fiindc exist un automatism n comportare creat de practica mai multor ani. Dar snt i decizii care, nainte de a fi luate, necesit raionamente ndelungate sau o analiz profund a variantelor. Dei, uneori, ne este greu s identificm mecanismul deciziei, el e parcurs automat la nivel subcontient. Etapele lurii unei decizii prezint diferite grade de dificultate, n funcie de hotrrea pe care trebuie s o ia persoana n cauz. n linii generale, putem meniona c procesul de luare a deciziei const din urmtoarele etape: 1. Identificarea problemei. 2. Analiza informaiei disponibile. n aceast etap se colecteaz toat informaia cu privire la subiectul n cauz (se face apel la memoria personal, se colecteaz sfaturile celor apropiai etc.). 3. Elaborarea/Ordonarea soluiilor potrivite. Acum apare un prim efort de ordonare logic a informaiei n soluii posibile. 4. Explorarea alternativelor. Se desfoar un asalt de idei privind toate soluiile identificate; acestea snt analizate, verificate, comparate. 5. Evaluarea alternativelor i alegerea variantei optime. Posibilitile de aciune snt evaluate final, iar dintre toate variantele posibile este aleas cea mai adecvat. Exist situaii n care alegerea se dovedete foarte dificil. Acest lucru se ntmpl mai ales atunci cnd decizia de luat este una complex i implic un grad sporit de nesiguran sau risc. Iat cteva dintre aceste dificulti: Dou sau mai multe variante pot prea la fel de atractive. n aceste condiii este nevoie de o mai atent analiz i evaluarea alternativelor de ctre decident. Este posibil ca nici o alternativ s nu permit atingerea n ntregime a obiectivului stabilit. n aceste condiii este de dorit implementarea a dou sau chiar trei alternative. n situaia n care nici una dintre alternative nu ar permite atingerea obiectivului stabilit, este nevoie s se revin la etapa explorrii alternativelor. Decidentul poate fi confuz din cauza numrului mare de alternative atractive, n aceast situaie fiind nevoie de o mai atent comparare i evaluare. 6. Acionarea conform deciziei luate i asumarea responsabilitii consecinelor. Dup luarea deciziei decidentul va aciona n conformitate cu planul elaborat. 7. Revizuirea deciziei luate i post-evaluarea. Unele din consecinele deciziei nu pot fi prevzute n momentul stabilirii variantei optime. Uneori, ca semn al nvrii din experiena trit, subiectul revine asupra momentului de analiz i alegere, evalundu-i att contextul, factorii i informaia implicat, precum i propriul mecanism decizional. O decizie nu poate fi catalogat ca bun sau rea, corect sau eronat n sine, ci trebuie judecat n funcie de cantitatea i calitatea informaiei de care dispunem, de contextul n care aceasta a fost luat i de aptitudinea (exersat, sprijinit, educat) de a lua decizii. Maturizarea, dezvoltarea experienei personale, conturarea unei imagini de sine sau a unei identiti pozitive i realist fundamentate etc. snt tot atia factori ce definesc procesul (continuu i nu episodic) de dezvoltare a capacitii de a lua decizii. Toate abordrile procesului de luare a unei decizii recunosc faptul c deciziile cu privire la carier, studii sau stil de via snt de natur diferit n comparaie cu alegerea unui obiect sau a unui produs dintr-o ofert, orict de bogat ar fi aceasta (ntr-un magazin, de exemplu). Alegerile referitoare la carier implic individul profund i sub multiple aspecte, identitatea i personalitatea sa n ansamblu (n plan psihoafectiv, atitudinal, volitiv i motivaional).

Cine influeneaz luarea unei decizii? Valorile. Procesul decizional este influenat de valorile personale ale decidentului (idealuri abstracte care modeleaz modul de gndire i comportamentul individului). Teoreticienii tiinelor comportamentale au identificat dou tipuri de seturi de valori. Primul tip definete un anumit comportament ca fiind potrivit oricrei situaii valorile instrumentale i cuprinde concepii ca onestitatea, iubirea. Al doilea tip valorile finale reprezint credina c o anumit stare merit efortul pentru a fi atins. De exemplu, o persoan poate considera c merit s pleci peste hotare pentru a avea independen financiar, iar alta c o familie fericit merit toate eforturile. Fiecare persoan deine valori instrumentale i finale diferite, care le influeneaz deciziile n mod diferit. Interesele. Fiecare persoan ndeplinete mai multe roluri este printe, so/soie, fiic/fiu, elev/elev, membru al unei comuniti i are obiective corespunztoare fiecruia dintre aceste roluri. Interesele reprezint orientri selective, relativ stabile i active ale persoanei ctre anumite activiti, n cadrul crora ea poate ndeplini mai multe roluri. Procesul decizional este influenat i de o serie de factori de mediu intern sau extern al persoanei. Mediul intern: abilitile i trecutul educaional; stilul comportamental personal; imaginea de sine; percepia lumii. Mediul extern: familia din care provine (valorile, stilul de educaie); cercul de prieteni (valorile, stilurile de comportament); situaiile n care trebuie s ia o decizie; presiunile din jur; coala (valorile, stilul de educaie); societatea (valorile).

Cum s controlezi riscurile cnd iei o decizie important pentru cariera ta


Bill Barnett Lun, 2012-10-08 15:55

2012 Harvard Business School Publishing Corp. i place poziia pe care o ocupi acum i i merge bine, numai c te trezeti, dintr-o dat, c i se face o ofert de job surprinztor de atractiv. E palpitant. Prietenii i spun c sunt bucuroi pentru tine. Iar tu te gndeti c vei accepta oferta. Dar oprete-te o clip. Hai s presupunem c, dac accepi oferta, o s faci trecerea la o nou funcie sau chiar ntr-o alt industrie i o s intri ntr-o cu totul altfel de cultur organizaional. Poate c o s trebuiasc s te mui n cealalt parte a rii sau s cltoreti mai des n interes de afaceri.

Sursa: fotolia.com Citeste si: Interviu cu tenorul Daniel Magdal: Pn la urm am reuit s prind trenul i, odat cu el, ansa vieii! Nu-i place jobul pe care-l ai? Schimb-l, fr s demisionezi Ce oportuniti post-absolvire poate aduce un MBA? ncepe cel mai mare trg de joburi din Romnia: Angajatori de Top EXCLUSIV CARIERE! La un pas de un job PE VIA cu o leaf de mii de euro. Afl cum poi obine postul european Descoper cele mai bune strategii de evitare a eecului

Recomanda Trimite prin YM Facebook Twitter Comentarii Varianta tiparibila

Oare ar trebui s faci pasul sau nu?


Orice ofert de job este o oportunitate, dar odat cu oportunitatea vin i riscurile. Pentru a decide dac s accepi noul rol sau s rmi unde eti va trebui s faci o alegere grea. Ce faci dac nu iese bine? Aceste riscuri sunt inerente oricrei decizii pe care o iei n carier i, n special, n cazul deciziilor care i afecteaz sigurana financiar i viaa personal. Gndete-te la riscurile implicate de lansarea propriei tale firme. Asta este exact ceea ce a fcut un antreprenor

pe care o s-l numesc n acest articol Brian. La 38 de ani, i-a lsat jobul sigur i bine pltit i a trit din propriile economii pn a nfiinat o companie ce producea alimente organice gustoase, dar cu un coninut sczut de calorii, care s le mbunteasc oamenilor alimentaia n curele de slbire. Brian a luat iniial n considerare, pentru scurt timp, varianta de a-i nfiina compania i a demara business-ul ocupndu-se de toate n timpul nopilor i n weekenduri, fr s renune la venitul regulat pe care i-l asigura jobul. Se gndea c va putea s testeze apa nainte de a plonja. Era ceva fr riscuri, dar el a simit c nu va merge aa. A trebuit s fac pasul final, spune el. tiam c mi doream ca investitorii pe care urma s-i atrag s i ia un angajament ferm. Dac vroiam ca ei s-mi semneze cecul prin care investeau n capitalul firmei mele, trebuia s merg pn la capt. Nu aveam cum s aduc angajai n firma mea dac nu eram complet dedicat. Iar atunci cnd urma s-mi prezint produsele ctre directorii de achiziii ai magazinelor, ei urmau, la rndul lor, s mi le accepte pe ncredere, deci aveam nevoie ca ei s simt c sunt complet dedicat. Marele pariu al lui Brian s-a dovedit a fi o alegere neleapt. A construit o companie de succes i a vndut-o la un pre atractiv. Dar mizele mari nu sunt pentru oricine. La 37 de ani, James, ce deinea poziia de vice-preedinte senior ntr-o mare corporaie, finaliza un proiect de reducere a costurilor ce durase doi ani i urma s elimine rolul pe care-l ndeplinea el n companie. i-a dat seama c nu avea cum s le fac pe amndou: s conduc noua filosofie bazat pe reducerea costurilor i s i protejeze poziia atunci cnd nu mai era necesar n companie. James s-a gndit la opiunile pe care le avea la ndemn. A discutat cu consultanii n management i cu reprezentani ai firmelor de investiii oameni din domeniile n care lucrase cu un deceniu n urm. A vorbit i cu reprezentani ai altor companii din industria n care lucra. n cele din urm, a decis s i asume un rol mai puin important n compania sa. James a avut trei motive pentru pasul n jos pe care l-a fcut, toate aliniate la ideea de a-i reduce riscurile. S-a ntrebat dac, ntr-adevr, o s reueasc odat ntors n tranee, tiind ce nsemnau intensitatea la care se lucra zilnic i cltoriile de afaceri dese pe care le impuneau munca ntr-o firm de investiii sau de

consultan. S-a ntrebat dac va lucra bine cu oamenii din alte companii ce activau n industria lui. E vorba despre oameni, a spus el, adugnd: de faptul c aici lucram cu oameni care m susineau. n cele din urm, toate aceste variante de joburi i impuneau s fac o micare. Divorase cu un an n urm, iar cei doi copii ai lui locuiau cu mama lor, n acelai ora. Nu era sigur cum ar fi urmat s evolueze relaia cu copiii si dac s-ar fi mutat din ora din cauza serviciului. E mai sigur s rmn, a concluzionat James. Chiar dac nu-mi doream asta, tiam c o s mi fie mai bine dac mi concep noul mesaj de aici. El a amnat luarea unui angajament major i a decis s-i rezerve un timp pentru a reflecta. S-a gndit c e posibil ca lucrurile s se schimbe. Era posibil s avanseze chiar n compania n care lucra. Urma s-i dezvolte relaia cu copiii lui. La un moment dat, putea s-i treac din nou n revist strategia. Exist unele ocazii n care are rost s joci cu o miz mare i altele n care nu trebuie s o faci. Iar, la urma urmei, oamenii au atitudini foarte diferite fa de risc. Dac urmeaz s iei o decizie important, pune-i aceste trei ntrebri: 1. Oare oportunitatea care mi se ofer mi impune s mi iau un angajament ferm? Mizele mari i pot crea mentalitatea de care ai nevoie ca s ai succes. Situaiile de tipul te arunci pur i simplu n ap i noi, altfel te neci sunt energizante. Cnd ai aspiraii nalte, precauia poate fi chiar mai riscant dect saltul n gol. Brian tia c perspectivele lui erau mult mai bune dac ardea podurile n urma lui i se implica total. Spera s-i modeleze viitorul aa cum dorea el, iar pentru aceasta era nevoie s se dedice complet. Dac i-ar fi nfiinat firma i ar fi demarat business-ul lucrnd part-time, lucrurile nu ar fi mers bine, iar eforturile depuse iar fi luat din energia de care avea nevoie n cursul zilei pentru job. 2. Poi s accepi riscul implicat de decizie? Att James, ct i Brian, aveau n fa probabilitatea de a rata, precum i riscuri personale, dar au reacionat diferit. James se temea c va eua n noi poziii. I s-a prut c e mai sigur s rmn n compania lui ntr-un rol cu responsabiliti mai restrnse; urma s fie vice preedinte, cu salariul i prestigiul asociate poziiei. La

stadiul n care se afla n viaa lui, a luat n considerare i relaia cu copiii lui. Brian tia c majoritatea firmelor nou-nfiinate nu rezist, dar nu a stat s se gndeasc la asta. Jobul lui actual era bun, dar nu att de bun nct s se ngrijoreze gndindu-se la ce va pierde dac va renuna la job. 3. Ai un plan de rezerv, n caz c au loc evenimente neprevzute? Dac business-ul lui nu mergea, Brian s-a gndit c va fi n stare si gseasc un alt job bun. ntotdeauna a fost capabil s-i gseasc joburi bune. James tia c deocamdat situaia lui era sigur i c putea s reevalueze mai trziu ceea ce vroia s fac, odat ce tia mai bine cum progresau viaa lui personal i cea profesional. Angajamentele mari i greu-de-schimbat pe care i le iei i pot modela mediul i i pot crete perspectivele de a avea succes. Dar aceste mari angajamente aduc cu ele i probabilitatea eecului. Nu lsa, pur i simplu, ca lucrurile s i urmeze cursul de la sine, spernd c totul va fi bine. Controleaz acest risc evalund oportunitatea, situaia n care te afli i ce poi face dac lucrurile nu ies aa cum te atepi. Bill Barnett a condus biroul de strategie al firmei de consultan McKinsey & Company i a predat strategii de carier studenilor absolveni ai universitilor Yale i Rice.

Cum s-i gseti un job bun pentru acas? Afl i ct se ctig pe un astfel de post!
Mirabela Stoica Lun, 2013-09-16 09:47

O soluie salvatoare pentru cei care vor s-i rotunjeasc veniturile pe timp de criz este dat i de posibilitatea gsirii unui loc de munc la domiciliu, eventual unul care s necesite o activitate de doar cteva ore pe zi. Ideea prinde tot mai mult, mai ales n contextul economic actual. ns, cum poi s gseti un astfel de job? Unde caui, ce trebuie s faci, concret, mai ales c sunt tot felul de epe pe internet? Am stat de vorb despre acest subiect

arztor cu Oana Petcu, National Operations Manager la Adecco Romnia.

Citeste si: Wella Professionals la NY Fashion Week Remember the summer Sunny Greece, a 27 edi ie a evenimentului Bucate Unicate Biblioteca Judeean din Brila i inaugureaz noul sediu De ce ar alege o persoan s opteze pentru un loc de munc de acas? n primul rnd, tierile salariale au dus la lefuri mult mai mici i pentru a nu resimi prea drastic acest aspect, joburile la domiciliu sunt soluia ideal. n plus, disponibilizrile au lsat numero i oameni fr post, i dei timpul a trecut o mare parte dintre acetia nu au reuit s se reangajeze. Un alt avantaj al acestei opiuni este reprezentat de formarea iniial care se realizeaz i suportul continuu oferit de-a lungul perioadei de acomodare. Pentru candidaii care au potenial i dorina de a se dezvolta, soluia unui job de acas reprezint cu adevrat o oportunitate.

Remuneraii ce pot ajunge, cu bonusuri, i la 450-500 de euro!


Care este profilul celui care are un job la domiciliu? Vorbim de oameni care au ntre 20 i 50 de ani, dornici s creasc profesional, s i mreasc veniturile, dar i satisfacia de a face mai mult dect activiti curente. Sunt oameni cu studii medii i chiar superioare, care din motive obiective nu pot s se deplaseze la birou, care nu au disponibilitatea

lucrului pe teren (mers la clieni), dar care stpnesc termenii de client service i pot gestiona un proiect/client aa cum ar face orice angajat la biroul companiei. Sunt la fel de flexibili, la fel de promp i, dar nu au libertatea de micare pe care o are un angajat full time. Astfel de job-uri creeaz oportunitate i pentru cei care provin din orae mici, comune, zone geografice unde alternativele de ocupare sunt sczute i poate lipsesc oportunitile n zona de servicii. Cunoaterea unei limbi strine i o bun utilizare a PC-ului crete ansa unui candidat de a ocupa o astfel de poziie. Ct se poate ctiga de acas? Pentru un post part time ctigurile sunt situate undeva ntre 400 i 600 de lei pe lun, la acestea adugndu-se, bineneles, bonusuri de performan. Acestea ajung la 50% din suma deja menionat. Pentru full time remuneraia este ceva mai mare. ntre 1.000 i 1.200 de lei pe lun. Dar i n acest caz se adaug bonusuri de performan ce pot atinge jumtate din ctigul iniial. Care sunt paii pe care trebuie s-i parcurg o persoan carei caut un astfel de loc de munc? Se urmeaz aceleai aciuni ca n cazul unei slujbe la birou. Trebuie s citii cu atenie informaiile furnizate despre respectivul loc de munc i s vedei care sunt condiiile/instrumentele pe care trebuie s le ntruneti/ai pentru a putea derula un job de acas.

Interesai-v despre angajator! Doar aa o s evitai epele!


Este Facebook-ul o soluie de ncredere pentru cutarea unui astfel de job? Da. n acest moment reelele de socializare funcioneaz ca un pol de recrutare eficient i obiectiv. Pe lng reelele profesionale consacrate, vezi Linkedin, Facebook are deja un rol constant n cretere pentru zona de angajare. Exist profilurile de companie, muli dintre angajatori pot promova ofertele lor pe facebook i devin astfel mult mai accesibili, mult mai deschii ctre target. Pe Facebook nu mai intr doar tinerii, aa cum se ntmpla pn acum civa ani, intr toat lumea, categoriile sunt att de vaste n egal msur criteriile de selecie ale oamenilor crora le apare anunul mpiedic expunerea lui la prea muli sau la neinteresani/neinteresai.

