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Curs LIMBA ENGLEZA CONTEMPORANA (GRUPUL VERBAL) Semestrul I Tematic Programa cursului de morfologie, partea verbal se adreseaz studenilor

de la nvmntul deschis, la distan care studiaz limba i literatura englez la Facultatea de Litere a Universitii din raiova! Programa cuprinde urmtoarele teme" !" Cate#$riile #ramaticale ale %er&ului '" Cate#$riile #ramaticale ale tim(ului )i as(ectului" i! #impul prezent simplu i prezent continuu ii! #impul trecut $Past #ense% simplu i trecut $Past #ense% continuu iii! #impul perfectul prezent $Present Perfect% simplu i perfectul prezent continuu iv!#impul mai mult ca perfectul $Past Perfect% simplu i mai mult ca perfectul continuu v! &i'loace de e(primare a viitorului" viitorul simplu, viitorul continuu, viitorul perfect simplu, viitorul perfect continuu, prezentul simplu i continuu $) adverbe de timp%, viitorul cu going to, be about to, be to; aciuni viitoare dintr*o perspectiv trecut *" Cate#$ria #ramatical a m$+ului )i a m$+alit,ii i! &odul indicativ ii! &odul sub'onctiv" formele de sub'onctiv n engleza contemporan" * sub'onctivul sintetic * sub'onctivul analitic" should ) infinitiv, may/might ) infinitiv, would ) infinitiv, could ) infinitiv iii! +erbele modale" * caracteristicile morfologice, sintatice i semantice ale verbelor modale * valorile i utilizrile verbelor modale" can/could, may/might, must/ have to, need, shall/should, will/would, dare -" Cate#$ria #ramatical a +iate.ei" i! diateza activ ii! diateza pasiv * be / get / become ) participul trecut * complementul de agent - ntrebuinarea diatezei pasive O&iecti%e * cunoaterea, nelegerea i utilizarea adecvat a noiunilor specifice disciplinei Limba englez contemporan $grupul verbal%, cunoaterea i e(plicarea aparatului conceptual fundamental * e(plicarea i interpretarea corect a coninuturilor teoretice ale disciplinei Limba englez contemporan $grupul verbal% n conte(te bine definite, * e(plicarea i interpretarea coninuturilor practice ale disciplinei Limba englez contemporan $grupul verbal% n conte(te bine definite, capacitatea de aplicare a noiunilor teoretice i a abilitilor practice specifice disciplinei Limba englez contemporan $grupul verbal% n situaii tipice * analiza principalelor categorii gramaticale ale verbului n engleza contemporan, i anume, categoria gramatical a timpului, a aspectului, a modalitii $opoziia dintre modul indicativ i sub'onctiv precum i valorile verbelor modale%, categoria gramatical a diatezei! * nelegerea concepiei strnsei interdependene dintre morfologie i sinta(, insistndu*se asupra ncadrrilor sintactico*conte(tuale ale verbului

E%aluare Forma de evaluare $e(amen i teme de control% -tabilirea notei finale $procente%" - rspunsurile la e(amen" ./ 0 - teme de control" 1/0 Tim( al$cat '/ $re BIBLIOGRA0IE MINIMAL1 arter, 2onald, &c arth3, &ichael! 4//5! Cambridge Grammar of English. Com!rehensive Guide" #!o$en and %ritten English Grammar and &sage. ambridge" ambridge Universit3 Press! elce*&urcia, &arianne, Larsen*Freeman, 6iane! 7888! 'he Grammar (oo$. n E#)/E*) 'eacher+s Course. 4nd edn! 9einle : 9einle ;leanu, ;!, omiel, <! 78=4! Gramatica limbii engle,e. -entru u, .colar, >ucureti" <ditura 6idactic i Pedagogic! Leech, ;eoffre3 ?! 78=.! /eaning and the English 0erb, London" Longman! Leech, ;eoffre3, -vartvic@, Aan! 7881! Communicative Grammar of English, London" Longman! Leech, ;eoffre3, 6euchar, &argaret, and 9oogenrad, 2obert! 4//5! English Grammar for 'oday. 1ew 2ntroduction. 4nd edn! London" Palgrave! Levichi, Leon, 78./! )imba engle,3 contem!oran3. /orfologie, >ucureti" <6P! &urar, Boana! 4//C! 'he English 0erb, raiova" <d! Universitaria Palmer, Fran@ 2! 78=.! 'he English 0erb, London" Longman! Duir@, 2!, ;reenbaum, -!, Leech, ;! and -vartvi@, A! 78=C! the English )anguage, London" Longman! Etefnescu, Boana! 78==! English /or!hology" 'he 1ominal and 0erbal Categories, #U>, >ucureti #homson, F!A!, and &artinet, F!+! 78=4! London" G(ford Universit3 Press -ractical English Grammar, third edition, Com!rehensive Grammar of

Ca(it$lul ! Cate#$riile #ramaticale ale %er&ului O&iecti%e -tudentii se vor familiariza cu notiunea de categorie gramaticala a verbului Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat - $re #he <nglish verb has grammatical forms determined b3 its cate#$ries $2 (ers$34 3um&er4 te3se4 as(ect4 %$ice4 m$$+" #he categories of person and number #he <nglish verb has onl3 one formal indicator to mar@ these categories, namel3 the -s for the 1rd person singular Present #ense, Bndicative &ood! >ecause of the scarcit3 of specific endings in the verb, these tHo categories are usuall3 identified b3 means of the sub'ect! <!g! 2/you wor$" #he categor3 of tense #ense and time are tHo distinct concepts! #ime is a universal, e(tralinguistic concept having three divisions" Past, Present or Future! #ime can be e(pressed linguisticall3 b3 means of the grammatical categor3 of tense! >3 tense He understand the form of the verb Hhose function is to mar@ the time at Hhich an event ta@es place! <vents ma3 be vieHed as being simultaneous Hith the reference points or perfected before these reference points! B! Bf the reference point of time is Present, events simultaneous Hith the present moment are e(pressed b3 the Present #ense, events perfected before the present are e(pressed b3 the Present Perfect! BB! Bf the reference point of time is Past, events simultaneous Hith the past moment are e(pressed b3 the Past #ense, events perfected before the past are e(pressed b3 the Past Perfect! BBB! Bf the reference point of time is future, events simultaneous Hith the future moment are e(pressed b3 the Future tense, events perfected before the future are e(pressed b3 the Future Perfect! <nglish tenses are verbal constructions e(pressing points of time combined Hith aspect! #he categor3 of aspect refers to the manner in Hhich the verbal action is regarded" it shoHs Hhether the action is complete or still in progress! #here are tHo aspectual oppositions in <nglish" 7! Perfective vs! ?on*perfective" perfective indicates that an event Has accomplished atIbefore a given point in time! Perfective is formed of the au(iliar3 have ) Past Participle of the verb! 4! #he progressive $ ontinuous% vs! -imple aspect" #he progressive describes an action in progress at a given time! Bt is formed of the au(iliar3 be ) the Present Participle of the main verb! #he simple aspect refers to an action Hhich is complete! Gn account of their meaning, some verbs do not normall3 occur in the ontinuous Fspect! #here are tHo classes of verbs from the point of vieH of their le(ical aspect" B! 63namic $Fctivit3% verbs and BB! -tate $-tative% verbs!

