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Editura

NAUTICA

II

Ioan CLIMNESCU

Lucian GRIGORESCU

Computer aided design of


mechanisms
/Proiectarea asistat a mecanismelor/

Editura

NAUTICA
2013

III

Referent tiinific: Prof. univ. dr. ing. Nicolae ZIDARU

Note: This Volume was developed by the Authors in the following proportions:

/Not: Acest Volum a fost conceput de ctre Autori n urmtorul procentaj/:


Ioan Climnescu-80%
Lucian Grigorescu-20%

Editura NAUTICA, 2013


Editur recunoscut CNCSIS
Str. Mircea cel Btrn nr.104
900663 Constana, Romnia
tel.: +40-241-66.47.40
fax: +40-241-61.72.60
e-mail: info@imc.ro

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei:


IOAN CLIMANESCU
Computer Aided Design of Mechanisms
/Proiectarea asistat a mecanismelor/-Ioan
Climanescu , Lucian Grigorescu-Constanta;
Nautica, 2013

Bibliogr.
ISBN
CLIMNESCU, IOAN; GRIGORESCU, LUCIAN

IV

INDEX/CUPRINS/
1.0 Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/ ..1-2
1.1 Field of Study/Obiectul de studiu/ ...1-2
1.2 Basic concepts/Concepte de baz/ ...1-6
1.2.1 Pairs (Joints)/Cuple cinematice/ ..1-6
1.2.2 Degrees of Freedom/Grade de libertate/
..1-8
1.2.3 Link (Kinematic elements)-Kinematic Chain/Elemente cinematice-Lan cinematic/.1-11
1.3 Degree of Freedom of Mechanisms/Gradele de libertate ale mecanismelor/ ....1-14
1.4 Constrained Unconstrained Mechanism/Mecanism Constrns-Neconstrns/ ....1-19
1.5 Kinematic Inversion/Inversiunea Cinematic/
...1-20
1.6 Grbler's Equation/Ecuaia lui Grbler/
1-22
1.7 Enumeration of Kinematic Chains in Mechanisms/Enumerarea Lanurilor Cinematice n
Mecanisme/
1-24
1.8 Spherical and Two Dimensional Space/Spaiul n Coordinate Sferice i Spaiul BiDimensional/ ....1-27
1.9 Classification of Mechanisms/Clasificarea Mecanismelor/
......1-28
2.0 Positional Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/ ..2-2
2.1 Position of a Particle/Poziia Punctului Material/
.2-2
2.2 Kinematics of a Rigid Body in Plane/Cinematica corpului rigid n plan/
..2-4
2.3 Coincident Points/Puncte coincidente/
..2-6
2.4 Vector Loops of a Mechanism /Conturul vectorial al unui mechanism/
..2-8
2.5 Graphical Solution of Loop Closure Equations/Soluiile grafice ale ecuaiilor de contur/2-18
2.6 Step-Wise Solution of the Loop Closure Equation/Soluiile iterative ale ecuaiilor contururilor
nchise/ .2-25
2.7 Position Analysis of Mechanisms By Means of Complex Numbers/Analiza poziional a
mecanismelor cu numere complexe/
.2-29
2.8 Numerical Solution of the Loop Closure Equations/Soluii numerice ale ecuaiilor de
contur/...2-32
3.0 Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a
Mecanismelor/...3-2
3.1 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of a Rigid/Analiza Vitezelor i Acceleratiilor ale unui
rigid/ ...3-2
3.1.1 Translation of a rigid body/Translaia rigidului/
....3-2
3.1.2 Rotation of a rigid body/Rotaia rigidului/ .3-3
3.1.3 General Plane Motion/Micarea Plan Paralel/
....3-6
3.2 Velocity and Acceleration Vectorial Analysis of Mechanisms/Analiza Vectorial a Vitezelor i
Acceleraiilor n Mecanisme/ ..3-16
3.3 Position, Velocity and Acceleration Analytical Calculation of Mechanisms/Calculul Analitic al
Poziiei, Vitezelor i Acceleraiilor n Mecanisme/
...3-36
3.3.1 Kinematic analysis of a crank/ Analiza Cinematic a Elementului
Conductor/.......3-39
3.3.2 Kinematic analysis of a link in general motion/Analiza cinematic a unui element n miscare
plan-paralel/ ....3-43
3.3.3 The Kinematic Analysis of a Dyad with 3 Rotation Joints Using Distance Method/Analiza
Cinematic a Grupei Structurale RRR Prin Metoda Distantelor/ ..3-46
3.3.4 The Kinematic Analysis of RRT or TRR Dyads using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica
a Diadei RRT-TRR prin Metoda Contururilor/ ....3-55
3.3.5 The Kinematic Analysis of RTR Dyad using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica a Diadei
RRT- TRR prin Metoda Contururilor/ .3-57
3.3.6 The Kinematic Analysis of TRT Dyad using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica a

Mecanismului ce Contine Diada TRT prin Metoda Contururilor/ ..3-58


3.3.7 The Kinematic Analysis of RTT-TTR Dyad using Contour method /Analiza Cinematica a
Mecanismului ce Contine Diada RTT-TTR prin Metoda Contururilor/ ..3-58
4.0 Four-Bar Mechnisms Analisys/Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/
..4-2
4.1 Introduction/Introducere /.....4-2
4.2 Dead-Centre Positions of Crank-Rocker Mechanisms/Poziia moart a mecanimelor manivelbalansier/
..4-6
4.3 Transmission Angle/Unghiul de transmisie/ ..4-7
4.4 Slider Crank Mechanisms/Mecanismele Biel-Manivel/
.4-10
5.0 Force Analisys in Mechanisms/Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/
..5-2
5.1 Introduction/Introducere / 5-2
5.1.1 Principles of Dynamics/Pricipiile dinamicii/
.5-2
5.1.2 Forces and Couples/Fore i Momente/
..5-3
5.2 Forces in Mechanisms/Forele din Mecanisme/
.5-7
5.2.1 Static Equilibrium/Analiza static /.5-10
5.3 Static Force Analysis of Machinery/Anliza static a mecanismelor/ .5-12
5.3.1 Systems without Resisting Force/Sisteme fr fore rezistente/
.5-12
5.3.2 Principle of Superposition/Metoda Superpoziiei/ ...5-16
5.3.3 Systems with Resisting Force/Mecanisme cu fore rezistente/
.5-22
5.4 Dynamc Force Analyss/Analiza dinamic a mecanismelor/ ..5-40
5.4.1 Center of Mass and Moment of Inertia of a Rigid Body/Centrul de mas si momentul de
inerie al rigidului/
..5-40
5.4.2 Newton's Second Law of Motion for a Rigid Body/Legea a doua a dinamicii aplicat
micrii rigidului/
..5-42
5.4.3 D'Alambert's Principle/Principiul lui DAlambert/ ...5-46
5.5 Dynamc Force Analyss of Machinery/Analiza dinamic a mecanismelor/ 5-48
5.6 Dynamc Force Analyss of a Four-Bar Mechansm/Analiza dinamic a unui mecanism
patrulater/
....5-53
6.0 Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/
.....6-2
6.1 General Issues, Clasification/Generalitai, Clasificri/
. 6-2
6.2 The Fudamental Law of Gearing/Legea Fundamental a Angrenrii/. ...6-4
6.3 Curves to be Used for Teeth Profiles Generation /Curbele Folosite Pentru Construcia
Profilului Danturii Roilor Dinate/
...6-7
6.4 The Gear Basic Rack/Cremaliera de Referin/
.....6-9
6.5 Geometrical characteristics of the simple gears/ Elementele Geometrice ale Roilor Dinate
Cilindrice cu Dini Drepi/
..6-10
6.6 Simple Gear Trains/ Trenuri de Roi dinate cilindrice/
......6-12
6.7 Planetary Gear Trains/Trenuri de roi dinate planetare/
..6-16
6.8 Gear Trains with Bevel Gears/Trenuri de roi dinate conice/ ..6-22
7.0 Cams/Came/
.....7-2
7.1 Cam Types and Classification of Cams/Tipuri de came i clasificarea lor/
..7-3
7.2 Cam Design/Proiectarea camelor/ ...7-4
7.3 Basic Cam Motion Curves/Curbe folosite la profilele camelor/
...7-8
7.3.1 Linear motion/Curba micrii liniare/
..7-8
7.3.2 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)/Curba armonic simpl/ ..7-11
7.3.3 Parabolic or Constant Acceleration Motion Curve/Curba parabolic sau de acceleraie
constant/
....7-11
7.3.4 Cycloidal Motion Curve/Curba cicloidal/ 7-15
7.3.5 Combined Straight Line-Circular arc motion curve/Curba combinat Linie dreapt-Arc
circular/
....7-18
7.3.8 Cubic or Constant Pulse Motion Curve/Curba cubic sau de impuls constant/
..7-20

VI

7.3.9 Double Harmonic motion curve/Curba dublu armonic/


..7-22
7.3.10 Polynomial Motion Curves/Curbele polinomiale/ ...7-24
7.4 Cam Size Determination/Determinarea mrimii camei/
..7-27
7.4.1 Pressure angle/Unghiul de presiune/
....7-28
7.4.2 Cam Curvature/Curbura camei/
.....7-33
7.5 Construction of the Cam Profile/Construcia profilului camei/..7-37

VII

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

INDEX/CUPRINS/
1.0 STRUCTURAL ANALISYS OF MECHNISMS /ANALIZA STRUCTURAL A
MECANISMELOR/ ____________________________________________________________________2
1.1 FIELD OF STUDY/OBIECTUL DE STUDIU/ _________________________________________________2
1.2 BASIC CONCEPTS/CONCEPTE DE BAZ/ __________________________________________________6
1.2.1 Pairs (Joints)/Cuple cinematice/ __________________________________________________6
1.2.2 Degrees of Freedom/Grade de libertate/ ____________________________________________8
1.2.3 Link (Kinematic elements)-Kinematic Chain/Elemente cinematice-Lan cinematic/ __________11
1.3 DEGREE OF FREEDOM OF MECHANISMS/GRADELE DE LIBERTATE ALE MECANISMELOR/ ___________14
1.4 CONSTRAINED UNCONSTRAINED MECHANISM/MECANISM CONSTRNS-NECONSTRNS/ _________19
1.5 KINEMATIC INVERSION/INVERSIUNEA CINEMATIC/ ______________________________________20
1.6 GRBLER'S EQUATION/ECUAIA LUI GRBLER/ __________________________________________22
1.7 ENUMERATION OF KINEMATIC CHAINS IN MECHANISMS/ENUMERAREA LANURILOR CINEMATICE N
MECANISME/________________________________________________________________________24
1.8 SPHERICAL AND TWO DIMENSIONAL SPACE/SPAIUL N COORDINATE SFERICE I SPAIUL BIDIMENSIONAL/ ______________________________________________________________________27
1.9 CLASSIFICATION OF MECHANISMS/CLASIFICAREA MECANISMELOR/ __________________________28

1-1

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

1.0 Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/


1.1 Field of Study/Obiectul de studiu/
The aim of mechanisms study is to determine
the general motion principles which are
common to all machinery and to describe the
general synthesis and analysis techniques that
can be applied for the design of machinery.

Scopul disciplinei Mecanisme este de a


determina legile generale de micare comune
tuturor mainilor i tehnicile de sintez i
analiz care pot fi aplicate proiectrii lor.

A machine may be defined as a combination of


resistant bodies so arranged that by their means
the mechanical forces of nature can be
compelled to do work accompanied by certain
determinate motion. Notice that in the above
definition we are only concerned with the
mechanical machines. The definition does not
include electrical or heat machines. The main
characteristics of a mechanical machine are that
there is force (or torque) accompanied with
motion.

O main poate fi definit ca fiind o


combinaie de corpuri rigide aranjate astfel
nct forele de origine mecanic s produc un
lucru mecanic util pe anumite traiectroii
determinate. Definiia de mai sus acoper doar
mainile mecanice excluzndu-le pe cele
electrice, hidraulice sau termice. n consecin
o main mecanic are drept caracteristici
prezena unei fore/moment transmis de-a
lungul unei traiectorii determinate.

A mechanism may be defined as a group of


rigid bodies connected to each other by rigid
kinematic pairs (joints) to transmit force and
motion. A machine structure is constructed to
perform a particular task, such as a sewing
machine, a lath, a packaging machine.

Un mecanism se definete ca fiind un grup de


corpuri rigide (elemente cinematice) legate
ntre ele prin cuple cinematice care transmite o
for/moment pe o traiectorie determinat de
micare. O main este construit s execute o
anumit operaie aa cum fac mainile precum
strungurile, mainile de mpachetat, mainile de
cusut etc.

A mechanism is considered to be more general.


It is an isolated group of rigid bodies through
the study of which we can understand the basic
structure of any machine and can design
machines that are not in existence.

Un mecanism este considerat a fi un concept


ceva mai general. El este un grup de corpuri
rigide care dac este studiat poate face neleas
structura unei maini care exist sau poate face
posibil proiectarea unor maini noi.

A machine may also involve a number of


mechanisms and certain elements that are not
rigid (although resistant). For example, in a
machine we may have hydraulic drives,
springs, dashpots, flexible elements, etc. which
are not considered as bodies that can be
included in a mechanism (although we shall see
how we can include these elements into the
mechanism). You can see such a machine in
many construction sites performing the digging
or moving the dirt Fig.1.1.

O main poate cuprinde unul sau mai multe


mecanisme alturi de alte elemente cinematice
rigide/rezistente. De pild ntr-o main pot
exista mpreun arcuri, elemente hidraulice,
elemente flexibile, etc. care s nu fac parte
dintr-un mecanism anume dar care concur la
funcionarea mainii. Mainile pot fi vzute de
pild pe antierele de construcii precum
excavatorul din Fig.1.1.

1-2

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.1.1
The internal combustion engine is the prime Motoarele cu combustie intern este invenia
mover which gave the human kind an care a dat omenirii o mobilitate fr precedent
unthinkable mobility. Within the last century, n istorie. n ultimul secol motoarele cu
the classical engine (Fig.1.2-a) with a centric combustie intern cu piston (Fig.1.2-a) au atins
slider-crank
arrangement
has
reached aproape perfeciunea. Dei mai puin
perfection. Although it has not found a wide rspndite, motoarele rotative tip Wankel
acceptance, the Wankel engine (Fig.1.2-b) is (Fig.1.2-b) sunt folosite n aplicaii unde
used in applications where the volume and the volumul i greutatea motorului sunt importante.
weight of the engine is quite important

a.

b.
Fig.1.2
Rock crusher (Fig.1.3)-In this type of Concasorul (Fig.1.3) este caracterizat prin
machinery, the mechanical advantage must be amplificarea forei de acionare care trebuie s
very high to create forces to crush the rocks. devin suficient de mare s poat sfrma
Mechanisms of very high mechanical piatra. Are n compunere un mecanism cu
advantage are called toggle mechanisms and genunchi care amplific fora generat de
this action is known as the toggle action. Input motorul de acionare de cteva ori astfel nct
force is amplified several times for crushing ntre flcile concasorului se dezvolt o for
capabil s sfrme piatra.
rocks between the jaws

1-3

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.1.3
In a number of machinery such as machine n alte tipuri de maini ca de pild strungurile
tools, cars, etc., we would like to obtain several sau autovehiculele este necesar s existe la
speeds from a constant speed input. The gears universal sau la roile autovehiculului viteze
are engaged or disengaged by shifting or there diferite pentru aceeai vitez constant intrat
are clutches or slide-keys to engage or de la motorul electric sau de la respectiv
motorul cu ardere intern. Pentru aceasta sunt
disengage gears to a shaft (Fig.1.4).
folosite cutiile de viteze care prin intemediul
unui cuplaj transmit viteze deiferite la
elementul motor (Fig.1.4).

Fig.1.4
The crane shown in (Fig.1.5) is also known as Macaraua din Fig.1.5 numit i macara
Demag jib-crane. It is very often used at ports. pivotant tip Demag este des folosit n porturi.
After the load is lifted up we would like the tip Dup ce se leag sarcina vrful macaralei
of the crane to move horizontally. A four-bar trebuie micat n plan orizontal. Un mecanism
arrangement approximately satisfies this patrulater poate asigura acest tip de micare n
requirement while its load carrying capacity is condiiile unei sarcini de ridicat relativ mare.
acceptable

1-4

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.1.5
To shape metals we need large forces. Pentru prelucarea prin deformare a tablelor este
Hydraulic, mechanical (Fig.1.6) or pneumatic nevoie de fore mari de aceea se folosesc prese
presses are used. The mechanism shown has a hidraulice, mecanice (Fig.1.6) sau pneumatice.
high mechanical advantage.

Fig.1.6
Using Trucks you carry very heavy loads Pentru ncrcarea sarcinilor grele se folosesc
reaching 40-50 tons (such as rocks). Dumping ncrctoare ca mai jos unde un mecanism
the load is also a hard task. The mechanism simplu poate asigura executarea acestei
shown is one of the solutions found.
operaiuni.

Fig.1.7

1-5

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

1.2 Basic concepts/Concepte de baz/


1.2.1 Pairs (Joints)/Cuple cinematice/
Kinematic pair (joint)

Cuple cinematice

The main characteristics of a mechanism are Mecanismele sunt caracterizate nu att de


not the rigid bodies (links) but the kinematic elementele cinematice ct de cuplele
cinematice care leag ntre ele elementele
pairs that join these rigid bodies.
cinematice.
Kinematic element, is that part of a rigid body Elementul cinematic este un corp rigid care se
which is used to connect it to another rigid leag de alte elemente cinematice rigide astfel
body such that the relative motion between the nct s existe o micare relativ dup o
anumit lege de micare.
two rigid bodies can occur.
Kinematik pair (or simply joint) is the joining
of two or more kinematic elements. The types
of kinematic pairs and their distribution within
the
mechanism
determine
the
main
characteristics of a mechanism.

Cuplele cinematice au rolul de a lega ntre ele


dou sau mai multe elemente cinematice. Tipul
de cuple cinematice i modul lor de aezare n
mecanism determin caracteristicile principale
ale mecanismului.

Kinematic pairs may be classified in several Cuplele cinematice pot fi clasificate dup mai
multe criterii:
different forms:
Closed Kinematic pairs are those in which the
contact between the kinematic elements is
maintained within all possible positions of a
mechanism. Figure below shows a closed
kinematic pair:

Cuple cinematice nchise sunt acele cuple la


care contactul dinte elementele cinematice este
meninut pentru fiecare i oricare poziie a
mecanismului, ca n figura de mai jos:

Fig.1.8
Open kinematic pair is one whose pairing and Cuplele cinematice deschise sunt acele cuple
unpairing of its kinematic elements that form intermitente care cupleaz/decupleaz controlat
the joint are controlled. In the Geneva n mecanism. O asemenea cupl apare n
mechanism shown the contact between the pin mecanismul Cruce de Malta (sau mecanismul
Geneva) la care contactul dintre tift i canalele
and the slot is not continuous:
mecanismului este intermitent:

1-6

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.1.9
In closed kinematic pairs the contact between
the two kinematic elements is due to a normal
forces acting at the contacting surfaces
(Fig.1.12). Such pairs are force closed
kinematic pairs. If one of the kinematic
elements envelopes the other and the contact is
due to the geometric shape than such joints are
form closed kinematic pairs (Fig.1.10,11)

n cuplele cinematice nchise contactul dintre


dou elemente cinematice se face prin fore
normale care acioneaz pe suprafeele de
contact. Aceste cuple sunt cuple nchise prin
fore (Fig.1.12). Dac unul dintre elementele
cinematice cuprinde elementul cinematic cu
care se afl n contact atunci cupla este nchis
prin form (Fig.1.10-11).

Fig.1.10
Closed kinematic pairs are classified according Cuplele cinematice nchise pot fi clasificate i
dup tipul de contact dintre elementele
to the type of contact between the elements:
cinematice:
Lower kinematic pairs are those in which the Cuple cinematice inferioare sunt acelea la
contact between the two elements is along a care contactul dintre elemente se face pe o
suprafa (Fig.1.11).
surface (Fig.1.11).

Fig.1.11
Higher kinematic pairs are those in which the Cuple cinematice superioare sunt acelea la
contact between the kinematic elements is care contactul dintre elemente se face pe o linie
along a line or at a point (Fig.1.12).
sau punct (Fig.1.12).
1-7

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

The contact stresses created in higher kinematic


pairs are usually unfavorable. Therefore,
especially for mechanisms that must transmit
forces of high magnitude (which are called
power mechanisms), lower kinematic pairs
must be preferred. However, in certain
applications higher kinematic pairs may be
used to reduce the number of parts in a
mechanism.

Tensiunea de contact care apare la cuplele


superioare este mare i de regul au un impact
nefavorabil
asupra
funcionrii.
La
mecanismele care transmit sau dezvolt fore
mari (mecanisme de putere) cuplele cinematice
inferioare sunt preferate. n anumite aplicaii
cuplele superioare pot reduce numrul de
elemente ale mecanismului ceea ce poate fi
avantajos.

Fig.1.12
1.2.2 Degrees of Freedom/Grade de libertate/
Some of the classifications used in the previous
page are important in terms of force
transmission (i.e. lower or higher kinematic
pairs) or in terms of physical construction (i.e.
form or force closed kinematic pairs). However
the most important characteristic of the
kinematic pairs is the type of motion that may
exist between the kinematic elements.
Depending on the type of kinematic pair used,
there are different motion characteristics
between the mating parts. Since there are two
rigid bodies connected by a kinematic pair, they
will have different relative motions with respect
to each other according to the type of the
kinematic pair. In order to classify this relative
motion we have to understand the degree of
freedom concept.

Clasificrile de mai sus sunt relevante pentru


modul de transmitere a forelor sau de
construcia fizic a cuplelor. Ceea ce este cel
mai important ns estensa tipul de micare
care se poate transmite ntre elementele
cinematice.
Funcie de tipul de cupl cinematic folosit
vor exista diferite tipuri de micri ntre
elementele constitutive ale mecanismelor. Cum
de regula o cupl cinematic leag ntre ele
dou elemente cinematice, elementele vor avea
o micare relativ aa cum o va permite/impune
cupla cinematic. Pentru a putea clasifica din
acest punct de vedere cuplele se introduce
conceptul de grad de libertate.