Dac adresezi aceast ntrebare din perspectiva unui candidat care i caut un job rspunsul este DA Facebook-ul i ofer legtura necesar cu compania care este n cutare de candidai. i ofer posibilitatea de a pune ntrebri i de a vorbi live cu intervievatorul. Dac o adresezi din perspectiva unei companii care este n cutarea unui candidat, atunci pot spune c rata de succes a demersului organizaiei va depinde de numrul de urmritori(likeuri) i de modul n care formuleaz anunurile de angajare. All in all, Facebook este o companie de ncredere cu un prestigiu mare i lider pe piaa reelelor de social media la nivel mondial. Cum putem s evitm pclelile? Cum recunoatem firmele serioase? Din pcate piaa este plin de oferte false, din care cei mai muli oameni ies cu insatisfacii i nemulumiri. ns credem c numele recrutorului i al angajatorului, precum i analiza imaginii pe care acesta o ofer pieei (constnd nu doar din comunicare, dar i din feedback-urile celor care deja au interacionat cu compania) sunt relevante pentru a nva s evitm ofertele neserioase. Din pcate, muli din cei pclii i pierd discernmntul acionnd destul de mult la primul impuls, uitnd s se reasigure nainte de a intra ntrun asemenea context. Candidatul trebuie s se documenteze temeinic privind angajatorul. Care sunt efectiv joburile pentru acas? Ne putei oferi cteva exemple concrete? - Customer support representative utiliznd un PC conectat la internet i un telefon fix - se ofer live suport clien ilor companiilor active cu precdere n on-line, telecom. - Diverse activiti de back-office (traduceri, culegere de date i de text, creare publicaii on-line!
MAY 13, 2011 1 COMENTARIU PUBLICAT IN: REORIENTARE

Schimbarea carierei este o decizie foarte greu de luat pentru ca ne referim la schimbarea domeniului de activitate, nu doar la gasirea unui alt loc de munca. Aceasta decizie este una dificila, pe care persoana ar trebui sa si-o asume in totalitate, pentru a obtine cele mai bune rezultate. Faptul ca doriti o schimbare in cariera nu reprezinta nimic iesit din comun. Cu siguranta majoritatea dintre noi s-a intrebat la un moment dat daca domeniul in care activeaza este cel mai potrivit. Schimbarea carierei are atat aspecte negative cat si aspecte pozitive. Aspectele negative se refera la faptul ca schimbarea carierei este un proces mult mai dificil decat cautarea unui loc de munca in domeniul actual de activitate. Reorientarea in cariera are si aspecte pozitive: este o provocare, o revigorare si este posibila(daca va planificati bine actiunile). Dar inainte sa demarati orice proces, este indicat sa fiti siguri ca va doriti aceasta schimbare de cariera si nu este doar un impuls. Veti sti ca sunteti pregatiti atunci cand ati urmat pasii de mai jos, caracteristici unei schimbari de cariera de succes.

Pentru ca v-ati informat suficient, stiti ca talentul si interesele dumneavoastra se potrivesc cu noul domeniu de activitate Parerile oamenilor care lucreaza in respectivul domeniu v-au convins ca veti fi multumiti intr-un astfel de post Detineti cunostintele si abilitatile necesare pentru a profesa in acel domeniu Ati investigat pe diferite cai(internet, ziare, reviste, etc.) domeniul de activitate si companiile reprezentative si v-a placut ceea ce ati gasit

Ati cautat locuri de munca din acest domeniu de activitate si ce ati gasit vi se pare interesant Aveti cunostinte in domeniu care sunt dispuse sa va ajute sa cunoasteti oameni relevanti in domeniu Familia dumneavoastra este in totalitate alaturi de dumneavoastra Le-ati comunicat apropiatilor avantajele si dezavantajele unei schimbari de cariera si ei v-au incurajat sa va schimbati caiera Cunoasteti atat plusurile cat si minusurile noului domeniu si cu toate acestea vreti sa faceti schimbarea Experientele, stilul de munca si satisfactiile legate de acest domeniu sunt in acord cu obiectivele dumneavoastra de cariera

Daca ati bifat toti pasii de mai sus, inseamna ca sunteti pregatit sa va schimbati cariera si veti avea succes facand acest lucru. Daca ati bifat mai putini pasi inseamna ca va ganditi la o schimbare de cariera dar nu v-ati documentat foarte mult in acest sens. Puteti sa reveniti la lista si sa va alegeti un pas pe care ati dori sa il faceti. Cand l-ati bifat puteti trece la urmatorul si tot asa pana ajungeti sa ii bifati pe toti. Schimbarea carierei poate reprezenta un moment foarte interesant in viata dumneavoastra. Fiti sigur ca abordati aceasta provocare cu toate resursele pregatite.

DECIZII EXECUTIVE
07/01/2013 Gabriel Pascal Cariera, Motivare

Unul dintre subiectele mele favorite este stabilirea obiectivelor si asta si datorita faptului ca am avut dificultati in a-mi stabili obiective. Fara o destinatie clara, poti ajunge oriunde. M-am simtit mai sigur in momentul in care am vazut pe hartie unde vreau sa ajung. Si de aici incepe calatoria cu adevarat! Nu am trecut imediat la actiune si incet incet obiectivul de pe hartie devenea o povara tot mai grea: stiam unde trebuie sa ajung, eram capabil sa fac actiunea, dar imi lipsea decizia.In acel moment eram la o rascruce de drumuri si trebuia sa decid pe care dintre ele trebuie sa merg.

Alege
Deciziile sunt puncte de inflexiune care ne pozitioneaza pe o directie (decizii strategice) si ne dau coordonatele de actiune imediata (decizii executive). Avem de luat zeci de decizii zilnice atat in viata personala cat si in cariera si exista o legatura directa intre responsabilitate si procesul de luare a deciziilor. Am observat (si statisticile confirma) ca oamenii sunt predispusi sa ia decizii preponderent subiective chiar si la nivelul managementului superior din companii. Si totusi procesul de luare a deciziilor executive este un proces tehnic care tine seama de 2 conditii: 1. Sa urmareasca drumul critic (atingerea obiectivului cu minim de energie si timp). 2. Sa minimizeze riscurile (de eliminat in totalitate e utopic). Pentru a lua o decizie buna trebuie sa te bazezi pe informatii de calitate. Un model foarte simplu si la indemana fiecaruia este sa verifice informatiile in baza carora va lua decizia prin urmatoarele intrebari:

1. Este informatia completa? 2. Este informatia precisa? 3. Este informatia verificabila? 4. Este informatia obiectiva? 5. Este informatia relevanta? Aplicati cele 5 intrebari la o decizie simpla si trimiteti feedback lagabi.pascal@empower.ro. Pentru primele 5 propuneri asigur coaching gratuit via Skype. Asadar, va urez sa luati decizii intelepte si informate in 2013!

Career decision making


You and the career decision-making process
Did you know that most people spend much more time deciding which car to buy than choosing a career? Why do they spend so little time on such an important task? Because career decision making is hard work! Perhaps you have avoided thinking about this decision for other reasons. You may feel that the start of your career is far in the future. Maybe you have bypassed the process and are pursuing a career that fulfills family expectations. Perhaps you assume that you will be happy working in a well-known field like teaching, engineering, or medicine and see no reason to research the myriad of other possible occupations. Or perhaps you just dont know how the decision-making process works or where to begin. If you delay the decision-making process you may find yourself:

In a career that doesn't fit with your values, interests, personal attributes, and skills Completing a degree that you have no interest in Feeling your work lacks meaning or challenge

Suffering from boredom or burnout Feeling caught between life and work values Thoughtful decision making paves the way to a satisfying career choice. The more focused you are, the less onerous the process will be. The decision-making process can be used for making many types of career-related choices, including: Which training/educational program to pursue Which occupational field to enter Which paid/volunteer experience would be most satisfying Whether to change occupations and/or fields Whether to start a small business

Steps to career decision making


The five steps to career decision making are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Create a vision Make an initial decision Set a goal Develop an action plan Take action The process of career decision making is not linear, so you may find yourself working through the steps simultaneously or completing one or more steps at a later date.
Create a Vision => Make a Decision => Set a Goal => Develop an Action Plan => Take Action

Time for career decision making


The career decision-making process can be overwhelming, so it is helpful to determine how much time you will spend and when (e.g., mornings, evenings). Review how you spend your time to determine what activities you might put on hold, de-emphasize, or change in order to create more time for this process (e.g., evaluate the importance of current commitments such as committee/volunteer work, learn to say "no" to requests that may cause more stress than benefit, or ask others to help with household tasks).

There are no definite timelines to follow in the process of career decision making: you may work through it quickly; it may take you six months or a year. Think about your circumstances and set a realistic deadline for yourself. Recording your deadline will help you ensure that it is realized. Since making a good decision is so important, completing both the "Self assessment" and "Occupational research" modules is critical. If you have completed these two modules, you are well prepared to proceed with the career decision-making process

Step 1: Create a vision


Proactive decision making begins with a clear vision of what you want your personal and professional life to look like. To be successful in visualizing your future, you need to have a strong desire to achieve your goals. Although it is important to be realistic in what you ultimately envision yourself doing, it is more helpful at this point in the process not to limit yourself to what you consider to be reality; instead, let your vision or dream grow. Beware of thoughts that might limit your choices. For example, though it is necessary to consider the effect of your choices on those you love and care about; placing too much emphasis on others needs may prevent you from identifying and following a truly rewarding career path. Your goal for now should be to take an honest look at yourself and your needs for the future. Begin by asking yourself the following questions:

If you were guaranteed to be successful and to earn a good living, what type of work would you do? Where would you live? What kind of environment would you want? What would your work and personal relationships be like? What kind of lifestyle would you have? Once you have created a vision that clearly and accurately reflects your desired future, consider reality and the potential barriers to achieving your goal. In the Self assessment module, culture, disability, family, gender, and sexual orientation were introduced as

1. 2.

potential influencing factors in the career decision-making process. You may wish to review the implications of these factors now. Other factors that merit consideration include:

Fear (e.g., of failure, of success and what it will bring, of rejection, of commitment, of change, of the unknown) Self-confidence level Finances and socio-economic status Geographic location (e.g., are jobs relating to your vision typically located in an undesirable or inaccessible location?) Be careful not to let one perceived barrier undermine your whole vision, however. Think about ways you might overcome such a barrier and attain your goal. It is usually possible to achieve at least a piece of the vision.

A word about risk taking


Every action or decision comes with a certain element of risk; however, so does taking no action. It is important to be realistic about the level of risk you are willing to take: you may wish you were more adventurous (or less so!), but you will likely not move toward your goal if you are not honest with yourself regarding your risk tolerance. At the same time, analyze any fears you experience: are risks real or imagined? Ask yourself the following questions:

What is the worst that can happen if I pursue this path? How likely is it that something negative will happen? How could I resolve this problem if it did occur? Can I prevent this from happening? How? What is the best that can happen if I pursue this path? What steps can I take to ensure that the best happens? What are the advantages and disadvantages of taking this risk? What are the short- and long-term consequences of the decision to me and to significant others? Understand that fear is natural and might be part of the decisionmaking process. To move forward, you need to acknowledge your

1. 2. 3.

1.

fears. If you tackle them one-by-one and look at them realistically, they will often become less onerous. Ultimately, however, it is also important to listen to what your inner voice or gut is telling you: if, after you have undergone this process, a possible action doesnt feel right, you likely shouldn't do it. If you believe that youve taken all the necessary steps and you still feel uncomfortable with your vision or are still not able to take a step forward, there may be other reasons for your inaction. If you find yourself in this situation, you may benefit from meeting with a career professional. For University of Waterloo students and alumni, Career Exploration & Decision Making appointments may be booked through the Centre for Career Action website.

Narrowing your choices


After putting your vision through a reality check and facing your fears, determine which if any of the occupations you have identified fit with that vision. By making this comparison for each occupational option, you may find that you can shorten your list. You can then take a more structured approach to assessing your target occupations. The next section will guide you through this process.

Step 2: Make an initial decision


There are a number of ways to assess occupational alternatives. You might prioritize them according to how closely they match your overall goal. Or you might compare them in terms of advantages, disadvantages, and potential outcomes. Pay attention to your feelings about each alternative: are you sensing excitement? disenchantment? Though it is important to be logical in the career decision-making process, your gut reaction to an occupation is also important. After you have made a tentative choice, it's time to set a goal and begin to achieve it.

Step 3: Set a goal


Effective goal setting allows you to take control of your life. Your attitude is the most important predictor of success in achieving

goals. Positive and negative thoughts can affect your level of accomplishment: you are likely to achieve only what you believe you can. A goal is simply a more precise statement of a decision reached in the previous step. To ensure that you achieve your goal, it should meet the following criteria:

Specific: a goal is specific when you know exactly what is to be achieved and accomplished Measurable: measurable goals are quantifiable (e.g., numbers, dollars, percentages) Achievable: an achievable goal is within your reach (perhaps a stretch) based on your skills and level of motivation Realistic: a realistic goal is one for which you have the resources (e.g., time for training, money for education, support from significant others) Time specific: a time-specific goal is finite; it has a deadline (e.g., "by June 30, 2XXX" is much more specific than "soon") For example, a decision to work in human resources might lead to the following goal statement: "attain a management-level position leading to corporate training in the technology sector within the next five years."

Step 4: Develop an action plan


To realize your specific occupational goal, you will need to make and follow a strategy or action plan. Write it down! There is ample evidence that those who devise and record a concrete plan for reaching a goal are much more likely to attain it. To reach your goal, you will need to identify the action plan steps, or short-term goals, that will help you attain it. To develop your action plan steps, refer to your occupational research: the more information you have gathered, the more informed you will be as to what is required to reach your occupational goal. It will also be helpful to be mindful of any

potential barriers you identified earlier in the process, as well as your ideas about how to overcome them. Once you have devised your action plan, you should construct a detailed plan for taking each step. The plan for the first steps should be as thorough and specific as possible (apply the S.M.A.R.T. principles again). For example, increase my overall average to B+ by the end of this term is better than achieve higher grades. As you consider steps that reach farther into the future, you will find it more difficult to create specific plans: situations (and you) may change. Provide as much detail as you can, but be prepared to be flexible, realizing that you may need to adjust your plan several times before you reach your occupational goal.

Step 5: Take action


Refer to your plan often: Are you on track? Is some fine-tuning required? Do the action plan steps you have identified still make sense? Has the goal changed at all? Do you lack information or support? If the basic goal remains the same and the process seems to be on track, add more detail to the steps as they become more imminent. If new information or obstacles have emerged, you may need to make some minor to moderate changes. If the goal has changed, you will need to make major revisions to the action plan. As you take action, you may begin to experience difficulty in moving towards your goal. Sometimes people put so much emphasis on a career decision that they become immobilized with fear or uncertainty. If you find yourself in this situation, you may merely need to give yourself a push; however, if you find that you are really "stuck," you may benefit from consulting a career professional. Celebrate accomplishments and milestones. Be kind to yourself: pursue activities you enjoy and surround yourself with supportive people. Replace self-limiting assumptions and irrational beliefs with positive thoughts and statements. Welcome mistakes: they can enrich your life experience and enhance your learning. And you can use what you learn to revise your current plan and improve future career decisions.

Dont forget the big picture: sometimes, some of the intermediate steps may be less enjoyable and more challenging than you might like; however, if you keep in mind where the steps are leading, you will be more likely to continue moving towards the achievement of your vision.

Textul publicat n aceeast pagin este original. Toate drepturile sunt rezervate. Copyright 2002-2006 Universul Energiei. Reproducerea integral sau parial a materialului, fr acordul autorilor, intr sub incidena Legii privind Dreptul de Autor.

1. Alegerea unei cariere


1.1. Identificarea deciziei care trebuie luat 1.2. Cunoate-te pe tine nsui 1.3. Identificarea opiunilor 1.4. Adunarea informaiilor i a datelor 1.5. Evaluarea opiunilor 1.6. Alegerea unei opiuni 1.7. Modaliti de aciune

2. Analiza ofertelor
2.1. Ocupaii nrudite 2.2. Responsabiliti 2.3. Posibiliti de promovare 2.4. Condiiile de munc 2.5. Modaliti de angajare 2.6. Condiiile necesare pentru obinerea postului 2.7. Salarizarea

3. Concluzii deschise

4. Referine

1. Alegerea unei cariere

Decizii, decizii i iar decizii! Alegerea drumului pe care vrei s l urmezi n via sau a ceea ce vrei s faci te duc la alegerea unei cariere. Eficiena alegerii unei cariere se bazeaz n principal pe informaiile pe care le ai n

momentul deciziei. Informaia nseamn putere. Cu ct ai mai multe informaii la ndemn, cu att este mai uor s ajungi la o decizie. Faptul c nu poi alege o cale a unei cariere din mai multe opiuni posibile este, aproape ntotdeauna, un indiciu c nu ai suficiente informaii. Scopul este s i dai seama care este informaia care i lipsete i s o gseti pentru a o analiza.
Prezentare PowerPoint: Pune n balan

Pentru alegerea unei cariere sau pentru luarea unei decizii n legtur cu o
anumit ofert de slujb, urmtorii apte pai [Referine, 1] te pot ajuta s prelucrezi i s identifici informaia necesar. 1.1. Identific decizia care trebuie luat nainte s ncepi s strngi informaii este important s ai o nelegere clar a ceea ce ncerci s decizi. Acesta este primul pas. Urmtoarele ntrebri pot constitui un punct de plecare: - Ce vreau s fac dup ce voi absolvi? - Care este domeniul sau tematica care mi place cel mai mult? - Care sunt celelalte domenii care cred c mi se potrivesc? 1.2. Cunoate-te pe tine nsui nainte s ncepi explorarea carierelor i s ncerci s identifici slujbele i carierele care vor fi potrivite pentru tine, trebuie s te cunoti pe tine nsui - aptitudinile, domeniile de interes, valorile i caracteristicile de personalitate. Poi s i pui urmtoarele ntrebri:

Aptitudini :

- Ce tiu s fac cel mai bine? - Care sunt punctele mele tari? Dar cele slabe? - Care este cea mai bun aptitudine a mea? - Care sunt aptitudinile pe care vreau s le folosesc n viitoarea slujb? - Care sunt aptitudinile de care mai am nevoie?

Interese :

- Ce sunt interesat s realizez? - Care sunt activitile care mi plac cel mai mult? - Cu ce fel de oameni mi-ar place s lucrez? - Ce fel de slujb mi-ar plcea?

Valori : - Care este satisfacia pe care o caut n carier? - n ce feluri pot fi ambiionat i recompensat? - n ce mediu de lucru sunt mai n largul meu?

Personalitate : - Care sunt calitile mele care m pot ajuta s fiu angajat? - Cum mi va influena felul meu de a fi alegerea unei cariere? - Cum o s m neleg cu efii? Dar cu colegii?

Fiecare slujb necesit o varietate de aptitudini i anumite tipuri de


Putem distinge urmtoarele categorii de aptitudini: a) Comunicare : prezentare oral i scris, ascultare; b) Tehnic / analitic : evaluare, concluzii;

personalitate [Referine, 2]. Dac nu eti potrivit pentru o carier anume, nu o alege.

c) Management : identificarea problemelor, luarea deciziilor; d) Marketing : cercetare / prospectare, recomandri; e) Organizatoric : mprirea eficient a timpului / realizarea de mai multe activiti n acelai timp; f) Inter-personal : sensibilitate, relaii de prietenie, etc. Identific tipul de personalitate aa cum este reflectat de aptitudinile tale: sclipitor, competitor, creativ, cultural, dinamic, flexibil, ndemnatic, foarte motivat, inventator, etc.