B! 63namic verbs describe actions that happen in a limited time! #he3 are normall3 used in the continuous aspect! #he3 can be subdivided into" 7! 6urative verbs, i!e! verbs denoting actions that last in time" read, write, etc! #his is a class of verbs t3picall3 used in the continuous aspect" * the ontinuous forms shoH that the action is in progress at a certain time, the -imple forms are used Hhen the duration is irrelevant" 4e is reading a boo$ I 4e seldom reads boo$s. * the ontinuous forms denote an action of limited, temporar3 duration, the simple aspect denotes unlimited, permanent duration" 2+m living with my aunt at !resent.//y !arents live in the country. * the ontinuous aspect suggests an incomplete action, Hhile the -imple forms suggest a complete action! 2 have mended the car this morning./ 2 have been mending the car this morning. 4! ?on*durative $&omentar3% verbs" verbs denoting momentar3 events," catch, find, hit, 5um!, $ic$, etc! -ince these verbs refer to momentar3 actions, the3 cannot normall3 be used in the continuous aspect" #he slammed the door! Jhen these verbs are used in the continuous aspect, the3 denote a repeated action" 4e nodded / 4e was nodding. BB! -tate verbs describe states Hhich continue over a period of time! -ince the3 denote a permanent duration of an action the3 are not normall3 used in the continuous forms! #he3 can be subdivided into" 7! 2elational verbs $verbs of being and possessing%" be, belong, com- !rise, consist, contain, have, lac$, need, etc" 4e has a new car! 4! +erbs denoting ph3sical perception" feel, hear, loo$, notice, see, smell, taste" 2 see a car coming towards us! 1! +erbs of cognition" believe, consider, doubt, forget, e6!ect, guess, $now, etc. 'hey understand my !roblem now! K! +erbs referring to feelings, emotions $li@es and disli@es%" li$e, love, hate, !refer, want, wish" 2 want to go to )ondon! -ome of these verbs ma3 be used in the ontinuous aspect" a% Hhen the spea@er Hishes to emphasize a temporar3 action, situation, not a permanent one" (e * to e(press a temporar3 state, Lualit3 or behaviour" nn is a good girl I nn is being a good girl today $ verbs denoting feelings * if the3 e(press temporar3 actions" $at a part3%" 9ello, FnnM Fre 3ou en'o3ing the part3N

b%+erbs smell, taste, sound * to e(press a voluntar3 action on the part of the sub'ect" 'he ca$e tastes good. /'he coo$ is tasting the sou! c% Jhen the verbs are recategorized" Hhen the3 an activit3 not a state" * +erbs of possession $have, hold, !ossess% ompare" 4e has a new car I 4e is having lunch. * -ome verb of thin@ing $thin$, e6!ect, consider, imagine% * perception verbs $see, hear%" 7o you see that house over thereN I'he director is seeing the new a!!licants

5UESTIONS" 7! #he categor3 of tense O definition 4! #he categor3 of aspectO definition 1! lasses of verbs from the point of vieH of their le(ical aspect K! +erbs not normall3 used in the ontinuous Fspect

Ca(it$lul '" Cate#$riile #ramaticale ale tim(ului )i as(ectului" '"!" T6e (rese3t sim(le a3+ c$3ti3u$us T6e (rese3t sim(le O&iecti%e -tudentii isi vor revizui cunostintele legate de timp si aspect ale verbului Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat ' $re Form" it has the same form as the -hort Bnfinitive e(cept for the 1 rd pers!sg! Hhich adds an 8e9s" 2 wor$/you wor$/he wor$s Uses and values" #he present simple denotes" 7! Facts Hhich are alHa3s true" * general truths or laHs of nature" %ater boils at :;; degrees Celsius. * permanent situations or states" #he wor$s in a ban$. 4! 9abitualIrepeated actions" F freLuenc3 adverb $often, usually, always, etc!% is often used" 2 usually ta$e the bus to wor$. 1! &omentar3 actions completed at the same time the3 are performed $in conte(ts such as" announcements, stage directions, radio or #+ commentaries%" %e acce!t your offer. K! Past time reference" * -ummaries of historical events, plots of stories, use present present tenses" /ay :<=>" 'he war in Euro!e comes to an end. * 9eadlines" #hi! sin$s in midnight collision. * Hith Pcommunication verbsQ" 'hey tell me that you have been abroad. C! Future time reference" a% Planned future actions, Hhen the future action is considered part of an alread3 fi(ed programme, timetable! #he adverbials indicating future time are obligator3" 'he train leaves at ?";;! b% Bn temporal and conditional clauses, Hhen there is a futureI presentI imperative in the main clause" %e shall be late if you don+t hurry. T6e (rese3t c$3ti3u$us ((r$#ressi%e)

Form" Bt is formed of the Present tense of the au(iliar3 be ) the present Participle of the main verb" 2 am wor$ing, etc! Uses and values" 7! Fctions Hhich are in progress at the moment * #he action can be actuall3 in progress at the moment of spea@ing" 'he wind is blowing $noH%! * Gr the action can be generall3 in progress but not actuall3 happening at the moment%" 2 am reading a novel by @ohn *owles. * #he action can be temporar3" 2+m staying in a hotel until 2 find a flat. * changing or developing situations" /ore and more !eo!le are giving u! smo$ing. 4! Future time reference" Fi(ed arrangements in the near future! #he time of the action must be mentioned" %e+re going to the cinema tonight! 1! F freLuentl3 repeated action Hhich anno3s the spea@er! F freLuenc3 adverb is necessar3" 4e+s always getting into trouble. 5UESTIONS" 7! ;eneral and habitual actions e(pressed b3 Present -imple 4! Present -imple Hith other temporal values" past, future 1! Fctions in progress e(pressed b3 Present ontinuous K! Future time reference e(pressed b3 Present -imple and ontinuous C! Fdverbials of time used Hith the Present -imple and ontinuous