The degree-freedom of space is the number of Spaiul gradelor de libertate este dat de
independent parameters to define the position numrul de parametri independeni care pot
defini poziia unui corp rigid n spaiul fizic.
of a rigid body in that space.
1-8

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Let us define the position of a rigid body in a


three dimensions space. The first thing we must
do is define a reference axis such as X,Y,Z in
the figure. One form of defining the position of
the rigid body is that we may arbitrarily select
any three non-collinear points, (P1, P2, P3) and
determine their location with respect to the
reference plane (see figure on below). Once the
location of these points are known with respect
to the reference axis, the location of any other
point can be determined since the distance of
the particular point we are considering from P1,
P2 and P3 is constant (rigid body), ai =const.,
i=1;2;3. For each one of the three points we
have to define three parameters P1(x1, y1, z1), P2
(x2, y2, z2), P3 (x3, y3, z3). However, due to the
rigid body concept we also have the following
three equations relating these parameters:

Fie un spaiu tridimensional n care se definete


un sistem de axe Oxyz ca n figura de mai jos.
Un mod de a defini poziia unui corp rigid n
acest spaiu este de a lua trei puncte arbitrare
necoliniare din corp (P1, P2, P3) crora li se va
determina poziia fat de sistemul de axe. Dac
poziia acestor puncte este cunoscut atunci
poziia oricrui punct al rigidului poate fi
determinat de vreme ce distanele n rigid sunt
constante.
Pentru fiecare dintre punctele P1, P2, P3
trebuiesc determinai cte trei parametri de
poziie (coordonate) astfel: P1(x1, y1, z1), P2 (x2,
y2, z2), P3 (x3, y3, z3). Dat fiind ipoteza
distanelor ai =const., i=1;2;3, constante ntr-un
rigid, vom avea trei ecuaii ca mai jos:

Fig.1.13
2
2
+ (y 2 y1 ) + (z 2 z1 ) = a 12

(x 2 x 1 )
(x 3 x 1 )2 + (y 3 y1 )2 + (z 3 z1 )2 = a 32
(x 3 x 21 )2 + (y 3 y 2 )2 + (z 3 z 2 )2 = a 32
2

We have nine parameters (xi, yi, zi : i =1,2,3)


and three relations among them. Therefore, if
we define any six of these nine parameters, the
location of the rigid body is known. Therefore
In the general space the degree of freedom is
six-three rotations around the axes X, Y, Z
and 3 translations along the axes X, Y, Z.
We can also use angles to locate the rigid body:
this case, we may take a point A and a line
passing through this point A. From the rigid
body concept, if we know the position of A and
the orientation of the line, the position of the
rigid body is determined. In this case we have
1-9

(1.1)

n consecin pentru punctele P1, P2, P3 vor


exista 9-3=6 parametri independeni care
definesc poziia unui rigid n spaiu.
n spaiul fizic numrul maxim de grade de
libertate este 9-3=6, trei rotaii i trei
translaii n jurul i de-a lungul axelor X, Y,
Z.
Poziia unui rigid n spaiu poate fi definit i
printr-un punct A i o linie care trece prin acest
punct. Dac se cunoate poziia punctului A i
direcia liniei atunci poziia rigidului este
determinat. n acest caz vom avea 7 parametri

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

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seven parameters (xa, ya, za, 1 , 2 , 3 , ). We


also have a relation between i in the form
below (eq.1.2). Hence, by defining six
parameters (xa, ya, za, ) and any two of the
parameters 1 , 2 , 3 , we can locate the rigid
body completely.

(xa, ya, za, 1 , 2 , 3 , ) iar relaia existent


ntre i este dat n ecuaia (1.2) drept care
numrul de grade de libertate va fi 7-1=6. Dac
se cunosc (xa, ya, za, ) i doi dintre parametrii
1 , 2 , 3 , se poate determina complet poziia
rigidului n spaiu.

Fig.1.14
cos 1 + cos 2 2 + cos 2 3 = 1
(1.2)
If the space that we consider is a plane, then we Dac spaiul tridimensional devine un plan
only need 3 parameters. Different forms of bidimensional numrul maxim de grade de
selecting these three parameters are shown libertate se reduce la 3 n plan sistemele de
referin pot fi carteziene sau polare.
below (polar, rectangular).
2

Fig.1.15
The degree-of-freedom of a kinematic pair is Gradele de libertate ale unei cuple
defined as the number of independent cinematice sunt definite ca fiind numrul de
parameters that is required to determine the parametri independeni necesari pentru a se
relative position of one rigid body with respect putea defini poziia relativ a unui element
to the other connected by the kinematic pair. It cinematic fat de cellalt element cinematic, ele
is this characteristic that is used to classify the fiind legate prin cupla cinematic respectiv.
kinematic pairs. If the degree-of-freedom of a Prin acest nou concept se pot clasifica cuplele
kinematic pair is 6, there is no joint involved. cinematice astfel: dac numrul gradelor de
If the degree-of-freedom is 5, the kinematic libertate ale unei cuple este 6 atunci nu exist
pair must constrain one of the freedoms of nici o cupl de vreme ce elementele cinematice
space. There is no joint that can constrain the pot ocupa relativ orice poziie unul fa de
rotational degree-of-freedom while permitting cellalt. Dac numrul gradelor de libertate este
the translational freedom in all directions. We 5 atunci cupla anuleaz/constrnge o micare
1-10

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can constrain one of the translational freedoms.


The joint thus obtained is sphere between
parallel planes. Methodically, all the possible
kinematic pairs are shown in Table 1-1 and
Table 1-2. Note that the shapes of the kinematic
pairs shown are of no importance. It is the
degree-of-freedom and the type of freedom that
is important.

posibil ntre elementele cinematice. Dar fizic


nu e posibil o cupl care s permit o rotaie n
jurul unei axe concomitent cu translaii posibile
de-a lungul tuturor axelor. Se pot anula ns
toate translaiile concomitent cu existena
tuturor rotaiilor (articulaia sferic). n Tabelul
1-1 i 1-2 sunt date tipurile de cuple posibile
funcie de gradele de libertate.

Tab 1.1 and 1.2


1.2.3 Link (Kinematic elements)-Kinematic Chain/Elemente cinematice-Lan cinematic/
If a rigid body contains at least two kinematic Dac un anumit rigid leag ntre ele cel puin
elements we shall call it a link. A link may dou (sau mai multe) elemente cinematice
have more than two kinematic elements (but atunci rigidul se numete cupl. Cuplele se pot
not less than two). One can classify links clasifica dup numrul de elemente cinematice
according to the number of kinematic elements pe care le leag. Ele pot alctui mpreun cu
it contains. These are binary, ternary or elementele adiacente elemente simple, Diade,
Triade, Tetrade etc ca n figura de mai jos.
quarternary, etc.

1-11

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Fig.1.16
The kinematic dimensions of a link in a Dimensiunea cinematic a unui Element
mechanism are those dimensions which define simplu, Diade, Triade etc. dintr-un mecanism
the relative positions of the kinematic elements este dat de poziiile relative ale cuplelor din
on that link and when these dimensions are alctuire. Poziiile dintre elementele cinematice
specified, the link dimensions are known for date de dimensiuni liniare sau unghiulare.
motion analysis. These dimensions can be Pentru fabricantul elementului este important
distances or angles. For the manufacture of the nu numai poziia dintre cuple ci i grosimea,
link or for the dynamics, etc other physical limea, lungimea etc. dar pentru proiectarea
dimensions such as the width, height, thickness, mecanismelor sunt de interes doar dimensiunile
etc. may be important. For the kinematic cinematice. Din figura de mai sus se poate
analysis we shall be interested only with the vedea c dimensiunile cinematice sunt a, b, i
kinematic dimensions. The distance between i dac sunt cunoscute atunci elementul
revolute joints A and B (a), the angle slot cinematic este complet definit.
makes with respect to the line AB ( ) and
perpendicular distance from point A to the slot
axis (b) are the kinematic dimensions of this
link. Once these four parameters are known, the
link is kinematically defined.

The links connected to each other by kinematic Elementele cinematice conectate ntre ele prin
1-12

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pairs will form a kinematic chain. If all the


kinematic pairs are closed, than we have a
closed kinematic chain. If one of the kinematic
pair is of open type, the kinematic chain is an
open kinematic chain.

cuple cinematice formeaz lanuri cinematice.


Dac elementele cinematice nu au nici o cupl
legat cu alt element atunci lanul cinematic
este nchis, iar dac una sau mai multe cuple
sunt nelegate atunci lanul este deschis.

Kinematic chain is a representation of the


mechanism structure. We are not concerned
with the dimensions of the links. Each link is
represented as a line or as a polygon and at each
vertex we have a kinematic element which joins
with another element on another link. The
dimensions of the edges are not important.

Lanul cinematic este o reprezentare simbolic


a mecanismului fr a fi interesai de
dimensiunile elementelor cinematice. Fiecare
element cinematic este reprezentat simbolic
printr-o linie, triunghi, poligon avnd la capete
cuple prin care elementul s se lege cu alte
elemente cinematice.

There are certain joints where more than two


links are connected. For such cases we define
the degree-of a joint as the number of links
connected at the joint minus one. One must
assume that there joints at this point equal to
the degree of the joint, (please do not confuse
the degree of the joint with the degree-offreedom of a joint).

n anumite cazuri o cupl leag ntre ele mai


mult de dou elemente cinematice n care caz
gradul cuplei ca fiind numrul de elemente
legate prin cupl minus 1 (a nu se confunda
gradul cuplei cu gradele de libertate ale cuplei).

If all the links forming a kinematic chain are in


the same plane or in parallel planes, the
kinematic chain formed is said to be Planar
kinematic chain . If all the points on all the
links move on concentric spheres than the
kinematic chain formed is Spherical kinematic
chain . If some of the links have a general
spatial motion than we have Spatial kinematic
chain.

Dac toate elementele care formeaz un lan


cinematic sunt aezate n acelai plan sau n
plane paralele atunci lanul cinematic este plan.
Dac elementele cinematice se pot mica n
sfere concentrice atunci lanul cinematic este
sferic. Dac elementele se pot mica n spaiu
atunci lanul cinematic este spaial.

If one of the links in a kinematic chain is Dac unul din elementele cinematice ale
fixed, then the system thus obtained is called unui lan cinematic este fix atunci lanul
cinematic devine un mecanism.
a mechanism.

Fig.1.17

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1.3 Degree of Freedom of Mechanisms/Gradele de libertate ale mecanismelor/


The degree of freedom of a mechanism is the
number of independent parameters required to
define the position of every link in that
mechanism.

Gradele de libertate ale unui mecanism sunt


date de numrul de parametri independeni
necesari pentru definirea poziiei fiecrui
element cinematic al mecanismului.

As an example consider a very simple De pild fie un mecanism simplu cu patru


mechanism with four links connected to each elemente conectate ntre ele cu patru cuple de
rotaie.
other by four revolute joints.
Assuming that the link lengths are known, if the
value of the angle is given, then the position
of every link can be determined by determining
the coordinates of two points on each link:
(A0B0 (Link 1), A0A (Link 2), AB (Link 3) ve
BB0 (Link 4)). This is due to the fact that when
is given the triangle A0B0A is known (SideAngle-Side) and the distance AB0 can be
calculated. Next, the triangle ABB0 is known
completely (Side-Side-Side) we only need one
parameter to locate the position of every link.
For a Four-Bar mechanism, the degree of
freedom of the mechanism is 1.

Dac se cunosc lungimile elementelor i dac


se cunoate unghiul , atunci poziia fiecrui
element cinematic poate fi determinat dac se
determin coordonatele a dou puncte
aparinnd fiecrui element astfel: A0B0
(Element 1), A0A (Element 2), AB (Element 3),
BB0 (Element 4). Dac n triunghiul A0B0A se
cunoate (Latur-Unghi-Latur) atunci se
poate calcula distana AB0 . Dac mai apoi se
cunosc lungimile laturilor triunghiului ABB0
atunci cunoscnd se vor cunoate poziiile
tuturor
elementelor
cinematice
ale
mecanismului. n consecin gradul de
libertate a unui mecanism patrulater este 1.

Fig.1.18
Consider a mechanism with five links Fie un mecanism cu 5 elemente de lungimi
connected to each other by five revolute joints cunoscute, conectate ntre ele cu 5 cuple de
as a second example. If the angle is defined rotaie. Dac se definete unghiul se poate
we can solve for the triangle A0AC0. However, rezolva triunghiul A0AC0 . Elementele care
the remaining links is a quadrilateral (ABCC0) rmn formeaz patrulaterul ABCC0 care
which will require an additional parameter pentru a fi determinat necesit cunoaterea unui
(Such as angle ) to locate the links. In such a parametru suplimentar: unghiul pentru a se
case, since the number of parameters required putea determina poziia fiecrui element al
to determine the position of the links is 2, the patrulaterului. n consecin este nevoie de
degree of freedom of this five link mechanism cunoaterea a 2 parametri suplimentari pe lng
lungimile elementelor pentru a se putea preciza
is 2.
poziia tuturor elementelor mecanismului cu 5
laturi. n acest caz numrul de grade de

1-14

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In the above examples:


1. Instead of the angles and , other angles
can be used as a free parameter. But in every
case, for a particular mechanism the number of
parameters required is unique. For example in
the first example the angle BB0 makes with the
horizontal can be selected as a free parameter
and the position of each link will be uniquely
determined.
2. The number of parameters required is not a
function of the link lengths. For example if the
length a2 is 5 units instead of 4, the degree of
freedom of the four-bar mechanism is still 1.

libertate al mecanismului este 2. n ambele


exemple de mai sus:
1. n locul unghiurilor i pot fi folosite
oricare alte unghiuri ale laturilor ca i parametri
independeni pentru determinarea poziiei
elementelor. De pild n locul se poate lua
unghiul format de elemental 4 (BB0) cu
orizontala.

2. Numrul de parametri independeni nu este


funcie de lungimea elementelor cinematice.
Dac a2 are lungimea de 5 uniti de msur n
loc de 4, gradul de libertate al mecanismului cu
4 bare rmne 1.

Fig.1.19
We must be able to determine an equation that Trebuie s se determine o ecuaie care s lege
relates the degree of freedom of a mechanism gradele de libertate ale unui mecanism de
with the number of links, number of joints and numrul de cuple i elemente cinematice ale
the degree of freedom of the joints. To express acestuia. Se definesc urmtoarele cantiti:
these quantities in mathematical terms let us
define:
=Numrul de grade de libertate din spaiu (n
plan 3, n spaiu 6).

=Degree of freedom of space

(=3 planar space; = 6 general (spatial) space)


l= The number of links in a mechanism l= Numrul de elemente cinematice ale
mecanismului incluznd elementele fixe tip
(including the fixed link)
batiu,
j = Numrul de cuple
j = The number of joints in a mechanism
f = Gradele de libertate ale elementului i din
fi =The degree of freedom of the ith joint in the i
mecanism.
mechanism
F= Numrul de grade de libertate ale
mecanismului.
First consider l links floating freely (no joints!!) Fie mai nti l numrul de elemente cinematice

F = The degree of freedom of the mechanism

1-15

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in a space with freedom. In such a case, apart


from the fixed link (the fixed reference frame is
attached to one of the links, therefore no
parameter is required to determine the position
of this fixed link), we will need parameters
for each link. Since there are l-1 floating links
left, and when there are no joints in the
mechanism, the number of parameters required
to determine the position of every link is: (l1).

nelegate care plutesc liber n spaiul cu grade


de libertate. n acest caz i afar de elementele
fixe tip batiu, vom avea nevoie de parametri
pentru fiecare element n parte pentru a i se
putea determina poziia. De vreme ce sunt l-1
elemente cinematice (unul dintre ele este fix)
care plutesc n spaiu fr cuple de legtur
ntre ele, atunci numrul de parametri
independeni necesari pentru determinarea
poziiei elementelor plutitoare este : (l-1).

Fig.1.20
Now, consider the joints by utilizing a simple Fie acum un exemplu simplu. n figura de mai
example. In the above figure there are four sus sunt 4 elemente cinematice care plutesc
floating links in planar space. If there are no n spaiul bidimensional. Dac nu exist cuple
joints, then the number of parameters requires active atunci numrul de parametri necesari
determining the position of these links will be 3 pentru definirea poziiei lor este 3 x 4=12. Dac
x 4=12. If link 2 is connected to links 4 and 5 elementul 2 este conectat de elementele 4 i 5
by revolute joints, and if there is a cylinder in prin cuple de rotaie i dac elementul 2 se
slot joint between links 2 and 3, the number of leag cu un tift poziionat n canalul
parameters required determining the position of elementului 2, atunci numrul de parametri
these four links will be less. We will still need necesari definirii poziiei elementelor scade.
3 parameters to determine the position of link 2 Pentru aceasta vor fi necesari 3 parametri
(for instance the x, y, z coordinates of its centre independeni (de pild coordonatele carteziene
of gravity). Once the position of link 2 is x, y, z ale centrului de greutate n spaiu) pentru
known, links 4 and 5 can only rotate relative to definirea poziiei elementului 2. Dac se tie
link 2, and link 3 can rotate and translate along poziia elementului 2 atunci elementele 4 i 5 se
the slot axis relative to link 2. To locate the pot roti faa de elementul 2 iar elementul 3 se
position of link 4 we need angle (one known poate roti i simultan poate translata n canal
parameter), to locate the position of link 5 we faa de elementul 2. Pentru a localiza elementul
need (1 knew parameter) and to locate the 4 avem nevoie s tim unghiul , pentru a
position of link 3 we need 2 more parameters (b localiza elementul 5 avem nevoie s tim
and ). Thus the total number of parameters unghiul i pentru a localiza elementul 3 fa
required is 3+1+1+2=7 instead of 12, when de 2 trebuiesc cunoscuti parametri b i . n
there were no joints. In planar space we need 2 consecin pentru a determina complet poziia
less parameters for the revolute joint and one elementelor mecanismului sunt necesari
less parameter for the cylinder in slot joint. 3+1+1+2=7 parametri n loc de 12 necesari
This means, we dont need to define a cnd elementele sunt flotante. Cu alte cuvinte

1-16

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parameter in the direction for which the motion


is constrained. If the degree of freedom of
space is , a kinematic joint with fi degrees of
freedoms constrains, ( - fi) degrees of freedom
and we need not define this many number of
parameters. Since there are different joints with
different degrees of freedom, in a mechanism
with j joints, the total number of freedoms
constrained by all the joints will be:

nu aven nevoie de parametri pentru acele


direcii de translaie/rotaie unde micarea este
stopat de ctre cupl. Dac numrul de grade
de libertate al spaiului este atunci o cupl
cinematic cu ( - fi) grade de libertate va anula
tot atia parametri. Cum exist mai multe
cuple diferite fiecare anulnd un numr diferit
de grade de libertate, atunci ntr-un mecanism
cu j cuple numrul total de grade de libertate
constrnse va fi:

i =1

i =1

( f i ) = j f i ...

(1.3)

The degree of freedom of the mechanism will


then be the degree of freedom of all the links
without joints minus the degrees of freedom
constrained by the joints:

Sau altfel spus numrul de grade de libertate al


mecanismului va fi egal cu numrul de grade de
libertate al elementelor necuplate minus
numrul de grade de libertate anulate de ctre
cuple.
F=Gradele de libertate fr cuplare ale
F = Degrees of freedom without any joint
elementelor-Gradele de libertate anulate de
Constraints imposed by the joints
cuple
The equation (1.4) is known as the General Ecuaia de mai jos (1.4) este cunoscut ca fiind
Ecuaia general a gradelor de libertate.
Degree-of-freedom Equation.
j
j

F = (l 1) j f i F = (l j 1) + f i
i =1
i =1

Mechanism

1-17

(1.4)

Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

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Planetary Gear with


a slotted lever

Quick Return
Mechanism

Spatial four-bar

1-18

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Adjustable Drive

Grabber

Application of the Degree-of-Freedom Equation

1.4 Constrained Unconstrained Mechanism/Mecanism Constrns-Neconstrns/


Constrained mechanism may mean two Noiunea de Mecanism Constrns poate avea
dou nelesuri:
different things in mechanisms literature:

1. It may refer to mechanisms in which F 1. Poate defini un mecanism la care F=1;


= 1.
2. It may refer to mechanisms whose 2. Poate defini un mecanism al crui numr de
grade de libertate poate fi egal sau mai mare
degree-of-freedom may be greater or
de 1 dar la care numrul de parametri
equal to one, but the number of inputs
independeni prin care mecanismul primete
(the
number
of
independent
micare este egal cu numrul de grade de
parameters) defined is equal to the
libertate.
degree-of freedom.
With Unconstrained mechanisms, we mean
those mechanisms with more than one degreeof-freedom and the number of inputs defined is
less than the degree-of-freedom of the
mechanism, but the motion is constrained by
the forces and dynamic characteristics of the
system. A good example is the differential of a
car where the rotation of the wheels is governed
by the moment acting on them. Due to these
characteristics, when taking a turn, the inner

Prin Mecanism neconstrns se nelege acel


mecanism care are mai mult de un grad de
libertate i la care numrul de ci prin care
mecanismul primete micare este mai mic
dect numrul de grade de libertate dar care are
micarea
constrns
de
caracteristicile
dinamice ale sistemului. Un exemplu ar fi
mecanismul diferenial al unui autovehicul la
care rotirea celor dou roi este guvernat i
corelat de momentul care acioneaz asupra
fiecreia. Astfel un asemenea mecanism la un

1-19

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wheel rotates less than the outer wheel.


Below, two other examples for unconstrained
mechanisms are given. One of the freedoms of
the mechanism is usually controlled by a
continuous motion. The other freedom is
usually controlled by a spring and a key (not
shown in the above examples). The motion is
governed by the continuous input PLUS the
force or moment acting on the links under the
spring force.

viraj, roata care este la interior se va roti mai


puin dect cea de la exterior.
Mai jos sunt date alte dou exemple de
mecanisme neconstrnse la care unul dintre
gradele de libertate este controlat de micarea
primit (elementul motor) iar micarea
ultimului element cinematic este determinat
de elementul motor PLUS fora de inerie
amortizat/controlat de arcuri.

Fig.1.21
1.5 Kinematic Inversion/Inversiunea Cinematic/
Kinematic inversion is the process of fixing
different links in a kinematic chain (or
assuming any one of the links, other than the
fixed link as fixed). It is a good method of
generating some new mechanisms and it is very
often used for the synthesis and analysis of the
mechanisms to determine the relative motion
between the links. In the figures below the
kinematic inversions of a four-link chain with
three revolute and one prismatic pairs are
shown.

Inversiunea cinematic este procesul de fixare


a unor elemente din lanul cinematic (altul afar
de elementul considerat fix prin ipotez) i
folosete la definirea altor tipuri de mecanisme
dect cel iniial. Este folosit mai ales la
sinteza/analiza mecanismelor i pentru a
determina micarea relativ dintre diferitele
elemente cinematice. Mai jos sunt date
exemple de inversiune cinematic a unui
mecanism cu 4 elemente i cu 3 cuple de rotaie
i o cupl de translaie.

Although the joints and the link length Dei dimensiunile cuplelor i elementelor sunt
dimensions are the same, four different identice, prin inversiune cinematic se obtin 4
tipuri de mecanisme diferite
mechanisms results.
Oldham Coupling: This is the practical
application of the mechanism shown in
Fig.1.23. Notice that links 1 and 3 are in the
form of a cylinder. Link 4 is also a cylinder
which forms two prismatic joints with the
extensions on each side.

Cuplajul Oldham este un alt exemplu de


mecanism inversat dat n Fig.1.23. Elementele
1 i 3 sunt cilindrice iar 4 este deasemenea
cilindric formnd dou cuple prismatice cu
extensii pe fiecare latur.

1-20

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Fig.1.22

Fig.1.23

Fig.1.24

1-21

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1.6 Grbler's Equation/Ecuaia lui Grbler/

General degree-of freedom equation can be


simplified for certain special cases and certain
special conclusions can be derived. For the case
that we are going to analyze, we have one
degree of freedom (F=1) planar (=3)
mechanisms that contain only prismatic and
revolute joints (fi=1, fi=j). If we use these
values in the general degree-of freedom
equation, we have:

Ecuaia general a gradelor de libertate poate fi


simplificat pentru anumite cazuri la care se pot
trage i anumite concluzii. Pentru cazul n care
avem F=1, =3 (n plan) i sunt implicate doar
cuple de translaie/rotaie cu fi=1, fi=j, ecuaia
(1.4) poate fi scris:

3l-2j-4=0

(1.5)

Aceast ecuaie este cunoscut sub numele de


ecuaia lui Grubler.
Se
poate concluziona c:
We can conclude the following for the
mechanisms that satisfy Grubler's equation:

This equation is known as Grbler's equation.