Prezentare PowerPoint: Test de personalitate

Este de asemenea important s ii seama i de temperamentul pe care l ai, acesta putnd fi un criteriu important n gsirea slujbei potrivite. Putem identifica patru tipuri de temperamente, fiecare tip avnd patru variante [Referine, 3]: 1 - Paznic : Supraveghetori, Inspectori, Furnizori, Protectori 2 - Artizan : Promotori, Meseriai, Interprei, Compozitori 3 - Idealiti : Profesori, Asisteni sociali, Campioni, Medici 4 - Raionali : Feld-mareali, Conductori, Inventatori, Arhiteci Aptitudinile pe care vei dori s le utilizezi, precum i caracteristicile personale sunt factori importani n alegerea unei slujbe. Analizeaz diverse slujbe pentru a gsi alte aptitudini care pot fi cerute n viitoarea carier. Acest lucru poate ajuta n alegerea fcut; dac nu eti mulumit cu alegerea fcut, poi relua de la nceput etapele descrise i s alegi alte variante. 1.3. Identificarea opiunilor Pentru a continua strngerea informaiilor i cutarea posibilelor cariere va fi nevoie s-i identifici opiunile. n aceast etap poi s te ntrebi: - Care sunt opiunile mele n acest moment? - Sunt mai interesat de alte tipuri de slujbe sau cariere? - Care sunt slujbele sau carierele pe care le iau n considerare? 1.4. Adunarea informaiilor i a datelor Dac ai completat primii trei pai, ai obinut o list de cariere i slujbe pe care intenionezi s le explorezi i s le cercetezi n detaliu. n acest moment va trebui s: - examinezi informaiile i resursele pe care le ai, - identifici care sunt eventualele informaii i resurse suplimentare de care vei avea nevoie,

- caui noi informaii, utiliznd toate informaiile pe care le ai la dispoziie. 1.5. Evaluarea opiunilor Dac consideri c ai destule informaii i ai terminat cutarea, eti gata s evaluezi fiecare din opiunile pe care le-ai identificat: - argumentele pro i contra pentru fiecare alternativ, - valorile i nevoile care sunt ndeplinite de fiecare, - riscurile care pot aprea o dat cu fiecare alternativ, - consecinele posibile ca urmare a fiecrei alegeri. 1.6. Alegerea unei opiuni Folosindu-te de informaiile pe care le-ai adunat i analizat, poi alege una dintre opiuni. n cazul n care nu poi s te hotrti pentru o anumit opiune n defavoarea alteia, trebuie s mai faci nite cercetri. 1.7. Modaliti de aciune Dup ce ai ales una dintre opiuni, poi ncepe s dezvoli i s pui n practic un plan de aciune care va fi alctuit din mai muli pai. Este bine s identifici: - Care sunt informaiile i resursele necesare completrii fiecrui pas? - Care sunt posibilele obstacole care pot aprea odat cu punerea n aplicare a ceea ce am hotrt i cum pot depi aceste obstacole? Planificarea este esenial n orice activitate. Aceasta te ajut s te concentrezi n ceea ce faci i s duci la bun sfrit ceea ce doreti s realizezi. Un model de planificare este: 1. Alegerea obiectivelor : este mai probabil s i atingi obiectivele dac acestea au fost scrise. 2. Obinerea informaiei corecte : timpul petrecut n obinerea informaiilor te salveaz de la situaii dificile; informaiile te ajut s ajungi la concluzii mai bune i s termini munca pe care o faci.

3. Organizarea raional a informaiilor : decizi ce vrei s faci, apoi determini posibilele consecine i posibilitatea evitrii unor eventuale obstacole. 4. Stabilirea unui program : organizeaz-i timpul n aa fel nct s nu "te pierzi" sau s te descurajezi.
2. Analiza ofertelor

Actul deciziei n alegerea unei cariere decurge din analiza ofertelor obinute
i din compararea lor cu obiectivele pe care i le-ai stabilit. Decizia nu trebuie luat pe moment i trebuie analizai toi factorii implicai. n ordinea importanei, acetia sunt [Referine, 4]: 2.1. Ocupaii nrudite Ct de ntlnit este profesia aleas n cadrul firmelor i sub ce denumiri? n anumite cazuri este necesar o recalificare profesional, chiar schimbarea postului sau avansarea n post presupunnd alte ndatoriri. 2.2. Responsabiliti Responsabilitile sunt specificate n contractul individual de munc. Nendeplinirea acestora poate duce la penalizri i chiar la concediere. 2.3. Posibiliti de promovare Se are n vedere timpul minim i cel mediu n care se poate promova n cadrul firmei. Responsabilitile, condiiile de munc i salariul se schimb n funcie de postul ocupat. 2.4. Condiiile de munc Programul zilnic, cu norm ntreag, este de obicei de aproximativ 8 ore, excepie fcnd deplasrile n teren i cazurile n care programul este mai ncrcat - fiind necesare chiar 10 ore zilnic, inclusiv smbta i duminica. Dac este cazul, trebuie luate n considerare i condiiile speciale, care au un grad ridicat de pericol.

2.5. Modaliti de angajare Angajarea se poate face n funcie de aprecierile obinute la interviu, la testarea cunotinelor n domeniu sau dup o perioad de prob. Aceasta perioad poate varia, n funcie de postul solicitat i de firma angajatoare, de la cteva zile la 6 luni. 2.6. Condiiile necesare pentru obinerea postului Condiiile sunt menionate de obicei n Curriculum Vitae (CV):

Studii. Un minim necesar sunt studiile liceale i post-liceale, studiile universitare de specialitate i eventual post-universitare oferind posibilitatea ocuprii unui post de rspundere. Cursurile de recalificare profesional sunt de asemenea considerate n aceast categorie. Experiena n munc. Pentru ocuparea unui post se cere de obicei o experien n domeniul de activitate. Sunt luate n considerare i activiti sau stagii practice efectuate n timpul studiilor. Abiliti. Menionarea acestora ofer posibilitatea celui care angajeaz s-i formeze o imagine despre alte competene (dect cele menionate la "Experiena n munc") ale candidatului la postul respectiv. Constituie un avantaj: cunoaterea a dou sau mai multe limbi strine, permisul de conducere, utilizarea calculatorului, etc. Vrsta. De obicei sunt preferate pentru angajare persoanele cu vrste cuprinse ntre 25 i 45 de ani. Limita de vrst variaz n funcie de post. Trsturi de personalitate. Pentru fiecare tip de post exist anumite trsturi care sunt importante. Dintre acestea se pot aminti: echilibru emoional i ncrederea n sine, rezistena la stres, sociabilitate, implicare, conduit moral, etc.

2.7. Salarizarea Pentru fiecare tip de post, firma stabilete un salariu minim, la care se pot aduga sporuri (pentru lucru n condiii speciale, vechime n munc), prime sau bonificaii (pentru rezultate deosebite), decontarea unor cheltuieli efectuate n interesul firmei, etc. La angajare, se poate negocia un salariu mai mare dect cel minim.

Informaii suplimentare despre subiectul tratat n acest articol pot fi obinute din sursele 5, 6 i 7 care sunt menionate n Referine.
3. Concluzii deschise

n final, iat cteva indicii care te vor conduce la succes:


- Dezvolt-i aptitudinile de comunicare - acestea sunt eseniale pentru orice carier - Exerseaz n minte ce ai de fcut - organizarea bun duce la rezultate bune - Pstreaz pasul cu tehnologia i n special cu noile tehnologii - nva s organizezi informaiile - Stabilete-i scopuri rezonabile pe care le poi duce la bun sfrit - Recunoate valoarea unui CV bine realizat, care te reprezint ct mai bine - Fii bine pregtit s participi la un interviu pentru o slujb - Recompenseaz-te pentru scopurile atinse - Munca i bunul sim sunt importante Cuvinte cheie pentru viitor: Tehnologie / Comunicare mai bun / Informaie Cum s le obii: Planificare / Practic / Perseveren / Rbdare
4. Referine

1 - "Career Decision-Making Model": www.cc.colorado.edu/CareerCenter 2 - "The Job Chooser": www.familyfriendly.com 3 - "Kersey Temperament Sorter": keirsey.com

4 - A.D. Karayannis, M. Korka, M. Brusalis, L. Aslan, D. Crngau, L.G. Marinescu : "Ghidul n cariera profesional a absolvenilor de nvmnt superior", Editura Economic, 1997 5 - "CareerBuilder": www.careerbuilder.com 6 - "Choix d'une carriere": carriere.infobourg.qc.ca 7 - "The Top 10 Steps for Choosing a Career": www.topten.org de la www.coachu.com
Ct conteaz media cu care termini facultatea?

Sfaturi pentru imbunatatirea abilitatii de a lua decizii bune.


Asa cum oamenii se deosebesc unii de altii, la fel se deosebesc si capacitatile lor de luare a deciziilor. Fiecare persoana reprezinta rezultatul deciziilor luate pe tot parcursul vietii pana in prezent. Luand in considerare acest fapt, iata cateva sfaturi care iti pot imbunatati abilitatea de a lua decizii bune. 1. Nu lua decizii care nu stau in puterea ta. 2. Atunci cand iei o decizie pur si simplu alegi o alternativa. Nu trebuie sa alegi intre bine si rau. 3. Evita deciziile rapide. Mergi repede cu deciziile reversibile si incet cu cele ireversibile. 4. Daca alegi varianta buna la momentul nepotrivit, este la fel de rau ca atunci cand alegi varianta gresita la momentul potrivit, asa ca ia decizia cata vreme mai ai timp. 5. Noteaza-ti deciziile pe care le iei. Scrie totul pe hartie si incearca sa-ti exprimi ideile cat mai clar pentru a avea in fata toate informatiile relevante inainte de a lua o decizie.

6. Ia hotarari in functie de ceea ce este adevarat si nu in functie de cine are dreptate. 7. Noteaza argumentele pro si contra pentru fiecare alternativa. Te ajuta sa-ti limpezesti gandurile si sa iei o decizie mai buna. 8. Ia deciziile din mers. Nu le lasa sa se adune. Iti poate fi mai greu sa te descurci cu un morman de decizii mici decat cu o singura decizie complexa. 9. Gandeste-te la cei afectati de decizia ta. Atunci cand se poate determina-i sa se implice in luarea deciziilor pentru a le spori devotamentul. 10. Recunoaste ca nu poti stii cu o siguranta de 100% ca decizia ta este corecta, deorece ea se va aplica in viitor. Asa ca decide si nu-ti mai face probleme. 11. Utilizeaza abordarea OAR, O. A. R. in luarea deciziilor. Fii atent la O, obiectivele pe care le urmaresti, A, alternativele pe care simti ca le ai la dispozitie, si R, riscurile implicate de alternativa pe care te gandesti sa o alegi. 12. Se spune ca deciziile trebuie sa fie luate intotdeauna in functie de faptele concrete. Totusi, deciziile trebuie sa fie luate intotdeauna la un nivel care sa ia in considerare toate activitatile si obiectivele implicate. Prima regula ne spune la ce nivel ar trebui sa fie luata decizia. A doua regula arata la ce nivel poate fi luata decizia. 13. Tine minte ca neluarea unei decizii inseamna luarea unei decizii de neimplicare. 14. Pentru a fi eficace, un manager trebuie sa-si permita luxul de a face greseli. 15. Ai incredere in capacitatea ta de a lua decizii si de a suporta consecintele in mod adecvat. 16. Nu-ti pierde timpul cu decizii pe care nu e nevoie sa le iei. 17. Stabileste alternativele inainte de a culege informatii.

18. Inainte de a aplica ceea ce consideri alegerea cea mai buna, evalueaza riscul intrebandu-te "Ce ar putea sa nu mearga in cazul acestei alternative?" 19. Multe din deciziile pe care le ei nu sunt importante - aproape 80% din ele. Stabileste cateva limite operationale si lasa deciziile neimportante in seama secretarei sau a altor persoane. 20. Poti sa iei o decizie in numele unui grup, dar trebuie sa fi constient ca acest fapt poate duce la scaderea devotamentului celor afectati. 21. Ca parte a procesului de luare a deciziilor, gandeste-te si la modul de aplicare a deciziei luate. 22. De indata ce iti dai seama ca trebuie sa iei o decizie cu privire la o anumita situatie, treci in revista faptele care-ti sunt la indemana si las-o deoparte. Lasa problema sa se dezvolte in subconstientul tau pana la momentul cand trebuie sa iei hotararea. 23. Dupa ce ai luat decizia, nu te mai indoi. Fii constient de modul in care te afecteaza si concentreaza-te asupra pasilor urmatori. Nu regreta niciodata o decizie. A fost cea mai buna solutie la momentul respectiv. Acum concentreaza-te asupra a ceea ce este mai bine in momentul de fata. 24. Imagineaza-ti aplicarea solutiei alese si reflecteaza asupra consecintelor care vor rezulta in urma aplicarii ei. 25. Poti castiga idei noi si devotamentul personalului organizand sedinte de brainstorming pentru solutii alternative. 26. Delibereaza indelungat si discontinuu. Ia o decizie si respect-o. 27. O data ce ai luat o decizie si ai inceput sa faci demersuri pentru a o aplica, lasa altele deoparte si du-o pana la capat cu devotament.

DICIONARUL ACTIVITII DE CONSILIERE I ORIENTARE PROFESIONAL

AUTOCUNOATERE ~ explorare i structurare a informaiilor despre propria persoan criteriu principal de analiz a opiunilor ocupaionale identificare a celor mai relevante informaii despre sine pentru planificarea carierei

INTERESE ~ preferinele cristalizate ale unei persoane pentru anumite domenii de cunotine sau de activitate factori cu rol esenial n motivarea pentru alegerea carierei determinante pentru gradul de satisfacie i performan ale unei persoane n activitatea sa asigur stabilitatea n alegerea fcut, capacitate mai bun de adaptare la modificri ale mediului

VALORI ~ convingerile de baz ale unei persoane n legtur cu ceea ce este important n via, n relaiile cu ceilali i n munc indicatori pentru oportunitile de carier standarde pentru alegerile personale

APTITUDINI ~ capacitile unei persoane de a nva i a avea performan ntr-un domeniu asigur parcurgerea cu succes a diferitelor forme de pregtire profesional valoroase pentru succesul n activitate pot fi cunoscute i identificate prin: auto-observaie, opinia celorlali, testare psihologic

AUTOEFICACITATE ~ convingerea persoanei despre capacitile sale de a realiza sarcinile date

permite direcionareaaciunilor

influeneaz modul de gndire (stabilirea scopurilor, raportarea la succes/ eec) determinant i predictor puternic al nivelului de performan se dezvolt prin: obinerea unor succese repetate, nvare prin observaie succesul altora devine model), identificarea abilitilor personale i investirea lor (implicare mai puternic datorit ncrederii n forele proprii), informare despre strile emoionale i fiziologice n situaii dificile (reacii la stres, situaii tensionate) ABILITI ~ cunotinele declarative i procedurale pe care le-a dobndit deja persoana prin aplicare i practic devin deprinderi pot fi transferabile (utilizate i n alte tipuri de activiti) Abiliti i deprinderi generale apreciate i valorizate de angajatori:

abiliti de comunicare (exprimare adecvat, perceperea mesajelor non-verbale, formulare de ntrebri, negociere, vorbire n public, intervievare, facilitarea discuiilor, redactare) abiliti interpersonale (abiliti de ascultare, cooperare, rezolvarea conflictelor, munca n echip, persuasiune, empatie) abiliti de planificare i rezolvare de probleme (identificarea problemelor, elaborare de strategii, anticiparea consecinelor, analiza alternativelor, fixarea scopurilor, definirea nevoilor, perseveren, abiliti decizionale i de utilizare a timpului) abiliti de investigare i manipulare de date (colectarea informaiilor i extragerea celor relevante, gndire critic, categorizare, organizare, sintetizarea informaiilor, formulare de ipoteze i dezvoltare de teorii) abiliti de utilizare a tehnologiilor informatice (procesarea informaiilor n diverse programe informatice, utilizarea internetului, a sistemelor de operare specifice anumitor sarcini) abiliti fizice (capacitate de efort fizic, orientare n spaiu, manipulare concret a instrumentelor i a aparatelor de lucru)

CARACTERISTICI DE PERSONALITATE ~ modaliti tipice de gndire, comportament, afectivitate i relaionare pe care le manifest o persoan sunt criterii importante n selectarea mediului de munc i alegerea, delimitarea sarcinilor n cadrul unei ocupaii; nu n alegerea profesiei identificarea lor necesit luarea n considerare a contextului (comportamentul unei persoane este dependent de context) - e necesar s fie coroborate cu informaiile despre celelalte aspecte relevante pentru carier (interese, abiliti, valori) pentru luarea deciziilor n carier DECIZIA DE CARIER ~ proces care duce la selecia unei alternative de carier din mulimea de variante disponibile la un moment dat * se disting trei componente care interacioneaz n permanen: contextul deciziei (Ce influeneaz luarea deciziei?) coninutul deciziei (Ce decizie urmeaz s iau?) procesul decizional (Cum voi lua aceast decizie?) Etapele procesului decizional:

1. Definirea deciziei. Identificarea alternativelor


Despre ce fel de decizie este vorba? De ce am ales aceast decizie? Ce a facilitat luarea acestei decizii? Ce alternative posibile am identificat?

2. Explorarea i evaluarea alternativelor existente.


Care sunt abilitile, aptitudinile, interesele i atitudinile mele care sunt importante pentru aceast decizie? Ce informaii am despre aceast alternativ de carier? Care sunt persoanele sau situaiile a cror prere o ascult /care m influeneaz n legtur cu aceast decizie?

3.

Planul de carier

Cum m gndesc s pun n aplicare decizia? Ce scopuri mi stabilesc?

4.

Implementarea deciziei

Cum a funcionat punerea n practic a planului? Au aprut dificulti?

5.

Reevaluarea deciziei

Am avut destule informaii despre alternativele pe care le-am identificat? Am evaluat bine aceste informaii? Am ales alternativa potrivit? A fost bine stabilit planul meu? A mers totul bine cnd am pus planul n practic? Ce a putea optimiza pe viitor?