'"'" T6e Past te3se sim(le a3+ c$3ti3u$us Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat ' $re T6e (ast sim(le Form" a% 2egular verbs form their Past #ense b3 adding Oed to the short infinitive, e!g! to wor$ R 2/you/he wor$ed b% Brregular verbs" sing - sang $internal voHel change%, lend - lent $change in the last consonant%, cut A cut $invariable forms%, go A went Uses and values" 7! FctionsIevents completed in the past at a definite time" a% Hhen the timeIplace is given" nn !honed me at B o+cloc$. /Cas soon as she got home/C from school! b% Hhen the action clearl3 too@ place at a definite time even if this time is not mentioned" 'he train was five minutes late!

c% Jhen there is a seLuence of past events $narrative use%" 2 got u!, switched off the radio, and sat down again. 4! 9abits in the past" * #he past simple is used to describe past habits or states! F time e(pression is necessar3" 2 always got u! at si6 in those days! ! &sed to" is used to describe past habits, usuall3 in contrast Hith the present! F time e(pression is not necessar3" 2 used to get u! at si6, but now 2 get u! at eight. &sed to can also describe past states" 2 used to own a horse! %ould is used to describe a personQs t3pical activities in the past" !Every evening @ac$ would turn on the radio, light his !i!e and fall aslee!. T6e (ast c$3ti3u$us Form" #he Past ontinuous is formed of the Past #ense of the au(iliar3 be and the Present Participle of the main verb" 2 was wor$ing, etc 7! Bt is used to describe actions still in progress" * Hith a point in time it e(presses an action in progress $going on% precisel3 at that moment" t :D.E; yesterday we were having a wal$ in the !ar$! * Hith a period of time it e(presses an action that continued for some time $bac@ground description in narrative%" Festerday morning 2 was writing letters! - Hith another action in the simple past it e(presses an action that began and probabl3 continued after the other $shorter% action Hhich interrupted it" %hile 2 was 5ogging, a man sto!!ed me and as$ed me the time. 4! #he Past ontinuous can be used to describe a repeated action in the past, often an anno3ing habit! F freLuenc3 adverb is necessar3" 'om was always ringing me u! late at night! 1! Jith an adverb of future time it e(presses a definite future arrangement seen from the past" 7an was busy !ac$ing, for he was leaving the ne6t day. DU<-#BG?-" 7! &ain values of Past -imple 4! Ja3s of e(pressing habits in the past 1! #ime e(pressions used Hith Past -imple and ontinuous

'"*" T6e (rese3t (er2ect sim(le a3+ c$3ti3u$us Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat ' $re Prese3t (er2ect sim(le Form" Bt is formed of the Present #ense of the au(iliar3 have and the Past Participle of the main verb" 2 have wor$ed, etc! Uses and values" 7! 2ecent events, Hithout a definite time given! F time e(pression ma3 emphasize recentness $5ust%" 4e has 5ust left. 4! Bndefinite events, Hhich happened at an un@noHn time in the past! ?o definite time is given" @im has had three car accidents. $u! to the !resent%! 1! Bndefinite events Hhich ma3 have an obvious result in the present" 2+ve twisted my an$le. 8'hat+s why 2+m lim!ing9 K! Jith state verbs, a state Hhich lasts up to the present" 2+ve lived here for the !ast ten years. #ime e(pressions Hith Present Perfect" 5ust, ever, never, already, yet, always, how long, so far, recently, today, this wee$/month, since $e(presses a starting point in the past%, for $e(presses the duration of an action%" 2+ve been here since /arch/ 2+ve been here for three months! ontrasts Hith Past -imple" Past simple is used Hith time e(pressions Hhich refer to definite time $yesterday, last wee$%! #he time ma3 be stated or understood" 2+ve bought a new car. $indefinite%I 2 bought a new car last wee$. $definite time% Prese3t (er2ect c$3ti3u$us ((r$#ressi%e) Form" Bt consists of the Present Perfect of the au(iliar3 be ) the Present Participle of the main verb" 2 have been wor$ing, etc! Uses and values" 7! Bt e(presses actions started in the past and continuing up to the present" 2+ve been living in this house for five years. Bt e(presses an incomplete activit3" 2+ve been cleaning the house but 2 still haven+t finished. 4! 2esultative use" #he Present Perfect continuous indicates a recentl3 finished action Hhich e(plains a present result" 4e has been running. 'hat+s why he+s out of breath. 1! 2epeated actions" 'hey have been meeting li$e this for years. Present Perfect ontinuous is normall3 used Hith for, since, how long to emphasise the duration of the action" 4e has been feeling unwell for days! ontrasts Hith Present Perfect -imple" 7! #here ma3 be little contrast Hhen some state verbs are used"

4ow long have you lived / have you been living hereG 4! #here ma3 be a contrast betHeen completion $Present Perfect -imple% and incompletion $Present Perfect ontinuous%, especiall3 if the number of items $actions% completed is mentioned" 2+ve ironed five shirts this morning I 2+ve been ironing my shirts this morning. 5UESTIONS" 7! &ain values of Present Perfect -imple 4! 2esultative use of Present Perfect -imple and ontinuous 1! #ime e(pressions Hith the Present Perfect -imple and ontinuous K! Fspects of contrast betHeen Present Perfect -imple and ontinuous

'"-" Past (er2ect sim(le a3+ c$3ti3u$us Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat ' $re Past (er2ect sim(le Form" Bt consists of the past tense of the au(iliar3 have and the past participle of the main verb, e!g! 2 had wor$ed, etc! Uses and values" 7! Past Perfect -imple is used to describe a past event that too@ place before another past event or before a given past moment" (y the time 2 got to the station the train had left. #he Past Perfect is not alHa3s necessar3 if a time e(pression ma@es the order of events clear $in temporal clauses introduced b3 after, until, before%" fter he 8had9 graduated he got a 5ob 4! ontinuative use" #he action began before a given past moment and continued up to that past moment! #he Past Perfect -imple has this value for those verbs not used in the continuous aspect" 4e had been ill for two wee$s when 2 learnt about it. 1! Jith the verbs ho!e, intend, mean, e6!ect, etc. the Past Perfect -imple indicates that the action did not materialize" 4e had intended to call but was !revented by some unforeseen business! Past (er2ect c$3ti3u$us Form" Bt is formed of the Past Perfect of the au(iliar3 be and the Present Participle of the main verb" 2 had been wor$ing, etc! Uses and values" 7! #he Past Perfect ontinuous indicates an action Hhich began before a point in the past, continued right up to it and ma3 have continued after! #he past point of time before Hhich the action e(pressed b3 the verb ma3 be indicated b3" * an adverbial phrase introduced b3 the preposition by"