1. The number of links in the mechanism 1. Numrul de elemente cinematice dintr-un


mecanism trebuie s fie par. Demonstraie:
must be even. Proof: l and j are integers,
cum l i j sunt numere ntregi oricare ar fi
whatever the value of j, 2j is an even
valoarea lui j deducem c 2j este un numr
number. Also (2j+4) is an even number.
par. Deasemenea 2j+4 va fi un numr par.
Since 3l = 2j + 4, in order this equation to
Cum 3l=2j+4, pentru ca l s fie ntreg este
be true, 3l must be even. Since 3 is an odd
necesar la 3l s fie deasemenea un numr
number, multiplication with an even number
par. Cum 3 este un numr impar, atunci ca 3l
can only give an even number. Therefore l
s
fie par trebuie pe cale de consecin ca l
must be even.
s fie un numr par.
2. The number of binary links in the 2. Numrul de elemente binare (elemente
simple cu dou cuple la capete) dintr-un
mechanism must be greater or equal to
mecanism trebuie s fie egal sau mai mare
four. Proof: If a number of links contain k
de 4. Demonstraie: Dac un element
kinematic elements, let us denote this
cinematic complex (diat, triad etc.)
number of links by lk. We cannot have l1
conine
k elemente cinematice simple, se
(since there can be no link with one
poate
nota
cu lk tipul de element cinematic.
kinematic element). The total number of
l1 nu poate exista de vreme ce un element
links, l, in the mechanism will then be equal
cinematic
simplu trebuie s aibe cuple la
to:
ambele capete pentru a exista ntr-un
mecanism. Numrul total de elemente
cinematice simple dintr-un mecanism
alctuit din elemente simple, diade, triade,
tetrade, pentade etc. este:
l=l2+l3+l4+l5+.....ln
(1.6)
or/sau/
3l=3l2+3l3+3l4+3l5+.....3ln
(In this equation l2 refers to the number of links
with 2 kinematic elements- i.e. number of
binary links-, l3 is the number of links with
three kinematic elements - i.e. ternary links-

Mai sus s-a notat cu l2 elementul cinematic


simplu, l3 diada, l4 triada etc.
Numrul de elemente cinematice simple dintrun astfel de mecanism va fi:

1-22

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_________________________________________________________________________________________________

,etc.). The number of kinematic elements in the


mechanism will be:
2l2+3l3+4l4+.....nln=Number of Kinematic Elements/Numr elemente cinematice/

(1.7)

Since two kinematic elements are joined to Cum dou elemente cinematice simple sunt
form a kinematic pair:
conectate cu cuple ntre ele:
2j = 2l2+3l3+4l4+.....nln
If we now substitute eqs (1.6) and (1.8) into
Grubler's Equation (1.5):

(1.8)

Dac se nlocuiete (1.6) i (1.8) n ecuaia lui


Grubler's (1.5):

l2-(l4+2l5+3l6+.....+(n-3)ln=4
l2=4-P
(1.9)
P = l4+2l5+3l6+.....+(n-3)ln
P is always a positive quantity. It can at most be Cum P este mereu o cantitate pozitiv (i la
zero, if all the links in the mechanism are limit
zero),
dac
toate
elementele
binary or ternary links. Hence, the number of mecanismului sunt simple sau diade, i dac
binary links (l2) can at least be 4 if P = 0, P=0 atunci l2 (elementele simple) trebuie s fie
cel puin n numr de 4 (sau mai mare).
otherwise it is greater than 4.
3. The number of kinematic elements in one 3. Numrul de elemente cinematice simple
link cannot be greater than half of the dintr-un element complex (diade, triade etc.)
nu poate fi mai mare dect jumtate din
number of links in the mechanism.
numrul de elemente cinematice simple din
mecanism.

Fig.1.25
Proof: For instance consider a link (a) with i Demonstraie: Fie un element a care cuprinde i
kinematic elements and let this number of elemente cinematice simple i fie i numrul
kinematic elements be the maximum that a link maxim de elemente simple din comunerea unui
can have. A kinematic chain using this hyper- element complex. Un lan cinematic care
link can be formed if we attach links of type (b) folosete un asemenea hiper-element a poate fi
(see figure), and if we join these links with format prin ataarea elementelor tip b (triade)
links of type (c), in this case the number of care dac se unesc ntre ele cu elemente tip c,
kinematic elements on link (a) will be a atunci lanul cinematic avnd un element tip a
maximum. There will be 1 link of type (a), i va avea maximum de elemente simple posibile.
links of type (b) and (i-1) links of type (c). Aadar avem 1 element tip a, i elemente tip b i
Then the number of links in this mechanism i-1 elemente tip c. Numrul de elemente simple
will be:
din lan va fi:

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l=1+i+(i-1)
(1.10)
or/sau/
i=l/2
I=l/2 is the maximum number of kinematic Deci dac un mecanism conine l elemente
elements on any one link when the mechanism simple atunci i=l/2 este numrul maxim de
contains l links.
elemente simple care pot compune un element
complex.
1.7 Enumeration of Kinematic Chains in Mechanisms/Enumerarea Lanurilor Cinematice n
Mecanisme/

The meaning of Enumeration" is "to list one


by one; to count. Kinematic enumeration is
the process of determining all possible
kinematic chains or mechanisms satisfying
certain predetermined criteria. There are elegant
mathematical methods for the enumeration of
kinematic chains (such as graph theory).

Enumerarea lanurilor cinematice nseamn


procesul de determinare a tuturor lanurilor
cinematice posibile (sau mecanisme posibile)
care satisfac un anumit criteriu impus. Se pot
folosi metode matematice precum teoria
grafurilor.

Fig.1.25

Consider kinematic chains that satisfy Grbler's


equation. If the number of links is restricted to
four, than the number of joints is four and all
the links are binary. Without considering the
type of joint (revolute or prismatic) we have
one type of kinematic chain (Figure 1.25-a). If
we also consider the type of joint in our
enumeration, we can have four different
kinematic chains (Figures b, c, d, e). Note that
we cannot possibly have three or four prismatic
joints. Once the kinematic chain is obtained,
using kinematic inversion, one can then
enumerate all possible mechanisms.

Fie un lan cinematic care satisface ecuaia lui


Grubler. Dac numrul de elemente este 4
atunci numrul de cuple este 4 i toate
elementele sunt simple (binare). Dac nu se
ine seama de tipul de cupl, schema structural
apare ca n Fig.1.25-a. Dac se ine seama i de
tipul cuplei (translaie T sau rotaie R) rezult 4
tipuri de lanuri cinematice diferite (Fig.1.25b,c,d,e). S se observe c nu se poate avea 3
sau 4 cuple de translaie ntr-un astfel de
mecanism. Dac se folosete apoi inversiunea
cinematic se poate deduce ntreaga list de
mecanisme posibile.

The next highest link number that satisfies


Grbler's equation is l=6, and the number of
joints must be 7. Using the conclusions that
were derived, we can at most have links with 3
kinematic elements (ternary links) and we must
also have 4 binary links. The only possible
combination is 4 binary and 2 ternary links.
(since 2j = 2l2 + 3l3 and l2= 4, l3 = 2 for j = 7 is

Urmtorul numr de elemente cinematice


simple care satisfac ecuaia lui Grubler (dup 4)
este 6 iar numrul de cuple necesar este 7.
Dup concluzia nr. 3 de mai sus putem avea
maximum n componen elemente tip triad
sau avem nevoie de 4 elemente binare simple.
Combinaiile posibile sunt 4 elemente simple
binare i 2 diade (cum 2j = 2l2 + 3l3 i l2= 4, l3

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Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

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the only possible integer solution to the


equation). These links may be combined in two
different forms, thus yielding two different
types of kinematic chains without considering
the type of joint (Figure below). In the "Watt's
Chain" the two ternary links are connected to
each other, whereas in "Steffenson's chain"
the two ternary links are not directly joined.

= 2 pentru j = 7 sunt singurele soluii ntregi).


Aceste elemente pot fi combinate n dou
soluii de lanuri cinematice (fr a se lua n
calcul tipul de cuple (Fig.1.26). n lanul lui
Watt avem 2 elemente ternare conectate direct
unul de altul iar in lanul Steffenson sunt 2
elemente ternare cuplate ntre ele cu un element
simplu.

Fig.1.26
If the distance between the two kinematic Dac unul dintre elementele ternare se reduce
elements on a ternary link goes to zero, we have dimensional la zero aprnd doar o cupla tripl
limitting cases of Watt and Steffenson chains. n loc avem cazurile limit ale lanurilor lui
The joint degree will increase and the two Watt i Steffenson ca mai jos:
limitting chains will be as shown below. These
are the special cases of 6 link chains.

Fig.1.27

One can then obtain different kinematic chains


(different in terms of the type of joint) by using
sliding joints instead of revolute joints. As a
simple example, consider a six-link mechanism
driven by a piston cylinder. Let the cylinder be
connected to the fixed link by a revolute joint.
All other joints, except the piston cylinder are
revolute joints.

Dac n loc de cuple de rotaie se consider i


cuple de translaie se obine alte tipuri de
lanuri cinematice. Ca un exemplu simplu fie
un mecanism cu 6 elemente acionat de un
piston hidraulic. Fie pistonul conectat la
elementyul fix tip batiu cu o cupl de rotaie.
Toate cuplele cu excepia cilindrului sunt tot
cuple de rotaie.

1-25

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Fig.1.28
A piston-cylinder can be considered as two Un sistem piston-cilindru poate fi socotit ca
binary links connected by a prismatic joint. legnd dou elemente simple binare cu o cupla
Hence in Watt's chain or in Streffenson's chain de translaie. Deci n lanurile lui Watt i
a piston-cylinder must replace the two binary Steffenson trebuie nlocuit o cupl de rotaie
links connected to each other. In Steffenson's cu cupla de translaie. n lanul lui Steffenson
chain there is a unique location where the nu exist dect o singur locaie unde se poate
piston-cylinder can be placed. In case of Watt's poziiona pistonul iar n cazul lanului Watt
chain although there two different locations, dei exist dou poziii posibile lanul
due to symmetry of the chain, there is no cinematic care rezult este acelai datorit
difference. Since the cylinder must be simetriei. Cum pistonul trebuie legat de
connected to the fixed link, there are two elementul fix date n Fig.1.28.
different six link mechanisms that satisfy these
conditions. The result is as shown above.

Fig.1.29
The special 6 link chains can also be used. Mecanismul cu 6 elemente poate avea i dou
There are two special chains where one or two sub-cazuri speciale unde elementele ternare se
link dimension of a ternary link is zero. In reduc la zero dimensional i devin cuple triple.
practice, the truck dump mechanism, cement n practic excavatoarele sau alte maini de
pump boom, loaders and back-hoe systems all ncrcare folosesc aceast soluie cum se vede
use the above chains. Two practical examples, mai jos:
log grabber and back-hoe, are shown below:

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Fig.1.30
1.8 Spherical and Two Dimensional Space/Spaiul n Coordinate Sferice i Spaiul BiDimensional/

Although we have not restricted the general


degree-of-freedom equation for any particular
space, the given examples were concerned with
planar or spatial mechanisms where the degreeof freedom of space was 3 or 6 respectively.
Another three dimensional space is the
spherical space in which the links are restricted
to move in concentric spheres (the degree of
freedom of space is three). Such mechanisms
are usually identified if all the revolute joint
axes intersect at one point. A good example is
the Hooke's joint (sometimes it called Cardan
joint).
Three
different
Cardan
joint
constructions are shown below:

Pn acum nu s-a fcut nici o restricie


explicit asupra tipului de spaiu n care
evolueaz mecanismul, pentru spaiul plan
gradele de libertate posibile fiind 3 i n spaiul
tridimensional este 6. Un alt spatiu posibil este
cel n coordonate sferice la care cuplele
restrictioneaz elementele cinematice s se
mite n coordonate sferice (astfel gradele de
libertate ale acestui spaiu sferic sunt 3). Un
asemenea mecanism poate fi alctuit din 2
cuple de rotaie decalate ntre ele la 900. Un
exemplu este cupla tip Hooke numit i cupla
Cardanic date mai jos:

Cardan Joint-1 (such a construction is used to Cupla cardanic tip 1 poate transmite sarcini
transmit heavy loads- in cars and trucks, for mari la autovehicule de pild,
example).

Fig.1.31
Cardan Joint-2 (Such a construction is used in Cupla cardanic tip 2 este folosit mai ales la
machine tools for easy assembly and mainile-unelte,
disassembly).

1-27

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Fig.1.32
Cardan Joint-3 (This is the usual shape that Cupla cardanic tip 3 este cea mai comun i
you will see in books. this construction is used are o varietate mare de aplicaii,
extensively in a variety of applications).

Fig.1.33
In two dimensional space (=2). In planar n spaiul bidimensional cu =2 i n cazul
motion two-dimensional space exists for screw mecanismelor cu urub-piuli avnd 3
mechanisms or for 3-link chains with sliding elemente cu cuple de translaie micarea de
joints only (the degree of freedom of space is rotaie nu este independent de cea de
two (=2). In case of 3-link mechanisms in the translaie, ele fiind corelate prin pasul filetului.
case of screw mechanisms there is rotation and
translation along one axis -screw axis- only but
only one movement is independent since
translation and rotation are correlated.

Fig.1.34
1.9 Classification of Mechanisms/Clasificarea Mecanismelor/

According to Reuleaux, (Fig.1.35) mechanisms Dup Reauleaux (Fig.1.35) mecanismele pot fi


clasificate n 6 tipuri de baz:
are classified into six basic types:
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Structural Analisys of Mechnisms /Analiza Structural a Mecanismelor/

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1. Screw Mechanisms
2. Wheel mechanisms (gear mechanisms
or roller mechanisms)
3. Cam mechanisms
4. Crank mechanisms (sometimes also
called link mechanisms).
5. Belt mechanisms
6. Ratchet
and
lock
mechanisms
(including Geneva drives).

1. Mecanisme urub-piuli,
2. Mecanisme cu roi (cu roi dinate sau
roi de friciune),
3. Mecanisme cu came,
4. Mecanisme cu manivel,
5. Mecanisme cu curele,
6. Mecanisme cu clichet incluznd cele cu
cruce de Malta,

This classification, although it has certain


important merits, does not really separate all the
mechanisms that we see in practice. We usually
have mechanisms that include more than one of
the above six basic types.

Aceast clasificare dei intuitiv nu separ clar


ntre ele mecanismele care se pot ntlni n
practic. Deseori mecanismele din practic
cuprind dou sau mai multe mecanisme din
tipologia de mai sus nseriate sau n paralel.

Other classifications may be made concerning Alte clasificri in cont de alte caracteristici
precum:
the following topological characteristics:
1. Degree-of-freedom of space of the
mechanism (e.g. spatial, spherical,
planar, etc.)
2. Degree-of-freedom of the mechanism
3. Number of links in the mechanism
4. Number of joints in the mechanism
5. Types of joints in the mechanism

Fig.1.35

1-29

1. Tipul spaiului n care evolueaz


mecanismul (plan, tridimensional,
sferic),
2. Numrul de grade de libertate al
mecanismului,
3. Numrul de elemente componente,
4. Numrul de cuple,
5. Tipurile de cuple.

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

INDEX/CUPRINS/
2.0 POSITIONAL ANALISYS OF MECHANISMS /ANALIZA POZIIONAL A
MECANISMELOR/ ____________________________________________________________________2
2.1 POSITION OF A PARTICLE/POZIIA PUNCTULUI MATERIAL/___________________________________2
2.2 KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY IN PLANE/CINEMATICA CORPULUI RIGID N PLAN/ _________________4
2.3 COINCIDENT POINTS/PUNCTE COINCIDENTE/ _____________________________________________6
2.4 VECTOR LOOPS OF A MECHANISM /CONTURUL VECTORIAL AL UNUI MECHANISM/_________________8
2.5 GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF LOOP CLOSURE EQUATIONS/SOLUIILE GRAFICE ALE ECUAIILOR DE
CONTUR/ ___________________________________________________________________________18
2.6 STEP-WISE SOLUTION OF THE LOOP CLOSURE EQUATION/SOLUIILE ITERATIVE ALE ECUAIILOR
CONTURURILOR NCHISE/ ______________________________________________________________25
2.7 POSITION ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS BY MEANS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS/ANALIZA POZIIONAL A
MECANISMELOR CU NUMERE COMPLEXE/ __________________________________________________29
2.8 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE LOOP CLOSURE EQUATIONS/SOLUII NUMERICE ALE ECUAIILOR DE
CONTUR/ ___________________________________________________________________________32

2-1

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2.0 Positional Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/


2.1 Position of a Particle/Poziia Punctului Material/
In order to determine the position of a point
(particle) in plane, we must first locate a
reference frame. For example, if we attach a
coordinate frame to a moving body, the
position of a point on the rigid body will be
defined by constant dimensions. If our
reference frame is attached to a fixed body or
another body that is moving, the coordinates of
a point on this rigid body will be variable. Once
the reference frame is established, different coordinate systems (Cartesian or polar) and
different parameters can be used to determine
the position of a particle. In describing the
location of a point (see Figure below), we must
state either the distance from the origin of the
reference frame to point P and give the angular
orientation of the line OP in the reference
frame, or the Cartesian coordinates x, y.

Pentru a se determina poziia unui punct ntr-un


plan trebuie mai nti definit un sistem de
referin. Dac se ataeaz un sistem de
referin unui rigid n micare atunci
coordonatele unui punct aparinnd rigidului
fa de sistemul ataat acestuia rmn constante
n timp. Dac sistemul de referin este ataat
unui corp fix atunci un punct aparinnd unui
rigid n micare vor fi variabile n timp. Pot fi
folosite diferite sisteme de referin (carteziene
sau polare) implicnd diferite tipuri de
parametri care pot fi folosii n definirea
poziiei unui punct. Din figura de mai jos se
poate vedea c n definirea poziiei punctului P
se pot folosi fie coordonatele polare precum
distana dintre originea sistemului i P i
unghiul dintre OP i axa Ox, fie coordonatele
carteziene x, y.

Fig.2.1
These two specifications (the magnitude and Dac se d mrimea distanei de la origine la P
direction) are the properties that define a i sensul, atunci se definete practic un vector
vector. Therefore, the position of a particle de poziie, ca urmare poziia unui punct e dat
r
r
r
r
(point) is given by a position vector OP = r . de vectorul de poziie OP = r . n coordinate
The vector can be represented in Cartesian form carteziene vectorul de poziie se poate exprima
as:
astfel:

r
r r
r = i x + j y (2.1)
In this equation i and j are the unit vectors for n ecuaia de mai sus i i j sunt vectorii unitate
Ox and Oy axes, and x and y are the distances (sau versorii) pentru axele Ox i Oy iar x i y
in horizontal and vertical axes which are to be sunt distane pe direcii orizontale i verticale
ce trebuie msurate.
measured by a certain scale.
If polar form the position vector is determined Dac sistemul de referin este polar atunci
by r and , where r is the distance from the vectorul de poziie este dat de r i , unde r
origin to the particle and is the inclination of este distana de la origine la punct iar este
2-2

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

the line OP from a reference line (Ox), unghiul format de linia OP fa de axa Ox
msurat n sesn trigonometric.
measured in counter-clockwise direction.
To convert from x, y to r, or vice versa:

Pentru a se trece de la sistemul de referin


cartezian la cel polar sau invers:
x = r cos ; y = r sin ;
(2.2)
x
r = x 2 + y 2 ; = arctg
y
For the determination of the position of a Pentru determinarea poziiei unui punct se pot
particle, we can also make use of complex folosi i numerele complexe. Dei acestea nu
algebra. Although complex numbers are not reprezint vectori ele pot fi folosite pentru
vectors, they can be used to represent position reprezentarea poziiei unui vector n plan dac
vectors in plane if the axes of the reference axele sistemului de referin devin x=Re(z) sau
frame are used as the real and the imaginary axa Ox devine ax real, i y=Im(z) sau axa Oy
axes of the complex plane. In such a case the devine ax imaginar, z fiind numrul complex.
position of a particle can be expressed in terms n acest caz poziia unui punct material se poate
of a complex number z which is:
scrie astfel:
z = x + iy
z = x iy Numarul complex conjugat
z z = ( x + iy)( x iy) = x 2 + y 2 = z

(2.3)

z = x 2 + y2

Fig.2.2
where x and y are the distances measured along unde x i y sunt distanele msurate de-a lungul
the real and imaginary axes and i is an operator axei reale i imaginare, iar i este un operator
which is defined as the unit imaginary numit i numr unitate imaginar cu
proprietatea c i = 1 .
number ( i = 1 ).

The usefulness of complex numbers is due to


the fact that the transformation from the
Cartesian parameters (x, y) to the polar
parameters (r, ) or vice versa, can be
performed with no additional burden. Since the
complex number, z, which shows the position
vector of a particle can be written as:

2-3

Utilitatea numerelor complexe se datoreaz


faptului c trecerea de la sistemul cartezian (x,
y) la cel polar (r, ) i invers se poate face
foarte uor. Un numr complex z care descrie
poziia unui vector al unui punct, se poate scrie:

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

x
x = r cos ; y = r sin ; r = x 2 + y 2 ; = arctg
y

z = x + yi z = r cos + ir sin

i
z = r (cos + i sin ); z = r (cos i sin )
z sau z = re = r cos ir sin

z = e i = cos + i sin

(2.4)
z = e i = cos i sin

In the exponential form of the position vector


re i where r is the distance of point P to O
(OP, which is the magnitude of the vector) and
e i is a unit vector along the direction of OP
( e i = cos i sin ). In other words, In
Fig.2.2 diagram if a number is multiplied by
it rotates by an angle in
e i
counterclockwise direction.

n forma sa exponenial poziia unui vector va


r
fi dat de re i unde r este distana OP r
(identic cu modulul vectorului de poziie) iar
e i este vectorul unitate poziionat de-a lungul
liniei OP ( e i = cos i sin ). Altfel spus n
diagrama din figura 2.2, dac se nmulete un
numr real cu e i , vectorul corespondent se
va roti cu unghiul n sens trigonometric.

In general the position of the particle will


change in time (it is a function of time) This
change can be expressed either using
rectangular or polar coordinates.

n cazul general poziia n timp a punctului


material se va schimba. Aceasta schimbare
poate fi descris fie n coordinate carteziene fie
polare.

2.2 Kinematics of a Rigid Body in Plane/Cinematica corpului rigid n plan/

Rigidity is an assumption. This assumption


simplifies the mathematical model to a very big
extent. Due to rigidity assumption we can make
the following important conclusions:

Rigiditatea unui corp este o ipotez teoretic


menit s simplifice mult modelele matematice
din mecanic (sau mecanisme). Rigiditatea are
drept consecin:

1. The plane motion of a rigid body is 1. Micarea plan a unui corp rigid este
completely described by the motion of any complet descris dac se cunoate micarea
a dou puncte oarecare ale corpului rigid.
two points within the rigid body.

Fig.2.3

2-4

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Let us assume that the motions of points A and


B are given. At any time instant t, the position
of the rigid body is then known. Take any point
S (Fig.2.3). At every position of the rigid body
the position of point S is completely known,
since the distances AS, BS and AB are fixed.
For example if the rigid body has moved from
A, B and S to a new location given by A', B',
using the constant dimensions of AS, BS
and AB=AB, one can locate S'. Hence every
point on the rigid body can be determined one
the position of any two points such as A and B
are known.

Fie cunoscute micrile a dou puncte A i B.


Prin urmare la un moment dat t, poziia
rigidului este cunoscut. Se ia un punct
oarecare S (Fig.2.3) aparinnd rigidului.
Pentru fiecare poziia n timp a rigidului,
poziia punctului S este mereu cunoscut de
vreme ce distanele AS, BS, AB, prin ipoteza
rigiditii corpului, sunt constante. Dac rigidul
se mic ntr-o alt poziie A, B, S, cum
AS, BS sunt constante i cum AB=AB ,
poziia lui S poate fi determinat. Deci dac se
cunoate poziia a dou puncte aparinnd
rigidului, oricare punct al rigidului va putea fi
definit poziional.

