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Glossary of terms

1.UNESCO- United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization: a department of the
United Nations that aims to encourage peace between countries through education, science, and culture.
(http://dictionary.cambridge.org/)
Romanian equivalent: ORGANIZAIA NAIUNILOR UNITE PENTRU NVMNT, TIIN I
CULTUR, agenie specializat guvernamental n cadrul sistemului O.N.U., cu sediul la Paris (Frana),
creat n nov. 1945 n urma Conferinei de la Londra (i ncepe activitatea la 4 nov. 1946), n scopul
intensificrii colaborrii ntre naiuni n domeniul educaiei, tiinei, culturii i comunicrii, n spiritul
respectului universal pentru dreptate i n dominaia legii, pentru drepturile omului i libertile
fundamentale, indiferent de ras, sex, limb sau religie. Promoveaz cooperarea intelectual
internaional, realizeaz asistena operaional i stimuleaz schimburile internaionale i cunoaterea
reciproc n domeniile educaiei, tiinei i culturii. U.N.E.S.C.O. are 188 de state membre (2002), ntre
care i Romnia (din 12 iul. 1955). (http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent: ,
. , ,
,
; ,
, ,
, , , . (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
2. Advisory Bodies-A nominated property is independently evaluated by two Advisory Bodies mandated
by the World Heritage Convention: the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and
the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which respectively provide the World
Heritage Committee with evaluations of cultural and of natural sites nominated. The third Advisory Body
is the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property
(ICCROM), an intergovernmental organization which provides the Committee with expert advice on
conservation of cultural sites, as well as on training activities. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Organism consultativ = organ care i d prerea autorizat n anumite
probleme.(http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent:

.
,
. (http://www.cctld.ru/)
3. Culture Sector- Is responsible for important conventions and universal declarations, such as the
Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and the Universal Declaration on
Cultural Diversity which it implements in a number of areas in order to promote intercultural dialogue.
The Cultural Heritage Division manages international campaigns and assists in safeguarding sites some
of which involve World Heritage properties and masterpieces of oral and intangible heritage. It also
carries out operational projects in cooperation with the World Heritage Centre, ICCROM, ICOMOS and
ICOM. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Sectorul culturii ncurajeaz dialogul intercultural i promoveaz pluralismul
cultural n cadrul organizaiei. (www.unesco.org/culture)

Russian equivalent:
. (http://www.cctld.ru/)
4. General Assembly-includes all States Parties to the Convention. It meets once every two years during
the ordinary session of the General Conference of UNESCO to elect the members of the World Heritage
Committee, to examine the statement of accounts of the World Heritage Fund and to decide on major
policy issues. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Adunare general = adunare cu participarea general a membrilor n anumite
organizaii, ntreprinderi etc. (http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent:
. , ,
,
-;
. (http://www.un.org/)
5. ICCROM-The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural
Property, is an intergovernmental body founded in 1956 which provides expert advice on how to conserve
World Heritage sites, as well as training in restoration techniques. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: ICCROM este o organizaie interguvernamental dedicat conservrii
patrimoniului cultural. Membrii si sunt state individuale care au declarat adeziunea la ea. El exist pentru
a servi comunitatea internaional, reprezentat de ctre statele membre, n numr de 133.
(http://www.iccrom.org/)
Russian equivalent:
- ,
, ,
. 1956 , .
. (http://www.ntrust.ru/)
6. ICOM- Founded in 1946, the International Council of Museums is devoted to the promotion and
development of museums and the museum profession at an international level. ICOM is a nongovernmental organization with around 17,000 members in 140 countries, many of which have World
Heritage sites with museums. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Consiliul Internaional al Muzeelor (ICOM) este organizaia internaional a
muzeelor i a profesionitilor din domeniul muzeelor, care se angajeaz s conserve i s asigure
continuitatea i punerea n valoare a patrimoniului cultural i natural mondial, actual i viitor, material i
imaterial.( http://romania.icom.museum/)
Russian equivalent: , -
, 1946 .
.
,
,
, , .
(http://ru.wikipedia.org/)