(y that time he had been studying English for ten years. * a clause of time $the verb in the Past #ense%" 2 had been waiting for my friend for an hour when he finally turned u!. 4! 2esultative use" #he verb in the Past Perfect ontinuous occurs in Fdverbial lauses of ause or 2eason $introduced b3 because% to e(press a previous action Hhose result Has obvious at a certain past time" 2 was very tired when 2 arrived home! 2+d been wor$ing hard all day 5UESTIONS 7! &ain values of Past Perfect -imple 4! &ain values of Past Perfect ontinuous 1! #ime e(pressions used Hith Past -imple and ontinuous

'"7" Mea3s $2 e8(ressi3# 2uture time re2ere3ce Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat ' $re #here are several Ha3s of e(pressing future time in <nglish" 7! Future -imple Form" the au(iliaries shall/will ) the short infinitive of the main verb! #hall is used in the 7st pers! sgIpl! $formal >ritish <nglish, in informal conte(ts, in Fmerican <nglish it is replaced b3 will9! %ill is used in the 4nd and 1rd pers! sgIpl! Uses and values" #he Future -imple is used to denote actions to be performed in the future $i!e! after the present moment! #hus, the Future -imple is used for announcements of future plans, predictions about the future%" 2 shall/will be D; ne6t wee$ $formalIcolloLuial <nglish%! -3ntacticall3, the Future -imple is particularl3 common in" * the main clause of #emporal and onditional sentences $the future is not used in the subordinate clause of #ime and ondition%" %hen it gets warmer, the snow will start to melt. * Gb'ect clauses introduced b3 verbs Hhich e(press the spea@erQs opinion or assumption about the future" 7o you thin$ it will rainN #ime e(pressions" tomorrow, ne6t wee$/month, in the future, in D years #hall and will can acLuire modal value in some special constructions $interrogative, negative%! #hus, #hall acLuires special values" a% in the 7st pers! sgIpl! interrogative sentences" * reLuest for advice or suggestion" %here shall 2 !ut the boo$sN * ma@ing an offer" #hall 2 o!en the doorN

b% in the 4nd and 1rd pers! sgIpl! shall e(presses * the spea@erQs intention to perform a certain action" 'hey shall have my su!!ort. * command, formal instruction" Each com!etitor shall wear a number. %ill e(presses modal values" a% in the 7st pers! sgIpl! will e(presses unpremeditated intention, immediate decision" PCan somebody hel! meG+ H2 will!Q b% in the 4nd, 1rd pers! sgIplI, interrogative sentences will e(presses Hillingness, reLuest, invitation" %ill you do me a favourN c% in negative sentences will e(presses absence of Hillingness, i!e! refusal" again. 4! Future ontinuous Form" Bt is formed of the Future simple of the au(iliar3 be ) the Present participle of the main verb" 2 shall/will be wor$ing Uses and values" a% Bt denotes an action in progress at a given time in the future" 'his time ne6t year she+ll be running her own business. b% F future*as*a*matter*of*course" %hen will you be visiting us againN c% -upposition, strong probabilit3 referring to the present" #he+ll be slee!ing now. 1! Future Perfect Form" Bt consists of the future tense of the au(iliar3 have ) the Past Participle of the main verb" 2 shall/will have wor$ed Uses and values" a% Bt e(presses an action completed before a future moment! #he future moment ma3 be indicated b3 means of" * an adverbial phrase introduced b3 the prepositions by, before, in; 'hey will have emigrated to Canada by Christmas. * a subordinate clause of time introduced b3 the con'unctions before, when, by the time" (y the time we get there, the film will have started. #he Future Perfect becomes the Present Perfect in temporal clauses" 4e won+t forgive you till you have a!ologised. b% Bt e(presses supposition about an action performed at a previous moment" will have heard of this writer K! Future Perfect ontinuous Form" Bt consists of the Future Perfect of the au(iliar3 be ) the present participle of the main verb" 2 shall/will have been wor$ing. Bt e(presses an action begun before a given future moment and still going on at that future moment! #he given future moment can be e(pressed b3" 1o doubt you 2 won+t see him

* an adverbial phrase introduced b3 ne6t, by" (y his si6tieth birthday he will have been teaching for E> years. * a subordinate clause of time $Hith the verb in the Present #ense%" %hen /r. (rown retires he will have been wor$ing in the same office for => years. C! Gther means of e(pressing futurit3 $Future #ime% a% >e going to Form" the be going to * construction is formed of the continuous form of the verb go ) the long infinitive $infinitive Hith to% of the main verb, e!g! 2 am going to write, etc! #he going to O construction has tHo values" * #he sub'ectQs intention $plan, decision% to perform a certain future action" H%hat are you going to do tonightG+ H2+m going to stay at home. * Prediction $the spea@erQs feeling of certaint3, strong probabilit3, li@eli* hood%" dar$ clouds mean it+s going to rain. b% >e to ) infinitive e(presses the folloHing meanings" * an arrangement Hhich has been planned for the future" 'he meeting is to begin at ? o+cloc$. * an order, instruction, command, usuall3 an indirect one" Fou are to be bac$ by :; o+cloc$! c% >e about to ) infinitive e(presses an immediate future action Hhose fulfilment is imminent" 4urry u!I 'he train is 85ust9 about to leave. d% Present -imple $Hith future meaning%" an official plan or arrangement regarded as unalterable" 'he !lay begins at J o+cloc$ this evening. e% Present ontinuous $Hith future meaning%" a future event anticipated b3 virtue of a present plan, programme or arrangement $fi(ed arrange* ments in the near future%" #he+s meeting her aunt this wee$end. 5! Future actions seen from past perspective $Future in the Past%" a%! Future in the past means a future action vieHed from a past moment! #here are several Ha3s for describing future actions vieHed from a past moment" * au(iliar3 verb construction Hith would $literar3 narrative st3le%" 'he time was not far off when he would regret his decision! * HasIHere going to ) infinitive $unfulfilled intention% 4e was going to invite me to the cinema 8but he didn+t9. * Past progressive" 2 was meeting him in the same !lace the ne6t day. * HasIHere to)inf!" 'he meeting was to be held the following wee$ b% #he future in the past is used in reporting the past Hords or thoughts of someone! Fll the future forms dealt Hith so far can be turned into a future in the past b3 substituting should/would for shall Iwill" 'hose