Fig.2.4
The position of a rigid body can also be defined Poziia rigidului poate fi definit i printr-un
by a vector from one point of the rigid body to vector care leag un punct al rigidului de altul,
another such as A and B, which will be called ca de pild A de B (Fig.2.4) notat AB .
AB vector (Fig.2.4).
The vector AB is a fixed vector on the rigid
body. Since A and B can be selected anywhere,
the length of the vector is arbitrary. Relative to
a fixed reference frame, the position of the rigid
body can as well be defined by giving the
position of the origin of this vector (point A
which is a point on the rigid body) and its
orientation (angle )

Vectorul AB este un vector fixat pe rigid i


cum A i B sunt arbitrare atunci modului
vectorului este i el arbitrar. Fa de un sistem
fix de referin poziia rigidului poate fi
descris dac se cunosc poziia punctului A
care este originea vectorului i unghiul al
vectorului.

2. Rigidity ensures that the particles lying on 2. Rigiditatea asigur faptul c punctele
a straight line have equal velocity situate pe o linie dreapt n cuprinsul
rigidului au componente/proiecii ale vitezei
components in the direction of this line.
egale (vitezele lor din plan se proiecteaz pe
aceast linie).

Since the distance between any two points


along this line remains constant, there can be no
velocity difference for points along this line
(otherwise they must come closer to each other
or separate, which is against the hypothesis that
the rigid body cannot deform). Velocity

2-5

Cum distanele intr-un rigid sunt fixe, atunci


orice vitez ar avea rigidul i n oricare direcie,
dac proieciile vitezelor fiecrui punct de pe o
linie dreapta din rigid nu ar fi egale, punctele
respective se vor apropia/departa unul fa de
altul, violnd ipoteza nedeformabilitii

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

difference may be on perpendicular direction to rigidului. Dac exist diferene n vitezele celor
the line.
dou puncte acestea se pot manifesta doar pe
direcie perpendicular pe aceasta linie.
V A V B pr ( V A )

pr ( V B )

Fig.2.5
3. If we are concerned with the kinematics of 3. Dac suntem interesai doar de cinematica
the rigid bodies only, it is sufficient to unui corp rigid atunci pentru a o studia este
consider just a line on the rigid body (vector suficient s se studieze cinematica unei linii
AB, for example).
din rigid precum vectorul AB .
Since the actual boundaries of the body do not
influence the kinematics (but it does influence
the dynamics), the rigid body in plane motion is
to be regarded as a large plane which embraces
any desired two point in the plane.

Cum frontierele fizice ale corpului nu


influeneaz cinematica sa (dei influeneaz
dinamica sa), micarea plan a rigidului poate
fi privit ca micarea unui plan n care se
situeaz oricare 2 puncte dorite.

2.3 Coincident Points/Puncte coincidente/

In mechanisms we are not involved with the


motion of one rigid body but of several rigid
bodies. From the corollaries obtained for rigid
bodies in plane motion, we can assume that
each link in a mechanism is a plane of infinite
dimensions which may be represented by a
straight line. The relative motions of these links
with respect to each other are governed by the
joints that connect them. These planes are
assumed to be superimposed on top of each
other as shown below:

2-6

n disciplina Mecanisme nu sunt studiate


corpuri rigide separat ci sisteme de corpuri
rigide. Din corolarele deduse mai sus pentru
micarea plan, se poate presupune c fiecare
element cinematic este un plan infinit dar care
poate fi reprezentat printr-o linie dreapt.
Micarea relativ a acestor elemente cinematice
este impus de cuplele de legtur dintre ele.
Fie planele unor elemente cinematice puse unul
peste altul ca n figura de mai jos:

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.6
Consider the motion of link 2 with respect to Fie c elementul 2 se mic relativ fa de
link 1. It will be a rotation about the axis of the elementul 1. Aceast micare este o micare de
revolute joint connecting these links, A0. The rotaie n jurul cuplei care leag cele dou
size of the joint or the shape of the joint is elemente, A0. Mrimea i forma cuplei sunt
completely unimportant and, furthermore, it complet neimportante i nici nu este important
does not matter which link is fixed since we are dac unul dintre elementele cinematice este fix
concerned with the relative motion only. The sau nu de vreme ce intereseaz doar micarea
relative motion between links 2 and 3 or 4 and relativ. Micarea relativ dintre elementele 2
3 will again be a rotation about A or B i 3 sau 3 i 4 vor fi deasemenea rotaii n jurul
cuplelor A sau B.
respectively.
Consider a general point P. In order to locate
this point, let us assume that we have pierced a
hole through all of the four planes involved.
There will be a corresponding point P1 on plane
l, P2 on plane 2, P3 on Plane 3 and P4 on plane
4. At the position considered, all these four
points are coincident but at any other position
these points will be at different relative
positions. Consider point P2. It will trace a
circle with origin A0 on plane 1 and it will trace
another circle with origin A on plane 3. The
path of P on plane 4 will not be a circle but a
higher order curve (it is a fourth-order algebraic
curve in general).

Fie un punct oarecare P. Pentru a-i defini


poziia se presupune c se d o gaur prin toate
planele elementelor. Va exista un punct P1 n
planul 1, P2 n planul 2 etc. n poziia iniial
cele 4 puncte sunt coincidente dar odat cu
evoluia n timp a mecanismului ele nu vor mai
fi coincidente. Punctul P2 de pild va descrie un
cerc cu originea n A0 din planul 1 i alt cerc cu
originea n A pe planul 3. Traiectoria lui P pe
planul 4 nu va mai fi o curba simpl ci una de
ordin mai nalt (de regul polinomial de ordin
4).

Let us now consider point B. There will be four


corresponding points B1, B2, B3 and B4. Since B
is on the axis of the revolute pair joining links 3
and 4, B3 and B4 will be coincident at all
positions. Such points (B3 and B4) will be
called permanently coincident. Where as the
other points (B1 and B2) are instantly
coincident with B3 or B4.

Fie punctul B. Vor exista patru puncte


corespondente B1, B2, B3 i B4 pe planele
respective. Cum B se situeaz pe axa cuplei
care conecteaz elementele 3 i 4, atunci B3 i
B4 vor fi permanent coincidente. B1 i B2 se
nu vor mai fi coincidente odat cu evoluia
mecanismului drept care ele sunt puncte
coincidente instantaneu.

2-7

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

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2.4 Vector Loops of a Mechanism /Conturul vectorial al unui mechanism/

The main difference between freely moving


bodies and the moving links in a mechanism is
that they have a constrained motion due to the
joints in between the links. The links connected
by joints form closed polygons that we shall
call a loop. The motion analysis of mechanisms
is based on expressing the evolution of these
loops in time, mathematically.
In kinematic analysis we shall assume that all
the necessary dimensions of each link is given
and link length dimensions (i.e. the distance
between the joints or the angles) can be
determined from the given dimensions using
the geometry of the link.
We have seen that it is sufficient to represent
the position of each link (rigid body) by
describing the position of any two points on
that link. One way of selecting these two points
on a link is to use the permanently coincident
points. It is obvious that in such a procedure,
the origin of a vector will be defined by the
previous vector and thus the number of
parameters to define the link positions will be
decreased.

Diferena dintre un corp rigid care se mic


liber i elementele cinematice ale mecanismelor
este c micarea celor din urm este constrns
de existena cuplelor ditre ele. Elementele
cinematice legate prin cuple cinematice
formeaz poligoane nchise numite uneori i
bucle. Esena analizei mecanismelor st n
exprimarea matematic a evoluiei acestor
poligoane nchise n timp.
n analiza cinematic se presupune c se cunosc
toate dimensiunile elementelor cinematice sau
orice puncte ale unor elemente complexe pot fi
determinate geometric.

S-a artat deja ca este suficient s se reprezinte


poziia a numai dou puncte pentru a se deduce
poziia fiecrui element cinematic al
mecanismului. O cale de a selecta aceste dou
puncte este de a fi selectate acele puncte
coincidente permanent. ntr-o astfel de
procedur originea vectorului de poziie al unui
element va fi determinat de vectorul
elementului precedent astfel nct numrul de
parametri independeni scade.

b.

a.

Fig.2.7
Let us consider a four-bar mechanism as shown
above (Fig.2.7-a) as a simple example. In this
mechanism A0, is a permanently coincident
point between links 1 and 2, A is permanently
coincident point between links 2 and 3, B
between 3 and 4 and B0 between 1 and 4. Let us
disconnect joint B. In such a case we will
obtain two open kinematic chains A0AB (links
2,3) with two degrees of freedom and A0B0B
(links 1,4) with one degree of freedom
2-8

Fie un mecanism patrulater dat ca mai sus


(Fig.2.7-a), n care A0 este cupla permanent de
rotaie ntre elementele 1 i 2, A cupla de
rotaie dintre 2 i 3, B ntre 3 i 4 i B0 ntre 4 i
1. Dac se deconecteaz cupla B (Fig.2.7-b) se
vor obine dou lanuri cinematice deschise
A0AB (elementele 2,3) cu dou grade de
libertate i A0B0B (elementele 1,4) cu un grad
de libertate.

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

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(Fig.2.7b).
To determine the positions of the links we must
have a reference frame. One obvious choice is
to select the fixed pivots A0, B0 as one of the
co-ordinate axes and select A0 or B0 as the
origin. Next, in order to define the position of
link 2 (its length is known), we must define
angle 12, which is related with the degree of
freedom of the joint between links 1 and 2. To
determine the position of link 3, since the
location of the permanently coincident point A
between 2 and 3 can be determined when 12
defined, we must now define 13, which is
related to the freedom of the joint between links
2 and 3. Similarly 14 must be defined to
determine the position of link 4. Hence we need
3 parameters (12, 13 and 14) which are all
related to the joint freedoms for the open
kinematic chains obtained when we disconnect
a joint to eliminate a loop.

Pentru a determina poziiile elementelor este


nevoie de un sistem de referin. Se poate alege
originea sistemului ntr-una din cuplele legate
la batiu A0, B0 . Pentru a defini poziia
elementului 2 (cu lungimea cunoscut) trebui
s se cunoasc unghiul 12 care devine primul
grad de libertate al cuplei ce leag elementul 1
de 2. Pentru a defini poziia elementului 3 i
cum deja se cunoate poziia punctului/cuplei A
din cele de mai sus, trebuie cunoscut acum
unghiul 13 care este un alt grad de libertate al
cuplei dintre elementele 2 i 3. Asemntor
trebuie cunoscut 14 pentru a se defini poziia
elementului 4. n consecin avem nevoie de 3
parametri independeni (12 , 13 i 14 ) care
sunt legai de gradele de libertate ale cuplelor
unor lanuri cinematice deschise ce se obin
dup deconectarea cuplei B.

Each link can be defined by a vector fixed on


that link, let us select the permanently
coincident points between the links as the tips
of these vectors and define vector A0A (for link
2), AB (for link 3), B0B (for link 4) and A0B0
(for link 1). Except A0B0, the other three
vectors will be a function of time (since the
distances between the two points on the same
link are fixed, the magnitudes will remain
constant but the directions of these vectors will
change in time). Since the mechanism contains
revolute joints only, the magnitude of the
vectors are constant link lengths ( A 0 A =a2,

Fiecare element poate fi definit cu un vector


fixat pe acel element la care originea i vrful
se sprijin pe cuplele de la extremiti. Astfel
vectorul A0A este pentru elementul 2, AB
(elementul 3), B0B (elementul 4) and A0B0
(elementul 1). Vectorul A0B0 fiind legat de
batiu va fi fix iar toi ceilali vectori vor fi
variabili ca i direcie dar nu ca i modul,
(lungimile elementelor cinematice fiind
constante). Cum mecanismul de mai sus
cuprinde doar cuple de rotaie, modulul
vectorilor de poziie va fi constant i anume
( A 0 A =a2, AB =a3, A 0 B0 =a1 i B0 B =a4).

The Direcia unghiular a acestor vectori de poziie


se va schimba odat cu parametri 12 , 13 i 14.
angular orientation of these vectors will be Cnd cupla B este deconectat, capetele
rotation variables (12 , 13 ve 14 ). When the elementelor 3 i 4 (B3 i B4 ) nu vor mai fi
joint at B is disconnected, B3 and B4 may not be coincidente, aadar poziia punctului B poate fi
coincident. For the open kinematic chain, the dat n dou moduri:
position of point B may be defined in two
different forms as:
AB =a3,

A 0 B0 =a1

B0 B =a4).

A0A+AB=A0B3 (1,2,3 open loop)

A0A+AB=A0B3 (bucla 1,2,3)

A0B0 +B0B= A0B4 (1,4 open loop)

A0B0 +B0B= A0B4 (bucla 1,4 )

However, at every instant the revolute joint n orice caz la mecanismul real cupla dintre
between links 3 and 4 must exist and point B elementele 3 i 4 trebuie s existe i deci B3 i
2-9

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

must remain a permanently coincident point for


different values of the position variables if the
system we are considering is a mechanism.
Therefore the vector A0B3 and A0B4 obtained
from the two equations using the two open
kinematic chains must be equal and this results
with the vector equation:

B4 trebuie s fie permanent coincidente pentru


orice valori ale parametrilor. Aadar vectorii
A0B3 i A0B4 care au rezultat din ecuaiile de
mai sus (din lanurile cinematice deschise)
trebuie s fie egali i deci:

A0A +AB=A0B0 +B0B

A0A +AB=A0B0 +B0B

This vector equation must be valid for all Ecuaia vectorial de mai sus trebuie s fie
positions due to the permanently coincident valid permanent datorit faptului c B3 i B4
trebuie s fie permanent coincidente.
points.
In a four-bar mechanism there is a single loop
formed and the vector equation describes the
closure of this loop mathematically. The
equation(s) that describes the closure of the
loop(s) formed in the mechanism are known as
loop closure equation(s). The variables in the
loop closure equations are always related by the
joint freedoms and we can solve for two
position variables from any loop equation. In
plane the vector equation will correspond to
two scalar equations for each of axes. In the
four-bar example there are three variables (12,
13 and 14) which we shall call "position
variables". If one of the position variable (say
12), the other position variables (13 and 14)
can be solved from this vector loop equation.
The number of independent parameters that
are required will always be equal to the
degree-of-freedom of the mechanism. The
relation between the position variables is a
nonlinear, trigonometric relation.

n mecanismul patrulater real exist doar o


singur bucl n care vectorii de poziie vor
descrie matematic modul de nchidere a acestei
bucle. Aceste ecuaii vectoriale se numesc
ecuaii de nchidere a buclelor. Variabilele
care exist n aceste ecuaii vectoriale sunt
legate de gradele de libertate ale cuplelor, iar
fiecare ecuaie vectorial poate cuprinde doar 2
necunoscute pentru a putea fi rezolvat.
Aceasta pentru c o ecuaie vectorial se
descompune n dou ecuaii scalare dup axele
Ox i Oy. n exemplul mecanismului de mai
sus exist 3 variabile (12, 13 i 14) care se
numesc i variabile de poziie. Dac se d una
dintre ele ca valoare de input (de pild 12),
atunci celelalte variabile de poziie (13 i 14)
pot fi calculate din ecuaia vectorial de
Numrul
de
parametri
nchidere.
independeni care trebuie calculai trebuie
s fie egal cu numrul de grade de libertate
al mecanismului. Relaia dintre variabilele
de poziie este neliniar de vreme este o
relaie trigonometric.

One simple and concise form of writing the


vector loop equations is to use complex
numbers. For example, if the length of the
vector A0A is a2 and if the vector makes an
angle 12:

O form simpl de a scrie ecuaia vectorial de


nchidere este de a folosi numerele complexe.
De pild dac modulul vectorului A0A este a2 i
dac vectorul face unghiul 12:

A0A = a2cos 12+ ia2sin 12

A0A = a2cos 12+ ia2sin 12

sau folosind ecuaia lui Euler:

or, using Euler's equation:

A0A = a2 e i12

A0A = a2 e i12

2-10

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

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In a similar fashion if the link lengths are


denoted as ai ( a1= A0B0 , a2= A0A, etc.) the
vector loop equation in complex numbers can
be written as:

n mod identic dac lungimile elementelor


cinematice sunt notate cu ai ( a1= A0B0 , a2=
A0A, etc.), ecuaia de nchidere cu numere
complexe este:

A0A +AB=A0B0 +B0B

A0A +AB=A0B0 +B0B

a2 e i12 +a3 e i13 =a1+a4 e i14

a2 e i12 +a3 e i13 =a1+a4 e i14

If required, the equation can be written in Sau n coordonate carteziene:


cartesian coordinates as:
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
a 2 cos 12 i + a 2 sin 12 j + a 3 cos 13 i + a 3 sin 13 j = a 1 i + a 4 cos 14 i + a 4 sin 14 j
(2.5)
x and y components can be equated separately Sau pentru fiecare
two yield two scalar equations in the form:
componentele:
Axa Ox a 2 cos 12 + a 3 cos 13 = a 1 + a 4 cos 14

ax

separat

avem

(2.6)
Axa Oy a 2 sin 12 + a 3 sin 13 = a 4 cos 14
In case of a prismatic joint, the variable will be n cazul cuplelor de translaie parametrul va fi
the magnitude of a vector or a vector modulul unui vector sau o component a unui
component (projection). Consider a slider-crank vector pe o anumit direcie. Fie un mecanism
mechanism as shown in Fig. 2.8. Let us biel-manivel ca n Fig.2.8-a. Se va deconecta
disconnect the revolute joint at B. In order to cupla B. Pentru a se defini poziiile elementelor
determine the positions of links 2 and 3 we 2 i 3 este nevoie de unghiurile 12 i 13. Pentru
must define 12 and 13. To locate the position a defini poziia elementului 4 (prisma cuplei de
of link 4 its displacement along the slider axis translaie) e nevoie s se tie parametrul s14 .
must be known and the position variable s14 Ecuaia de nchidere a buclei este:
must be defined. The resulting loop closure
equation is:

a.

b.

Fig.2.8
AoA + AB = AoB

Again there are 3 variables (12, 13 and s14) one


of which must be specified as the input. In this
case the vectors AoA and AB have fixed
magnitudes and varying directions. The vector

(2.7)

Din nou avem 3 parametri (12, 13 i s14) drept


care unul dintre ei trebuie dat ca valoare de
input. n cazul de mai sus vectorii AoA i AB
au mrimi constante dar direcii variabile.

2-11

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

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AoB has a fixed Oy component (length c) and a


changing Ox component (s14). Depending on
the applications either 12 (i.e. in pumps) or s14
(i.e. internal combustion engines) is the input.
In complex numbers the vector loop equation
will be:

Vectorul AoB are component ape axa Oy


constant (distana c) dar componenta pe axa
Ox este variabil (s14). Funcie de aplicaie
parametrul de input poate fi 12 ca de pild la
pompe sau s14 la motoarele cu ardere intern.
Exprimat n numere complexe ecuaia
vectorial este:
i13
i12
a 2e
+ a 3e
= s14 + ic (2.7)
The vectors defined and the variables used in Parametri folosii n ecuaiile de mai sus nu
the loop closure equations are not unique. For sunt unici. De pid la mecananismul bielexample, for the slider crank mechanism, rather manivel n locul deconectrii cuplei B se poate
than disconnecting the revolute joint at B, one deconecta cupla A (Fig.2.9), dintre elementele
can as well disconnect the revolute joint at A 2 i 3. Se definete un nou unghi 13'= xBA
between links 2 and 3 (Fig 2.9). We must now n locul lui 13 ca parametru de definire a
xBA instead of the poziiei elementului 3. Cele dou unghiuri 13 i
define the angle 13'=
angle 13 o determine the position of link 3. 13' difer ntre ele printr-o valoare constant
Note that the angles. 13 and 13' differ by a (180o). Ecuaia vectorial de nchidere i cea n
constant angle (in this case by 180o). The numere complexe va fi:
resulting loop equation is:
AoA = AoB + AB

a 2 e i12 = s14 + ic + a 3 e i13

(2.8)

Fig.2.9
Referring to the four-bar mechanism below Pentru mecanismul patrulater din Fig.2.10 se
(Fig.2.10), one can write a vector equation in poate scrie ecuaia vectorial astfel:
the form:
(2.9)
AoA +AB = AoB
Considering the vector AoB, the magnitude and Mrimea (modulul) i direcia vectorului AoB
direction of this vector are variables (or its Ox sunt variabile n timp (deci i componentele
and Oy components) and these variables are not sale pe Ox i Oy) dar AoB nu are componentele
related with the joint freedoms, we can solve direct legate de gradele de libertate ale
for the vector AoB provided that the magnitudes cuplelor. Se poate rezolva vectorul AoB dac se
and the directions of the other two vectors are cunosc modulele i direciile altor doi vectori.
known. Such an equation will not help us for Ecuaia de mai sus (2.9) dei este o ecuaie
the solution of position variables. Although it is vectorial nu ajut la gsirea parametrilor i
a valid vector equation, it is not a loop closure dei este o ecuaie valid ea nu este o ecuaie
2-12

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

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equation. One can identify such loops by vectorial de nchidere a unei bucle. Asemenea
noting the variables involved are not related ecuaii (2.9) nu se obin prin deconectarea unei
with the joint freedoms and these equations are cuple.
not obtained by disconnecting the joints.

Fig.2.10

Fig.2.11
A similar argument can also be made for the Din Fig.2.11 se pot deduce deasemenea ecuaii
vector equations (Fig.2.11):
tip (2.9):
AoA + AC = AoC
(2.10)
AB + BC = AC
In the later case, all three vectors are on the Cea de-a doua ecuaie vectorial de mai sus
same link and they have a fixed orientation este legat doar de geometria elementului 3
with respect to each other and it has no care este constant i nu are nici o legtur cu
connection to the mechanism evolution.
evoluia mecanismului.

Fig.2.12
In certain other cases we may have to use n anumite cazuri se folosesc puncte
instantaneously coincident points or other coincidente instantaneu sau diverse alte puncte
2-13

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points on the links as the tips of the vectors, as


shown in Fig. 2.13. The variable involved in
such a case is the relative displacement of one
link with respect to another link. The vector
BoA can be separated into two components:
BoC and CA, so that one component is of
constant magnitude and the magnitude of the
other vector is related to the displacement of
the prismatic joint between links 3 and 4. The
loop closure equation can than be written in the
form:

ale elementelor cinematice ca vrfuri ale


vectorilor de poziie aa cum se vede n
Fig.2.13. Variabilele din acest caz sunt
deplasarea relativ a unui element fa de
cellalt. Vectorul BoA poate fi descompus n
dou componente: BoC i CA, prima fiind
constant iar a doua component fiind legat de
deplasarea cuplei de translaie (elementul 3 fa
de 4). Ecuatia vectorial de nchidere va fi:

AoA = AoBo + BoC + CA

a 2e

i12

= a1 + a 4e

Points A2 and A3 are permanently coincident


points. Point A4 is instantaneously coincident
with point A3. When the mechanism is moved
from this position the two points will be
displaced by distance s along the slider axis
relative to each other. Points A2 and A3 will be
two other different points that will be
coincident with A'.

i 4

+ s 43 e

i (14 + 4 )

(2.11)

Punctele A2 i A3 sunt coincidente permanent


iar punctul A4 (proiecia lui A pe elementul 4)
va fi coincident cu A3 doar instntaneu. Cnd
mecanismul se mic, cele dou puncte se vor
deplasa reciproc cu s de-a lungul manivelei.
Punctele A2 i A3 vor fi coincidente cu A.