STIMA DE SINE ~ modul n care ne considerm ca persoane n raport cu propriile ateptri i cu ceilali; - evaluarea global a propriei persoane (Rosenberg) este determinat de evaluarea propriei valori i abilitile de a atinge scopurile dorite cu sentimentele rezultate din procesele de evaluare - autoevaluarea este nvat n procesul de socializare (persoana devine contient de valoarea proprie prin raportrile la ceilali) - n relaie cu ncrederea n sine, nu trebuie confundat cu sentimentul de autosuficien (aspect negativ al personalitii, caracterizat prin convingeri specifice sentimentului de superioritate;exemple: sunt o persoan extraordinar, pot s fac orice mi propun, ntotdeauna tiu ce am de fcut, pot de obicei s vorbesc despre orice subiect, sunt pe cale s devin cineva, cunosc n general oamenii ca pe o carte deschis) Convingerile sntoase sunt: flexibile (se adapteaz contextului, nu generalizeaz un aspect, au forme care accept modificri pe parcursul vieii), personale (nu sunt impuse din afar, se raporteaz la experienele de via ale persoanei), realiste (se formeaz n conformitate cu posibilitile individuale)

How To Be More Assertive


Online Assertiveness Training
Welcome to this online course on how to be more assertive. The course has 5 main parts: An introduction to Assertiveness Do I want to be assertive? A look at myself Laying the foundations for good relationships with others: rights and responsibilities A smorgasbord of techniques - so you can choose the ones you are most comfortable using Applying the lessons: a personal action plan NB: Some of the activities involve writing answers (these internet pages are from the handouts of a course). You may

therefore find it easier to print each page and write your answers on the print out.

Part 1: What Is Assertivness?

How To Be More Assertive: Part 1


Here are some definitions of "to assert", drawn from different sources: Chambers 20th Century Dictionary To vindicate or defend by argument or measures; to declare strongly; to lay claim to; to insist upon; to affirm; to bear evidence of. Dictionary.com To state or express positively; to defend or maintain (one's rights, for example). Game theory A win-win; you and the other person both get what you want. The Assertiveness Pocketbook Enjoying your rights, expressing your feelings, asking for what you want, stating your views - with integrity, honesty, directness, respect for others. There are many different views on what assertiveness is. But what matters for this course is the definition that is relevant to you and your circumstances.

Question
Why do you want to be more assertive?

If you don't learn to be more assertive, what might you lose (or not do, or not achieve) as a result?

How To Be More Assertive: Part 2

In Game Theory, there are four basic styles that you can use when interacting with other people, depending on whether you are working to get what you and the other person want: You get what you want You don't get what you want SITUATIONAL TACTICS Concede Negotiate

Withdraw

Demand

I don't get what I want

I get what I want

So, for example, to "concede" means "I don't get what I want, but you get what you want". That is, if you concede then you are saying "you win, I lose". These are called "situational tactics" because they are behaviours that you can use in different situations. In fact, depending on the situation, there are times when it is appropriate to each of these. Incidentally, there is an approach that could be considered to be another tactic - to compromise. However, this tactic forms part of the negotiation process.

Questions
1. Think of some examples of situations when it might be best or appropriate to use each of these tactics - try to think of two scenarios for each:

Negotiate Concede Demand Withdraw

2. How do you feel about using each of these tactics personally' If it helps, think of situations when you have behaved in this way, and recall how you felt at the time:

Negotiate Concede Demand Withdraw


3. Finally, how do you feel when someone else uses these tactics with you' Again, if it helps, think of situations when someone has behaved in this way and recall your reaction and feelings:

Negotiate Concede Demand Withdraw

How To Be More Assertive: Part 2 (Continued)


The four styles are tactics that can be used in different situations. The tactic that it is appropriate to use most often is 'negotiate'; the other tactics are used less often and in particular circumstances. For example, it is appropriate to demand something in an emergency. If you are in a shop and a friend collapses with a heart attack, you would tell someone to phone to call an

ambulance. And in those circumstances, it is appropriate for the other person either to concede use of the phone or to make the call themselves (negotiating over payment for the call would be inappropriate). Other people in the shop may want to purchase products, but decide that they should withdraw, to allow the emergency services access: both the shop and the shopper lose out, but with good reason. This is an extreme example, but each of these tactics can also be used appropriately in normal circumstances. For example, it can be appropriate in the middle of a negotiation to "withdraw", in order to collect your thoughts or reflect on the progress so far. Sometimes you may decide to concede simply because you want to 'choose your battles', and only spend time on those issues that are worth the time and effort.

Inappropriate Use Of Tactics


From the above examples you can see that there are times when it is appropriate to be unassertive. It depends on the circumstances, and it is your choice. Problems tend to arise, however, when unassertiveness becomes a habit, or when the wrong tactics are used for the situation. If you meet a mugger in the street, for example, the most sensible thing to do is withdraw (if that is possible): trying to negotiate is rarely a sensible strategy in that circumstance. Another example of inappropriate unassertiveness is when you boss asks you to do something extra and it causes you a problem with your workload. Many people simply 'concede' to a boss' request, but the most appropriate strategy is to negotiate. A failure to negotiate could result in you having to work long hours, or you failing to complete some other aspect of your job on time because you are doing what your boss asked.

Life Stance
A 'life stance' is a tendency to use a particular tactic as the first, or even only, choice.

You get what you want You don't get what you want LIFE STANCE

Submissive

Assertive

Passive- Aggressive

Aggressive

I don't get what I want

I get what I want

Questions
Which of the four styles do you tend to use more than others' Why' Which of the four styles (if any) do you find it difficult to use' Why'

How To Be More Assertive: Part 3


Which of the following do you and/or your manager have as rights' (Indicate with a tick or cross, or make a note of any qualifying comments). RIGHTS To make a mistake To say 'no' To not give any reasons or excuses for one's behaviour To say "I don't know" Me My Boss

To change one's mind To express personal opinions To say 'I don't care' To do the job in one's own way once objectives are agreed To be given respect To not be talked about behind one's back To expect certain standards from the other person To give feedback (good and bad) To be consulted when decisions might have an impact on me Assertiveness can involve defending your rights, whilst respecting others' rights. Assertiveness can involve carrying out your responsibilities whilst insisting others also adhere to their responsibilities as well.

Question
What are the main rights and responsibilities that should be observed by both parties in all your relationships'

Rights

Responsibilities

How To Be More Assertive: Part 4


What you believe has a major impact on your behaviour, and your assertiveness. Here are some examples of unassertive beliefs: "If someone refuses a request, it means they don't like me"

"They won't want to do that, so I won't ask" "My needs are not as important as other peoples" "I have no right to ask" "I'd rather give in and avoid the conflict"

"If I ask, they'll think I'm being rude or bossy" Here are some examples of aggressive beliefs: "People should always do what I ask"

"A refusal is an attack on me personally" "My needs are more important than others'"

What negative beliefs inhibit your assertiveness:

Here are some examples of positive beliefs: "We may be at different levels in the organisation, but as people we both have rights & a right to our beliefs"

"If we both express our views, we can then explore ways of both getting what we want"

"I'll listen to what you have to say, and I'll expect you to listen to what I have to say" What positive beliefs do you need to develop to become more assertive'

How To Be More Assertive: Part 5


"Being Direct" is a straightforward technique. When you want something, ask for it and get straight to the point. Eg: "I'd like someone to drive me to the airport this afternoon. Would you be able to do that'" And when you answer such a request, be direct as well: "No, I'm taking this afternoon off to play golf".

Benefits And Drawbacks


Being direct is, for most everyday matters, the best way to interact. It has a number of benefits, including: It saves time Misunderstandings are reduced

It enables genuine negotiation to take place You get more easily and quickly to a win-win solution Other people don't have to second-guess what you are thinking If you are not direct, it can lead to several problems, such as: Things don't go the way you would like them to You feel resentful as a result Other people stop asking you They may not say it, but other people don't trust your honesty

False Beliefs
There are some false beliefs about being direct, such as: You will upset other people You will appear selfish or arrogant You will inconvenience other people by asking You will not be liked All these beliefs are false, and in fact the converse is often true, because when you are not direct, you: frustrate other people by not saying what you want deny others the opportunity to help you, which they would like, by not asking appear insecure and oversensitive inconvenience people because they have to spend time working out how not to offend you.

A Simple Example
Suppose you receive an invitation to a party, but already have other plans and you believe the other person will be offended if you decline. Option 1 is to say "Thank you for the invitation. Unfortunately, I already have another commitment, so I can't come." The other person will accept this and think none the less of you. Option 2 is to think the person may be offended by a refusal. So, you think you have to give a really good reason to show how you would like to go but are unable to do so. So, you say:

"I'd really love to come, but John and Mary don't get out much. I've offered to babysit. I suppose I could try to find someone else, but I'm not sure I could find anyone at this short notice. I could talk to them and find out what time they are going, and see if I could drop in for a short time....", etc.. If you keep up this type of self-justification for much longer, the person who asked you will be wishing they hadn't (and they might avoid doing so in future).

Summary
Being direct is a much better option than not. Being direct is being honest and showing integrity. Don't apologise profusely. Don't beat around the bush, as it frustrates the other person Keep it short (making long-winded excuses can cause confusion) If appropriate give a reason for your request, but don't make it a long-winded self-justification Don't dress up your requests with flattery, which can come across as manipulation and make it more difficult for the person to refuse Don't take a refusal personally

Questions
When is it best to be direct' When might being direct be inappropriate'

How To Be More Assertive: Part 6


When you disagree with someone, it is often best to be direct and clear, as it avoids an unfortunate misunderstanding. Eg: when someone disagrees they often go quiet; yet silence is often interpreted by others as agreement. Hence, there is a miscommunication.

Disagreement can sometimes feel confrontational, so the assertive approach is to express disagreement in a constructive manner. This involves stating the disagreement clearly, but then following up immediately with one of the following: 1. a proposed alternative "No I can't take you to the airport. John may know of someone else going to the airport this afternoon - try asking him." 2. asking the other person to think of an alternative "No, I can't take you to the airport. Who else could you ask'" 3. stating where you agree "I don't think that idea will work, but I do agree that something needs to be done about it, and we've got to find a solution" Expressing disagreement constructively can also help to overcome the "Apollo Syndrome", a phenomenon whereby highly intelligent individuals perform badly as a team. The reason is that they keep focusing on disagreements, so spend their time in arguments that go round in circles.

How To Be More Assertive: Part 7


Both people in a dialogue need to be assertive in order to get to a satisfactory solution. If the other person is not being assertive it can cause problems: an aggressive person doesn't listen to your views/needs, so you need to make them listen an unassertive person doesn't express their views, so you need to encourage them to express their views a passive-aggressive person avoids any real dialogue, so you need to engage them in the discussion

To manage the other person's behaviour, you may have to temporarily suspend your own concern's and point of view, and manage the structure/agenda of the discussion. This means: you need to have a 'process' to follow you act as a facilitator in the discussion, explaining, and then making sure you both follow, the process once you have started the process, you also act as a participant in the process (this is challenging, because acting as both facilitator and participant can be difficult)

A Process
Here is a simple process that you can use: Outline the process (below) and the principle it is based on: that you are aiming for a solution that will work for both of you. (If you are talking to your boss, or someone senior, you will also have to acknowledge their right to make the final decision). Each of you explain your positions positively - that is, what you each want. Ask for, and suggest, potential solutions or ideas. Assess the idea(s) to see if it meets both your needs. If not, suggest (brainstorm) other ideas. If you exhaust all ideas, agree how you will both compromise to find a solution that partly satisfies both of you. Choose a solution that meets BOTH sets of needs. Don't: give in to the other person's needs (that is being unassertive) or ignore their needs (that is aggression) or go silent or withdraw (that is passive-aggression).

How To Be More Assertive: Part 8


It is easier to get what you need from someone (and to find out what they need) if you have a good rapport with someone. That involves:

Using active listening skills to hear what they are saying. Making empathetic statements, that demonstrate you understand their situation and needs. Asking them questions about their views, or the problems they see, or the reservations they have Finding things that you have in common and talking about them Dealing with them face to face (not by telephone or email) and looking them in the eye

Taking an interest in the whole person, and their wider interests, not just their work or the task they are currently working on. Building rapport is analogous to strengthening a bridge over a river: the stronger the bridge, the more it can carry. That is, the better rapport that you have in a relationship with someone, the more you can ask of them.

How To Be More Assertive: Part 9


If someone makes a difficult request, eg: they are being inconsistent, or asking you for something that is contrary to an established policy, or a customer demand, then: Let the facts speak for themselves Ask for clarification of the facts This technique is particularly useful when dealing with your manager, a senior person or someone in a position of power. For example, you could point out the discrepancies between the current request and previous requests. This should not be used to "score points" or to humiliate a person who is inconsistent everyone changes their mind. It should be used to identify and then constructively resolve differences.

Questions
When might this technique be useful' When might this technique be inappropriate'

How To Be More Assertive: Part 10


This technique involves informing the other person about the consequences, or potential consequences, of their actions or statements. This might include tangible outcomes, or your personal feelings. This technique can be particularly useful when dealing with your manager. However, informing of consequences on their own can have a negative impact. And if the consequences are manufactured, it can sound like a threat. Make sure your consequences are real. It is also very important to state what the person could do to change the consequences. Eg: "By giving me this information now, I have to work late to get the report to the client. Next week, if you provide me the information by Friday lunchtime I'll be able to go home on time." I'm upset by the way you criticised me in that meeting. In future, if you have a problem with my work, could you please tell me in our one-to-one meetings. I'm responsible for the management of safety standards in this area, and I've asked you three times to tidy up that cabling across the floor. If you don't get it sorted someone might trip over, and have an accident. Either sort it now, or tape off the area so no one can go into it, and then no one will get hurt.

Question
Under what type of circumstances would it be legitimate to tell someone that, in the absence of certain actions, you will start disciplinary proceedings'

How To Be More Assertive: Part 11


When someone puts you down, a natural response is to want to exact revenge - to get your own back - or to defend yourself. In fact, when someone puts you down, defending yourself usually has the opposite effect: it has a negative impact on both you and the other person. The origin of put-downs is an insecurity in the other person: they want to make themselves feel good by making you look bad. This relies on you responding in a way that makes them feel good, and you going 'on the defensive' does just that. Putdowns rely on a reaction from you. Your main aims, when responding to put downs,are usually: To stop the put down behaviour To do so in a way that maintains your own self respect Here is a recommended strategy for dealing with put downs: In the first instance, IGNORE IT. In many cases the person may try a few times to put you down but, once it becomes obvious there will be no reaction, will stop. Other people will respect you for it (for being 'mature enough' to ignore it). NB: Don't let yourself 'feel bad' (such reactions reward the put-down behaviour). Think: 'I'll rise above it. Put downs say much more about the person saying it than the person the comments are directed towards).

If you feel the need to deal with a put-down, do so with humour. Don't treat it seriously, make a joke out of it - but don't make the other person the butt of the joke. Eg: "I'm addicted to those typos, you know. I keep writing perfect reports and then just slipping those typos in, just to let people know I'm human!" If those don't work, then use "negative assertion" (see next article).

It follows that you should never use put-down behaviour yourself. If you feel the urge to do so, then you'll need to learn to value yourself more, so that you can overcome the insecurity that drives such behaviour.

How To Be More Assertive: Part 12


The following techniques are widely quoted in assertiveness textbooks. We have included them in this series of articles for completeness, but please note that, in our view, these techniques are not core to assertiveness. Three of the techniques (negative assertion, negative enquiry and fogging) are defensive techniques that can help to deal with put-downs from other people. The fourth technique (broken record) is an aggressive technique that should only be used when: all other attempts to be assertive - to negotiate - have failed and your rights are being infringed.

Negative Assertion
Negative assertion involves accepting the truthful part of a criticism made against you, and stating it in positive terms (and it can be mixed with a bit of humour). Eg: "You're stupid" "Well, I'm not the most intelligent person who has ever walked on the planet." "You're always making mistakes" "I have to admit, I'm not perfect" "You're aggressive" "I don't let people walk all over me, that's true."

Negative Enquiry
This technique requires a lot of self-confidence. When someone is attacking or criticising you, you ask them for constructive criticism - ie: what they think you are doing wrong, and what you could do differently to be better.

"You're stupid" "Oh, what specifically am I not understanding'" "You're lazy" "What is it that you think I should be doing'"

Fogging
Fogging involves using words that acknowledge the other person's point of view, and accepting that it might be true under circumstances, but without necessarily accepting it is true of you. Fogging is particularly powerful if you are able to restate the other person's opinion in a way that could be true of anyone or everyone: "You're stupid" "That could be true. We all have a stupid side to ourselves." "You're always making mistakes" "To err is human." "You're aggressive" "We all have an aggressive side to our personalities."

Broken Record
This technique is usually only appropriate in situations where you do not have a long term relationship with the other person, and your rights are being contravened (eg: when a shop assistant refuses to accept the return of a faulty item). It can sometimes be used, however, where you are short of time. In this technique, you simple keep asserting your rights. It is sometimes important that you understand your rights, and are able to quote reliable sources. Eg: This item is faulty. Under the Sale of Goods Act I am entitled to a refund and I want my money back. I've got to go to a meeting. I don't have time to talk about this now.