7. ICOMOS-The International Council on Monuments and Sites, a non-governmental organization, was


founded in 1965 after the adoption of the Charter of Venice, in order to promote the doctrine and the
techniques of conservation. ICOMOS provides the World Heritage Committee with evaluations of
properties with cultural values proposed for inscription on the World Heritage List, as well as with
comparative studies, technical assistance and reports on the state of conservation of inscribed properties.
(http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Consiliul Internaional pentru Monumente i Situri este o asociatie de profesionisti,
care n prezent reunete aproximativ 9500 de membri in intreaga lume. (www.icomos.ro/)
Russian equivalent:
(), ,
, -
. 1965 1964
. ,
. (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
8. Intangible heritage-Intangible cultural heritage is the practices, expressions, knowledge and skills that
communities, groups and sometimes individuals recognise as part of their cultural heritage. Also called
living cultural heritage, it is usually expressed in one of the following forms: oral traditions; performing
arts; social practices, rituals and festive events; knowledge and practices concerning nature and the
universe; and traditional craftsmanship. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Patrimoniul cultural imaterial este format din practici, reprezentri, expresii,
cunotine, aptitudini dar i instrumente, obiecte, artefacte i spaii asociate cu
acestea.(http://www.intercultural.ro/)
Russian equivalent: , 1990-
,
. 2001
, . 2003
. (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
9. IUCN-The International Union for Conservation of Nature, an international, non-governmental
organization founded in 1948, advises the World Heritage Committee on the inscription of properties with
natural values. Through its worldwide network of specialists, it reports on the state of conservation of
World Heritage sites. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Uniunea internaional pentru conservarea naturii este o organizaie internaional
fondat n octombrie 1948 dedicat conservrii resurselor naturale. (http://ro.wikipedia.org/)
Russian equivalent:
, ,
, , , ,
.
. (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
10. NWHF-The Nordic World Heritage Foundation was established as a Foundation by the Norwegian
Government in March 2002 and was officially given UNESCOs auspices by the General Conference in
2003. By joining efforts of the five Nordic Countries in support of the World Heritage Convention, the
Foundation promotes World Heritage conservation by supporting innovative projects, preservation and

fundraising activities throughout the world and continues to work towards a more balanced World
Heritage List. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: NWHF este organizata ca o fundaie non-profit in sprijinirea activitilor
internaionale, n cadrul programului de UNESCO. (http://www.nwhf.no/)
Russian equivalent:
2002
2003 . (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
11. OWHC- The Organization of World Heritage Cities was established in 1993 to develop a sense of
solidarity and a cooperative relationship between World Heritage cities, particularly in view of the
implementation of the Convention. The organization thus facilitates an exchange of knowledge,
management techniques and financial resources for the purpose of protecting monuments and sites. There
are over two hundred World Heritage cities to date. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Organizarea faciliteaz astfel un schimb de cunotine, tehnici de management i
resursele financiare n scopul protejrii monumentelor i siturilor.(http://ro.wikipedia.org)
Russian equivalent: ()
, 8 1993 (
1995
). (http://www.euroasia-uclg.ru/)
12. States Parties- are countries which have adhered to the World Heritage Convention. They identify
and nominate sites on their national territory to be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List.
States Parties have the responsibility to protect the World Heritage values of the sites inscribed and report
periodically on their condition. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Statele pri, sunt ri care au aderat la Convenia Patrimoniului Mondial.
(http://ro.wikipedia.org)
Russian equivalent: -- ,
. ,
.
(http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
13. UNEP-WCMC-The UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre manages the database of World
Heritage properties with natural values. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: UNEP-WCMC- Furnizeaz informaii pentru politici i aciuni pentru a conserva
lumea vie. (http://www.unep-wcmc.org)
Russian equivalent:
(-)
, .
- 2000 ,
. (http://www.unep.org)