Fig.2.13
The vector CA changes both its magnitude and Vectorul CA variaz att ca direcie ct i ca
direction. However its orientation with respect modul (lungime). n orice caz orientarea sa fa
to the vector B0C will be fixed and no new de vectorul B0C rmne constant. Dac se tie
variable is needed. If the orientation of the orientarea lui B0C prin parametrul 14 atunci
vector B0C is known by the variable 14, the direcia vectorului CA fa de axa Ox va fi 14+
orientation of the vector CA with respect to 4 unde 4 este un unghi constant al geometriei
positive Ox axis is 14+ 4 and angle 4 is a elementului 4. Deci variabilele de poziie vor fi
constant angle measured on link 4. The position 12, 14 i s43.
variables in the loop equation will be 12, 14
and s43.

2-14

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

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Fig.2.14
Note that the same vector loop equation can be O ecuaie vectorial identic se poate deduce
derived for the swinging block mechanism pentru un mecanism balansier (Fig.2.14).
shown above (Fig.2.14).

Fig.2.15
When writing the vector loop equations one Cnd se scriu ecuaiile vectoriale de nchidere
must be sure that the equations are valid for ale unor bucle trbuie s se verifice dac
every position of the mechanism. The ecuaiile sunt valide pentru oricare poziie
mechanism may be at a special position such posibil
a
mecanismului.
Mecanismul
that one or more of the links are collinear as (Fig.2.15) poate avea o poziie special ca de
shown above (Fig.2.15). Although links 2 and 1 pild cu elementul 2 coliniar cu elementul 1 ai
are collinear, they will have different cror vectori dei coliniari au sensuri opuse.
orientations at some other instant. In such a Pentru verificare se deseneaz mecanismul ntrcase you may redraw the mechanism slightly o poziie uor deplasat fa de poziia critic.
offset from the critical position. In some cases Uneori se pot scrie simplificat ecuaiile n
if the constant link angles between two vectors complex. De pild dac la ecuaia (2.11)
are of a certain simple value (such as 900), then = 90 0 atunci ea devine:
4
it is advisable to simplify the equations
accordingly. For example if the angle 4 of the
inverted slider crank mechanism is a right
angle, the loop closure equation must be written
as:
a 2 e i12 = a 1 + a 4 e i4 + is 43 e i (14 )

(2.12)

The solution to the loop equations may not Uneori exist posibilitatea ca s nu existe
2-15

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

exist for every value of the independent


parameter. This will mean that for those
particular link lengths the mechanism cannot
be assembled at the requested position.

soluii ale ecuaiilor vectoriale pentru fiecare


valoare a parametrilor independeni. n acest
caz concluzia este c mecanismul nu permite
geometric acea poziie.

How will you determine the number of Cum se determin numrul de bucle
independent loops from the number of joints independente avnd numrul de cuple i
elemente ale mecanismului?
and links?
In planar mechanisms we can write vector loop
equations for each loop of the mechanism. This
corresponds to L (L= number of independent
loops) vector equations or 2L scalar equations,
if we equate the x and y components of vectors.
The number of parameters involved in these
equations will be 2L+F, where F is the degree
of freedom of the mechanism. If we now define
F number of variables (independent variables or
input parameters), then theoretically, we must
be able to solve for the other variables
(dependent position parameters).

n mecanismele plane se pot scrie cte o ecuaie


vectorial pentru fiecare bucl a mecanismului.
Dac L este numrul de bucle independente
atunci cele L ecuaii vectoriale vor genera 2L
ecuaii scalare dup Ox i Oy. Numrul de
parametri care pot exista n aceste ecuaii este
2L+F unde F este numrul de grade de libertate
al mecanismului. Dac se face ca F s fie suma
dintre parametri de poziie i variabilele de
input atunci se pot calcula celelalte variabile de
poziie.

We can change the input variable within a


given range in certain increments and obtain the
values for the dependent variables. For example
if the input variable corresponds to the angle
that defines the angular position of an input
crank, we change this angle from 0 to 360o we
can increase the input variable with 150
increments resulting 24 discreet position for
which we may calculate the other variables.

Variabilele de input se dau ntr-o anumit plaj


cu valori incrementate discret pentru care se
calculeaz toate celelalte variabile de poziie.
De pild dac parametrul de input al unei
manivele este ntre 0 i 360o , se poate crete
valoarea de input cu cte 150 rezultnd 24 de
poziii discrete pentru care se calculeaz
celelalte variabile de pozitie.

In the following examples the necessary loop


equations for some mechanisms are written. In
recent years different package programs are
available for the analysis of mechanisms. When
using these programs, you must input these
loops by telling the program which link is
connected to which link by what kind of a joint
(i.e. what kind of freedom is permitted by that
joint). If you are using mathematical packages
such as Mathcad (which is our first option in all
the following pages), you must type these
equations in one form or another. A slight
mistake in the loop equations results with
erroneous results. Please keep in mind that
these equations define the mathematical model
of an existing mechanism. This mathematical
model can be solved in different ways as we

Mai departe se vor da cteva exemple de


deducere a ecuaiilor vectoriale pentru cteva
mecanisme. n ultimul timp exist disponibile
multe softuri care pot fi folosite pentru analiza
mecanismelor. Cnd se folosesc astfel de
programe, trebuiesc definite geometric
elementele cinematice i cuplele. Dac se
folosete Mathcad (care va fi intens folosit n
cele ce urmeaz) trebuie scrise ecuaiile corect
dat fiind c cea mai mic eroare duce la
rezultate eronate. Ecuaiile vectoriale descriu
matematic un mecanism anume, care model
poate fi rezolvat dup cum se va vedea n
diverse moduri.

2-16

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

shall see in the coming sections.

Example 2.1

Exemplul 2.1

Fig.2.16
(A0A=a2, AB= a3, BC=a4)

(2.13)

A0A + AB + BC = A0C a 2 e i12 + a 3 e i (13 3 ) + a 4 e i14 = s15 + ia 1

A0A + AD = A0D0 + D0D a 2 e i12 + s 36 e i13 = c1 + ib 1 ia 6 e i13


Exemplul 2.2
Example 2.2

Fig.2.17
A0A = A0B0 + B0B + BA a 2 e i12 = c1 ia 1 + a 5 e i15 + s 43 e i14

A0C = A0B0 + B0B + BC s16 + ib 1 = c1 ia 1 + a 5 e i15 + a 4 e i14


Exemplul 2.3
Example 2.3

2-17

(2.14)

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.18
r313= -r2(12-2) (when 13=0; 12=2)
B0B + BC + CD = B0A0 + A0A + AD a 3 e i13 + a 4 e i14 + a 6 e i16 = a 1 + ib 1 + a 2 e i12 + a 7 e i17
B0B + BC = B0C0 + C0C a 3 e i13 + a 4 e i14 = d 1 + ic1 + a 5 e i15

(2.15)
2.5 Graphical Solution of Loop Closure Equations/Soluiile grafice ale ecuaiilor de contur/

In performing the motion analysis the links are


represented as straight lines. Since the tips of
these lines are labeled, they are directed lines of
certain magnitude and direction. For the
graphical solution, this diagram must be drawn
on paper by a certain scale, [ks] which is
generally called as the space scale and it is the
ratio of the magnitudes drawn on the sheet to
the original magnitude. If you are to draw the
mechanism on the computer, you may use the
exact dimensions, no matter how big or how
small the mechanism is in its actual size.

n analiza micrii elementelor cinematice


acestea sunt reprezentate cu linii drepte.
Vrfurile acestor linii sunt etichetate i vor avea
o anumit direcie i mrime. Pentru rezolvarea
grafic schema structural trebuie desenat la
scar [ks] denumit scar a spaiului i este
raportul dintre mrimea elementului cinematic
desenat i a celui din realitate. Dac desenul
mecanismului se obine pe computer atunci se
poate folosi ks =1 adica se poate desena la scar
real.

Consider the four-bar mechanism in Fig.2.19. If


four links of different dimensions were given,
you would have several different possible ways
of joining these links. Let us determine the
positions of the links when the input link is
rotated to some other angular position 12'.
The new position of the vector A0A (A0A') is
completely known when is 12' given. The
vector loop equation is :

Fie un mecanism patrulater ca n Fig.2.19.


Dac elementele cinematice au diverse
dimensiuni ele pot fi legate ntre ele n diverse
moduri. Putem determina poziia elementelor
pentru fiecare poziie unghiular 12'. Noua
poziie a vectorului A0A (A0A') este complet
cunoscut dac se tie 12'. Ecuaia vectorial
este:

2-18

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.19
(2.16)
A0A+AB = A0B0+B0B
It must also be true when A is replaced by A' Ecuaia trebuie s fie valid i dac A este
(known point) and B is replaced by B' inlocuit cu A i B cu B (inc necunoscut), dat
(unknown), since the mechanism will form a fiind c mecanismul formeaz i n noua poziie
closed loop in this second position:
o bucl nchis.
A0A'+AB' = A0B0+B0B'

This equation can also be written in the form:

(2.17)

Ecuaia se mai poate scrie:

A'B' = A0B0-A0A'+B0B' or/sau/ A'B' = A'A0+A0B0+B0B'

The sum of the vectors A'A0+A0B0 is the vector


A'B0. We know the magnitude and direction of
the vectors A'A0 and A0B0. We know the
magnitudes of the vectors A'B' and B0B'. Since
the starting positions A' and B0 for the vectors
A'B' and B0B' are known, in order to determine
the new position of B (B'), one need only
construct circles with centers at A' and B0 and
radii equal to the corresponding link lengths
(AB and B0B, respectively- Fig.2.20). The two
circles will have two intersections B' and B".
However, one of these solutions is discarded
since the mechanism cannot jump into one of
these positions without disconnecting the joints
(Fig. 2.20). If the two circles drawn cannot
intersect at all, then the mechanism cannot be
assembled for that crank angle 12'.

(2.18)

Suma dintre A'A0+A0B0 este vectorul A'B0. Se


tiu mrimea i direcia lui A'A0 i A0B0 . Cum
deja sunt cuoscute originile A i B0 la vectorii
A'B' i B0B', pentru a se determina noua
poziie a lui B, i anume B, trebuie doar
construite cercuri cu centrele n A i B0 de raz
egal cu mrimea elementelor cinematice (AB
i B0B-Fig.2.20).
Cercurile astfel trasate se vor intersecta n B i
B, dar doar una dintre soluii este valid (B)
de vreme ce mecanismul nu poate face salturi
la B. Dac cele dou cercuri nu s-ar fi
intersectat deloc rezult c mecanismul nu
poate exista geometric/fizic pentru unghiul 12'.

2-19

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.20
The above procedure is nothing but the Procedura de mai sus este rezolvarea pe cale
graphical solution of a triangle whose three grafic a unui triunghi cu laturile cunoscute.
sides are known.

Example 2.4

Consider an inverted slider-crank mechanism


shown in Figure 2.21. We are asked to
determine the positions of the links when the
input link, 2, is rotated to some other angular
position 12 . The loop closure equation is:

Exemplul 2.4

Fie un mecanism patrulater ca n Fig.2.21.


Dac elementul motor 2 este rotit cu 12 s se
determine
poziia
celorlalte
elemente
cinematice. Ecuaia vectorial este;

Fig.2.21
A0A=A0B0+B0C+CA

(2.19)

The vector A0B0 is fixed. The vector A0A has a Se tie c vectorul A0B0 este fix, A0A are o
fixed magnitude and its angular orientation is mrime fix iar orientarea e dat de 12 , B0C
2-20

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

defined by the given angle 12. B0C has a fixed


magnitude but an unknown angular orientation
whereas for the vector CA both the magnitude
and the direction can change. However, the
vectors B0C and CA are perpendicular to each
other and the axis of the slider must always
pass through point A. Points AB0C will always
form a right angled triangle. In order to
construct the triangle AB0C for the given points
A and B0 (defined by the vectors A0A and
A0B0), we draw a circle with centre at B0 and
radius B0C. If we now draw a line passing
through A and tangent to this circle, the new
positions for links 3 and 4 will be found.

are o mrime cunoscut dar orientarea nu este


cunoscut, CA este cunoscut ca mrime dar i
ca orientare, B0C i CA sunt perpendiculare iar
axa cuplei de translaie trece mereu prin
punctual A. Punctele AB0C vor forma mereu un
triunghi dreptunghic i pentru a construi
triunghiul AB0C, pentru o anumit poziie a lui
A i B0 (definit de vectorii A0A i A0B0), se
deseneaz un cerc cu centru n B0 i de raz
B0C. Dac apoi se traseaz o linie care trece
prin A i care e tangent la cerc, se vor gsi
noile poziii ale elementelor 3 i 4.

Fig.2.22
In a complete motion analysis it is necessary to Intr-o analiz grafic complet este necesar s
draw the mechanism in various phases of its se deseneze mecanismul n toate poziiile
cycle (for all possible input positions). Through posibile rezultnd astfel pozitiile limit n care
such an analysis one can determine the limiting mecanismul i inverseaz micarea.
positions (positions at which there is the
displacement of the link involved is at an
extreme position, e.g. at this position there is a
reversal of motion).

Example 2.5

Exemplul 2.5

Consider the slider crank mechanism shown in


the figure below. The input variable is the
angular position of link 2 (crank) with respect
to the fixed link. For a systematic solution
corresponding to different input angles, first the
locus of A is drawn (which is a circle with
centre A0 and radius A0A). Corresponding to
different input crank angle this circle is divided
into a number of increments.

Fie un mecanism biel-manivel ca n figura de


mai jos. Variabila de input este poziia
unghiular a elementului 2 (biela) fa de axa
Ox. Pentru o abordare sistematic a calculului
soluiilor mai nti se traseaz locul geometric
al punctului A (cerc cu centru in A0 i raz
A0A). Corespunztor diferitelor valori ale
unghiului de input, cercul se va diviza ntr-un
numr de sectoare.

The vector loop equation is:

Ecuaia vectorial este:


A0A+AB=A0Q+QB

2-21

(2.20)

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.23
For a detailed analysis the number of Cu ct mai mare numrul de diviziuni cu att e
increments must be large. However in the mai bun precizia. n mecanismul de mai sus
above figure the circle is divided into 12 parts cercul se divide 12 pri corespunztor la
corresponding to 300 increments. The location unghiuri cresctoare cu cte 300. Poziia
of point A for every value of the input variable punctului A pentru fiecare increment al
is denoted by Ai (i=1 to 12). By drawing unghiului de input se noteaz cu Ai (i=1...12).
circular arcs with centre Ai and of radius AB, Dac se traseaz arcuri circulare centrate n Ai
we determine the intersection of this arc with i de raz AB, se determin intersecia acestor
the slider axis Bi. Next, the horizontal distance arcuri cu axa lui Bi. Msurnd fa de origine
of the slider with respect to the origin can be s14 i desennd pe o diagram poziia lui Bi
rezult diagrama de deplasare s14=f(12).
plotted as shown.
The diagram that gives the angular or linear
displacement of a link with respect to the input
parameter is usually called as the displacement
diagram. If the time rate of change of the input
parameter is a constant this diagram is also the
time-displacement plot. For a four-bar
mechanism, the angular displacement of link 4
with respect to link 2 is given in the figure
below Fig.2.24-a. In some other problems we
may be interested in the curve described by one
of the points on a floating link (a link which is
not connected to the fixed link- Fig.2.24-b).
Note that one can perform the graphical
analysis either by using the drawing equipment
such as a compass and a ruler, or use any
drawing program such as AutoCAD , CadKey
or the like. If each of these positions is stored

Diagrama
care
infieaz
deplasarea
unghiular sau liniar a unui element fa de
valorile incrementale ale parametrului de input
se numete diagram de deplasri. Dac
parametrul de input variaz monoton n timp
atunci aceast diagram este identic cu
diagrama timp-deplasare. Pentru un mecanism
patrulater deplasarea unghiular a elementului
cinematic 4 fa de elementul 2 este dat n
Fig.2.24-a. n anumite cazuri putem fi interesai
de curba descris de un anumit punct (situat de
pild pe un element flotant fr rol n
cinematica mecanismului- Fig.2.24-b).
Analiza grafic poziional a mecanismelor se
poate face folosind diverse programe grafice
precum AutoCAD, CadKey etc. Alte programe
precum Catia , ProE , Ideas or

2-22

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

in a separate file, the mechanism can be very Solidworks , pot chiar simula miscarea
easily animated on the screen. CAD programs mecanismului.
such as Catia , ProE , Ideas or
Solidworks , etc. can simulate the motion,
provided the joints are correctly defined.

a.
b.
Fig.2.24-(A0A=1, A0B0=2, AB=B0B=BC=2.5)
When the mechanism has several loops, the Dac mecanismul este alctuit din mai multe
vector loop equations can be solved graphically bucle atunci ecuaiile vectoriale pentru fiecare
in sequence. The mechanism shown below is bucl se rezolv grafic pas cu pas. De pild
used to move a mixer vertically up and down. mecanismul folosit pentru micarea unui mixer
A0A is the driving link (there is a lever dat mai jos la care A0A este manivela de
acionare.
attached).
The first loop is the four-bar mechanism Prima bucl este alctuit din mecanismul
A0ABB0 (links 1,2,3 and 4). The vector loop patrulater A0ABB0 (elementele 1, 2, 3, 4) cu
ecuaia vectorial:
equation is:
A0A+AB= A0B0+B0B

(2.21)

Fig.2.25
This vector loop equation can be solved for a Acast ecuaie vectorial de poziii se rezolv
each new position of the input crank (link 2), as pentru fiecare poziie a elementului de input 2,
2-23

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

described for the four-bar and the new location


of point B can be found. Since point C is on
link 3 and D is on link 4, the positions of these
points
can
also
be
found.
Next, consider the loop BCEDB (links 3, 6, 5
and 4). The vector loop equation is:

aa cum s-a artat n paragrafele de mai sus la


mecanismul patrulater. Cum punctul C este pe
elementul 3 i D pe 4, poziia acestora va fi
determinat de cunoaterea altor dou puncte
aparinnd elementelor 3 i 4. Fie apoi bucla
BCEDB cu elementele 3, 6, 5, 4. Ecuaia
vectorial va fi:

BC+CE=BD+DE (2.22)
In this vector loop equation the vector BC and n aceast ecuaie vectorial vectorii BC i BD
BD are known (both in magnitude and sunt cunoscui ca i mrime i orientare iar
direction) and the magnitudes of the vectors CE mrimea vectorilor CE i DE este cunoscut.
and DE are given. We again have a triangle Vom avea un triunghi CED cu laturile
(CED) whose three sides are known. Hence the cunoscute. n consecin intersecia arcului
intersection of the circular arcs of radii CE and circular de raz CE cu DE duse din punctele C
DE from points C and D respectively, will give i D va da poziia punctului E.
us the position of point E.

For the analysis of complex mechanisms, such


as those shown in figure below, one must use
the trial-and-error method for the solution of
the loop closure equations. These equations are:

n analiza poziional a unor mecanisme


complexe ca cel dat mai jos se va folosi metoda
ncercrilor succesive pentru rezolvarea
ecuaiilor vectoriale:

PA0+A0A=PB0+B0B+BA

(2.23)

PQ+QC=PB0+B0B+BC

Fig.2.26
In both of these equations there are three Cum n fiecare ecuaie vectorial sunt 3
unknowns; therefore these equations must be necunoscute, cele dou ecuaii trebuie rezolvate
solved simultaneously. There are four simultan. Sunt 4 necunoscute n total n
unknowns in the two equations (the direction of sistemul de ecuaii (direcia lui B0B, mrimea
B0B, magnitude of QC, magnitude and lui QC, mrimea i direcia lui BA). Cum
direction of BA). Since the direction of BC is direcia lui BC este identic cu a lui BA, acest
that of BA, it is not an additional unknown. The parametru este cunoscut. Traiectoria lui B este
2-24

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

path of point B is a circle and the path of point


C is a straight line relative to the fixed link.
Also point A, whose position is defined by the
input variable, must be on the line BC. By trial
and error we move the straight line BC such
that the following conditions are all satisfied:

un cerc iar cea a punctului C o linie dreapt.


Deasemenea punctul A, care are poziia definit
de parametrul de input, va trebui s fie
poziionat pe dreapta BC. Prin ncercri
succesive se mic linia BC astfel nct:

Point B must be on the circular arc of


radius B0B and centre B0.
Point C is on the slider axis.
The line BC passes through point A.

Punctul B s fie pe arcul circular de


raz B0B i centru B0.
Punctul C s fie pe axa cuplei de
translaie,
Linia BC s treac prin A

2.6 Step-Wise Solution of the Loop Closure Equation/Soluiile iterative ale ecuaiilor
contururilor nchise/

The loop closure equations can as well be


solved analytically. In this approach, our aim
will be to obtain a set of equations which, when
solved in steps, will yield the value of all the
unknown variables. Such a solution is a closed
form solution and, furthermore, it is very
suitable for a numerical solution using a
computer, programmable calculator, or even on
a simple calculator.

Ecuaiile vectoriale de nchidere ale buclelor


pot fi rezolvate i pe cale analitic. n acest caz
se urmrete obinerea unui set de ecuaii care
dac este rezolvat iterativ (pas cu pas) permit
calculul variabilelor necunoscute. Acest mod
de rezolvare se preteaz pentru calculul
numeric pe calculatoare.

As a first example, consider a problem


(Fig.2.27) in which we want to determine the
position of all the links of an off-set slidercrank mechanism shown below for different
crank angles 12. The link lengths denoted by
a1, a2, a3 are known.

Fie problema de mai jos (Fig.2.27) n care se


dorete
determinarea
poziiilor
tuturor
elementelor unui mecanism biel-manivel
pentru diferite unghiuri de input 12 . Se cunosc
lungimile elementelor a1, a2, a3.

The vector loop equation is:

Ecuaia vectorial este:

(2.24)
A0A= A0B +BA
In rectangular form, these vectors can be n form cartezian acesti vectori pot fi scrii
written as:
ca:
r
r
A 0 A = a 2 cos 12 i + sin 12 j
r
r
A 0 B = x i + a1 j
(2.25)
r
r
BA = a 3 cos 13 i + sin 13 j

2-25

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.27
Equating x and y components separately, the Dac se egaleaz componentele de pe axele x i
loop closure equation will yield two scalar y separat, ecuaia vectorial va genera 2 ecuaii
equations:
scalare:
a 2 cos 12 = (s14 + a 3 cos 13 )

a 2 sin 12 = (a 1 + a 3 sin 13 )
1
(a 2 sin 12 a 1 );
sin 13 =
a3

(2.26)

s14 = a 2 cos 12 a 3 cos 13


For a given value of the input variable, 12, one Pentru o anumit valoare de input 12, se poate
can solve for 13 and substitute the values of 13 calcula 13, din ecuaiile de mai sus care, dac
and 12 into equation (4) to obtain the (ambele valori) se introduc n ultima ecuaie de
corresponding value of s14. If we are to mai sus, va permite calcularea deplasrii s14.
determine the co-ordinates of a point C (xc, yc), Dac se dorete calcularea poziiei unui punct
we can write:
C (xc, yc), se poate scrie:
x C = (s14 + b 3 cos(13 3 ))
(2.27)
y C = (a 1 + b 3 sin (13 3 ))
Since the scalar equations obtained from the Cum ecuaiile scalare deduse din ecuaia
loop closure equations are nonlinear, the vectorial sunt neliniare, metoda de rezolvare a
method of solution will differ from one sistemului scalar de ecuaii poate fi diferit de
la un mecanism la altul.
mechanism to the other.
In the four-bar mechanism shown in Fig.2.28,
the link lengths (a1, a2, a3, a4) are given. We
would like to determine the position of all the
links for a given value of the input variable, 12.

n mecanismul patrulater din Fig.2.28 cu


lungimile elementelor a1, a2, a3, a4 cunoscute, se
dorete
determinarea
poziiei
tuturor
elementelor pentru diverse valori de input 12.