2 shall see you tomorrow R2 told him 2 should see him the ne6t day! 5UESTIONS" 7!&ain values of Future ontinuous 4! &ain values of Future Perfect -imple 1! Bntention e(pressed b3 -hallIJill Future and >e ;oing to forms K! onstructions used to e(press Future in the Past C! #ime mar@ers used Hith future forms

Ca(it$lul *" Cate#$ria #ramatical a m$+ului )i a m$+alit,ii *"!" T6e Su&9u3cti%e m$$+ O&iecti%e -tudentii vor revedea notiunile de modalitate si cazurile de folosire corecta a verbelor modale Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat -$re &ood is the grammatical categor3 b3 means of Hhich modalit3 is e(pressed, i!e! the attitude of the spea@er toHards the action denoted b3 the verb! >3 means of this categor3, the spea@er can present the action as being" 7! real, e(isting in fact, 4! not real, non*factual, h3pothetical! #raditional grammars distinguish four finite moods" the Bndicative, the -ub'unctive, the onditional, the Bmperative! &odern grammars limit the number of moods to onl3 tHo" the Bndicative and the -ub'unctive! #he Bndicative mood is the mood of assertion, it presents the action as real or as factual! #he tenses of the Bndicative &ood cover all the divisions of time on the temporal a(is" past, present or future! #he -ub'unctive mood is non*assertive, it presents non*factual, h3pothetical statements! #he forms of the sub'unctive #he sub'unctive mood is represented b3 tHo forms" F! the -3nthetic forms $-3nthetic sub'unctive%, >! the Fnal3tic forms! F! #he -3nthetic -ub'unctive" #he -3nthetic sub'unctive has forms for the Present, past, perfect! B! #he Present -ub'unctive $the old form% Form" it is identical in form Hith the base form of the verb $short infinitive%" as$, be! 6istribution" #he Present sub'unctive occurs in a% Bndependent -entences" Bt occurs in some phrases $formulaic e(pressions%" i! Hishes" )ong live !eaceM God bless youM ii! oaths, curses" 'he devil ta$e himI 7amn himI

iii! <(pressions denoting urge, advise" #o be itI, #uffice it to say thatS b% -ubordinate clauses 7! -ub'ect clauses, after constructions of the t3pe" Bt is ) Fd'ective $ advisable, essential, necessary, im!ortant%" 2t is essential that the mission not fail. 4! Gb'ect clauses, after verbs li@e demand, desire, insist, order, !ro!ose, recommend, reKuire, suggest, urge" 'hey demand that the committee reconsider its decision. 1! Fttributive*appositive clauses, after abstract nouns belonging to the same semantic field" demand, reKuest, etc. 'here was a !ro!osal that he be elected chairman! K! Fdverbial lauses of ondition" 2f any !erson be found guilty he shall have the right of a!!eal. C! oncesion" 'hough everyone desert you 2 will not. #he use of the Present -ub'unctive is found in older <nglish and in formal $official and legal% st3le, as Hell as in Fmerican <nglish! BB! #he Past -ub'unctive Form" Bt is identical in form Hith the Past #ense Bndicative &ood" as$ed, wrote! 6istribution! #he Past -ub'unctive occurs in -ubordinate clauses! 7! -ub'ect clauses" #he Past -ub'unctive occurs after the construction 2t is 8about/high9 time" 2t+s time we went/were off. 4! Gb'ect lauses! #he Past -ub'unctive occurs after the verbs wish, would rather, would sooner. Ffter wish the Past -ub'unctive e(presses regret about a present action Hhich does not occur" 2 wish he were here L 2+m sorry /2 regret he isn+t here.2+d rather you stayed at home. 1! onditional lauses! $#3pe4 ond! l!%" 2f 2 saw him 2 would give him your message. #he Past sub'unctive after if only e(presses regret about an action contrar3 to present realit3 $if only is used in a similar Ha3 to wish%" 2f only 2 were still your ageI K! Fdverbial lauses of unreal comparison $introduced b3 as if, as though%" #he treats him as if he were a child! 7! Fdverbial clauses of concession $introduced b3 even if, even though%" Even though he were ill he wouldn+t miss school! BBB! #he Perfect -ub'unctive! Bt is identical in form Hith the Past perfect Bndicative &ood" had as$ed! 6istribution" #he Perfect -ub'unctive occurs in subordinate clauses"

7! Gb'ect lauses! Ffter the verbs wish, would rather, the Perfect -ub'unctive e(presses regret about a past situation or about an action contrar3 to past realit3" 2 wish 2 hadn+t s!ent so much money. 4! onditional lauses! $#3pe1%! 2f he had been here he would have hel!ed us. 1! lauses of omparison introduced b3 as if, as though" 2 remember the movie as if 2 had seen it yesterday! K! lauses of oncession introduced b3 even if, even though" Even if he were ill, he wouldn+t miss school. >! #he Fnal3tic -ub'unctive! Bt represents combinations of modal verbs used as au(iliaries ) the -hort Bnfinitive of the main verb! #he modal au(iliar3 verbs are" should, may/might, can/could, will/would! -9GUL6 occurs in" 7! Bndependent sentences or main clauses" a% to form the PresentIPerfect onditional in the 7st pers!sgIpl" 2 should li$e to see him. b% in 6irect or Bndirect Duestions introduced b3 who, what, why $PrhetoricalQ Luestions%" %hy should we Kuarrel over such a trifleN 4! -ubordinate clauses" a% -ub'ect clauses" Ffter the construction 2t is M d5ective $advisable, essential, etc9 2t is im!ortant that he should not ma$e a mista$e! b% Gb'ect lauses! Ffter verbs e(pressing command, order, li@e agree, command, demand, etc." 4e !ro!osed that we should !ost!one our de!arture! c% Fttributive*Fppositive lauses! Ffter abstract nouns such as demand, desire, etc. 'here is no reason why he should be late. d% onditional lauses! #he Fnal3tic -ub'unctive Hith should ond! l!% e(presses a higher degree of improbabilit3" more uncertaint3" 2f he should come we shall let you $now. e% lauses of purpose! 4e s!o$e slowly so that there should be no mista$es. &FT I &B;9# occurs in" 7! <(clamator3 sentences to conve3 a Hish" /ay you live longM 4! Gb'ect lauses after be afraid/a!!rehensive, fear" 2+m afraid the news may u!set her. 1! lauses of oncession introduced b3 compound con'unctions in *ever 8whoever, whatever, etc%, the phrase no matter 8who, what etc!%, as" %hatever he may say we must not change our !lan. JBLLIJGUL6 occurs in"