14. World Heritage Centre- is responsible for the day-to-day management of the Convention and for the
administration of the World Heritage Fund. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Centrul Patrimoniului Mondial, sediul UNESCO sau Maison de l'UNESCO este o
cldire construit la 03 noiembrie 1958, n Paris, Frana, pentru a servi ca sediu pentru Naiunilor Unite
pentru Educaie, tiin i Cultur (UNESCO) . A devenit cunoscuta sub numele de Centrul Patrimoniului
Mondial n 1992 i este o cldire culturala care poaet fi vizitata n mod liber. (http://ro.wikipedia.org)
Russian equivalent: , - Maison De
L' , 3 1958 . 7
, -
, , () . ,
1992 , .
(http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
15. World Heritage Committee-meets once a year, and consists of representatives from 21 of the States
Parties to the Convention elected for terms up to six years. The Committee is responsible for the
implementation of the World Heritage Convention, allocates financial assistance from the World Heritage
Fund and has the final say on whether a site is inscribed on the World Heritage List. It examines reports
on the state of conservation of inscribed sites and decides on the inscription or removal of sites on the List
of World Heritage in Danger. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Comitetul patrimoniului mondial stabileste site-urile care vor fi cotate ca site-urile
Patrimoniului Mondial UNESCO. Acesta este responsabil pentru punerea n aplicare a Conveniei
Patrimoniului Mondial, definete utilizarea Fondului patrimoniului mondial i aloc asisten financiar
pe cereri de la statele pri. (http://ro.wikipedia.org)
Russian equivalent:

,
1972 .
,
-
. (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
16. General Conference-The General Conference consists of the representatives of UNESCO's Member
States. It meets every two years, and is attended by Member States and Associate Members, together with
observers for non-Member States, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations
(NGOs). Each country has one vote, irrespective of its size or the extent of its contribution to the budget.
(http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Conferina General este formata din reprezentani ai statelor membre UNESCO.
(http://ro.wikipedia.org)
Russian equivalent:
.
.
. (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
17. NGO- A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a
government nor a conventional for-profit business. Usually set up by ordinary citizens, NGOs may be

funded by governments, foundations or businesses. Some avoid formal funding altogether and are run
primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse group of organizations engaged with a wide range of
activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while
others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts
for political, religious or other interest groups. (http://en.wikipedia.org/)
Romanian equivalent: O organizaie neguvernamental (ONG) este o instituie care lucreaz independent
fa de activitatea guvernului, dei unele ONG-uri sunt parial sau integral finanate de acesta. Helmut K.
Anheier estimeaz numrul organizaiilor neguvernamentale internaionale la peste 40.000.
(http://ro.wikipedia.org)
Russian equivalent: /
.
()
. (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
18. The Executive Board-The Executive Board ensures the overall management of UNESCO. It prepares
the work of the General Conference and sees that its decisions are properly carried out. The functions and
responsibilities of the Executive Board are derived primarily from the Constitution and from rules or
directives laid down by the General Conference. (http://whc.unesco.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Comitetul executiv asigur managementul general al UNESCO, pregtete
lucrrile Conferinei Generale i vede daca deciziile sale sunt corect efectuate. (http://ro.wikipedia.org)
Russian equivalent: .
,
.
, .
(http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
19. Capital expenditure-Capital expenditures (CAPEX or capex) are expenditures creating future
benefits. A capital expenditure is incurred when a business spends money either to buy fixed assets or to
add to the value of an existing fixed asset with a useful life extending beyond the taxable year.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Cheltuieli de capital-cheltuieli efectuate din bugetul de stat cu lucrari de investitii,
achizitii de utilaje si echipamente, pentru cresterea rezervelor materiale nationale si de mobilizare.
(http://www.efin.ro/)
Russian equivalent: ,
( ,
, ). (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
20. Compulsory education-Compulsory education refers to a period of educational attendance required
of all students. The period of compulsory education is often determined by the students age. In the U.S.,
schooling is compulsory for all children. The age range for which school attendance is required varies
from state to state. Some states allow students to leave school between the ages of 1417 before finishing
high school only with parental permission. In some other states, students are required to stay in school
until age 18.( http://definitions.uslegal.com/)

Romanian equivalent: nvmntul general obligatoriu-nvmntul general obligatoriu este de zece


clase, vrsta de debut a colaritii fiind de 7 ani, sau de 6 ani la cererea prinilor. Teoretic, vrsta de
ncheiere a nvmntului general obligatoriu este de 16-17 ani. Din anul colar 2003-2004 clasele a IX-a
i a X-a sunt finalizate cu certificat de absolvire.( http://enciclopediaromaniei.ro/)
Russian equivalent:
, (,
)
. XX