First consider the triangle A0AB0. Since the two


sides (a1, a2) and the included angle (12) are
known, for this triangle the length of the third
side (AB0 = s) and angle of the triangle can
be determined. Note that the length, s, and
angle =1800- are variable. Using the cosine
theorem:

Mai nti fie triunghiul A0AB0. Cum dou


dintre laturile lui (a1, a2) i (12) sunt cunoscute,
cea de-a treia latur (AB0 = s) i unghiul pot
fi determinate. Lungimea s i unghiul =1800 sunt variabile. Teorema cosinusului va da:

2-26

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.28

s = a 22 + a 12 2a 2 a 1 cos(12 )

1/ 2

(2.28)
a 12 + s 2 a 22
' = arccos

2a 1 s

= '
Another form of calculating s and is to Un alt mod de rezolvare este egalarea
componentelor pe Ox i Oy:
equate the x and y components:
s cos = a 2 cos 12 a 1 Horizontal component/Componenta orizontala/ B 0 A = x s
s sin = a 2 sin 12 Vertical component/Componenta verticala/ B 0 A = y s
Referring to the triangle ABB0 and applying n triunghiul ABB0 se aplic
cosine theorem:
cosinusului:
a 2 + a 24 s 2
= arccos 3

2a 3 a 4
a 2
= arccos 4

The magnitudes of and are both less than


1800 and is always positive. If equations
(2.28) are used, than the sign of . The sign of
(sin ) must be of the same sign as (sin 12).
The plus or minus sign for refers to two
different solutions of a four-bar mechanism as
shown in the figure. The angle is known as
the
"transmission
angle".

(2.29)
teorema

(2.30)

a 32 + s 2

2a 4 s

Mrimea lui i este mai mic de 1800 i


este mereu pozitiv. Dac se folosesc n calcule
ecuaiile (2.28) atunci semnul lui trebuie
verificat. Semnul funciei (sin ) trebuie s fie
acelai cu semnul funciei (sin 12). Soluiile
sistemelor de mai sus sunt duble. Semnul + sau
la unghiul se refer la cele dou soluii
posibile la ecuaiile de mai sus (B i B).
Unghiul se numete i unghi de transmisie.
The unknown position variables 13 and 14 can Valorile unghiurilor necunoscute 13 i 14 se
be easily determined as:
pot determina astfel:
2-27

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

14 = ;

(2.31)
13 = 14
Hence, we have obtained a set of equations Aadar am obinut un set de ecuaii care trebuie
rezolvat pas cu pas.
which must be solved in steps.
Another example is the case of an inverted Fie ca un alt exemplu, un mecanism patrulater
slider-crank mechanism shown below, the ca mai jos la care ecuaiile scalare vor fi:
equations for the total position analysis are:

Fig.2.29
A0A=A0B0+B0B+BA
p cos = a 2 cos 12 a 1
p sin = a 2 sin 12
c
= arccos
p

(2.32)

s 43 = p 2 a 24
14 =
In great many mechanisms, the stepwise
solution will require the solution of four-bar,
slider-crank or inverted slider-crank loops in
steps. For example, the quick-return mechanism
shown below links 1, 2, 3 and 4 form an in-line
inverted slider-crank mechanism while links 1,
4, 5 and 6 form a slider-crank mechanism. For a
given value of the input variable, 12, the angle
14 and s43 can be determined. In case of the
slider-crank mechanism, with 14 as the input
variable, the position variables 15 and s6 are
found.

n cele mai multe cazuri soluiile iterative se


vor aplica la mecanisme cu bucle tip patrulatere
interconectate. Fie de pild mecanismul de mai
jos la care elementele 1, 2, 3, 4 formeaz un
mecanism
biel-manivel
inversat
iar
elementele 1, 4, 5, 6 formeaz un mecanism
biel-manivel. La o valoare dat a
parametrului de input 12, unghiul 14 i s43 vor
putea fi determinate. Dac apoi se tie 14
pentru cea de-a doua bucl, ca parametru de
input, atuci 15 and s16 vor putea fi determinate.

2-28

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.30
s 43 cos 14 = a 2 cos 12 a 1
s 43 sin 14 = a 2 sin 12
a cos 14 + b1
15 = arcsin 4

a5

s16 = a 4 sin 14 + a 5 sin 15

(2.33)

2.7 Position Analysis of Mechanisms By Means of Complex Numbers/Analiza poziional a


mecanismelor cu numere complexe/

We have seen that complex number utilisation


is a simple and powerful technique for
expressing the loop closure equations. The
analytical or numerical solution of planar
mechanisms can be easily performed by simple
algebraic manipulations in complex numbers.
Considering the four-bar mechanism shown
below, the loop closure equation in vectorial
form is:

S-a vzut deja c folosirea numerelor complexe


este un mod simplu de reprezentare a ecuaiilor
vectoriale de nchidere ale buclelor. Soluiile
analitice (sau numerice) ale poziiilor
elementelor mecanismelor se pot obine uor
prin manipularea algebric a numerelor
complexe. Fie un mecanism patrulater ca mai
jos avnd ecuaia vectorial:

A0A + AB = A0B0 + B0B


a 2 e i12 + a 3 e i13 = a 1 + a 4 e i14

2-29

(2.34)

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.2.31
If we equate the real and imaginary parts of this Dac se egaleaz ntre ele prile reale i
equation separately, we obtain two scalar imaginare din cei doi termeni ai ecuaiei (stng
equations in three position variables (12, 13 i drept), rezult 2 ecuaii scalare avnd 3
and 14). If one of the position variables is the variabile (12, 13 i 14). Dac una dintre
input variable whose value is given, then we variabile este dat celelalte dou vor putea fi
shall be able to solve for the values of the other calculate. n ecuaiile din planul complex,
two variables. In complex plane, when we deasemenea i ecuaia format cu conjugatele
have an equation in complex numbers, the numerelor complex din ecuaia initial este
complex conjugate of the equation is also adevarat. Un num complex conjugat descrie
true. The complex conjugate yields vectors vector care este imaginea n oglind a
which are the mirror image of the original vectorului iniial fa de axa numerelor reale
vectors with respect to the real axis (x-axis). (axa x=Re (z)). De pild n cazul unui
For instance in case of a mechanism, if we mecanism dac se aeaz o oglind pe axa Ox
place a mirror about the real axis, as we move atunci dac mecanismul real se mic la fel se
the original mechanism its image will also va mica i mecanismul din imaginea sa din
move. Hence we obtain another loop closure oglind. Aadar pe lng ecuatia (2.35) vom
avea ca fiind valid i ecuaia cu numere
equation in terms of complex numbers as:
complexe conjugate:
a 2 e i12 + a 3 e i13 = a 1 + a 4 e i14
The original equation (2.34) and its complex
conjugate (2.35) are the two independent
equations in the complex plane (if we equate
the real and imaginary parts of these equations
they will yield the same two scalar equations in
the real plane). Using the equations (2.34) and
(2.35) if we are to find 14 as a function of 12,
we have to eliminate 13 from the above
equations. We can write the loop closure
equations in the form:

(2.35)

Ecuaia iniial (2.34) i conjugata sa (2.35)


sunt dou ecuaii independente n planul
complex iar dac se egaleaz ntre ei
coeficienii prilor reale vom obine dou
ecuatii scalare n planul real. Deci folosind
ecuaia iniial (2.34) i conjugata sa (2.35) se
pot afla 14 funcie de 12, dar pentru aceasta
trebuie eliminat 13 din cele dou ecuaii.
Ecuaiile pot fi scrise ca mai jos:

2-30

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Multiplying the eq./Inmultind ec./


i12

a 2e

a 3 e i13 = a 1 + a 4 e i14 a 2 e i12


a 3 e i13 = a 1 + a 4 e i14

)(

a 32 e i (13 13 ) = a 1 + a 4 e i14 a 2 e i12 a 1 + a 4 e i14 a 2 e i12

a 32

a 12

a 24

a 22

+ a 1a 4 e

i14

+e

i14

] a a [e
1 2

i12

+e

i12

] a a [e
2

i 24

+ e i24

e i (13 13 ) = e 0 = 1
Since/Cum/ cos =

e i + e i
2

2a 1a 4 cos 14 2a 1a 2 cos 12 2a 2 a 4 cos 24 + a 12 + a 22 a 32 + a 24 = 0

a 2 + a 22 a 32 + a 24
a1
a
cos 14 1 cos 12 + 1
= cos( 24 12 )
a2
a4
2a 2 a 4
{
{
144
42444
3
K2

K1

K3

(2.36)

K 1 cos 14 K 2 cos 12 + K 3 = cos( 24 12 )


Equation (2.36) is called "Freudenstein's
Equation" which can be used for the synthesis
of four-bar mechanisms. It gives an implicit
relation between the position variables 14 and
12. In order to obtain an explicit expression for
14, Freudenstein's equation can be written in
the form:

Ecuaia (2.36) se numete ecuaia lui


Freudenstein i poate fi folosit la sinteza
mecanismelor patrulatere. Ea descrie o relaie
implicit ntre variabilele de poziie 14 i 12 .
Pentru a explicita expresia i a obine 14,
putem scrie:

K 1 cos 14 K 2 cos 12 + K 3 = cos 14 cos 12 + sin 14 sin 12

14

2tg

sin 14 =

2 14

1 + tg

1 tg 2 14

cos 14 =

1 + tg 2 14

tg 2 14
2

cos 12 (1 K 2 ) + K 3 K 1 + tg 14
1
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
3

2
A

Equation (2.37) is a quadratic in terms of:

(2.37)

( 2 sin 12 ) + cos 12 (1 + K 2 ) + K 3 + K 1 = 0
43 14444
4244444
3
142
B
C
Ecuaia (2.37) este de ordin doi i:

B B 2 4AC
B B 2 4AC

tg 14 =
14 = 2arctg
2A
2A

2
(2.38)
where the plus or minus sign refers to two unde semnele plus sau minus fac referire la
different configurations of the four-bar diferitele configuraii ale mecanismului
2-31

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

mechanism. Also note that the coefficients of


the quadratic (A, B and C) are functions of the
link lengths and the input crank angle only.
Therefore, if the input crank angle is given, 14
can be obtained from equation (2.38) directly.

patrulater. Coeficienii A, B i C sunt funcie de


lungimile elementelor cinematice i unghiul de
input al manivelei. Deci 14 se poate calcula cu
relaia (2.38) direct.

Another form of solving equation (2.37) is to Ecuaia (2.37) se poate rezolva i dac se scrie:
rewrite it in the form:

(K 1 cos 12 ) cos 14 sin 14 sin 12 = K 2 cos 12 K 3

We note/Se noteaza cu/ :

D = (K cos )2 + sin 2

1
12
12

sin 12

= arctg

(2.39)

K 1 cos 12

D cos cos 14 D sin sin 14 = K 2 cos 12 K 3


Then using the trigonometric identity:
Apoi folosind identitatea trigonometric:

cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin


D cos cos 14 D sin sin 14 = K 2 cos 12
K cos 12 K 3
14 = + arccos 2

K3
(2.40)

2.8 Numerical Solution of the Loop Closure Equations/Soluii numerice ale ecuaiilor de
contur/

The equations derived in the previous sections


for position analysis can easily be used to
obtain numerical results when the values of the
link lengths are known. If the analysis for the
whole range of the input variable is to be
performed, some means of programming or a
package programs may be useful (EXCEL,
BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN or C,
MathCAD or MATLAB).

Ecuaiile deduse n seciunile precedente pentru


analiza poziional se preteaz la tratamentul
numeric atunci cnd lungimea elementelor
cinematice este cunoscut. Dac se dorete
analiza pentru ntregul domeniu de variaie al
parametrilor de input se pot dezvolta programe
n EXCEL, BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN
sau C, MathCAD sau MATLAB.

Our first choice as programming language


will be MathCAD. Teaching a programming
language (MathCAD) is not our aim therefore
it is strongly recommended to the reader to
refer to any one of the well written texts for a
programming language or package program for
a complete understanding of commands and

n toate cele ce urmeaz MathCAD va fi


mediul de programare favorit dar cum nu este
elul acestui volum s iniieze cititorul n
MathCAD, acesta trebuie s apeleze la alte
surse/tutoriale de informare pentru a nelege
secvenele de programe care vor fi date mai
departe.

2-32

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

features of these programs.

Example 2.1

For
the
mechanism
shown
below:
a2=50 mm; a3= 250 mm; b3=120 mm; a1= 20
mm and 3 =300 . Determine the co-ordinates
of point C when 12 =600.

Exemplul 2.1

Fie mecanismul de mai jos unde: a2=50 mm;


a3= 250 mm; b3=120 mm; a1= 20 mm i 3
=300 . S se determine coordonatele punctului
C cnd 12 =600.

Fig.2.32
a sin 12 a 1
With the given data/Dupa inlocuiri/ : sin 13 = 2
= 0.0932 13 = 5.3 0 or/sau/ 174.7 0
a3
(2.41)
From the figure, we note that we must select Din figur se vede c valoarea acceptabil este
13=174.7 0. Then:
13=174.7 0 .
s14 = a 2 cos 12 a 3 cos 13 = 273.9mm
x C = x + b 3 cos(13 3 ) = 176mm

y C = a 1 + b 3 sin (13
In this example we shall use MathCAD which
is a program for solving equations for the entire
variation
domain
of
input
0
0
variable 12 = 0 ...360 , (Fig.2.32).

3 ) = 89.4mm
Pentru rezolvarea numeric pentru ntregul
domeniu de variaie al parametrului de input
12 = 0 0...360 0 , se va folosi MathCAD
(Fig.2.32).

Example 2.2

In figure (Fig.2.33) below, an adjustable pump


is shown. Crank A0A (which is constructed as
an eccentric) is driven by an electric motor
through the worm gear. The stroke adjustment
is obtained by moving the location of the pivot
point B0 by means of an adjustment screw.
Note that A0ABB0 forms a four-bar mechanism.
Unlike the previous examples the fixed link
A0B0 is not horizontal and B0 is to the left of
A0. We can write the vector equation (2.42):

Exemplul 2.2

n Fig.2.33 este dat o pomp ajustabil.


Lungimea manivelei A0A este controlat de un
sistem cu excentric. Pompa este acionat cu un
angrenaj melcat. Ajustarea cursei pompei se
face prin modificarea locaiei punctului B0
printr-un mecanism urub-puli. Se va vedea
c A0ABB0 (Fig.2.35) formeaz un mecanism
patrulater. Spre deosebire de exemplele de pn
acum elementul fix A0B0 nu mai este orizontal
iar B0 este situat la dreapta lui A0. Se poate
scrie ecuaia vectorial (2.42):

2-33

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

MathCad Solving
a1

20

a2

50

a3

250

b3

120

3 30.deg
i 0 .. 360
5 .i.deg

12

13

asin

13
13

13

12

deg

if 13 >
i

13

12

deg

a1

a3

= 0.093

12

s 14
i

a 2 .sin 12
i

, 13 ,

degrees

= 5.348
13

= 174.652

a 2 .cos 12
i

a 3 .cos 13
i

s 14 = 273.912
12
xC

xC

12

yC

= 176.033

a1

yC

12

b 3 .cos 13
i

s 14
i

b 3 .sin 13
i

= 89.425
xC

yC

angle x C , y C
i
i

2-34

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

180

100 90 80
70
207.87
60
187.08
50
166.3
40
145.51
124.72
30
103.93
83.15
20
62.36
41.57
10
20.79
0
0

190

350

120
130
140
150
160
C
i

170

110

200
210
220
230
240

120
130
140
150
160
C
i

270 280
12
i

290

170
180

100 90 80
70
0.68
60
0.61
50
0.54
40
0.47
0.41
30
0.34
0.27
20
0.2
0.14
10
0.068
0
0

190

350

200

340

250 260

110

210
220
230
240

330
320
310
300

340

250

260270 280
12
i

Fig.2.32-Example 2.1/Exemplul 2.1/

B0A= B0A0 + A0A


se i = b1 is1 + a 2 e i12

s cos = b1 + a 2 cos 12

s sin = s1 + a 2 sin 12

Fig.2.33
2-35

(2.42)

290

330
320
310
300

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

From (2.42) which we can solve for s and . Din sistemul (2.42) se pot calcula s i . Apoi
Then using the triangle B0A B, the angle can folosind triunghiul B0AB, se poate determina
be determined using the cosine theorem (2.43): unghiul cu teorma cosinusului (2.43):

Fig.2.34
a 2 + s 2 a 32
= arccos 4

2a 4 s

14 =

(2.43)

Fig.2.35
For the double slide (links 4 and 5), the loop Pentru sistemul de dou cuple de translaie ale
equation is:
elementelor 4 i 5 ecuaia este:

c 4 e i14 + is 4 e i14 = b1 is 1 s15


s1 + c 4 sin 14

(2.44)
s 4 =
cos 14

s = b c cos + s sin
1
4
14
4
14
15
In MathCAD you will write these equations Se vor scrie n MathCad ecuaiile exact cum
exactly the same way. But before performing apar ele mai sus, dar nainte de toate trebuie s
2-36

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

any computation, you must define the


numerical values of the variables you are going
to use either as input or as a result of some
computation. The MathCAD sheet for the input
crank angle 12 = 1200 will look as follows:

definim valorile numerice ale parametrilor de


input. Calculul pentru parametrul de input 12 =
1200 dar i pentru ntregul ciclu de variaie al
parametrului de input sunt date n Fig.2.36.

MathCAD Output 1

conv

Convert degrees into radians

180

a2

55

a3

240

a4

165

b1

185

s1

A0A
AB
BB0

90

c4

70

320

.conv

= 5.585
xa
s

a2 .cos ( )

b1

( xa)

acos

14

( a4 )

( ya )

ya

( a3 )

2 .a4 .s

14 = 3.083
deg14

14
conv

deg14 = 176.659
s4

s15

c4 .sin ( 14) )

( s1

cos ( 14)
( b1

c4 .cos ( 14) )

s4 .sin ( 14)

s15 = 260.374

2-37

s1

a2 .sin ( )

angle ( xa, ya )

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

MathCAD Output 2

conv
a2

55

a3

240

a4

165

b1

185

A0A
AB
BB0

s1

90

c4

70

0 , 5 .. 360

i.conv

xai

a2 .cos i

b1

si

xai

acos

14i

ya i

( a4 )

si

i
2

s1

a2 .sin i

angle xai , ya i

( a3 )

2 .a4 .s i
i

2
14i

deg14i

conv
s1

s4 i

ya i

s15i

Convert degrees into radians

180

c4 .sin 14i
cos 14i

b1

c4 .cos 14i

s4 i .sin 14i

400
380
360
340
320
s15

300
280
260
240
220
200

0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2

4 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2

Fig.2.36
If we want to determine the effect of the Dac se dorete s se calculeze influena
distance s1 which is adjusted by the screw, to distanei s1 de ajustare a cursei asupra
the displacement of the pump, then we must deplasrii pompei atunci analiza de mai sus

2-38

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

perform the same analysis for different values trebuie s in cont de variaia lui s. Vom avea:
of s. The result is as follows:
MathCAD Output 3

conv
a2

55

a3

240

a4

165

b1

185

c4

70

0 .. 5

s1 k

20.k

0 .. 72

12i
xai

b1

si, k
i , k
14i , k

A0A

s15i , k

AB
BB0

50

i.conv .5
a2 .cos 12i
xai
acos

s1 k

ya i , k

ya i , k

( a4 )

si, k

s1 k

i,k
2

( a3 )

a2 .sin 12i

angle xai , ya i , k
2

2 .a4 .s i , k

i,k

deg14i , k
s4 i , k

Convert degrees into radians

180

i , k

14i , k
conv
c4 .sin 14i , k
cos 14i , k

b1

c4 .cos 14i , k

2-39

s4 i , k .sin 14i , k

Position Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Poziional a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
450
s15

i , 0 400

s15

i,1

s15

i,2

s15

i,3

350

300

s15

i,4

s15

i , 5 250

200

Fig.2.37

2-40

4
12
i

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

INDEX/CUPRINS/
3.0 KINEMATIC ANALISYS OF MECHANISMS /ANALIZA CINEMATIC A MECANISMELOR/
_____________________________________________________________________________________2
3.1 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION ANALYSIS OF A RIGID/ANALIZA VITEZELOR I ACCELERATIILOR ALE
UNUI RIGID/ __________________________________________________________________________2
3.1.1 Translation of a rigid body/Translaia rigidului/ ______________________________________2
3.1.2 Rotation of a rigid body/Rotaia rigidului/ ___________________________________________3
3.1.3 General Plane Motion/Micarea Plan Paralel/ ______________________________________6
3.2 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION VECTORIAL ANALYSIS OF MECHANISMS/ANALIZA VECTORIAL A
VITEZELOR I ACCELERAIILOR N MECANISME/ ____________________________________________16
3.3 POSITION, VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION ANALYTICAL CALCULATION OF MECHANISMS/CALCULUL
ANALITIC AL POZIIEI, VITEZELOR I ACCELERAIILOR N MECANISME/ __________________________37
3.3.1 Kinematic analysis of a crank/ Analiza Cinematic a Elementului Conductor/_____________40
3.3.2 Kinematic analysis of a link in general motion/Analiza cinematic a unui element n miscare
plan-paralel/ ____________________________________________________________________44
3.3.3 The Kinematic Analysis of a Dyad with 3 Rotation Joints Using Distance Method/Analiza
Cinematic a Grupei Structurale RRR Prin Metoda Distantelor/_____________________________47
3.3.4 The Kinematic Analysis of RRT or TRR Dyads using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica a
Diadei RRT-TRR prin Metoda Contururilor/ ___________________________________________56
3.3.5 The Kinematic Analysis of RTR Dyad using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica a Diadei RRTTRR prin Metoda Contururilor/ ______________________________________________________58
3.3.6 The Kinematic Analysis of TRT Dyad using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica a
Mecanismului ce Contine Diada TRT prin Metoda Contururilor/ ____________________________59
3.3.7 The Kinematic Analysis of RTT-TTR Dyad using Contour method /Analiza Cinematica a
Mecanismului ce Contine Diada RTT-TTR prin Metoda Contururilor/ ________________________59

3-1

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.0 Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/


3.1 Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of a Rigid/Analiza Vitezelor i Acceleratiilor ale unui
rigid/
3.1.1 Translation of a rigid body/Translaia rigidului/
In case of pure translation all points that move n cazul translaiei unui rigid, dac se iau dou
along identically shaped paths, then a line taken puncte ale sale, rigidul se mic astfel nct
on the rigid body always remains parallel to its linia care unete acele puncte rmne mereu
original position (Fig.3.1). In such a case paralel cu ea nsi (Fig.3.1). Fie dou
considering any two points A, B on the rigid asemenea puncte A i B care se mic din
body for a finite displacement from position 1 pozitia 1 n poziia 2. Corpul fiind rigid avem
r
r
r
r
to position 2, rA1B1 = rA 2 B 2 . The position vector c rA1B1 = rA 2 B 2 . Vectorul de poziie al
of point B, rB will be given by:
punctului B, rB , va fi dat de:

Fig.3.1
r r
r
(3.1)
rB = rA + rAB
The time rate of change of the position vector is Cum ntre cele dou poziii 1 i 2 vectorul de
the velocity of that point. Therefore:
poziie variaz atunci derivata sa funcie de
timp va descrie modul su de variaie (viteza):
r
r
r
d rB d rA d rAB
(3.2)
=
+
dt
dt
dt
Since the vector AB is always parallel to its Cum vectorul AB este mereu paralel cu sine
original position, its rate of change both in nsui atunci variaia sa n timp este nul:
magnitude and direction is zero. Therefore:

r
d rAB
=0
(3.3)
dt
r
r
r
r
d rB d rA
=
VA = VB
dt
dt
We can take the second rate of change and Dac se ia a doua derivat n timp a vectorului
noting that the second rate of change of the de poziie atunci, asemntor, vectorul AB,
vector AB (r AB) is zero. Therefore the velocity fiind constant n timp, va avea acceleraia nul.
3-2

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and acceleration of every point on the rigid Deci viteza i acceleraia fiecrui punct al unui
body will be equal at each instant if the rigid rigid n micare de translaie va fi aceeai n tot
body is in a translation.
cuprinsul su.
2r
d rAB
=0
dt 2
r
r
(3.4)
r
r
d 2 rB d 2 rA
=

a
=
a
A
B
dt 2
dt 2
3.1.2 Rotation of a rigid body/Rotaia rigidului/
Every point will move in concentric circles
with centre at O and the displacement of any
point will be equal to the distance from that
point to the centre of rotation times the angular
displacement (in radians). Therefore:

Fiecare punct al rigidului se va mica pe


traiectorii concentrice cu centrul n O iar
deplasarea fiecrui punct n plan va fi egal cu
distana de la punct la centrul de rotaie
denmulit cu unghiul de rotire (n radiani).
Astfel:

Fig.3.2
r A= r A
r B= r B

and the time rate of change of the displacement:


r
r
rA r rB r
= rA
;
= rB
t
t t
t

Variaia n timp va fi:

t 0

where VA and VB are the magnitudes of the


velocity vectors and d/dt= is the angular
velocity of the rigid body. The direction of the
velocity vector of a point is perpendicular to
line joining that point to the origin. This is
conveniently expressed in vectorial notation:

(3.5)

r
r d r
r d
VA = rA
; VB = rB
dt
dt
{

(3.6)

unde VA i VB sunt vectorii vitez iar d/dt=


este viteza unghiular a rigidului. Direcia
vectorilor VA i VB este perpendicular pe
r
r
vectorul rA sau rB de poziie al punctelor. n
form vectorial (3.6) este:

VA = x rA

where the operator (x) is the vectorial cross unde operatorul (x) indic produsul vectorial.