7! Bndependent sentences or main clauses to form the Present or Perfect conditional in the 4 nd and 1rd pers!sgIpl" #he would li$e to see him. 4! Gb'ect lauses after wish" it e(presses a not ver3 hopeful Hish about the future" 2 wish it would sto! raining $U but B donQt thin@ it Hould%, 1! onditional lauses introduced b3 if only" Nh, if only it would rainI c% lauses of Purpose" 2 hurried so that 2 wouldn+t be late. d% lauses of concession introduced b3 as" 'ry as you will you won+t manage it. 5UESTIONS 7! #he 6istribution of the -3nthetic -ub'unctive Present! 4! #he 6istribution of the -3nthetic -ub'unctive Past 1! #he 6istribution of the -3nthetic -ub'unctive Perfect K! #he distribution of the Fnal3tical -ub'unctive Hith -9GUL6 C! #he distribution of the Fnal3tical -ub'unctive Hith &FT 5! -ub'unctive forms used in -ub'ect lauses .! -ub'unctive forms used in Gb'ect lauses =! -ub'unctive forms used in Fdverbial lauses of ondition

*"'" T6e m$+al %er&s Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat - $re #he modal verbs are a special group of au(iliar3 verbs Hhich have some features in common" 7! #he3 have the same formal characteristics" a% the3 are uninflected" the3 donQt add *s for the 1rd pers! sg! b% #he3 form the interrogative and negative patterns Hithout do/did c% -ome of their forms are missing" i! #he3 have no non*finite forms $Bnfinitive, * ing forms%, ii! #he3 cannot be con'ugated in all tenses or moods, e!g! the3 do not occur in the perfect and future tenses! d% #he3 are folloHed b3 a main verb in the $short% infinitive $Present or Perfect infinitive%! 4! -emantic characteristics" #he modal verbs ma@e up a s3stem of items specialized for e(pressing the spea@erQs attitude toHards the action of the sentence" the action is seen as possible, necessar3, probable, befitting! #he3 are pol3semantic Hords! #he3 can be divided into tHo main t3pes" a% those having deontic values $abilit3, permission, obligation%, b% those having epistemic values $li@elihood, probabilit3%! B! F>BLB#T" #he modal verbs can/could e(press ph3sical or mental abilit3 to perform a certain action! an ) Present Bnfinitive has present or future time reference" 4e can s!ea$ several languages. Can you come to the meeting tomorrowG ould ) Present Bnfinitive e(presses"

i! Present or Future time reference Hith a h3pothetical value" 2 could hel! him now/tomorrow. ii! Past reference" could implies permanent abilit3 in the past, i!e! potential performance of an action, not the actual performance" 4e could !lay li$e a !rofessional when he was young/:; years ago Particular past abilit3 is e(pressed b3 could in negative sentences onl3" 2 ran but 2 couldn+t catch the bus. Particular past abilit3, i!e! a particular event Hhich Has successfull3 performed in the past $in affirmative sentences% is e(pressed b3 was able, managed to, succeeded in" 2 ran and 2 was able to catch the bus. ould ) perfect infinitive e(presses past abilit3 Hith a conditional reading! Bt implies that the sub'ect had the abilit3 or opportunit3 to do something, but he didnQt do it" 4e could have hel!ed us $Uhe Has able to help us but he didnQt%! #he missing forms of can/could are supplied b3 the appropriate forms of be able to" 'his is all the information 2+ve been able to get so far. BB! P<2&B--BG? is e(pressed b3 may/might, can/could! Can/could is used in less formal situations $in familiar colloLuial speech% than may/ might to e(press permission! 7! 2eLuests for permission" Can/could 2 ma$e a suggestionN &ore formal reLuests are e(pressed Hith may/might" /ay/might 2 use your !enN $more formal% 4! ;iving permission $someone is alloHed to do something%" a% Present or future reference" Fou can /may borrow that !en if you want to. Can has a Hider use than may, for it can be used to e(press permission given b3 the spea@er, but also to e(press the idea of having permission! Bn Fou can !ar$ here O can e(presses both meanings" i! permission given b3 the spea@er $B give 3ou permission%, ii! the idea of having permission $Tou have a right to par@ I 3ou are alloHed to par@%! 2efusal of permission is e(pressed b3 may not, cannot, must not $prohibition%" /ay 2 go outG 1o, you may not! b% past reference, i!e! permission in the past is e(pressed b3 might, could onl3 in reportedIindirect speech after a past reporting verb" 2 as$ed if 2 might/could invite my friends over ne6t #aturday. #he missing forms are supplied b3 to be allowed to, to be !ermitted to" 1obody was allowed to enter the room. BBB! G>LB;F#BG? is e(pressed b3 must, need, shall, should, ought to. /ust e(presses" 7! PresentIfuture time reference! -everal distinctions can be made Hithin the concept of obligation"