Question
In view of the cautions we have given, in what situations might it be suitable for you to use "broken record"'

How To Be More Assertive: Part 13


You have almost come to the end of this online course. The last step is for you to review what has been covered in the course and decide what you are going to do differently as a result. You can do this review either by looking at the notes you have made during the course, or by clicking on the links (right) to revisit the pages. As a result of doing this online course, these are the things I plan to do differently:

Find A More Enjoyable Career


Find a more enjoyable career. This test produces a free online report of your personality type. There is an optional, low-cost 50-page report, tailored to your unique personality describing which careers you will find most enjoyable. This test uses U.K. English, e.g. "analyse, organisation".
Change to U.S. English

Read each pair of statements and select the radio button nearest the one you agree with most. If you agree or disagree with both, select a button near the middle. I really enjoy I really enjoy

comforting other people who feel hurt or upset

forming my own explanations of how things work

I really enjoy getting people to organise themselves better

I really enjoy thinking about what I believe is important

I really enjoy dreaming up imaginative ideas

I really enjoy getting things done as and when they arise

I really enjoy it when I can get to know one thing/person really, really well

I really enjoy it when things are constantly changing

I really like building better relationships between people

I really like finding logical flaws in theories or explanations

I really enjoy

I really enjoy

thinking about the unfathomable

accomplishing immediate tasks

I get annoyed if people insist on following procedures

I get annoyed if people won't compromise over their private convictions

I get annoyed if people change things that are already working well

I get annoyed if people want all the facts before trying anything new

I very much like trying out new ways of doing things

I very much like contemplating my own observations

I very much like holding fast to my own, personal values

I very much like checking that everyone has done what they were meant to do

I very much like forming my own rationale of why things happen

I very much like taking care of other people's feelings

I very much like thinking about what is in the unknown

I very much like doing practical things that have a tangible result

If need be, I am comfortable taking an individual stand on my personal beliefs

If need be, I am comfortable imposing rules on other people

People irritate me when they invest effort in something that will soon be obsolete

People irritate me when they think so much about the future that today's tasks are left undone

People irritate me when they make notes of every detail

People irritate me when they start new, experimental initiatives

I really enjoy a theory when it is true and correct

I really enjoy relationships when there is a lot of rapport

I feel very satisfied by challenging the status quo, to shake things up a bit

I feel very satisfied by reviewing my own experiences and knowledge

My personal convictions are the most important thing

Following the rules is the most important thing

I feel very satisfied by imagining a radical vision of the future

I feel very satisfied by taking immediate action to deal with things as they arise

I feel very satisfied by building a more appreciative

I feel very satisfied by figuring out for myself how

atmosphere amongst friends

something works

I really enjoy having my own moral compass to guide my thoughts and beliefs

I really enjoy overcoming opposition to get people to do what they are supposed to do

I enjoy getting things done

I enjoy anticipating the future

I enjoy changing things to see what happens

I enjoy thinking about what I know

I enjoy meeting friends

I enjoy solving problems on my own

I feel satisfied when I'm dealing with a crisis

I feel satisfied when I'm contemplating the mysterious

I enjoy gathering lots and lots of information

I enjoy flitting from one activity to another

I feel satisfied when my explanations are correct

I feel satisfied when others have good relationships

I feel satisfied when others follow the correct procedures

I feel satisfied when I can adhere to my personal values

I dislike having to compromise my values

I dislike it when there is chaos around me

I dislike doing the same things again and again

I dislike ambiguity and lack of clarity in information

I dislike conflict between people

I dislike incoherent theories

I enjoy seeing the tangible results of my efforts

I enjoy closing my eyes and contemplating whatever images and thoughts come to mind

I enjoy thinking about the past

I enjoy working towards a better future

Getting life's day to day tasks done is what matters most

Knowing where you are going in the long term is what matters most

Thinking logically is what matters most

Caring for others is what matters most

Having a wellprepared plan is what matters most

Adhering to one's conscience is what matters most

Your name:

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http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/mmdi/questionnaire/

Myers Briggs - Working Out Your Type


The Myers Briggs model of personality focuses on how youprefer to behave - not how you actually behave. This is analagous to handedness, where you sometimes use your preferred hand (eg: when using a pen to write) and sometimes use your non-preferred hand (eg: the hand you use to change gear whilst driving a car is determined by the design of the car, not your preferences). Understanding your preferences, and the 'stretch' between preference and actual behaviour, can be useful in many ways - from choosing the optimum way of working to stress management. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator questionnaire is the most popular way that people find out their personality type. The Management Team Roles - indicator is the most popular way that people find out their actual behaviour in a work context. However, as with all personality questionnaires, the results of both can sometimes be wrong. So, whilst the Myers Briggs Type Indicator can provide you with helpful information, the real value of the model is in deciding

your personality type for yourself. This article will help you do that.

Myers Briggs Model Of Personality


The Myers Briggs model of personality is based on 4 preferences. 1. Where, primarily, do you direct your energy? 2. How do you prefer to process information? 3. How do you prefer to make decisions? 4. How do you prefer to organise your life?

Where, Primarily, Do You Direct Your Energy?


To the outer world of activity, and spoken words OR To the inner world of thoughts and emotions If it is toward the outer world of activity or words, it is called Extroversion, denoted by the letter E. If it is toward the inner world of ideas, information, or thoughts, it is called Introversion, denoted by the letter I. Extro- is a prefix meaning 'without' and Intro- is a prefix meaning 'within'. The following table lists words and expressions that are often associated with extroversion and introversion: Extroversion social expressive many broad interaction outward Introversion private quiet few deep concentration inward

action before thought

thought before action

Which is your preference (ie what is your personality type)? How are you actually behaving most of the time (ie what is your MTR-i(TM) team role)? Sometimes it can be difficult to tell. Every individual exhibits all of the above characteristics at some time or other, and one source of difficulty can be in distinguishing which behaviours are 'learned', or a response to current demands, and which reflect true preference. Distinguishing between the two is where comparing your MBTI questionnaire andMTR-i(TM) questionnaire results can help.

E/I Batteries

It can sometimes be helpful to think of Extraversion and Introversion as internal 'batteries'. Having a preference for Extraversion, for example, means that you have more E batteries than I batteries. But you still have both. During each day you will undoubtedly spend time spontaneously doing or saying things (drawing on your E batteries) as well as retreating into the inner world of contemplation and thought (drawing on your I betteries). If your working day involves much more interaction with the world, then you may find that your E batteries get exhausted leaving only the I batteries to supply energy. That is, even the clearest Extrovert in an extravert job may want, at the end of the day, to be left alone with his or her thoughts. Conversely, if an Introvert has been working in isolation all day, all the I batteries may have been depeleted, so by the end of the day he/she may feel the to 'party', chat or see friends in order to restore some balance, and thereby give the introvert batteries some relief by spending some time running on extravert batteries. You need a particular balance of both introversion and extroversion. You can do both of them, and you have batteries

of both types. But your "preference" will mean that you can do one more than the other. Before we consider the next set of Myers Briggs preferences, in the second article in this series, we'll take a brief look at the influences that can cause you to behave in ways that are different to your preferences.

Working Out Your Myers Briggs Type (Continued)


Preference, Role, Or Learned Behaviour
One feature differentiating Es from Is is whether action or thought comes first. In situations that demand action, such as the sounding of a fire alarm, both types will act. Most people are trained to evacuate the building immediately in an emergency, or to take other appropriate action. So the fire alarm results in most people doing something, and very few people decide to sit and think. They will adopt a team role that is extraverted. But their underlying preference is still the same. In situations that demand thought, such as solving a crossword puzzle, both types will think. Most crossword puzzles cannot be solved by taking action or by talking. Both extroverts and introverts need to spend time in thought first, to make some progress towards a solution. Their team roles are introverted, but their underlying preference remains the same. Team roles therefore reflect how we respond to particular circumstances. Finding your true, inner preferences is therefore more difficult, because everyone adapts to some degree to each situation. However, the difference between people who have a preference for extroversion and introversion becomes more apparent when there is a free choice. In these situations, the extrovert will tend to act, and the introvert tend to think. However, very few situations involve a truly free choice, as your behaviour (at work, for example) may be influenced by factors such as:

the culture of the organisation (some employers expect action-oriented behaviour, others expect considered responses) your training or upbringing a range of environmental factors, such as whether the situation is a new or familiar one, whether recognition or reward is given, and the effects of stress or illness. The need to restore balance may also be a factor (e.g.: an extrovert may need some time alone after a busy week). Nevertheless, your innate preferences will still influence the way that you behave, as well as those factors listed above. In a situation demanding action, an introvert may nevertheless bring a more thoughtful approach, or delay the taking of action. In a situation demanding thought, the extrovert may tend to talk the problem through, or move to action more quickly. The MTR-i(TM) team role you perform depends on a combination of the demands being placed on you. Isabel Briggs Myers believed your type is innate and stays the same throughout life. Another indicator or your true preference may be the level of stress or enjoyment in a situation. Where your preferences coincide with the demands of the situation, you may find it quite enjoyable. An extrovert may find it frustrating or stressful if required to work in an introvert style, but enjoyable or energising if required to work in an extrovert style, and vice versa for an introvert. Next, we'll take a look at how your prefer to process information:

Working Out Your Myers Briggs Type (Continued)

How Do You Prefer To Process Information?


In the form of known facts and familiar terms OR In the form of possibilities or new potential If it is in the form of facts or familiar terms, it is called Sensing, denoted by the letter S. If it is in the form of possibilities or new potential, it is called iNtuition, denoted by the letter N (N is used rather than I, to avoid confusion with Introversion). The term Sensing is used because information is taken in primarily by way of the senses. The term iNtuition is used because information is perceived primarily in an intuitive fashion. Sensing tends to be interested in tangible reality, focusing on the present, and seeing what is, rather than what might be. At an extreme, Sensing can have its feet so well and truly on the ground that it misses out on possibilities for the future. The preference for iNtuition gives a greater emphasis on insight and the future, focusing on what might be, rather than what is. At an extreme, iNtuition can focus so much on possibilities that it loses touch with current realities. Sensing tends to communicate in direct ways, whilst iNtuition prefers to communicate in different ways. The following table shows words that are normally associated with each of these two preferences. Sensing facts experience present practicality iNtuition possibilities novelty future aspiration

enjoyment realism using

development idealism changing

Next, we'll look at how you like to make decisions, and how you like to organise your lifestyle.

Working Out Your Myers Briggs Type (Continued)


How Do You Prefer To Make Decisions?
On the basis of logic and objective considerations OR On the basis of personal values If it is on the basis of logic and objective considerations, it is called Thinking, denoted by the letter T. If it is on the basis of personal values, it is called Feeling, denoted by the letter F. The following table lists words often associated with each of the two preferences. Thinking analysing objective logical criticism onlooker decides on principle Feeling sympathising subjective personal appreciation participant decides using values

long term view

immediate view

How Do You Prefer To Organise Your Life?


In a structured way, making decisions and knowing where you stand OR In a flexible way, discovering life as you go along If it is in a structured way, making decisions and knowing where you stand, then it is called Judgement. If it is in a flexible way, discovering life as you go along - this is called Perception. (The reason for these terms being used is a little complicated - if you would like to know more then read our page on the dynamic model, after you have completed this page). Someone whose preference is Judgement prefers, in their lifestyle, to make decisions. This means that they prefer to make decisions about what to do, where to go, what to say, and so on. As a result of these decisions, their lifestyle appears organised. That is, someone whose preference is Judgement, prefers to make decisions in the world of actions and spoken words, and therefore appears organised. Someone whose preference is Perception prefers, in their lifestyle, to learn or experience new things. This means that they prefer to find out more, rather than making decisions, and are more comfortable when they keep their options open. As a result of this openness, they can appear flexible. That is, someone whose preference is Perception, prefers to perceive new things in the world of actions and spoken words, and therefore appears flexible. Some words often associated with Judgement and Perception are: Judgement close Perception open

decide structure organise firmness control

explore meander inquire flexibility spontaneity

The final step is now to take all this information and work out for yourself what your personality type preferences are:

Working Out Your Myers Briggs Type (Continued)


Working Out Your Own Preference
Everyone's personality reflects all aspects of the Myers Briggs model. You use Extroversion as well as Introversion, Sensing as well as iNtuition, Thinking as well as Feeling, and Judgement as well as Perception. You can perform any of the MTR-i team roles. However, your type is a permanent influence in your personality, that influences your choice, where the opportunity allows, of which preference or team role to perform. The letters that represent your preferences are combined to produced your Myers Briggs Type, such as ENTJ. An ENTJ prefers Extroversion, iNtuition, Thinking and Judgement. The ENTJ is likely to feel energised by having lots of things going on (E). He will tend to interpret events by seeing patterns or overviews (N). He will tend to make decisions on the basis of logic (T). And he organises life on a logical basis (J). Look at the lists of words for each preference above, and think about your preference (not just the way you behave in, say, your work or social roles). List the letters in the four letter form

outlined above - if you are unclear about any of them, simply insert a question mark. E.g.: IS?P If you have managed to put down four letters with no question marks, regard this as a provisional estimate of your type. You may find it useful to think about it again when you have finished reading this page. Take a look at the Team Roles, and work out which ones you enjoy most - then use the table at the bottom of this page to see whether there is a congruence between your team role and your preference. Reading other articles, or books, on the subject may also help you to revisit it at a later date. Getting to know your true preferences is a task that can last as little as a few hours, or several months, or even longer. If you have included two question marks in your own type, that's OK. In some instances, you may find the following list helpful, as it suggests a likely answer to one of those question marks. These are only suggestions - it is important that you come to a conclusion yourself, with which you feel comfortable. If your guess is: ES?? or EN?? ?S?P or ?N?P E?T? or E?F? ??TP or ??FP then consider: ES?P or EN?P ES?P or EN?P E?TJ or E?FJ I?TP or I?FP If your guess is: IS?? or IN?? ?S?J or ?N?J I?T? or I?F? ??TJ or ??FJ then consider: IS?J or IN?J IS?J or IN?J I?TP or I?FP E?TJ or E?FJ

What is your Myers Briggs type? You have probably narrowed down your choice to a few types, but perhaps have not yet settled on one. The final page in this series of articles consists of some brief descriptions of the sixteen types.

Working Out Your Myers Briggs Type (Continued)


Descriptions Of The 16 Types
To help determine your type preferences, read the descriptions below that you think may apply to you, and see if you can yet narrow your choice down further. If at the end of this you are still not sure, there are many sources of material, that have more detailed descriptions of the types, to help you decide, including our own online descriptions (see table, left). Also, why not consider joining the Association of Psychological Type. They provide regular magazines and conferences that help you to learn about many of the applications and uses of Type.

The Sixteen Types

This section contains a brief overview of the sixteen types that result from the Myers Briggs model. Everyone is an individual, but Myers Briggs highlights general themes or similarities between people. Reading this section may help you to consolidate your understanding of the preferences, and help identify your own personality type. ESTJ The ESTJ takes his/her energy from the outside world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with facts and the present, and makes decisions using logic. His/her life is organised on a logical basis. He/she is therefore practical, and likely to implement tried and trusted solutions to practical problems in a businesslike and impersonal manner. He/she prefers to ensure that the details have been taken care of rather than spend time considering concepts and strategies. INFP The INFP takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts and emotions. He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities, especially for people, and prefers to make decisions on the basis of personal values. His/her life is flexible, following new insights and possibilities as they arise. He/she is quiet and adaptable (up to a point - when his/her values are violated the normally adaptable INFP can surprise people with

his/her stance). He/she will seem to be very interested in ideas, and he/she may sometimes make very creative contributions. He/she has a hidden warmth for people and a desire to see self and others grow and develop. He/she prefers to undertake work that has a meaningful purpose. ESFP The ESFP takes his/her energy from the outside world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with facts, which he/she usually takes at face value. He/she also prefers dealing with the present and with people, and probably derives much enjoyment out of friendships. His/her life is flexible, living it very much in the present, and responding to things as they arise. He/she is impulsive and friendly, seeking enjoyment out of life, and makes new friends easily. He/she likes taking part in solving urgent problems, such as fire-fighting or trouble shooting. He/she operates best in practical situations involving people. INTJ The INTJ takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts (and, maybe, emotions). He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities for the future, and making decisions using impersonal analysis. His/her life is organised on a logical basis. He/she is a strategist, identifying long term goals and organising life to meet them. He/she tends to be sceptical and critical, both of self and others, with a keen sense of deficiencies in quality and competence. He/she often has a strong intellect, yet is able to attend to details that are relevant to the strategy. ESFJ The ESFJ takes his/her energy from the outer world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with facts, and making decisions on the basis of personal values. He/she likes dealing with people, and organises life on a personal basis. He/she is a very warm person, seeking to maintain harmonious relationships with colleagues and friends, who are a very important part of his/her life. He/she can find conflict and criticism very difficult to handle. He/she has a strong sense of duty and loyalty, and is driven by a need to belong and be of service to people.

INTP The INTP takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts (and, maybe, emotions). He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities, and making decisions on a logical basis. His/her life is flexible, following new insights and possibilities as they arise. He/she is quiet and detached, and adaptable (up to a point - sometimes he/she may stop adapting, insisting that there is a clear principle at stake). He/she is not interested in routine, and will often experiment or change things to see if they can be improved. He/she operates at best when solving complex problems that require the application of intellect. ENFP The ENFP takes his/her energy from the outer world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities, particularly for people, and makes decisions on the basis of personal values. His/her life is flexible, following new insights and possibilities as they arise. He/she is creative and insightful, often seeking to try new ideas that can be of benefit to people. He/she may sometimes neglect details and planning, but he/she enjoys work that involves experimentation and variety, working towards a general goal. ISTJ The ISTJ takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts (and, maybe, emotions). He/she prefers dealing with facts, and making decisions after considering the various options. He/she organises his/her life on a logical basis. He/she is quiet, serious and well prepared for most eventualities. He/she is a keen observer of life, developing a good understanding of situations, which is often not expressed. He/she has a strong sense of practical objectives, and works efficiently to meet them. ESTP The ESTP takes his/her energy from the outer world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with facts, which he/she usually views objectively, and he/she makes decisions on a logical basis. His/her life is flexible, consisting of a series of activities that interest his/her. He/she is an action oriented problem solver, and prefers to work with practical organisational issues. He/she can be impulsive, and likes taking part in trouble-shooting-type work. He/she can sometimes

neglect follow-through, but will work best when there is a lot going on that needs organising and solving. INFJ The INFJ takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts and emotions. He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities, particularly for people, and makes decisions using personal values. His/her life is organised on a personal basis. He/she often has a private sense of purpose in life, and works steadily to fulfil that goal. He/she demonstrates a quiet concern for people, being interested in helping them to develop and grow. He/she is good at developing insight into people, though it can often remain unexpressed. ENFJ The ENFJ takes his/her energy from the outer world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities, particularly for people, and makes decisions using personal values. His/her life is organised on a personal basis, seeking to develop and maintain stable relationships with those people he/she likes. He/she is actively concerned with promoting personal growth in others. He/she is also highly sociable, and expressive of feelings towards others, but can find conflict and criticism difficult, particularly if it might damage long term relationships. He/she works best in situations involving people. ISTP The ISTP takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts (and, maybe, emotions). He/she prefers dealing with facts and making decisions on a logical basis. His/her life is flexible, demonstrating an interest in acquiring new information that leads to a practical understanding of the way the world works. He/she is quiet and detached, and adaptable (up to a point). He/she is often good at solving organisational problems that need to be thought through. He/she is curious about how and why things work, and can seem impulsive, sometimes producing surprising ideas or doing something unpredictable. ENTJ The ENTJ takes his/her energy from the outer world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities, and making decisions after considering the

consequences of the various courses of action. His/her life is organised on a logical basis. He/she tends to control life, organising systems and people to meet task oriented goals. He/she often takes the role of executive or director, using a business-like and impersonal approach. He/she may appear intolerant of people who do not set high standards for themselves or don't seem to be good at what they do. ISFP The ISFP takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts and emotions. He/she prefers dealing with facts and people, and making decisions on the basis of personal values. He/she is adaptable (up to a point), quiet and friendly. He/she is interested in people, enjoying their company preferably on an individual basis or in small numbers. He/she takes a caring and sensitive approach to helping others. He/she enjoys the present, and tends to dislike confrontation and conflict. He/she usually acts as a very supportive member of a team. ENTP The ENTP takes his/her energy from the outer world of actions and spoken words. He/she prefers dealing with patterns and possibilities, and making decisions on a logical basis. He/she is adaptable, tending to focus on new ideas and interests as and when they arise, particularly if they involve increasing his/her competence or skill. He/she is an ingenious problem solver, constantly trying new ideas out, and can seem to enjoy a good argument. He/she is interested in instigating change, and operates best in overcoming new difficulties where the solution requires the application of creative effort. ISFJ The ISFJ takes his/her energy from the inner world of thoughts and emotions. He/she prefers dealing with facts and people, and making decisions on the basis of personal values. His/her life is organised on a personal basis, seeking to enjoy relationships with people he/she likes. He/she is a quiet, serious observer of people, and is both conscientious and loyal. He/she prefers work that involves being of practical service to people. He/she is often concerned for and perceptive of how other people feel and dislikes confrontation and conflict.