3-3

(3.7)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

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product. We can as well use the complex


number representation of the vectors and their
time rate of change. For example in complex
numbers the position vector of point A is
(Fig.3.3):

Se pot folosi deasemenea i numerele complexe


pentru reprezentarea vectorilor de poziie i ai
vitezelor. De pild n numere complexe poziia
punctului A este dat de (Fig.3.3):

(3.8)
r A = r A e i
When the body is in a rotation, is the variable Dac rigidul se rotete atunci va fi variabil. n
angle. In this expression rA is the magnitude of expresia de mai sus rA este mrimea vectorului
position vector and ei is a unit vector in the de poziie iar ei va fi un vector unitate luat
direction of OA. Differentiating the position dup direcia OA. Dac se deriveaz relaia de
vector, we obtain (d/dt=):
mai sus (d/dt=):
V A = i r A e i

The velocity vector has the magnitude rA and


its direction is ie i. Since i= e i/2, ie i= e
i+/2
, this new unit vector is perpendicular to
OA. The angular velocity is positive if the rate
of change of is counter clockwise and it is
negative if there is a counter clockwise rate of
change. Since the magnitude of the velocity
vector is to be positive, if is negative then the

(3.9)

Vectorul vitez va avea mrimea rA iar


direcia dat de ie i. Cum i= e i/2, ie i= e i+/2,
va rezulta c acest nou vector va fi
perpendicular pe vectorul de poziie OA.
Viteza unghiular este pozitiv dac are
sensul de variaie n sens trigonometric i
negativ n sens orar. Dac este negativ
atunci direcia vectorului vitez este

i ( )

i ( )

-ie i = e 2
direction is -ie i which is equal to e 2 .
Hence we state that the direction of the velocity Deci vectorul vitez liniar este perpendicular
vector is perpendicular to OA and rotated in the pe OA i are direcia n sensul vitezei
sense of . Differentiating the velocity vector unghiulare . Dac se deriveaz relaia (3.9):
(3.9) to obtain the second rate of change of
position :

Fig.3.3

3-4

(3

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

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dVA d irA e it
d
rA e it rA 2 e it =
=
=i
dt
dt
dt
it
2 it
= irA e rA e

aA =

(3.10)

d d
=
dt dt 2

The first term irA e i has the magnitude r A is


in the direction iei which is perpendicular to
OA and rotated in the sense of ( is
considered positive when the second rate
of change of is counter clockwise). This
acceleration component is tangent to the path of
point A and it is called the tangential
acceleration. In general, it is expressed as a A t.
The second term has the magnitude rA 2 and in
the direction -e i which is a unit vector opposite
to the position vector rA. It is known as the
normal acceleration and expressed as a A n. It
is always directed towards the centre of
curvature of the path drawn by the point under
consideration. The acceleration of point A is
expressed in terms of two components as:

Primul termen irA e i are mrimea rA i


direcia iei care este perpendicular pe OA i
d 2
rotit n sensul lui = 2 . Aceast
dt
component a aceleraiei este tangent la
traiectoria (circular) a punctului A i se
numete acceleraie tangenial notat cu a A t.
Cel de al doilea termen rA 2 e i are mrimea
rA 2 i este orientat dup -e i care este un
vector unitate cu sens opus lui rA . Aceast
component a acceleraiei se numete
acceleraie normal si se noteaz cu a A n. Ea
este mereu orientat ctre centrul de rotaie O.
Acceleraia total a punctului A va fi deci:

a A = a At + a nA

(3.11)

Fig.3.4
It must be noted that the centre of rotation O is Centrul de rotaie O are vitez i acceleraie
the only point on the rigid body that has zero nul.
velocity and acceleration.

3-5

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3.1.3 General Plane Motion/Micarea Plan Paralel/

Fig.3.5
General plane motion is the plane motion which Micarea plan paralel este acea micare a
is neither translation nor rotation about a fixed rigidului care nu este nici translaie pur i nici
axis but it can be analysed by the superposition rotaie pur dar care poate fi analizat prin
of these motions using the relative motion suprapunerea celor dou tipuri de micri cu
ajutorul conceptului de micare relativ.
concept.

Consider a plane in which a rigid with two


points A and B is moving. The rigid body is
moving from its first position to the second
position at a time interval t. Its general motion
can be regarded as the sum of the translation
from AB to AB and a fixed axis of rotation
about an axis perpendicular to the plane and
passing through A.

Fie un plan n care se mic un rigid pe care sau definit punctele A i B. Rigidul se mic din
prima poziie spre cea de-a doua ntr-un
interval de timp t. Micarea sa este plan
paralel i poate fi privit ca fiind suma a unei
translaii din poziia AB n AB urmat de o
rotaie n jurul unei axe perpendiculare pe plan
care trece prin A.

When performing translation, the rigid body


moves with the velocity and acceleration of
every point which is the same for this motion.
In case of rotation the rigid body is rotated
about an axis passing through the particular
point selected for translation. Now the rigid
body is in a rotation. Since the point selected is
not fixed, it is a relative motion.

Cnd se efectueaz translaia, rigidul se mic


cu viteza i acceleraia oricrui punct din
cuprinsul su egale (pentru toate punctele
rigidului). Cnd se efectueaz rotaia, n
realitate punctul selectat ca ax de rotaie nu
este fix ci n micare de translaie i deci
combinaia celor dou micari va defini o
micare relativ.

Let us analyse this relative motion by attaching


a moving reference frame x-y at point A, which
translates relative to the fixed frame X-Y. The
motion is to be considered of two parts. First,
the body translates from AB to AB with
displacement rA which is the displacement of
point A. Next the body rotates by an angle
about A. Since the distance of any other point
to rotation axis, such as AB, remains constant,
the motion of B from B to B will be on an arc
with centre A and will be displaced by rB/A.

Pentru a se analiza micarea relativ a rigidului


din figura de mai sus se ataeaz punctului A
un sistem de referin Axy care va executa o
micare de translaie fa de sistemul fix OXY.
Micarea complex se va considera ca fiind
alctuit din dou micri simple i anume
rigidul translateaz mai nti din poziia AB n
AB cu mrimea rA care este deplasarea
punctului A. Apoi rigidul se rotete cu unghiul
n jurul lui A. Cum distana oricrui punct
faa de axa A (inclusiv AB) rmne constant,

3-6

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

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This displacement is the motion of point B micarea lui B din poziia B n poziia B se
relative to point A.
va face dup un arc de cerc iar vectorul
deplasrii va fi rB/A. Aceast deplasare
constituie deplasarea relativa a punctului B fa
de punctul A.

Fig.3.6
The total displacement of point B will be the Deplasarea total a punctului B va fi suma
sum of these two motions:
celor dou micri astfel:

r B = r A + r B/A
Since the motion from B to B is a rotation,
rB/A = |BA|. Note that this relative motion is
a function of absolute instantaneous angular
motion of the rigid body. If one changes the
order of rotation and translation the same
equation will result. Dividing the above
equation by the corresponding time interval, t
and taking the limit as t tends to zero we
obtain:

(3.12)

Cum micarea din B n B este o micare de


rotaie vom avea c rB/A = |BA|. Se poate
observa c aceast micare relativ este funcie
de
micarea
unghiular
a
rigidului
. Schimbarea ordinii micrilor simple (mai
nti rotaie apoi translaie) nu va afecta ecuaia
de mai sus. Dac se mparte ecuaia (3.12) la
timp t i mergnd la limit t 0 , vom
avea:

V B = V A + V B/A
where/unde/
V B/A =x r B/A
and/i/

3-7

(3.13)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

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r B/A = AB = r B - r A
V B = V A + x(r B - r A )
V B/A is a relative velocity between two points
B and A belonging to the same rigid body. V B
and V A are absolute velocities of points A and
B on a rigid body in a general plane motion.

V B/A este viteza relativ dintre punctele B i A


care aparin rigidului. V B i V A sunt vitezele
absolute ale punctelor A i B n micarea plan
paralel a rigidului.

The same result can be obtained using complex Acelai rezultat se obine prin folosirea
numbers by writing the position of point B numerelor complexe n exprimarea relaiei
(3.12):
relative to A (3.12) in complex numbers:
r B = r A +be i

where b= |AB| and is the angle between the


line AB and the positive real axis. bei term
shows the position of point B with respect to A
and b length is constant only if both A and B
are on the same rigid body. Since we are to be
concerned with the relative motion, let us
assume that the velocity and acceleration of
point A is known. (VA and aA are known).
Differentiating the above equation with respect
to time:

unde b= |AB| i este unghiul dintre linia AB


i axa real pozitiv. Termenul bei descrie
poziia punctului B fa de A iar b este
constant doar dac A i B aparin aceluiai
rigid. Se presupune c sunt cunoscute viteza i
acceleraia punctului A (VA i aA cunoscute).
Dac se deriveaz ecuaia de mai sus n raport
cu timpul:

V B = V A +ibe i

where =d/dt. The second term has the


magnitude b and is in the direction ie i, which
is a unit vector perpendicular to AB rotated in
the sense of . This is the relative velocity of
point B with respect to A (Fig.3.7). Hence:

(3.14)

(3.15)

unde =d/dt. Mrimea acestui termen este b


iar direcia este dat de ie i, care este un vector
unitate perpendicular pe AB i rotit n sensul
lui . Viteza relativ a lui B fa de A (Fig.3.7)
este:

V B/A = ibe i

and/i/

V B = V A + V B/A = V A + ibe i

3-8

(3.15)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

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Fig.3.7
Differentiation of the velocity equation with Prin derivarea ecuaiei vitezelor funcie de
respect to time yields:
timp:
a B = a A +ibe i -b 2e i

(3.16)

Fig.3.8
The first relative acceleration component has Prima component a acceleraiei are mrimea
the magnitude b and is in the direction ie i b i
direcia
dat
de
iei (Fig.3.8)
(Fig.3.8), which is perpendicular to the line AB perpendicular pe AB i rotit n sensul vitezei
and rotated in the sense of the angular unghiulare . Aceast component a
acceleration . This is relative acceleration acceleraiei este componenta tangenial notat
t
component is tangential relative acceleration cu a B/A. Cea de-a doua component are
component and is denoted by atB/A. The second mrimea dat de b2 i direcia dup -ei care
relative acceleration component has the este coliniar cu AB i ndreptat ctre centrul
magnitude b2 and is in the direction -ei which de rotaie A. Aceast component a acceleraiei
n
is along the line AB towards the centre of este componenta normal notat cu a B/A. n
rotation A. This direction is normal to the consecin acceleraia punctului B se va putea
relative path of B with respect to A. Therefore scrie:
it is called normal relative acceleration
component and is denoted by a n B/A. Hence the
acceleration of point B can be expressed as:
a B= a A+a t B/A+a n B/A

3-9

(3.17)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

and the relative acceleration is:

iar acceleraia relativ:


a B/A= a t B/A+a n B/A

Therefore, for the relative motion between two


points on a rigid body in a general plane motion
the relative velocity and acceleration
components are as if the body is in a fixed axis
of rotation about one of the points on the rigid
body.

(3.18)

Aadar pentru micarea relativ a dou puncte


aparinnd unui rigid n micare plan paralel,
componentele vitezei i acceleraiei exist ca i
cum rigidul s-ar roti n jurul unei axe fixe care
trece printr-unul dintre punctele rigidului.

Fig.3.9
Another different type of relative motion occurs Un alt tip de micare relativ poate avea loc
between two coincident points on two different ntre dou puncte coincidente la un moment dat
rigid bodies but for which we know the path of care exist pe dou rigide diferite dar la care se
one point relative to the other rigid body. cunoate traiectoria unui punct aparinnd unui
rigid fa de cellalt rigid.
Consider 2 rigid bodies (links 1 and 2 of a Fie dou rigide (elementele 1 i 2 ale unui
mechanism) moving from position #1 to mecanism) care se mic reciproc din Poziia 1
another position #2. During this time a point n 2. n acest timp punctul A3 aparinnd
A3 of link 2 that is coincident with A2 of link 1 elementului 2 care este coincident cu A2
at position #1 but on a different plane, moves to aparinnd elementului 1 n poziia 1 se va
position A3 while A2 moves to A2. Points that mica n A3 iar A2 se va mica n A2 . Punctele
were instantaneously coincident in position #1 care erau deci coincidente instantaneu n
are not coincident at position #2. However, the poziia 1 nu vor mai fi coincidente n poziia 2.
path of A2 on link 2 is known. The motion of Dar traiectoria lui A2 fa de elementul 2 este
point A3 can be regarded as the sum of cunoscut. Micarea lui A3 poate fi privit ca
translation with A3 to A3 that is coincident fiind suma translaiei sale de la poziia A3 la
with A2 and a relative motion from A3 to A3 care va fi coincident cu A2 i o micare
A3 relative to the link 2. Hence, point A 3 first relativ de la A3 la A3 relativ la elementul 2.
moves by a distance rA2 with A2 and then Deci punctul A3 se va mica mai nti cu
moves by a distance rA3/2 relative to A 2. The distana rA2 mpreun cu punctul A2 apoi A3 se
order of the two superimposed motions is not mic singur cu distana rA3/2 fa de A2.
Ordinea n care au loc micrile care se
important.
insumeaz nu este mportant.
Deplasarea total a punctului A3 este:
The total displacement of point A3 is:

r A3= r A2 +r A3/2
3-10

(3.19)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.10
Dividing the above expression by the Dac se mparte expresia de mai sus la
corresponding time interval, t , and taking the intervalul de timp t i dac se face ca t s
limit as t tends to zero, we obtain:
tind la zero, vom avea:
V A3= V A2 +V A3/2

where VA3/2 is the relative velocity which is unde VA3/2 este viteza relativ tangent la
always tangent to the relative path of point A3 traiectoria punctului A2 fa de elementul 2.
with
respect
to
the
link
2.
In mechanisms such relative motion occurs n mecanismele din realitate asemenea micri
when we have prismatic, cylinder-in-slot or relative se produc atunci cnd avem de-a face
cam pairs between two moving links (Fig.3.11). cu o cupl de translaie (Fig.3.11).
In order to explain the relative motion between
the two links, consider link 3 connected to link
2 by a prismatic joint B. For simplicity, link 2
is connected to the fixed link by a revolute
joint. Point B corresponds to two coincident
points B2 and B3 on links 2 and 3. The position
vector for point B (B2 or B3 ) in complex
numbers is:

Pentru a defini micarea relativ dintre dou


elemente cinematice 2 i 3, legate ntre ele
pritr-o cupl de translaie B iar elementul 2
legat la elementul fix 1 cu o cupl de rotaie A0.
Punctul de coinciden instantanee B are
corespondente pe elementele 1 i 2 punctele B2
i B3. n complex vectorul de poziie al
punctului B este:

R B=re i

3-11

(3.20)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.11
Note that R B is the position vector for both B 2 Se va observa c R B este vectorul de poziie
and B 3. However for B 2, R B is a constant but pentru ambele puncte B2 i B3. Oricum pentru
for B3, R B is a variable. Therefore, when B2 vom avea R B constant i pentru B3 vom
differentiating this vector, we must specify avea R B variabil. Prin derivarea acestui vector
which rate of change of position is sought. For se va preciza deci crui punct i se va calcula
example if we are to determine the rate of derivata. Dac se determin derivata pentru
vectorul de poziie al punctului B2 avem:
change of the position of point B 2, then:
V B2= ire i

(3.21)

where =d/dt . If we want to determine the unde =d/dt . Dac se determin derivata
pentru vectorul de poziie al punctului B3
rate of change of the position B 3, then:
avem:

r
r
r i d r i
VB3 = i1
r
e
+
23 dt e
VB 2
The first term is the velocity of point B2, V B2.
The second term is the relative velocity of point
B3 with respect to link 2. It is tangent to the
relative path. Hence:

(3.22)

Primul termen al relaiei de mai sus este viteza


punctului B2, V B2. Cel de al doilea termen este
viteza relativ a punctului B3 fa de elementul
2 i este tangent la traiectoria relativ:

(3.23)
V B3= V B2 +V B3/2
B 3, which is fixed on link 3 will be coincident Dup un anumit interval de timp, B 3, care este
with another point B2 on link 2 after a certain fix pe elementul 3 va fi coincident cu un alt
time interval. The second derivative of the punct B2 situat pe elementul 2. A doua
derivat a vectorului de poziie este:
position vector with respect to time yields:
2

dVB3
dr
dr
d r
= irae i r 2 e i + i e i + 2 e i + i e i
(3.24)
dt
dt
dt

dt

where the terms in the first bracket are those unde termenii din prima parantez sunt obinui
obtained from the differentiation of VB2, and din derivarea lui VB2, iar cei din a doua din
those in the second bracket are obtained when VB3/2. Primii doi termeni din prima paratez a
the relative velocity V B3/2 is differentiated. The ecuaiei de mai sus, sunt acceleraia tangenial
first two terms are the tangential and normal i cea normal ale punctului B2. Cel de al treilea
accelerations components of point B2. The third termen apare datorit faptului c B2, vzut ca
term arises due to the fact that B2 observed as fiind coincident cu B3, va fi diferit pentru

a B3 =

3-12

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

the coincident point with B 3, will be a different


point in a differential displacement. At a certain
time interval t, B3 will be coincident with B2,
that is at a distance r from B2 (direction
being along the axis of the slider) . The velocity
of B2 is i(r )e i and the velocity of B2 is

derivarea deplasrii. Dup un anumit interval


de timp t, B 3 va fi coincident cu B2, adic va
fi la o distan r fa de B2 (direcia va fi de-a
lungul elementului 2). Viteza lui B2 este
i(r )e i iar viteza lui B2 este i(r + r )e i .
Schimbarea vitezei care se petrece n intervalul
i
i(r + r )e . The change in the velocity t este i(r )e i i deci ascceleraia
during the time period t is i(r )e i . perpendicular pe elementul 2 va varia cu
i
Therefore there is acceleration perpendicular to cantitatea ire .
the slider axis by an amount ire i .