, , . (http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
21.UN-An international organization composed of most of the countries of the world. It was founded in
1945 to promote peace, security, and economic development.( http://www.thefreedictionary.com/)
Romanian equivalent: ORGANIZAIA NAIUNILOR UNITE (O.N.U.; n engl.: United Nations
Organization U.N. sau U.N.O.), organizaie internaional guvernamental cu sediul n United Nations
Plaza din New York (S.U.A.), fondat, prin semnarea la 26 iun. 1945, a Cartei de la San Francisco de
ctre 50 de state (intrat n vigoare la 24 oct. 1945). Constituie o organizaie cu vocaie universal, creat
n scopul meninerii pcii i securitii internaionale prin luarea de msuri colective mpotriva actelor de
agresiune, dezvoltarea relaiilor prieteneti ntre naiuni, promovarea cooperrii internaionale n domeniul
economic, social, cultural i umanitar.( http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent: , ,
,
.( http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
22. UNDG-The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) is a consortium from the result of UN
reform, created by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1997, to improve the effectiveness of
UN development activities at the country level.( http://en.wikipedia.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Conferina Naiunilor Unite pentru Comer i Dezvoltare (UNCTAD) este organ
permanent specializat al Adunrii Generale a ONU, cu sediul la Geneva, creat la 30 decembrie 1964 la
Geneva . Actul de natere al acestei organizaii a fost semnat tot la aceeai dat. n prezent, organizaia
are peste 185 de ri-membre, inclusiv Republica Moldova.( http://ro.wikipedia.org/)
Russian equivalent: ()
,
1997
. .( http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
23. Business concentration-The total of market share, based on Gross Box Offices or admissions, of the
three leading exhibiting or distributing companies. Market shares should be calculated on the basis of all
films in distribution during the year for which box offices receipts or admissions are recorded.( UIS,
Questionnaire on Feature Films Statistics, 2010.)

Romanian equivalent: Cifra de afaceri cuprinde suma total a veniturilor din operaiunile comerciale
efectuate de firm, respectiv vnzarea de mrfuri i produse ntr-o perioad de timp determinat.n
cuantumul cifrei de afaceri nu se includ veniturile financiare i veniturile exceptionale. n termeni coreci,
cifra de afaceri reprezint suma veniturilor aferente bunurilor livrate, lucrrilor executate, serviciilor
prestate, precum i a altor venituri din exploatare,mai puin rabaturile,remizele i alte reduceri acordate
clienilor. Notiunea de cifr de afaceri poate fi abordat pe mai multe categorii:cifra de afaceri total, cifra
de afaceri medie, cifra de afaceri marginal i cifra de afaceri critic, fiecare dintre acestea evideniind
cte un aspect referitor la activitatea firmei Cifra de afaceri total(CA)reprezint volumul total al
afacerilor unei firme, evaluate la preurile pieei, respectiv ncasrile totale.Ea cuprinde totaliatea
veniturilor din vnzarea mrfurilor i produselor, executarea lucrrilor i prestarea serviciilor ntr-o
perioad de timp. .( http://ro.wikipedia.org/)
Russian equivalent: , ,
.
,
. .( http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
24. Census survey-Surveys conducted on the full set of observation objects belonging to a given
population or universe.( United Nations Statistical Commission (UNSC) and Economic Commission for
Europe (ECE). "Terminology on Statistical Metadata". Conference of European Statisticians Statistical
Standards and Studies, No. 53. New York: United Nations, 2000.)
Romanian equivalent: RECENSMNT-Form special de nregistrare statistic de mare amploare, de
obicei periodic i exhaustiv, n care culegerea datelor se face direct de ctre observatorii speciali trimii
la faa locului; catagrafie. (http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent:, ,
.( http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
25. Domestic production-Programmes that are produced by companies (broadcasters or commissioned
producers) located in the country and specifically targeted to the domestic population.( UIS Instruction
Manual for Completing the Questionnaires on Media Statistics.)
Romanian equivalent: Productie interna = posibiliti existente ntr-o ntreprindere, a cror descoperire i
folosire permit, fr investiii suplimentare mari, s se realizeze cantiti sporite de produse.
(http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent: () [domestic production]
, ,
, ,
. (http://economic_mathematics.academic.ru/)
26. Experimental development-Systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research
and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices; installing
new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.
R&D covers both formal R&D in R&D units and informal or occasional R&D in other units.( OECD