MTR-I Team Roles And Myers Briggs Type This table shows the relationship between MTR-i team roles and MBTI type. Remember, though, that one measures preference whilst the other measures your behaviour - so the results of your MBTI andMTR-i might differ. MTR-i(TM) team role MBTI type Coach Crusader Explorer Innovator Sculptor Curator Conductor Scientist ESFJ/ENFJ ISFP/INFP ENTP/ENFP INTJ/INFJ ESFP/ESTP ISFJ/ISTJ ESTJ/ENTJ ISTP/INTP

ISTJ Personality Types - Overview


"ISTJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ISTJs prefer: Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities)

Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is ISTJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ISTJ then you are interested in clarity and knowledge. You like to observe and listen, and have a particular interest in facts and information which help you to develop as clear a knowledge as possible. You like to know where you stand, e.g.: having clear goals to which you are working, and to know that what you are expected to do is achievable. You value your experience, which serves as a strong guide to your decisions.

ISTJ Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (I, S, T, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ISTJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ISTJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ISTJ is the perceptive one of Sensing. This means you like looking at information in terms of

facts and details, focusing more on the here and now rather than possibilities for the future. You feel comfortable in areas of proven experience, and take a realistic approach. The perceptive Sensing function is introverted. That is, Sensing is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. You seek to develop a realistic understanding of the world as it is, in the light of what you observe. You are pragmatic in nature, constantly learning to adapt to the world as it is now, and are continually expanding your inner store of facts, information and experience.

ISTJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ISTJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ISTJ can contribute by acting as the curator of team information and experience, and sorting out which ideas are most practical in the light of the team's history. You applying a common sense approach to problem solving, maintaining the team's' focus on the goal or objective. You probably have practical organisational skills, applying procedures and methodologies, and using relevant and realistic logical arguments.

ISTJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are

various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ISTJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ISTJ can irritate others include focusing too much on the current task at the expense of longer term or interpersonal issues, not articulating your understanding of the situation, and not seeing the wood for the trees. Others may see you as being too serious, seeming to be inflexible, not encouraging others to experiment or innovate, and not promoting his/her own ideas or contributions.

ISTJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ISTJs


As with all types, an ISTJ can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as developing a long term vision, or changing things on an experimental basis to see if you can be improved. You may also need to articulate your own views more, whilst avoiding too much detail and taking more account of how people will feel. It is the issue of change that perhaps presents the greatest challenge, however, as you need to find the right balance between preserving what works whilst being open to experimental new ideas where some will fail but others will reveal better ways of doing things.

ISTJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type,

making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ISTJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an ISTJ will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, you might find a place of solitude in which to think and work, collect more data/information, or use tried and trusted means of solving problems. However, you may also criticise others' efforts (when they, themselves, are under stress), and use pragmatic solutions at the expense of the long term. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ISTJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of ENFP. Example characteristics are having a gloomy view of a future, suggesting impractical ideas, acting impulsively, and changing things without any thought. You might also have intense negative feelings towards others, though you might not necessarily express them. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ISTJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising them in him/her self.

ISTJ Careers
ISTJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves working towards clear goals, with clear lines of authority, responsibility and accountability. ISTJs prefer careers that give them the privacy to work without interruption, where they can develop their knowledge and apply their experience to practical work. ISTJs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement)

We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ISTJs included: Medical; Science; Engineering; Analysis; Accountancy; Academia; Law; Computing; Project Management. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

Career Balance Of Styles


Each of the 16 personality types (ENFJ, ISTP, etc.) refers to a particular style of behaving or thinking. You use all the styles, and your personality type (which you share with hundreds of millions of people) indicates which style you prefer to use most. The balance that you like between the different styles is unique to you. The diagram, right, shows the balance of styles required in a typical pharmacist job. Use the drop-down box to select a different career. Lighter (and slightly redder) segments mean the job requiresmore of that style. The lighter the segment, the more it is required. The lighter segments suggest this career involves more solving practical problems; theorising or analysing; following defined procedures; maintaining good relationships; solving immediate problems or crises, etc. Darker (and less colourful) segments mean the job requires less of that style. That is, the job does not involve as much working towards ideals; challenging the status quo; starting new initiatives, etc. You will enjoy a career more if the balance of styles required in the job matches the balance that you prefer. You can find out how well they match by completing our career test. The optional Careers Report matches your unique personality profile with over 100 careers.

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ISFJ Personality Types - Overview


"ISFJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ISFJs prefer: Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is ISFJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ISFJ then you are interested in knowledge and experience, particularly in relation to family, friends and colleagues. You are a quiet, serious observer of people, listening intently and getting to know a great deal about them. You pay attention to their emotions and feelings, and are keenly aware of the state of relationships between them and you take your responsibilities to them very seriously.

ISFJ Careers
ISFJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves helping people and seeing them derive pleasure from the service. They enjoy applying experience to practical work, giving and receiving appreciation, building relationships and reducing conflict, and getting to know individuals on a personal level. ISFJs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by

ISFJs included: Design; Teaching; Personal Assistant; Research; Administration; Medical; Human Resources. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ISFJ Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (I, S, F, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ISFJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ISFJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ISFJ is the perceptive one of Sensing. This means you take a realistic approach, like looking at information in terms of facts and details, focus more on the here and now rather than possibilities for the future, and feel comfortable in areas of proven experience. The perceptive Sensing function is introverted. That is, Sensing is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. You seek to develop a realistic understanding of people as they are now and, being pragmatic in nature, adapt to the world as it is rather than trying to effect too much change. You observe in a subjective way, selecting and relating

facts that others might not, whilst seeing those facts more in terms of their significance rather than pure 'data'.

ISFJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ISFJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, an ISFJ can contribute by being an anchor point for the team, a collator of knowledge and experience who also builds team spirit through maintaining good relationships with each team member. As an ISFJ you may have practical skills in organising people and giving them appropriate support, promoting harmony and co-operation, and ensuring that everyone's needs are met and that they realise their contributions are valued. You seek to arrive at consensus decisions, maintaining respect for established hierarchies and traditions, and strive to ensure that customers and clients are happy with the service provided.

ISFJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ISFJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ISFJ can irritate others include avoiding conflict, not giving criticism when it is needed, and not

articulating his/her understanding of the situation. You may be so focused on your own knowledge that you don't see the wood for the trees and you resist change (though not openly). You may also fail to look after your own needs, or not promote sufficiently your own ideas or contributions.

ISFJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ISFJs


As with all types, an ISFJ can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions that are much more change oriented. You may need to learn how to 'give things a try' when the outcome is uncertain, develop a long term version that looks beyond existing areas of knowledge, and become more comfortable in dealing with conflict and/or taking control. For example, others may at times find constructive criticism more helpful than just encouragement on its own, and sometimes they may prefer to be given direct instructions rather than invited to express their opinion on every team decision.

ISFJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ISFJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the ISFJ will behave more according to

type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the ISFJ might find a place of solitude in which to think and work, whilst nevertheless valuing the efforts of others and encourage everyone about how well they are coping. However, you may fail to recognise the need for change, or be unwilling to try new solutions that are better than conventional solutions. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ISFJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of ENTP. Example characteristics include making irrational changes to the way things are done, being very intolerant of others who do not act competently, and suggesting impractical ideas. You may also be critical of others, finding fault with almost everything, having a gloomy view of the future, and being uncharacteristically argumentative. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ISFJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ISFJ Careers
ISFJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves helping people and seeing them derive pleasure from the service. They enjoy applying experience to practical work, giving and receiving appreciation, building relationships and reducing conflict, and getting to know individuals on a personal level. ISFJs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ISFJs included: Design; Teaching; Personal Assistant; Research; Administration; Medical; Human Resources. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most

enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

INFJ Personality Types - Overview


"INFJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but INFJs prefer: Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is INFJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is INFJ then you have a strong, private sense of knowledge and vision, often for hidden things that other people would think can't be known. You see imaginative possibilities and insights, especially in relation to people, anticipating a future for them that they can't even see themselves. Although you probably have some strong relationships, your insights may be so unusual that others find them difficult to accept, and you may therefore find it difficult to articulate them.

INFJ Personality Types - Dominant

There is much more to these letters (I, N, F, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical INFJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

INFJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an INFJ is the perceptive one of iNtuition. This means you like looking at information from a global viewpoint, spotting patterns and relationships, that leads to an understanding of the key issues. You tend to focus more on possibilities for the future than the here-and-now, and you enjoy gaining insights into people and where they may be going in the future. The perceptive iNtuition function is introverted. That is, iNtuition is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. You therefore seek to develop a deep understanding of people, relating your observations of people to underlying aspects of the human psyche, that everyone shares. You are strategic in nature, wanting to establish a clear vision towards which you are working, though that vision is somewhat private, as you tend not to involve others in its development.

INFJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of

other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

INFJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the INFJ can contribute by observing and understanding the team dynamics, encouraging the team to recognise them and take appropriate action. You probably listen carefully to various viewpoints and, though there may be conflict on the surface, find underlying areas of agreement that the team can use as a basis to move forward. You are probably viewed as trustworthy, contributing creative ideas (particularly those involving people), and promote harmony and cooperation by bringing the team to a point of agreement about important issues.

INFJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How INFJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an INFJ can irritate others include not including others sufficiently in the vision, not giving criticism or expressing disagreement when it is appropriate, and ignoring current realities in pursuit of a more enduring insight and meaning. You may overlook some tasks that need to be done, make errors of fact, and want to pursue idealistic plans without fully thinking through the tangible consequences (e.g.: the cost or logistics involved).

INFJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For INFJs


As with all types, the INFJ can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as involving others in the development of one's own personal vision or goals, investigating and collating hard facts/data, and learning how to plan and control projects. It is the area of logistics that presents the greatest challenge, and potential for growth, for that doesn't depend on people's growth or development and it requires taking a more objective approach than is natural for an INFJ.

INFJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For INFJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the INFJ will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the INFJ might find a place of solitude in which to think and work, tell everyone else that you are coping, but focus primarily on trying to solve the long term problem. This means you may neglect the short term issues, make errors of fact, or ignore routine matters that might nevertheless be essential.

Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the INFJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of ESTP. Example characteristics are acting very impulsively, making decisions without thinking them through, and doing things to excess - e.g.: eating, drinking or exercising. You may also be uncharacteristically critical of others, finding fault with almost everything, and being preoccupied about unimportant details. You may end up doing things that have no meaning for you, acting in a very materialistic and selfish way, cutting corners, breaking the rules, and going against your own deeply-held values. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An INFJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

INFJ Careers
INFJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves developing deep insights into people, and helping them to change for the better. They like a career that has a good working atmosphere where they can use innovative ways to give people insight, build relationships, and reduce conflict. INFJs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by INFJs included: Writing; Psychology; Librarian; Counselling; Home Making; The Arts; Design; Marketing. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of

preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

INTJ Personality Types - Overview


"INTJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but INTJs prefer: Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is INTJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is INTJ then you have a strong, private sense of strategic vision, both for the future and how that future can be achieved. Your vision, or sense of knowing, may be difficult to articulate. Others may find your vision difficult to accept, seeing it as impractical or unrealistic. Pursuing your vision might be a lonely task, therefore, as you develop and pursue plans without anyone else really understanding the nature of what you are trying to achieve.

INTJ Personality Types - Dominant

There is much more to these letters (I, N, T, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical INTJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

INTJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an INTJ is the perceptive one of iNtuition. This means you like looking at information from a global viewpoint, spotting new patterns and relationships that lead to an understanding of the key issues. You focus more on possibilities for the future than the here-and-now, and you enjoy intellectual challenges and variety. The perceptive iNtuition function is introverted. That is, iNtuition is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. You may therefore seek to develop a understanding of how the world can be, wanting to understand the patterns underlying your observations of the world around you and the way in which the team or organisation works. You are strategic in nature, wanting to establish a clear vision towards which you and the team are working, though you tend not to involve others in the development of that vision.

INTJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and

appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

INTJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the INTJ can contribute by challenging the status quo, leading the team to a greater understanding of the concepts and principles involved, and finding ways to overcome apparently insurmountable difficulties. You both develop and maintain a sense of long-term direction in the team's work, and lead the team to consider taking actions that support that direction. You are keen to produce work to a high level of quality, ensuring that ideas and vision are translated into action.

INTJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How INTJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an INTJ can irritate others include being single-minded or stubborn, not taking sufficient account of current realities, and not expressing appreciation for the contributions of others (particularly where it hasn't been fully competent). You may not delegate enough, and to others it can appear that you make decisions that are unrelated to the present facts.

INTJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers

tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For INTJs


As with all types, an INTJ can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as articulating the INTJ's vision, and allowing others to contribute to its development, expressing appreciation for work done, even when it falls short of the INTJ's personal standards, and investigating the facts and documenting them before interpreting what they mean. You may need to consider the impact of your approach and ideas on other people's feelings, looking for and acknowledging positive contributions and areas of agreement, rather than just seeing flaws and areas of disagreement.

INTJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For INTJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an INTJ will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, you might retire to a private place and think through a problem until you have formulated a complete plan for solving it. Through trying to maintain a high degree of quality in the solution, you may end up criticising other people (even when they are under stress), make errors of fact, and not be prepared to make reasonable compromises. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the INTJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of ESFP. Example characteristics are doing things to excess - e.g.: eating, drinking or exercising acting very impulsively, and perhaps starting off more projects

than the INTJ could hope to accomplish. You may express emotions in an intensive and uncontrolled way, be very sensitive to criticism, and ask for lots of information that is irrelevant. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An INTJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

INTJ Careers
INTJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves innovation and creativity, particularly in developing systems, strategies and models. They enjoy having plenty of privacy, and working with intellectually challenging and competent people. They like to have high-level objectives that tackle complex and difficult problems. INTJs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by INTJs included: Academia; Computing; Engineering; Science; Project Management; Research; Management. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ISTP Personality Types - Overview


"ISTP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes

a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ISTPs prefer: Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is ISTP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ISTP then you have both a logical and a practical mind and therefore enjoy solving tangible problems. You are very interested in how things work, and may have a tendency to take things apart if you don't know how they work. You may also enjoy using your craftmanslike skills to fix things that are broken, or doing investigative work, collecting facts and clues to find out the truth of what has happened.

ISTP Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (I, S, T, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ISTP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ISTP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ISTP is the judging one of Thinking. This means you like making decisions on the basis of logic, using objective considerations, and are concerned with truth, principles and justice. You are analytical and critical, tending to see the flaws in situations and you usually (though not always) take an objective approach when dealing with people or problems. The judging Thinking function is introverted. That is, Thinking is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. As an ISTP you will therefore spend time thinking analytically, organising thoughts on a logical basis and developing an understanding of the principles involved in a situation. You may spontaneously tend to feel critical of a person or situation, but not necessarily express that criticism. Also, although you are inwardly decisive, you may not communicate your decisions to others (so they don't always realise when you've made your mind up). You tend to think mostly about impersonal issues, focusing more on practical concepts, truth and how things work rather than dwelling on people's feelings and emotions.

ISTP Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and

appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ISTP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, an ISTP can contribute by being an expert in particular subjects. You are a trouble-shooter who uses your analytical skills to produce practical solutions to difficult problems. You have a cool head in a crisis, encouraging the team to think first, assess the situation and then act on the right solution. You use relevant, realistic and logical arguments ot work out the right approach to take.

ISTP Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ISTPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ISTP can irritate other team members includes focusing too much on the current task at the expense of longer term or interpersonal issues, not seeing the wood for the trees and not completing a task before moving on to the next one. Colleagues may find it frustrating if you don't communicate fully your understanding of the situation, if you take shortcuts, of it (to them) it seems as if you flit from one thing to another.

ISTP Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers

tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ISTPs


As with all types, an ISTP can achieve personal growth by developing all functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as taking time to consider the impact of the ISTP's approach and ideas on people's feelings, or expressing appreciation towards others. You may need to learn to consult others, and to engender wider ownership of the solution. You may also need to acknowledge and develop your own emotions and personal values, develop a long term personal strategy, and look at personal or networking relationships as having value in themselves, rather than just focusing on collaborative relationships that work towards a particular goal.