a% internal I e(ternal obligation" internal obligation, i!e! obligation imposed b3 the spea@er is e(pressed b3 must, e(ternal obligation, i!e! obligation that arises from outside is e(pressed b3 have to" 2 must go $itQs m3 decision%! 2 have to go $obligation imposed b3 e(ternal circumstances%! b% habitual I limited obligation" habitual obligation $obligation to perform a habitual action% is e(pressed b3 have to, limited obligation $one particular occasion% is e(pressed b3 have got to" 2 have to be at the office at ? o+cloc$ a.m! $habitual%! #orry, 2+ve got to go now $single obligation%! c% in negative sentences a distinction is made betHeen obligation not to do something $prohibition%, e(pressed b3 must not and absence of obligation e(pressed b3 don+t have to, needn+t" Fou mustn+t move any of my !a!ers on my des$. / 2 don+t usually have to wor$ on #undays. 4! Past time reference after a past reporting verb" 2 told her she must be more careful. #he missing forms of must are supplied b3 have to" 'he team had to leave the sin$ing shi!. &odal need has no -s in the 1rd pers! sg, it forms Luestions and negations Hithout do, it has no perfect or future forms, it is folloHed b3 the short infinitive of a main verb, it does not occur in affirmative sentences! ?eed ) present infinitive e(presses" i! Present I future time reference" 1eed 2 get u! early tomorrowN $B hope not%! Bn negative sentences needn+t is s3non3mous Hith don+t have to $ absence of obligation%" Fou needn+t come if you don+t want to! ii! Past time reference after a past reporting verb" 2 assured him that he needn+t worry. ?eed ) perfect Bnfinitive e(presses absence of obligation of an action Hhich Has nevertheless performed" 4e needn+t have hurried. 6idnQt need to ) Present Bnfinitive e(presses absence of obligation of an action Hhich Has probabl3 not performed! Bt is s3non3mous Hith didn+t have to" 4e didn+t need to hurry! #hould and ought to e(press recommendation, advisabilit3! #he3 are preferred in those conte(ts in Hhich must Hould sound too peremptor3! -hould I ought to ) Present Bnfinitive e(presses" a% present or future time reference" Fou+ve watched enough television" you should go to bed. b% Past time reference after a past reporting verb" 4e told me 2 ought to be ashamed of myself. -houldIought to ) Perfect Bnfinitive e(presses a past obligation Hhich Has not carried out, regret or strong reproach of non*fulfilment is implied" 'hey should have tele!honed to say they were not coming. B+! PG--B>BLB#T is e(pressed b3 may/might, can/could

7! present or future time reference" a% affirmative sentences" may is used to denote factual, actual possibilit3, Hhile can is used to denote a more general, theoretical possibilit3" 'he road may be bloc$ed $U it is possible that the road is bloc@ed%! 'he road can be bloc$ed $U it is possible to bloc@ the road%! /ight and could e(press a h3pothetical possibilit3, i!e! a more remote possibilit3 than may, can" P2 wonder where 'om is.Q P4e may/might/could be in the library!Q b% Bnterrogative sentences" can is common in interrogative and negative sentences Hhere may is rather infreLuent, ma3 does not normall3 occur in Luestions" in the interrogative may is replaced b3 can/could, is it li$ely" 2t may be true A Can it be trueN c% ?egative sentences! /ay/might occurs in negative sentences onl3 Hhen the meaning of the modal is e(cluded" 4e may not be at school UBt is possible that he isnQt at school! Bn negative sentences Hith can/could the meaning of the modal is included" 4e can+t be at school UBt is not possible that he should be at school! 4! Past time reference" a% /ight and could are used" i! after a past reporting verb" 4e said it might rain! ii! if there is an adverb denoting past time" 2n those days a man could be sentenced to death for a small crime. b% may/might/can/could ) Perfect Bnfinitive e(press a possibilit3 about a past action" 2 wonder how 'om $new about it. 4e may/might/could have heard it from @ohn. ii! in interrogative and negative sentences can, could are freLuentl3 used" #he is two hours late. %hat can have ha!!enedG Bn the negative, the meanings betHeen might not and could not differ" nn might not have seen 'om yesterday $Uperhaps she didnQt see him nn couldn+t have seen 'om yesterday $negative deduction%! +! P2G>F>BLB#T $supposition, li@elihood% is e(pressed b3 must, ought to, will, would! /ust is used to indicate strong li@elihood, a high degree of certaint3! &ust ) Present infinitive indicates supposition about a present action" 'hat church must be very old. &ust ) Perfect infinitive indicates logical deduction about a past action" #he must have left her umbrella on the bus $U B suppose she left it%! /ust is used to e(press logical deduction onl3 in affirmative sentences! Bn interrogative and negative sentences can is used instead" H4e must be at least B;.+ H4e can+t be as old as that.+ #hould and ought to are Hea@er eLuivalents of must in the sense of deduction" the3 e(press a lesser degree of certaint3 than must. @udging by his accent he should be a foreigner.

Jill ) Present infinitive e(presses suppositions about a present action" 'hat will be the hotel we are loo$ing for. Jill ) Perfect infinitive e(presses a present supposition about a past action" 'hey will have arrived by now $U BQm sure the3 have arrived % %ould is Hea@er than will in e(pressing suppositions" %ould your name be (rown, by any chanceN +B! +GLB#BG?, JBLLB?;?<-- is e(pressed b3 will, would, shall! %ill e(pressing strong volition, determination is stressed and cannot be contracted to +ll. Bt is used in all persons" a% Jith a 7st person sub'ect, the spea@er ma@es his oHn volition and determination felt" PCan somebody hel! meG+ H2 will!Q 2 will go to the dance and no one shall sto! me. $determination% b% Jith a 4nd person sub'ect, will e(presses volition in" i! conditional clauses $#3pe B%" it is used to e(press a polite reLuest or invitation" 2f you will hel! me we can finish in time ! ii! Luestions e(pressing invitation or reLuest" %ill you come in, !leaseG %ill you hel! meG c% Hith a 4nd and 1rd person sub'ect will e(presses obstinate determina* tion, insistence $strong volition%" Fou will have your way. d% in negative sentences will not $usuall3 contracted to won+t% e(presses absence of Hillingness, i!e! refusal! Bt has present time reference" 2 won+t do it $U B refuse to do it% %ould e(presses volition, Hillingness in the folloHing conte(ts" a% Jith a 4nd person sub'ect would e(presses more polite, more tentative Hillingness than will! Bt has present time reference and occurs in" i! conditional clauses $#3pe 4%" 2f you would lend me the boo$ 2 would be grateful to you! ii! Luestions e(pressing polite invitation or reLuest $would is more tactful than will%" %ould you come to dinner tomorrowG b% Jith a 4nd and 1rd person sub'ect would indicates obstinate determination! Bt has past time reference" #he would come though we warned her it would be rough. c% Bn negative sentences would not e(presses absence of Hillingness, i!e! refusal! Bt has past time reference" 4e was angry because 2 wouldn+t give him the boo$