(2002), Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental
Development, 64.)
Romanian equivalent: Dezvoltarea experimental const n lucrri sistematice bazate pe cunotine
existente obinute prin cercetare i/sau experien practic, cu scopul de a lansa fabricarea de noi
materiale, produse sau dispozitive, de a stabili noi procedee, sisteme i servicii sau de a le ameliora
considerabil pe cele deja existente.
Cercetarea-dezvoltarea cuprinde n acelai timp C-D formal a unitilor de C-D i C-D informal sau
ocazional a altor uniti. (http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent: - "
- " 12 1996 . ",
, ,
, ,
, , , , ,
".(http://dic.academic.ru/)
27. Foreign production-Refers to programmes that are produced and funded outside of the respondent
country and that are not specifically edited (i.e. Dubbed or subtitled) for the domestic population of the
respondent country.( UIS Instruction Manual for Completing the Questionnaires on Media Statistics.)
Romanian equivalent:Productia externa e refera la programe care sunt produse i finanate n afara rii
respondentului i care nu sunt editate n mod special. (http://dexonline.ro/)
Russian equivalent: - ,
.
(http://dic.academic.ru/)
28. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)- The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight
international development goals that were established following the Millennium Summit of the United
Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education;
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women;
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality;
Goal 5: Improve maternal health;
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases;
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability;
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development. (http://en.wikipedia.org/)
Romanian equivalent: Obiectivele de Dezvoltare ale Mileniului:
Declaraia Mileniului, adoptat n septembrie 2000 la Summit-ul Mileniului, de 191 ri, printre care i
Romnia, fixeaz Obiectivele de Dezvoltare ale Mileniului (ODM). Declaraia Mileniului este unica
agend global n domeniul dezvoltrii asupra creia exist un acord la cel mai nalt nivel ntre
majoritatea statelor lumii.
La Summit-ul Mileniului, statele membre i-au fixat un numr de 8 obiective eseniale Obiectivele de
Dezvoltare ale Mileniului cu inte precise de atins pn n anul 2015.
Cele opt Obiective de Dezvoltare ale Mileniului sunt:
Reducerea srciei severe
Realizarea accesului universal la educaia primar
Promovarea egalitii ntre sexe i afirmarea femeilor

Reducerea mortalitii infantile


mbuntirea sntii materne
Combaterea HIV/SIDA, malariei i a altor boli
Asigurarea sustenabilitii mediului
Crearea unui parteneriat global pentru dezvoltare (http://www.mae.ro/)
Russian equivalent: ()
, 193 - , , 23
2015 .
, , ,
, , .
(http://ru.wikipedia.org/)
29. Organisational innovation-Implementation of a new organisational method in the firms business
practices, workplace organisation, or external relations.( OECD and Eurostat (2005), Oslo Manual:
Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 177)
Romanian equivalent: Inovaia organizaional este implementarea unei noi metode de organizare n
practicile de afaceri ale firmei, n organizarea locurilor de munc sau n relaiile externe ale firmei. O
astfel de inovaie urmrete creterea performanelor firmei prin reducerea costurilor administrative sau
ale tranzaciilor, mbuntirea satisfaciei la locurile de munc (i astfel a productivitii forei de munc)
sau reducerea costurilor de aprovizionare. ( http://ro.wikipedia.org/)
Russian equivalent: -
,
.
,
(, , ),
(, ).
(http://wiki.iis.ru/)
30. Parent-Teacher Association (PTA)- Parent-teacher association (PTA) is a non-profit entity that
consists of learners parents (or their legal guardians), teachers and other administrative school staff. The
aim of a PTA is usually to promote participation of parents (or guardians) in school-level decision making
and sponsor or facilitate fundraising initiatives for supplemental educational materials.( UIS Guide to
measuring information and communication technologies (ICT) in education.)
Romanian eqivalent: Scopul general al PTA este de a face o realitate potenialul fiecrui copil prin
implicarea i responsabilizarea familiilor i a comunitilor de a pleda pentru toi copiii.
(http://ro.wikipedia.org/)
Russian equivalent: - () ,
( ),
. , ,
( ) ,
.
(http://wiki.iis.ru/)