ISTP Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ISTPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an ISTP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the ISTP might withdraw from people, to think through possible solutions, and use tried and trusted solutions to short-term problems. The ISTP may also tend to criticise others efforts and ignore their feelings, and focus on sorting out detailed points that could perhaps wait. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ISTP's shadow may appear - a negative form of ENFJ. Example characteristics are displaying intense feelings towards others, or insisting on things being done without any logical basis. When under extreme stress, you may become very sensitive to criticism,

adopt a gloomy view of the future, and attribute unrealistic negative meaning to others' actions or statements. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ISTP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ISTP Careers
ISTPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves solving practical problems. They enjoy having freedom and independence to apply their experience to technical or practical work. They enjoy investigating facts to help develop a better understanding or forming explanations of how things work. ISTPs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ISTPs included: Computing; Engineering; Management; Medical; Technical Specialist; Accountancy; Administration. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ISFP Personality Types - Overview


"ISFP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ISFPs prefer:

Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is ISFP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ISFP then you have some deeply-held values that, even though your life may be somewhat unstructured, direct the things that you do and say. You probably take a caring and sensitive approach to others, more so than may be apparent to others because you showing your feelings in acts of kindness rather than in direct statements. You probably have a strong sense of the type of lifestyle you enjoy, which you want to maintain.

ISFP Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (I, S, F, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ISFP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ISFP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ISFP is the judging one of Feeling. This means you make decisions on the basis of personal values, are appreciative and accepting of people - enjoying company and seeking harmony. You assess the impact of your decisions on others, are sympathetic and compassionate, and take a friendly, personal approach. The judging Feeling function is introverted. That is, Feeling is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. The ISFP will therefore develop an inner emotional life that is often unseen to others, but is experienced as intense. You have a strong sense of values, which are often not expressed, which you use to emotionally accept or reject various aspects of life. Although you feel appreciation towards others, you may not express it that often.

ISFP Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ISFP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ISFP can contribute by solving problems as they arise, especially ones concerning people, and highlighting the important matters onto which the team needs to focus. You generate team spirit through promoting cooperation, engendering a quiet sense of fun, and ensuring the well-being of team members. You are probably observant about facts and, up to a point, are a model of flexibility (your flexibility stops when important values are crossed).

ISFP Personality Types - Irritants

When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ISFPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ISFP can irritate others include being too concerned with harmony in the group, not pushing the ISFP's own ideas and contribution enough, and eing stubborn over issues the group did not anticipate being a problem. By trying to avoid conflict you may fail to give (constructive) criticism when it is needed. You may also focus so much on interpersonal issues that objective considerations (e.g.: udgets, timescales, quality) take second place. You may also perhaps fail to take a longer term view and, taking people too much at face value, not recognise hidden agendas or motives.

ISFP Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ISFPs


As with all types, the ISFP can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as learning how to express disagreement or criticism in a constructive way, making and implementing detailed plans, or giving direct instructions when it is appropriate to do so. You may need to learn to be more open about your personal values, so it is less of a surprise when

colleagues infringe them, and establish a long term goal to work towards.

ISFP Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ISFPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an ISFP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the ISFP might concentrate on what the ISFP sees as important, and work alone if possible. However, you may also act impulsively and take risks, failing to consider longer-term or objective implications (e.g.: future cost). Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ISFP's shadow may appear - a negative form of ENTJ. Example characteristics are being very critical and finding fault with almost everything, becoming bossy and ignoring others' feelings, having a very pessimistic view of the future, and seeing hidden meanings that are not really there. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ISFP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ISFP Careers
ISFPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves applying experience to practical work, and supporting values or causes they believe are important. They like working alone, or with individuals they like or whose company they enjoy. Although ISFPs tend to be quiet, they like helping others to enjoy themselves. ISFPs prefer careers that involve:

thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ISFPs included: The Arts; Personal Assistant; Teaching; Computing; Accountancy; Administration; Nursing. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

INFP Personality Types - Overview


"INFP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but INFPs prefer: Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is INFP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location.

If your closest personality type is INFP then you have some deeply-held values, though there are probably very few people, if any, who know what those values actually are. Privately, you may be a people-person, but others may not recognise it as you show your feelings in indirect, imaginative ways rather than in more conventional expressions of care. You may be looking forward to the realisation of some personal

INFP Personality Types Dominant


ideals. There is much more to these letters (I, N, F, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical INFP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

INFP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an INFP is the judging one of Feeling. This means you make decisions on the basis of personal values, are appreciative and accepting of people - enjoying company and seeking harmony. You assess the impact of your decisions

on others, are sympathetic or compassionate (though others may not see it), and take a personal approach. The judging Feeling function is introverted. That is, feeling is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. You may therefore develop an inner emotional life that is unseen to others, but is experienced as intense. You retain a strong sense of values, which are often not expressed, and you emotionally accept or reject various aspects of life. You may feel appreciation towards others, but do not often express it.

INFP Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

INFP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the INFP can contribute by promoting insight and common understanding amongst the team, contributing well thought out and innovative ideas, generating team spirit though sensitive listening and a quiet enthusiasm. You probably focus on areas of agreement and building on others' proposals and, where there are areas of disagreement, explore a wide range of options to see if a point of agreement can be found.

INFP Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are

various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How INFPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an INFP can irritate others include being too idealistic, appearing out of touch, and being disorganised. Because you have strong but private values, the team may find you unexpectedly stubborn over some issues that the group did not anticipate being a problem. You may spend too much time thinking, focusing so much on the issues that are important to you that you do not take into account the values and beliefs of other team members. You may also feel uncomfortable with conflict and therefore tend to try to avoid it.

INFP Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For INFPs


As with all types, INFPs can achieve personal growth by developing all functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as developing plans, organising your work area and, when making important decisions, listing options and including a formal cost benefit analysis. You may also need to be more open about your personal values, and pay more attention to the current problems that need solving. You could perhaps learn to enjoy the present more, rather than always working towards a better future.

INFP Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type,

making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For INFPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the INFP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, you might concentrate only on what you see as important, work alone if possible, or contribute creative ideas. However, you may also overlook current realities and fail to consider the objective or practical implications of your decisions. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the INFP's shadow may appear - a negative form of ESTJ. Example characteristics are being very critical and find fault with almost everything, and doing things to excess - e.g.: eating, drinking or exercising. You may become bossy or domineering, ignore others' feelings, and become pedantic about unimportant details. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An INFP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

INFP Careers
INFPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves innovation and creativity and facilitating individuals' growth through insight. They enjoy improving team productivity through realising the potential of the individual team members, building relationships and reducing conflict. INFPs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by

INFPs included: The Arts; Writing; Counselling; Design; The Ministry; Academia; Technical Specialist; Psychology. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

INTP Personality Types - Overview


"INTP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but INTPs prefer: Introversion (thinking things through) more than Extraversion (interacting with people) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is INTP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is INTP then you have a strong sense of the hidden principles that govern how the world works. You are interested in theoretical models and explanations, and when other people put forward their own theories you put them to the test to find out how true or robust they are. You enjoy solving difficult intellectual problems and seek to understand the real truth behind any situation, even when it involves several complex factors.

INTP Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (I, N, T, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical INTP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

INTP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an INTP is the judging one of Thinking. This means you like making decisions on the basis of logic, using objective considerations, and are concerned with truth, principles and justice. You are analytical and critical, tending to see the flaws in situations, and take an objective, detached approach. The judging Thinking function is introverted. That is, thinking is used primarily to govern the inner world of thoughts and emotions. You will therefore spend time thinking analytically to develop an understanding of the principles involved in a situation. You may tend to spontaneously feel critical of a person or situation, but not necessarily express that criticism. Also, you are inwardly decisive, but you do not necessarily communicate those decisions to others. You think mostly about impersonal issues, focusing more on concepts, truths and systems rather than individuals' feelings.

INTP Personality Types - Team Contribution

One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

INTP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the INTP can contribute by using analytical and critical skills to solve problems, focusing attention on the central issues, and providing intellectual insight. You suggest ideas that achieve both long and short term aims, and view information objectively, as facts and data to be analysed.

INTP Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How INTPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an INTP can irritate others include being too intellectual, finding too many flaws, and not accepting imperfect but 'good enough' solutions. You may not only maintain an independent stance, but also fail to take sufficient account of others' feelings, clinging to a principle at the expense of relationships and harmony. You may suggest ideas but then appear to change your mind, and leave others to worry about implementation once you have solved the problem intellectually.

INTP Personality Types - Personal Growth

Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For INTPs


As with all types, an INTP can achieve personal growth by developing all functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as expressing appreciation towards others, working within other people's limitations, and accepting and praising others' imperfect efforts. You may need to learn to put up with 'good enough' efforts, consult others more, and involving them in decisions to engender collective ownership of the solution. You may also benefit from spending time to develop personal relationships for their own sake, and also from learning to acknowledge and develop your own emotions and personal values.

INTP Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For INTPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an INTP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the INTP might withdraw to think about the central issue that needs attention, suggest various ideas, and use the feedback received to help improve the intellectual analysis. You may also debate the issue from an intellectual point of view, criticise others efforts, ignore their feelings (when they themselves may be under stress) and leave it very late before making a decision. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the INTP's shadow may appear - a negative form of ESFJ. Example characteristics

are expressing intense negative emotions towards others, being very sensitive to criticism, and becoming preoccupied with details. You may make decisions without any logical basis, interpreting facts or events in a uncharacteristically subjective way. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An INTP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

INTP Careers
INTPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves intellectual analysis, and conceptual discussions about systems, strategies and models. The enjoy find tackling challenging and complex problems, exploring different explanations of why things happen, and suggesting or evaluating solutions. INTPs prefer careers that involve: thinking about ideas and information (Introversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by INTPs included: Analysis; Research; Science; Counselling; Entrepreneurship; Technical Specialist; Academia. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ESTP Personality Types - Overview

"ESTP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ESTPs prefer: Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is ESTP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ESTP then you are an action oriented problem solver. You enjoy getting things done, and taking action to solve practical problems. You are in your element when there is a crisis requiring urgent action, which you are able to resolve. If you have any particular skills (e.g.: sports, crafts or sales) then you enjoy applying those skills to reach a tangible goal (winning a game, making a sale, or building something tangible).

ESTP Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (E, S, T, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ESTP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ESTP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ESTP is the perceptive one of Sensing. This means you like looking at information in terms of facts and details, focus more on the here and now rather than possibilities for the future, feel comfortable in areas of proven experience, and take a realistic approach. The perceptive Sensing function is extraverted. That is, Sensing is used primarily to govern the outer world of actions and spoken words. You therefore probably seek to experience and enjoy the world as it is, being very responsive to current events and, being pragmatic in nature, life tends to be a succession of events. You keep looking for problems to solve and are in your element when you are up against an urgent problem or troubleshooting.

ESTP Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ESTP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ESTP can contribute by making things happen, building a lively 'can-do' atmosphere, and

engendering an action-oriented approach within the team. The ESTP applies analytical skills and a common sense approach to find practical solutions to immediate problems. You may naturally come to the fore in a crisis and, even if you don't directly take charge, you provide leadership by example.

ESTP Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ESTPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ESTP can irritate others include acting too quickly, without appearing to think things through, and focusing too much on the current task at the expense of longer term or interpersonal issues. If you get caught up in the immediate crisis, you may not see the wood for the trees, nor take account of the sensitivities of others. You may also turn to a new problem before the last one has been fully completed, perhaps even generating crises as a way to get things moving in the right direction.

ESTP Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ESTPs


As with all types, the ESTP can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed,

through actions such as developing a long term vision, and ensuring that all aspects of a task have been completed before going on to the next one. You may need to develop greater tolerance for 'things running smoothly', otherwise you may get bored and lose interest. It may also be helpful for you to pay more attention to your hunches and intuitions.

ESTP Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ESTPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an ESTP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, you might use your energy to overcome whatever obstacles get in the way, generate new actions, and use tried and trusted means of solving problems. However, your use of pragmatic solutions may be at the expense of the long term and take the team in a different direction to the strategy. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ESTP's shadow may appear - a negative form of INFJ. Example characteristics are going quiet or withdrawing from people, having a gloomy view of the future, having intense negative feelings towards others, and losing touch with the current realities with which you have to deal. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ESTP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ESTP Careers

ESTPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves solving urgent problems using reliable or trusted tools and methods - e.g. fire fighting. They like a career with variety, freedom, independence, and a degree of risk. They enjoy working with groups in a fun, action-oriented environment. ESTPs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ESTPs included: The Forces; Engineering; Management; Computing; Science; Medical; Law; Sales; Accountancy. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when thebalance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ESFP Personality Types - Overview


"ESFP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ESFPs prefer: Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is ESFP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ESFP then you are an action-oriented people person. You seek to live life to the full, and enjoy applying your people-skills (and other practical skills) to achieve a tangible benefit for people. You have a strong sense of immediacy or urgency - realising what needs to be done now - and are probably often urging your colleagues to stop talking and get on with doing something.

ESFP Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (E, S, F, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ESFP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ESFP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ESFP is the perceptive one of Sensing. This means you like looking at information in terms of facts and details, focusing more on the here and now rather than possibilities for the future. You feel comfortable in areas with which you are already familiar (as opposed to uncharted territory) and you tend to take a realistic approach. The perceptive Sensing function is extraverted. That is, sensing is used primarily to govern the outer world of people and

things. Therefore, you probably seek experience and enjoy the world as it is, paying attention (and responding) to current events (as opposed to future possibilities). You tend to be pragmatic, so life tends to be a succession of events where you get things done and have a constructive impact on the people around you.

ESFP Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ESFP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ESFP can contribute by involving everyone in the discussion and decision making, valuing the strengths of each individual, and encouraging team members to contribute their best work. Using a sense of humour to build a friendly atmosphere, you help to build a lively 'can-do' atmosphere, which generates team spirit and focuses the team on practical ideas. You apply a direct, common sense approach to problem solving, maintaining awareness of the factual information on which discussions are based.

ESFP Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ESFPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ESFP can irritate others include taking criticism personally, acting too quickly (without appearing to think things through), and focusing too much on the current task at the expense of longer term or interpersonal issues. As a result of your pragmatic approach, you may sometimes not see the wood for the trees, or not taking account of objective considerations such as cost or the need for a critical analysis. You may also tend to turn to a new problem before the last one has been fully completed.

ESFP Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ESFPs


As with all types, the ESFP can achieve personal growth by developing all functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as spending more time in planning and preparation. Also, you may need to ensure that all aspects of a task have been completed before going on to the next one. You may also benefit by paying more attention to your hunches and intuitions, and looking for new underlying patterns - e.g.: rather than solving a problem each time it occurs, recognise that there may be a pattern and look for an underlying cause to recurrent problems. You may also benefit from developing time management and project management skills, to help direct your energy in a more efficient way.

ESFP Personality Types - Stress

Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ESFPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the ESFP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, an ESFP might draw in other people to help, and use tried and tested methods of solving problems. However, you may also act impulsively and take too many risks, failing to consider other implications (such as cost or unintended consequences). Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ESFP's shadow may appear - a negative form of INTJ. Example characteristics are to go quiet or withdraw from people, have a gloomy view of the future, openly criticise other people, and to suddenly lose touch with the present realities of the situation. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ESFP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ESFP Careers
ESFPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves achieving immediate and tangible results. They enjoy their work if people can see and appreciate the benefit or impact of what they do. They like to have variety, freedom and independence and working with groups in a fun, action-oriented environment. ESFPs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception)

We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ESFPs included: Training; Nursing; Human Resources; Teaching; Accountancy; Sales; Medical. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at thebalance required in different careers.

ENFP Personality Types - Overview


"ENFP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ENFPs prefer: Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is ENFP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ENFP then you are someone who senses the hidden potential in people. You enjoy starting discussion or activities that challenge and stimulate others into having new insights about themselves, which they can then take and apply to their own personal growth. You are enthusiastic about new projects or causes that offer the

potential for a beneficial impact on people, especially when it involves breaking new ground.

ENFP Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (E, N, F, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ENFP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ENFP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ENFP is the perceptive one of iNtuition. This means you like looking at information from a global viewpoint and spotting patterns and relationships that lead to an understanding of the key issues. You focus more on possibilities for the future than the here-and-now, and enjoy change, challenge, and variety. The perceptive iNtuition function is extraverted. That is, iNtuition is used primarily to govern the outer world of actions and spoken words. ENFPs try ideas out, wanting to explore new possibilities and discover, by experience, which ones work. Also, ENFPs tend to change procedures to see if any improvement can be made, rather than just operate them. Their approach is one of evolutionary development, but with an eye on the strategy, being more interested in exploring ideas than bringing them to closure.

ENFP Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ENFP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, ENFPs often contribute by acting as catalysts for change, encouraging the team to change together, focusing on areas of agreement and building on others' proposals. Where there are areas of disagreement, you may explore a wide range of options to see if a point of agreement can be found. You contribute creative ideas, particularly those involving people, and include others in the process of developing ideas and vision. ENFPs tend to be very accepting of contributions, even of varying quality, and generate team spirit though the ENFP's own energy, enthusiasm and (sometimes) charisma.

ENFP Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ENFPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ENFP can irritate others include losing sight of the main purpose of the discussion and going off at tangents. You may initiate too many projects and are therefore not able to deliver on all of them. Some people may

think you talk too much, introduce too much change, and don't leave well-established, workable routines alone. They may even suggest you exaggerate or make errors of fact, or at least want to pursue ideas without fully thinking through the consequences in, say, cost terms.

ENFP Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ENFPs


As with all types, the ENFP can achieve personal growth by developing all functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as being selective about starting projects, and producing plans to help identify which ones can be delivered. ENFPs sometimes need to learn to stop and think, and recognise that others will accept the ENFP and his/her ideas more if given sufficient time to make their own contribution. ENFPs also need to be more tolerant of existing routines that work well, and resist from changing them.

ENFP Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ENFPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an ENFP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the ENFP might involve people in brainstorming ideas, be

democratic about choosing the solution to use, provide a lot of drive, but try to do too much, make errors of fact, or ignore routine matters that might nevertheless be essential. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ENFP's shadow may appear - a negative form of ISTJ. Example characteristics include being pedantic about unimportant details or doing things to excess - e.g.: eating, drinking or exercising. Others may also see you as being uncharacterisically critical of others, and finding fault with almost everything. You may even take charge whilst riding roughshod over other people's feelings. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ENFP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ENFP Careers
ENFPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves innovation and creativity, particularly in changing people for the better. They like giving people insight and encouraging them to grow and develop. They like working with intangibles, such as changing an organisational culture or uncovering new potential. ENFPs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ENFPs included: Psychology; Entrepreneurship; Marketing; Training; Human Resources; Management; Academia. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when thebalance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of

preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ENTP Personality Types - Overview


"ENTP" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ENTPs prefer: Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Perception (a flexible lifestyle) more than Judgement (an organised lifestyle)

Is ENTP Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ENTP then you are someone who challenges the status quo, seeking to uncover the hidden potential or new possibilities in different situations. You start projects and introduce change on an experimental basis, not knowing fully what is going to happen, but in the expectation that it will lead to an improvement. You enjoy the challenge of doing something that has not been done before and

seems impossible.