5UESTIONS 7! #he semantic characteristics of &odal +erbs 4! Formal characteristics of &odal +erbs 1! &odal verbs e(pressing abilit3 K! &odal verbs e(pressing permission C! &odal verbs e(pressing obligation, necessit3 5! &odal verbs e(pressing supposition, probabilit3 .! &odal verbs e(pressing volition, Hillingness =! #he uses and values of the modal verbs F?, GUL6 8! #he uses and values of the modal verbs &FT, &B;9# 7/! #he uses and values of the modal verb &U-# 77! #he uses and values of the modal verbs -9FLL, -9GUL6 74! #he uses and values of the modal verbs JBLL, JGUL6

Ca(it$lul -" Cate#$ria #ramatical a +iate.ei O&iecti%e -tudentii vor revedea principalele diateze in limba engleza Tim( +e stu+iu al$cat - $re

+oice is the grammatical categor3 Hhich shoHs the relationship betHeen sub'ect and the action e(pressed b3 the verb phrase! #here are tHo voices in <nglish" the active and the passive! #he active voice $e!g! 'om wrote the letter% shoHs that the grammatical sub'ect performs the action! #he passive voice $'he letter was written by 'om% indicates that the grammatical sub'ect is the goalIrecipient of the action! #he active*passive transformation involves three grammatical levels" B! morphological, BB! s3ntactic, BBB! semantic I pragmatic level! B! #he morphological level" the form of the verb! #he passive form of the verb consists of the au(iliar3 (e $or get in some cases% ) the Past Participle of the main verb! #he au(iliar3 $(e/Get% mar@s the categories of person, number, tense, aspect! F passive verb has forms for all the tenses of the indicative, simple aspect! #he con'ugation of a verb in the passive voice, indicative mood"

#he -imple aspect" Present tense" he is hel!ed, Past tense" 4e was hel!ed, Present Perfect" 4e has been hel!ed, Past Perfect" 4e had been hel!ed, Future simple" 9e will be hel!ed, Future Perfect" 4e will have been hel!ed! #he <nglish verb has passive forms for onl3 tHo tenses of the continuous aspect" #he Present and Past! Present ontinuous" 4e is being hel!ed, Past #ense ontinuous" 4e was being hel!ed! Get is used as a resulting, d3namic au(iliar3 to emphasize the idea of change! Jith verbs of result such as brea$, burn, steal, stic$ the au(iliar3 get e(presses a detrimental meaning" actions that happen suddenl3, une(pectedl3 or b3 accident" /y money got stolen. BB! #he s3ntactic level $the clause level%" hanging from active to passive involves the transformation in the position and status of the sub'ect ?P and the Gb'ect ?P! a% #he sub'ect of the active construction becomes an ob'ect of agent introduced b3 the preposition by, b% the ob'ect of the active construction becomes the sub'ect in the passive! #he prepositional ob'ect of agent $the by*phrase% is generall3 an optional element! #he Gb'ect of agent is onl3 e(pressed Hhen it is important to mention, Hhen it conve3s relevant information" Edison invented the electric bulb R 'he electric bulb was invented by Edison! #he prepositional ob'ect of agent is not e(pressed $it is omitted% Hhen" * it is un@noHn to the spea@er" 'hat !yramid was built around =;;; 7 * it is indefinite" the sub'ect of the sentence Hould be e(pressed b3 an indefinite noun or pronoun $!eo!le, they, someone, one%! Bn such cases the passive is generall3 preferred and the resulting ob'ect of agent is omitted" -eo!le s!ea$ English all over the world O English is s!o$enC * passive*li@e causatives" /r. (rown can+t ty!e. 4is secretary ty!es his letters for him O /r. (rown has his letters ty!ed. #3pes of verbs used in passive constructions 7! #ransitive verbs" represent the largest class of verbs Hhich alloH passivization! a% transitive verbs ) one ob'ect $&onotransitive verbs%" according to the rule, an3 transitive verb folloHed b3 a direct ob'ect can be passivized $the 6irect ob'ect of the active sentence becomes the sub'ect of the passive%" 'he board has already discussed the matter O 'he matter has already been discussed by the board. -ome transitive verbs $state verbs% do not occur in the passive" contain, fit, have, hold, lac$, !ossess, resemble. #hus, the folloHing active sentences have no passive correspondent" 4e lac$s confidence" @ohn resembles his father. b% transitive verbs Hith tHo ob'ects $6itransitive verbs% i! a small number of verbs * as$, teach, envy O are folloHed b3 tHo ob'ects" a V)animateW ob'ect and a V*animateW one! #he V)animateW ob'ect usuall3 becomes the sub'ect in the passive" 'hey as$ed the !u!ils some Kuestions O 'he !u!ils were as$ed ii! +erbs li@e deny, grant, hand, lend, offer, etc. are folloHed b3 tHo ob'ects" a V)animateW Bndirect Gb'ect and a V*animateW 6irect Gb'ect! Jith these verbs either the Bndirect Gb'ect or the 6irect Gb'ect can become the grammatical sub'ect of the passive verb"

'hey offered 'om a very good 5ob O

very good 5ob was offered

to 'om! I 'om was offered a very good 5ob! c% #ransitive verbs ) #9F#*clauses" +erbs li@e believe, consider, e6!ect, $now, etc. are folloHed in the active voice b3 a #hat*clause 'hey consider that dol!hins are very intelligent. #hese sentences normall3 have tHo passive constructions" * an impersonal construction" it is onl3 the main clause that undergoes passivization Hhile the rest of the sentence is left unchanged" 2t is considered that dol!hins are very intelligent. * a ?ominative ) Bnfinitive construction" 7ol!hins are said to be very intelligent. 4! Bntransitive verbs a% -ome intransitive verbs such as live, slee!, sit" 1obody has sle!t in the room. - 'he room has not been sle!t in. b% Prepositional and phrasal verbs li@e account for, laugh at, loo$ after" 'hey will deal with the matter. A 'he matter will be dealt with. BBB! -emantic and pragmatic aspects of the passive" #he passive is far more common in <nglish than in other languages! 7! #he passive voice is especiall3 useful Hhen the doer, agent of the action is un@noHn or unimportant" 2 have been robbed 8P#omeone has robbed me9. 4! #he passive is especiall3 associated Hith impersonal st3le $in scientific Hriting% Hhere the Luestion of Hho performs the action described b3 the verb is unimportant or irrelevant" 'he new methods that have been introduced will increase !roductivity. 5UESTIONS 4! Fu(iliar3 verbs used in the passive! 1! ases Hhen the Gb'ect of Fgent is omitted! K! lasses of transitive verbs used in the passive! C! -emantic and pragmatic aspects of the passive!