ENTP Personality Types

- Dominant
There is much more to these letters (E, N, T, and P) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ENTP uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ENTP's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ENTP is the perceptive one of iNtuition. This means you like looking at information from a global viewpoint, spotting new patterns and relationships, that lead to an understanding of the key issues. You tend to focus more on possibilities for the future than the here-and-now, and you enjoy change, challenge, and variety. The perceptive iNtuition function is extraverted. That is, iNtuition is used primarily to govern the outer world of actions and spoken words. You therefore try ideas out in practice, to explore new possibilities and discover, by experience, which ones work. You prefer to change procedures to see if any improvement can be made, rather than just operate them. You therefore take an evolutionary approach to development, perhaps with an eye on the strategy which can change. You are more interested in exploring ideas than bringing them to closure.

ENTP Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ENTP's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ENTP can contribute by challenging the status quo, and encouraging other team members to achieve more than they thought you could. Their style can seem confrontational, but through stimulating intellectual discussion between people who are competent in relevant skills, ENTPs can lead other team members to a greater understanding of the concepts and principles involved. ENTPs also contribute their own creative ideas on how the task can be achieved or quality improved, looking for ways to overcome apparently insurmountable difficulties, and generating team spirit though the ENTP's own energy and enthusiasm.

ENTP Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ENTPs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ENTP can irritate others include initiating too many projects, and not being able to deliver on all of them. By introducing too much change and not taking sufficient account of current realities, they may not leave well-

established, workable routines alone. They may appear to be overly competitive and unappreciative of the contribution of others, leaving someone else to do the routine work, and occasionally make assumptions that aren't necessarily backed up by the facts.

ENTP Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ENTPs


As with all types, the ENTP can achieve personal growth by developing all functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as being selective about the initiation of projects, and making sure that a project is thoroughly complete before starting another one. You may need to learn to appreciate the value of using existing processes that are 'good enough' to do the job, rather than try to change the process to make it even better. You may need to pay more attention to investigating the facts and documenting them, before interpreting what they mean or trying out a new experiment. Also, you may need to consider the impact of your approach and ideas on people's feelings, learning to appreciation more that some people are quite happy with the way things are and aren't necessarily looking to improve everything they do.

ENTP Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ENTPs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the ENTP will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, you might spend time bouncing ideas off people, and debating or critiquing what needs to be done. You may also draft in people with proven skills to work on the problem, and provide a lot of drive to get things changed. However, you may also try to do too much, make errors of fact of in your haste, and/or ignore obvious or routine solutions that might nevertheless be effective. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ENTP's shadow may appear - a negative form of ISFJ. Example characteristics are being pedantic about unimportant details, doing things to excess - e.g.: eating, drinking or exercising - expressing emotions in an intensive and uncontrolled way, being very sensitive to criticism. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ENTP may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ENTP Careers
ENTPs tend to enjoy a career if it involves innovation and creativity, particularly if they have the opportunity to challenge the status quo. They enjoy debating issues in groups, breaking new ground, and working to high level objectives that require continuous improvement and quality/excellence. ENTPs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a flexible workstyle, that goes with the flow (Perception)

We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ENTPs included: Entrepreneurship; Management; Accountancy; Human Resources; Sales; Research; Analysis. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ESTJ Personality Types - Overview


"ESTJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ESTJs prefer: Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is ESTJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ESTJ then you want the world to be well run and well organised. You are keenly aware of the need for structure in a situation,

such as the roles and responsibilities that people have. If there are no established processes or procedures, or in a situation of chaos, then you will introduce a logical organisation and structure into the way things are done. You are likely to be businesslike and professional in your manner.

ESTJ Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (E, S, T, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ESTJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ESTJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ESTJ is the judging one of Thinking. This means you like making decisions on the basis of logic, using objective considerations, are concerned with truth, principles and justice, are analytical and critical, tending to see the flaws in situations, and take an objective approach. The judging Thinking function is extraverted. That is, thinking is used primarily to govern the outer world of actions and spoken words. You are therefore likely to organise life and work on a logical basis - classifying, ordering, and directing facts and situations. You tend to be decisive, with the aim of being just

and fair, and are comfortable with conflict as a way of resolving problems. You are professional rather than personal in your approach, tending to focus more on systems and organisational needs than each individuals' feelings.

ESTJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ESTJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ESTJ can contribute by working hard and efficiently to complete tasks by the deadlines set, contributing practical organisational skills, applying relevant and realistic logical arguments, calling a spade a spade, ensuring the team follows its plans through to completion.

STJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ESTJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ESTJ can irritate others include focusing too much on the current task at the expense of broader interpersonal issues, being too blunt in giving criticism, not seeing the wood for the trees, not encouraging others to experiment or innovate, and not paying enough attention to others' feelings and values.

ESTJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ESTJs


As with all types, the ESTJ can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as taking time to consider the impact of your approach and ideas on people's feelings, expressing appreciation towards others, and consulting others more. You can engender more ownership of the solution in the team if they realise you value their own contributions and incorporate their views into collective decision making. You may need to learn to acknowledge and accept the positive role that can be played by your own emotions, and also work within your own and other people's limitations rather than expecting them to be fully competent all the time.

ESTJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ESTJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the ESTJ will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, you might take command, decide what needs to be done, tell everyone what to do, and use tried and trusted solutions to short-term problems. However, you may also make decisions

too quickly and, without considering the impact on people, criticise others efforts and ignore their feelings (when they, also, are under stress). Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ESTJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of INFP. Example characteristics are withdrawing and wanting to be alone, having intense emotions (that may or may not be expressed) being very sensitive to criticism, and attributing unrealistic negative meaning to others actions or statements. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ESTJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ESTJ Careers
ESTJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves a structured working environment, over which the ESTJ can exert some control. They like organising and directoring resources to achieve clear objectives, using well-defined processes - e.g. managing projects (of whatever size) to achieve a well-defined plan. ESTJs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ESTJs included: Law; Human Resources; Training; Nursing; Management; Project Management; Administration. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ESFJ Personality Types - Overview


"ESFJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ESFJs prefer: Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) more than iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is ESFJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ESFJ then you seek to develop harmony in relationships, and promote cooperation and teamwork. You regard the needs of others as very important, perhaps more so than your own, and seek to recognise their contributions and make them feel valued. You encourage and motivate others, engender team spirit, and try to overcome any conflict by finding common ground and ways in which people can agree.

ESFJ Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (E, S, F, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ESFJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ESFJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ESFJ is the judging one of Feeling. This means you make decisions on the basis of personal values, are appreciative and accepting of people, enjoy company and seek harmony. You assess the impact of your decisions on others, are sympathetic or compassionate, and take a personal and friendly approach. The judging Feeling function is extraverted. That is, Feeling is used primarily to govern the outer world of people and things, or actions and spoken words. You therefore tend to seek stable, harmonious relationships, and tend to adapt to the environment - taking on board those values that are held as important by friends and family, or society as a whole. You are likely to express the appreciation that you feel towards others, consider their feelings before your own. You may be sensitive to praise and criticism, and seek to conform to others' reasonable expectations.

ESFJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ESFJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, an ESFJ can contribute not only by working hard to fulfil their own responsibilities but also by ensuring that everyone in the team feels valued, and that their needs are met. You seek to maintain good relationships within the team, often building team spirit through enthusiastic organisation of social activities. You keep the team informed, asking for contributions from all members, and try to arrive at consensus decisions. You tend to respect established hierarchies and traditions, and are keen to ensure that customers or clients are happy with the service the team provides.

ESFJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ESFJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ESFJ can irritate others include talking too much, assuming you know the needs of others, and avoiding conflict to the extent of not giving criticism when it is needed. You may not pay enough attention to your own needs and, perhaps not seeing the wood for the trees, are sometimes reluctant to try out new things or work towards new possibilities.

ESFJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers

tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ESFJs


As with all types, the ESFJ can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as doing analytical tasks (such as cost benefit analyses), and learning how to be (constructively) critical of others. Rather than assuming you know what people want, you may need to encourage others to articulate their own needs and use active listening to verify your understanding. You might also benefit from establishing a list of your own, personal needs and trying to identify ways in which both sets of needs can be met. It may also be helpful to establish a long term goal but, in working towards it, also being prepared to modify it in the light of new experience and changing circumstances.

ESFJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ESFJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the ESFJ will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the ESFJ might work hard to complete pre-defined tasks, express appreciation for everyone else's efforts, and see the positive contribution that others are making. However, you may also fail to recognise the need for change, or the negative impact of the people you admire, and you may neglect your own needs whilst being concerned for others. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ESFJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of INTP. Example characteristics are

being very critical and finding fault with almost everything, ignoring others' feelings, having a pessimistic view of the future, and uggesting ideas that are quite impractical. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ESFJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ESFJ Careers
ESFJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves working with people on a regular basis, building relationships, and seeing people appreciate the service they provide. ESFJs like to apply their experience to practical work, give and receive appreciation, and see other people's relationships improve as well. ESFJs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with facts and tangible outcomes (Sensing) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ESFJs included: Nursing; Home Making; Medical; Training; Administration; Teaching; Personal Assistant. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ENFJ Personality Types - Overview


"ENFJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ENFJs prefer:

Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) more than Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is ENFJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ENFJ then you are someone who seeks to develop and promote personal growth in your friends, family or colleagues. You sometimes have a sense of their potential which may extend beyond how they see themselves. You also seek to develop the potential within relationships or the team. However, you don't push so hard that it creates conflict, because keeping the harmony in your relationships is also important.

ENFJ Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (E, N, F, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ENFJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ENFJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ENFJ is the judging one of Feeling. This means you make decisions on the basis of personal values and are appreciative/accepting of people. You enjoy company and seek harmony, assess the impact of decisions on others, and you are sympathetic or compassionate, taking a personal approach. The judging Feeling function is extraverted. That is, feeling is used primarily to govern the outer world of actions and spoken words. You will therefore seek stable, harmonious relationships, tend to adapt to the environment, and take on board those values that are held as important by friends and family, or society as a whole. You tend to express the appreciation that you feel towards others and consider others' feelings before your own. You are sensitive to praise and criticism, and seek to accommodate others' (reasonable) expectations as far as possible.

ENFJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ENFJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ENFJ can contribute by promoting insight and common understanding amongst the team. You may play an important role, whilst facilitating discussions, in encouraging contributions from all team members by asking questions in a structured way. You seek to arrive at consensus decisions, generating team spirit though your energy and enthusiasm and by focusing on areas of agreement. You tend to

building on others' proposals rather than criticise them, thereby bringing discussions to positive conclusions.

ENFJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ENFJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ENFJ can irritate others include talking too much and assuming to know the needs of others. In trying to help others develop insight, you may appear as both bossy and also as avoiding conflict (e.g.: not giving criticism when it is needed). You may also tend to take criticism personally, focusing so much on interpersonal issues that impersonal or business issues (such as cost or performance management) are not adequately addressed.

ENFJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ENFJs


As with all types, the ENFJ can achieve personal growth by developing any functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as learning to observe and accept the negative aspects of those people you admire, undertaking a critical appraisal of a situation or person, and expressing disagreement or criticism when it could be of value to the recipient. You may

need to find an independent and objective means of verifying your insights about people, as they may be coloured by your subjective viewpoint. You may also need to pause and think more, to encourage others to articulate their own needs and use active listening to verify your understanding.

ENFJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ENFJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so an ENFJ will typically behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the ENFJ might get everyone organised, express appreciation for their efforts, contribute creative ideas, but overlook current realities and fail to consider the cost implications. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ENFJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of ISTP. This might include characteristics such as being very critical and finding fault with almost everything. You may also tend to do things to excess e.g.: eating, drinking or exercising - and ask for irrelevant information whilst ignoring others' feelings. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ENFJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ENFJ Careers
ENFJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves innovation and creativity, particularly in changing people or communities for the better. They enjoy building new relationships and working

in an atmosphere of openness and trust. They like to give people new insights - helping them to develop and realise their potential. ENFJs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using subjective values (Feeling) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ENFJs included: Counselling; Teaching; Human Resources; Sales; Nursing; Administration; Management. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.

ENTJ Personality Types - Overview


"ENTJ" is one of 16 personality types created by Isabel Briggs Myers, based on the theory of C.G. Jung. Each letter describes a preference for a way of thinking or behaving. Anyone can use any style, but ENTJs prefer: Extraversion (interacting with people) more than Introversion (thinking things through) iNtuition (perceiving new possibilities) more than Sensing (perceiving tangible facts) Thinking (making decisions using objective logic) more than Feeling (making decisions using subjective values) Judgement (an organised lifestyle) more than Perception (a flexible lifestyle)

Is ENTJ Your "Closest Type"?


C.G. Jung pointed out that the 16 types are stereotypes. You can use them as reference points to understand your own unique personality and how you differ from other people. This is

like using the closest landmarks on a map to identify your unique location. If your closest personality type is ENTJ then you are looking to develop a better structure and organisation in the way things are done. You tend to control life by organising systems and people to meet task oriented goals, but you also have one eye on the future and are looking for a process of continuous improvement. You like to work with competent people who, being in the right roles, have the appropriate skills both to do their job and implement the improvements you envisage.

ENTJ Personality Types - Dominant


There is much more to these letters (E, N, T, and J) than may at first appear. They form a complex code that describes four mental functions and how you use them.

The way a typical ENTJ uses the mental functions is shown by the 'mental muscle diagram' (right). The bigger functions at the top are used more and are more important.

ENTJ's Dominant Function


The dominant function of an ENTJ is the judging one of Thinking. This means you like making decisions on the basis of logic, using objective considerations, and are concerned with truth, principles and justice. You are analytical and critical, tending to see the flaws in situations, and take a task-oriented approach in your dealings with people. The judging Thinking function is extraverted. That is, thinking is used primarily to govern the outer world of actions and spoken words. The ENTJ will therefore organise life in on a logical basis, classifying, ordering, and directing facts and situations. You are

probably decisive, with the aim of being just and fair, and comfortable with conflict as a way of resolving problems. In your work you probably take an impersonal approach, spontaneously tending to criticise, and focusing more on systems and organisational needs than each individuals' feelings.

ENTJ Personality Types - Team Contribution


One of the most popular uses of personality type is to improve teamwork. If you know your personality type, and those of other people in the team, it can help you understand and appreciate your differences. This can help reduce unproductive conflict, and increase everyone's enjoyment of their work.

ENTJ's Preferred Team Style


In a team environment, the ENTJ can contribute by focusing on the task to be achieved and keeping the team on track, providing a drive to complete the task on time and to a high quality. ENTJs often want to shape the team structure to best serve the team objectives and, whilst using analytical and critical skills to solve problems, making sure that short term solutions fit in with the longer term strategy. You probably help other team members sort out their own confusion and ambiguity and, when organising team tasks, involve people who are competent in relevant skills whilst making sure everyone knows what they have to do.

ENTJ Personality Types - Irritants


When two people have different personality preferences, this can sometimes lead to friction in their relationship. For example, an Extravert might like to talk about ideas out loud, but an introvert prefers to think them through first. There are

various examples conflict between different preferences at the blog of Steve Myers (no relation to Isabel Briggs Myers).

How ENTJs Can Irritate Other People


The potential ways in which an ENTJ can irritate others include taking control when it is their role to do so, issuing directives sometimes without explaining the reasons why, and dominating the team. Also, if you are in charge, you may not take sufficient account of others' feelings, and drive the team too hard. There may also be a possibility that you decide too quickly, without sufficient consultation with others, and don't take sufficient account of current realities. As a result you may end up introducing too much change, rather than leaving wellestablished, workable routines alone.

ENTJ Personality Types - Personal Growth


Knowing your personality type can help you develop as a person. There are two main stages, though Isabel Briggs Myers tended to focus just on the first stage. (Jung's more advanced development will be discuss on Steve Myers' blog.)

The First Stage Of Development For ENTJs


As with all types, ENTJs can achieve personal growth by developing those functions that are not fully developed, through actions such as pausing and thinking, and taking time to consider your own values and emotions, and consider the impact of your approach on other people's values and feelings. You may need to learn that others are more likely to accept your decisions if you consult them more - i.e.: by demonstrating that their own contributions are accepted and incorporated into a collective decision you will engender ownership of the solution amongst the team. You may also need to become more tolerant of other people's limitations,

expressing appreciation for what they are good at rather than focus on their failings.

ENTJ Personality Types - Stress


Your personality type affects the way that you react to stress. There are two stages. Under mild stress you revert to type, making more use of your preferences. When stress becomes excessive, you might 'flip' to your shadow personality.

The Stages Of Stress For ENTJs


As stress increases, 'learned behaviour' tends to give way to the natural style, so the ENTJ will behave more according to type when under greater stress. For example, in a crisis, the ENTJ might take control, decide what needs to be done, and tell everyone what to do. Under mild stress ENTJs maintain a sense of direction, and drive others hard to overcome any short term difficulties, though there may also be a tendency to make decisions too quickly and, without considering the impact on people who are also under stress, criticise their efforts and ignore their feelings. Under extreme stress, fatigue or illness, the ENTJ's shadow may appear - a negative form of ISFP. Example characteristics are withdrawing and wanting to be alone, having intense emotions, that may or may not be expressed, being very sensitive to criticism, acting very impulsively, and doing things to excess. The shadow is part of the unconscious that is often visible to others, onto whom the shadow is projected. An ENTJ may therefore readily see these faults in others without recognising it in him/her self.

ENTJ Careers
ENTJs tend to enjoy a career if it involves tackling challenging and complex problems, and improving, organising and directing the way things are done. They like to implement new strategies

that improve quality, develop greater skills or competence, and enable the organisation to grow and develop. ENTJs prefer careers that involve: interacting with people and things (Extraversion) dealing with possibilities and potential (iNtuition) making decisions using objective logic (Thinking) using a well-defined and structured workstyle (Judgement) We conducted research with 17,000 people into the most enjoyable careers. The careers chosen most frequently by ENTJs included: Project Management; Management; Human Resources; Technical Specialist; Engineering; Administration. However, the most popular jobs were not always the most enjoyable. People enjoyed their job most when the balance of the 16 styles required in the job matched their personal balance of preferences. You can find out more by looking at the balance required in different careers.