Fig.3.12
Consider the terms obtained when the relative Fie termenii obinui prin derivarea vitezei
velocity VB3/2 is differentiated (second bracket relative VB3/2 (a doua parantez din (3.24)).
in (3.24)). The first term is the acceleration due Primul termen din parantez este acceleraia
to the change in magnitude of the relative datorat variaiei vitezei relative i este
velocity. This term is tangent to the relative tangent la traiectoria relativ. Al doilea termen
path. The second term is the acceleration due to este acceleraia datorat schimbrii direciei
the change in the direction of the relative vectorului vitez relativ. Pentru a se explicita
velocity vector. In order to explain this term acest termen, fie o vitez relativ constant ca
consider a constant magnitude for relative mrime (Fig.3.12). ntr-un anumit interval de
velocity (Fig.3.12). At a certain time interval timp t, elemental 2 se va roti cu unghiul .
t, link 2 will rotate by an angle . The Direcia vitezei relative va fi acum e i ( + ) fa
direction of the relative velocity is now e i ( + ) de e i ( ) cum era nainte rotire. Schimbarea
instead of e i ( ) initially. The vectorial change direciei vectorului vitez relativ va fi
of the relative velocity vector is ir&e i ( ) , and ir&e i ( ) = i dr e i ( ) a crui variaie n timp
dt
its time rate of change is ir&e i ( ) . The last
i ( )
&
i
r

e
.
Dup cum se vede ultimii termeni
este
two terms in both of the brackets are the same
in magnitude and direction. They can be
dr
din ambele paranteze i e i sunt identici i
i ()
&
combined into one term 2ire . This term is
dt
called Coriolis acceleration component and is pot fi combinai ntr-un singur termen
represented by acB3/2. It is a relative acceleration 2ir&e i ( ) care se numete acceleraia Coriolis

3-13

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

component. Its direction is normal to the


relative path described by B3 on link 2. Its
direction is obtained by rotating the relative
velocity vector VB3/2, 90 0 in the sense of the
angular velocity of link 2. Hence the
acceleration of point B 3 can be written as:

notat cu acB3/2. Ea are direcia normal la


traiectoria relativ a lui B3 fa de elementul 2.
Direcia ei se obine prin rotirea vectorului
vitez relativ VB3/2 cu 900 n sensul vitezei
unghiulare a elementului 2. n concluzie
acceleraia punctului B 3 este:

d2r
dr
a B3 = irae i r 2 e i + 2 e i + 2i e i
dt
dt

(3.25)
a B3 = a Bt 2 + a nB2 + a Bt 3 / 2 + a cB3 / 2
In the previous case, since the prismatic joint n cazul prezentat mai sus axa cuplei de
axis is along the radial line B0B, so that the translaie este de-a lungul liniei radiale B0B,
normal acceleration component of point B2 astfel c punctul B2 va avea componenta
(namely an2) and the tangential relative acceleraiei normale an2 i cea tangenial a
acceleration component atB3/2 are along the acceleraiei relative atB3/2 de-a lungul aceleai
same direction (so is acB3/2 and atB2). These direcii (la fel i acB3/2 i atB2 ). n cazul general
directions need not be along the same direction direciile acestor componente ale acceleraiilor
in general. Consider a prismatic joint as shown pot fi diferite. Fie o cupl de translaie ntre
in figure 3.13 below between links 2 and 3. In elementele 2 i 3 ca n figura 3.13 de mai jos
such a case:

rB3 = ae i + se i (+ )
Differentiating, we obtain:

(3.26)

Prin derivare:

VB3 = iae i + ise i (+ ) +


a + se i = be i
where b is the variable distance A0B and is
the variable angle between A0A and A0B on
link 2. A0B vector is the position of point B on
a coordinate frame fixed on link 2. Hence:

ds i (+ )
e
dt

(3.27)

unde b este variabil (A0B) iar este un unghi


variabil al elementului 2 ntre A0A i A0B. A0B
este vectorul de poziie al punctului B cu
originea n sistemul de coordinate fixat pe
elementul 2. Deci:
i ( + )
VB3 = ibe
+ s e i ( + )
(3.28)
VB3 = VB 2 + VB3 / 2

3-14

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.13
The first term of above equation (Fig.3.14) has Primul termen al ecuaiei (v.Fig.3.14) de mai
the magnitude |A0B|= b and its direction is sus are mrimea dat de |A0B|= b i direcia
perpendicular to the line A0B since the unit perpendicular pe A0B de vreme ce vectorul
vector is ie i(+) . The second term has the su unitate este ie i(+). Al doilea termen are
magnitude s& which is the relative velocity of mrimea de s& care este viteza relativ a
point B3 with respect to link 2 and its direction punctului B3 fa de elementul 2 i direcia este
is along the slider axis AB given by the unit de-a lungul axei AB fiind determinat de
vector e i(+ ).
vectorul unitate e i(+ ).
Derivnd nc odat ecuaia de mai sus va
Differentiating the velocity equation once rezulta acceleraia punctului B3 :
more, we have the acceleration of point B3 as:

a B3

Fig.3.14
= iae a e + ise i (+ ) + is&e i (+ ) s 2 e i (+ ) +
i

2 i

+ &s&e i (+ ) + is&e i (+ )
the terms can be grouped as:

care poate fi regrupat:


3-15

(3.29)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
i
i
2 i
i
& i (+ ) && i (+ )

a B3 = ie a + se
i

a + se = be

) e (a + se ) + 2ise

+ se

a B3 = ibe i (+ ) 2 be i (+ ) + 2is&e i (+ ) + &s&e i (+ )


The first two terms are the tangential and
normal acceleration components of point B2
whose direction is normal and parallel (directed
towards A0) to the line A0B respectively. The
third term is the relative Coriolis acceleration
which is perpendicular to the slider axis AB
(given by the unit vector ie i(+)). The last term
is the tangential relative acceleration with
magnitude &s& and direction e i(+) which is
along the slider axis AB. Therefore in vector
form the acceleration of B3 is:

(3.30)

n ecuaia de mai sus primul termen este


acceleraia tangenial a lui B2, al doilea
acceleraia normal a lui B2 cu direcia normal
la linia A0B i ndreptat spre A0. Al treilea
termen este acceleraia Coriolis perpendicular
pe axa AB dat de vectorul ie i(+), iar ultimul
termen este acceleraia tangenial relativ de
mrime dat de &s& i direcie dat de e i(+) care
este de-a lungul lui AB. n form vectorial
acceleraia punctului B3 este:

r
r
r
r
r
a B3 = a Bt 2 + a nB 2 + a Bt 3 / 2 + a cB3 / 2

Fig.3.15
3.2 Velocity and Acceleration Vectorial Analysis of Mechanisms/Analiza Vectorial a
Vitezelor i Acceleraiilor n Mecanisme/

Velocity and acceleration analysis of


mechanisms can be performed vectorially using
the relative velocity and acceleration concept.
Usually we start with the given values and
work through the mechanism by way of series
of points A, B, C, etc. Solving vector equations
in the form:

Analiza vitezelor i acceleraiilor mecanismelor


poate fi fcut vectorial folosind conceptul
vitezelor i acceleraiilor relative. De regul se
pleac de la valorile parametrilor de input i se
progreseaz din cupl n cupl (A, B, C etc.)
rezolvnd ecuaii vectoriale de forma:

3-16

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

VB = VA+ VB/A
VC= VB+ VC/B
aB= aA+atB/A+anB/A
aC= aB+atC/B+anC/B

The points that one has to use are usually the


revolute joint axes between the links since these
are the points where the relative velocity or
acceleration between the two coincident points
on two different links are zero and they have
equal velocity and accelerations. If we are to
determine the velocity of a point on a link we
must first determine the velocity of the points
located
at
the
joint
axes.
Another important consideration is that the
acceleration analysis cannot be performed
without performing the velocity analysis since
the normal and Coriolis acceleration
components can only be determined after the
analysis.
velocity
Loop equations can be used very effectively for
velocity and acceleration analysis since the
loop equations contain the necessary position
variables. When the loop equations are
differentiated with respect to time we obtain
velocity loop equations. If the position
variables are solved beforehand, these velocity
loop equations will always yield a linear set of
equations in terms of velocity variables which
are the time rate of change of the position
variables of the mechanism. When these
velocity variables are solved for a given input
condition, the velocity of any point on any link
can be determined.
As a first example (Fig.3.16), consider a slidercrank mechanism shown below. We shall
assume that 12 and its derivatives, velocities
and accelerations are given:
12 = & 12 =

(3.31)

Punctele folosite n rezolvare sunt cuplele de


rotaie de vreme ce n aceste puncte vitezele i
acceleraiile relative a dou elemente
cinematice cuplate prin acea cupl, sunt nule.
Deci pentru a determina viteza-acceleraia
oricrui punct al unui element cinematic trebuie
mai nti determinate viteza-acceleraia
punctelor cuplelor de rotaie.
Un aspect foarte important este c nu se poate
efectua analiza acceleraiilor fr analiza
vitezelor de vreme ce acceleraiile Coriolis se
pot determina doar dup determinarea
vitezelor.
Ecuaiile vectoriale de nchidere a buclelor pot
fi folosite la analiza vitezelor-acceleraiilor dat
fiind c aceste ecuaii conin toate variabilele
de poziie necesare. Dac se deriveaz n raport
cu timpul aceste ecuaii rezult ecuaiile
vectoriale de nchidere ale vitezelor. Dac se
ecuaiile vectoriale de poziie sunt deja
rezolvate la momentul scrierii ecuaiilor
vitezelor, aceste ecuaii vectoriale ale vitezelor
vor fi liniare n termenii vitezelor care se pot
rezolva rezultnd vitezele oricrui punct al
oricrui element cinematic.

Ca un prim exemplu (Fig.3.16), fie un


mecanism biel-manivel la care se tiu 12
precum i prima i a doua derivat n raport cu
timpul a lui 12 (viteza 12 i acceleraia
unghiular 12 ):

d12
d 2 12
; 12 = &&12 =
dt
dt 2

3-17

(3.32)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.16

The loop closure and its complex conjugate is:

Ecuaia vectorial este:

s14 + ic +a 3 e i13 =a 2 e i12


s14 ic + a 3 e i13 =a 2 e i12
For a given value of 12 we have seen how the
position variable s14 and 13 can be solved.
Differentiating the loop closure equation with
respect to time we obtain the velocity loop
equations as:

(3.33)

Pentru o anumit valoare a lui 12 s-a vazut


deja cum se pot determina variabilele s14 i 13 .
Prin derivarea ecuaiei de mai sus funcie de
timp se obine ecuaia vectorial a vitezelor:

s& 14 + ia 3 13 e i13 = ia 2 12 e i12


s& 14 ia 3 13 e i13 = ia 2 12 e i12
12

d
d
ds
= 12 ; 13 = 13 ; s& 14 = 14 ;
dt
dt
dt

(3.34)

Note that the velocity loop equation is nothing Ecuaia de mai sus se scrie n form vectorial:
but the vector equation:
VB+ VA/B = VA

Physical explanation of the above equation is


that point A is a permanently coincident point
between links 2 and 3. Therefore VA2=VA3=VA.
If we consider link 2, it is in a fixed axis of
rotation and point A on link 2 has a velocity
perpendicular to AA0 in the sense of 12 and its
magnitude is 12 |AA0|. If we consider link 3, it
is in a general plane motion. Points A and B are
on this link. If we write the velocity of point A

(3.35)

Interpretarea fizic a ecuaiei de mai sus este


c punctul A este un punct de coinciden
permanent ntre elementele cinematice 2 i 3.
Astfel VA2=VA3=VA. Dac se consider
elementul 2, el va fi n micare de rotaie pur
iar punctul A de pe elementul 2 are viteza
perpendicular pe AA0 i orientat n sensul lui
12 i de mrime 12 |AA0|. Elementul 3 ns
are o micare plan-paralel. Punctele A i B
sunt situate deasemenea i pe elementul 3.

3-18

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

on link 3 using point B it is:

Dac se scrie viteza punctului A de pe


elementul 3 i innd cont i de punctul B
avem:

VA3 =VB + VA/B = VA.

VA3 =VB+VA/B = VA.

VA/B is perpendicular to AB. Point B is a


permanently coincident point between links 3
and 4. Therefore VB3=VB4=VB. If we consider
link 4, it is in a translation. Therefore the
velocity of every point is tangent to the path,
which is the slider axis. In the
velocity vector equation the unknowns are the
magnitudes of VB and VA/B (which correspond
to s& 14 and 13 a 3 in the velocity loop equation).

VA/B va fi perpendicular pe AB. Punctul B este


un punct de coinciden permanent ntre
elementele 3 i 4 deci VB3=VB4=VB. Se
consider mai nti elementul 4 care este n
micare de translaie i deci viteza fiecrui
punct este paralel cu traiectoria sa.
Necunoscutele vor fi deci VB i VA/B (care
corespund lui s& 14 i 13 a 3 n ecuaia vitezelor).

If the loop equations are to be solved


graphically, unlike the analytical method where
we group the unknowns on one side of the
equality and the known values on the other
side, we leave one unknown on both sides of
the equation. The loop equation is rewritten as:

Dac se rezolv ecuaia vitezelor grafic, spre


deosebire
de
metoda
analitic
unde
necunoscutele se grupeaz convenabil pentru
rezolvare, la rezolvarea grafic necunoscutele
pot fi lsate indiferent n care membru al
ecuaiei.

s& 14 = ia 2 12 e i12 ia 3 13 e i13


which is the vector equation/care este ecuaia vectorial/:
(3.36)
VB = VA + VB/A
VB/A = - VA/B= ia 3 e i13
In order to determine the unknowns Pentru determinarea necunoscutelor prin
graphically, we first determine the magnitude metoda grafic mai nti se determin
of |VA|= 12|AA0|. Then using a certain scale mrimea lui |VA|= 12|AA0|. Apoi folosind o
factor, [kv] a directed line (vector) whose scar convenabil a vitezelor [kv]se deseneaz
magnitude is proportional to VA and direction un vector pornind de la un pol Ov luat oarecare
of VA is drawn (see figure below). From the n cmpul desenului, cu lungime proporional
starting point, Ov named also the velocities cu lungimea lui VA i direcia lui VA
pole, of this line, a line whose direction is that (v.Fig.3.17). Din polul vitezelor Ov se
of VB, and from the tip of VA a line whose deseneaz o linie paralel cu direcia lui VB
direction is that of VB/A is drawn (VB is along (adic paralel cu axa Ox). Din vrful lui VA se
the slider axis and VB/A is perpendicular to AB). duce o linie paralel cu VB/A (adic
The point of intersection gives us the tips of the perpendicular pe AB) pn intesecteaz linia
vectors representing the velocities VB and VB/A. deja trasata i paralel cu direcia lui VB ,
If we measure these lengths and then divide by rezultnd la scara vectorii vitezelor VB and
the scale factor we have used for VA, the VB/A. Dac se msoar vectorii astfel dedui i
unknown magnitudes will be solved. The se divid la scara [kv] rezult mrimea real a
diagram thus obtained is known as the velocity vectorilor. Diagrama astfel desenat se numete
poligonul vitezelor.
polygon.

3-19

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.17
If the dependant position variables (s14 and 13) Pentru determinarea necunoscutelor s14 i 13
are to be solved analytically for a prin metoda analitic pentru o anumit poziie
corresponding input position 12, the velocity a parametrului de input 12 , ecuaia vitezelor va
loop equation will always give a linear relation genera mereu o relaie liniar intre variabilele
between the velocity variables (12, 13 and 12, 13 i s& 14 . Dac se d si viteza unghiular
s& 14 ). If the rate of change of the input variable a variabilei de input i anume 12, se pot
(12) is given, one can solve for the other two determina 13 i s& 14 prin metodele sistemelor
velocity variables (13 and s& 14 ) from the de ecuaii algebrice liniare. Cum avem 2 ecuaii
velocity equations by the methods of linear cu 2 necunoscute se poate aplica regula lui
algebra. Since we have two equations in two Cramer astfel:
unknowns, we can apply Cramers rule:

s& 14 =

i13

1 ia 3 e
1 ia 3 e i13

s& 14 = a 2

13 =

ia 3 e i13
ia 3 e i13

ia 2 12 e i12
ia 2 12 e i12

a 2 a 3 e i (12 13 ) e i (12 13 )

ia 3 e

i13

+e

i13

12

sin (12 13 )
12
cos 13

1 ia 2 12 e i12
1 ia 2 12 e i12
i13

1 ia 3 e
1 ia 3 e i13

(3.37)

(
(e

ia 2 e i12 + e i12
ia 3

i13

+e

i13

)
)

12

= 12

a 2 cos(12 )
a 3 cos 13

Note that one can as well obtain two scalar Se va observa c se pot rezova ecuaiile de
equations by equating the real and imaginary bucl prin egalarea prilor imaginare i reale
parts of the velocity loop equation and solve for ntre ele. Pentru mecanismul considerat avem:
the velocity variables as well. For the slidercrank mechanism these two scalar equations
will be:

3-20

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

s& 14 a 3 13 sin (13 ) = a 2 12 sin (12 )


a 3 13 cos(13 ) =a 2 12 cos(12 )

One will obtain exactly the same result from


the solution of these two equations for the
velocity variables 13 and s& 14 . For the
acceleration analysis the velocity loop
equations can be differentiated with respect to
time to yield acceleration loop equations in
terms of acceleration variables which are the
second rate of change of the position variables.
For the slider crank mechanism given,
differentiating equations with respect to time:

(3.38)

Se pot obine aceleai rezultate pentru


variabilele 13 i s& 14 prin rezolvarea ecuaiilor
de mai sus. Pentru analiza acceleraiilor se va
deriva funcie de timp ecuaia vectorial a
vitezelor rezultnd ecuaia vectorial a
acceleraiilor care este deci derivata de ordin
doi a ecuatiilor poziiilor. Pentru mecanismul
considerat avem:

&s&14 + ia 3 13 e i13 a 3 213 e i13 = ia 2 12 e i12 a 2 212 e i12


(3.39)

&s&14 ia 3 13 e i13 a 3 213 e i13 = ia 2 12 e i12 a 2 212 e i12


12 =

d 2 12
dt 2

; 13 =

d 2 13
dt 2

; &s&14 =

d 2 s14
dt 2

Note that this equation can be written as a Ecuaia de mai sus se poate scrie:
vector equation in the form:

(3.40)

The acceleration loop equations are linear in


terms of the acceleration variables (12, 13 and
&s&14 ). If the input angular acceleration, 12 is
known, these two equations can be solved for
the unknowns 13 and &s&14 using Cramers rule :
13 =

Ecuaiile acceleraiilor sunt liniare n raport cu


variabilile 12, 13 i &s&14 . Dac una dintre
variabile, de pild 12 , este cunoscut, atunci
cele dou ecuaii pot fi rezolvate cu regula lui
Cramer:

a 2 12 cos(12 ) a 2 212 sin (12 ) + a 3 213 sin (13 )


a 3 cos 13

&s&14 = a 2 12 sin (12 ) a 2 212 cos(12 ) + a 3 13 sin (13 ) + a 3 2 13 cos(13 )


Another approach is to differentiate the
equations (3.37) directly to obtain acceleration
variables. For example, differentiating the
second equation of angular acceleration of link
3 will be obtained in the form:
13 =

(3.41)

O alt abordare este prin derivarea ecuaiilor


(3.37). De pild prin derivarea ultimei ecuaii
se va obine ecuaia acceleraiei unghiulare a
elementului cinematic 3:

a2
1
[12 cos(12 ) cos(13 ) + 12 13 cos(12 ) sin(13 )]
2
a 3 cos (13 )

3-21

(3.42)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Graphically, the acceleration loop equation can Grafic, ecuaia acceleraiilor se poate rezolva
be solved by rewriting the acceleration vector prin rescrierea ei astfel:
loop equation as:
(3.43)

Fig.3.18
where aB/A= - aA/B. The reason why the equation unde aB/A= - aA/B. Motivul pentru care ecuaia
is written in this form is that we want to leave s-a scris ca mai sus este c se dorete s avem
one unknown on each side of the equality. The cte o necunoscut n fiecare termen al ecuaiei.
magnitude of aB is one unknown and the Mrimea lui aB este o necunoscut iar atB/A este
magnitude of atB/A is the other unknown. Since cea de-a doua necunoscut. Cum viteza i
the input angular velocity and acceleration are acceleraia unghiular ale elementului 2 sunt
given anB/A is known (if the velocity analysis is date, atunci anB/A este cunoscut (mrimea lui
performed, magnitude of anB/A will be anB/A se determin dup analiza vitezelor). Se
determined). We utilise a scale factor [ka] to folosete o scar a acceleraiilor [ka] pentru a se
convert the acceleration vector magnitudes to a putea desena la scar acceleraiile. Se ncepe cu
certain length. Starting with the vector atA or stabilirea polului acceleraiilor Ov n cmpul
anA we draw the vectors atA , anB/A and anA/B of desenului. Se deseneaz mai nti la scar atA
known magnitude and direction in an end-to-tip sau anA apoi vectorii atA , anB/A i anA/B care
form as shown above, Fig.3.18. Then we draw sunt cunoscui ca mrime i direcie aa cum se
a line in the direction of atB/A, which must be vede n figura 3.18. Se duce apoi o linie n
perpendicular to the line AB. The acceleration direcia lui atB/A, care este perpendicular pe
vector aB must be parallel to the slider axis. AB. Vectorul aB trebuie s fie paralel cu axa
From the starting point we then draw a line ghidajului cuplei de translaie. Intersecia celor
parallel to the slider axis. The intersection of 2 linii va determina aB i atB/A . Diagrama astfel
the two lines drawn will determine the ridicat se numete poligonul acceleraiilor.
magnitudes of aB and atB/A. The diagram thus
obtained is known as the acceleration polygon.

3-22

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

After obtaining the velocity and acceleration


variables, one can determine the velocity and
acceleration of any point C on the coupler link
by writing its position vector in terms of
position variables and differentiate the position
vector to obtain the velocity and acceleration of
point C. Referring to the figure below, the
position vector rC is:

Odat determinate vitezele i acceleraiile


elementelor mecanismului, se pot determina
vitezele i acceleraiile oricrui punct C de pe
un element, prin scrierea vectorului su de
poziie funcie de variabilele de poziie i
derivarea sa funcie de timp pentru deducerea
vitezei i acceleraiei. Din figura de mai jos,
vectorul de poziie rC este:

r
i ( )
rC = s14 + ic + b 3 e 13 3

Velocity and acceleration of point C is:

(3.44)

Fig.3.19
Viteza i acceleraia punctului C este:

r
VC = s& 14 + ib 3 13 e i (13 3 )
r
a C = &s&14 + ib 3 13 e i (13 3 ) b 3 213 e i (13 3 )

(3.45)

VC=VB+VC/B
(3.46)
aC = aB + atC/B + anC/B
If one has solved the position (13 and s14) Dac se rezolv (13 i s14), vitezele (13 i
velocity (13 and s& 14 ) and acceleration s& 14 ) i acceleraiile (13 and &s&14 ) pentru un
parameters (13 and &s&14 ) for the given input anumit set de parametric de input (12, 12 i
condition (12, 12 and 12), then note that all 12 ) ai mecanismului, din ecuaiile de mai sus
of the terms on the right hand side are known se pot determina poziia, vitezele i acceleraiile
and one can determine the position, velocity punctului C.
and
acceleration
of
point
C.

For the graphical solution, we can draw the


vector equations for the velocity and
acceleration of point C directly on the velocity
and acceleration polygons drawn for the loop
equations. From the tip of the vector VB, if we
draw the velocity vector VC/B, the vector
joining the starting point of VB to the tip of the
vector VC/B will give us the velocity of point C.
Similarly, the acceleration of point C can be
determined by drawing the acceleration vectors

Pentru rezolvarea grafic a ecuaiilor


vectoriale pentru C se pot folosi poligoanele
vitezelor
i
acceleraiilor
folosite
la
determinarea
cinematicii
elementelor
mecanismului. Din vrful vectorului VB, dac
se deseneaz vectorul VC/B, atunci vectorul care
unete originea lui VB cu vrful lui VC/B va da
vitez a punctului C. Asemntor, acceleraia
lui C se poate determina prin desenarea
vectorilor anC/B i atC/B pornind din vrful

3-23

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

anC/B and atC/B starting from the tip of the vectorului aB . Vectorul care unete originea lui
vector aB .The acceleration vector from the aB cu vrful lui atC/B va da acceleraia lui C.
starting point of aB to the tip of the vector atC/B
, will give us the acceleration of point C.

Fig.3.20
As for the velocity and acceleration analysis of Dac se ia ca alt exemplu un mecanism
a four-bar mechanism, a similar approach can patrulater ca mai jos, pentru calculul vitezelor
be used. The loop closure equation and its i acceleraiilor se poate proceda asemntor.
complex conjugate is:
Ecuaia de nchidere a buclelor i conjugata ei
sunt:

Fig.3.21

a 2 e i12 + a 3 e i3 = a 1 + a 4 e i14
a 2 e i12 + a 3 e i3 = a 1 + a 4 e i14

(3.47)

VA+ VB/A = VB
The velocity loop equation and its complex Ecuaiile de mai sus pot fi folosite pentru

3-24

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

calcularea variabilelor 13 i 14 pentru o


anumit valoare de input 12, cu condiia ca
variabilele 13 i 14 s fi fost calculate pentru
un unghi de input 12:

conjugate can be used to solve for the velocity


variables 13 and 14 for a given input velocity
12, provided that the position variables 13 and
14 are solved for a given input angle 12:

13 =

14 =

a 2 12 e i12
a 2 12 e i12
a 3 e i13
a 3 e i13
a 3 e i13
a 3 e 13

a 4 e i 4
a 4 e i 4

a 4 e i14
a 4 e i14

a 2 12 e i12
a 2 12 e i12

i13

a 3e
a 3 e i13

(3.48)

i14

a 4e
a 4 e i14

If the velocity of the coupler point C is to be Pentru viteza punctului C vom avea:
determined:

r
rC = a 2 e i12 + b 3 e i (13 +3 )

(3.49)

The derivative of the position vector will give Derivata vectorului de poziie de mai sus va fi:
us the velocity vector:

r
(3.50)
VC = ia 2 12 e i12 + ib 3 13 e i (13 +3 )
VC=VA VC/A
In terms of Cartesian components:
Sau n coordonate carteziene:
x& C = a 2 12 sin 12 b 3 13 sin (13 + 3 )
y& C = a 2 12 cos 12 + b 3 13 cos(13 + 3 )

(3.51)

Once the x and y components of the velocity is Odat componentele pe axele x i y ale
determined one can as well transform the vitezelor sunt calculate se poate trece din
velocity vector into polar form to yield the coordonatele carteziene n cele polare astfel:
magnitude and direction by writing the velocity
vector in the form:
VC = x& C2 + y& C2
is magnitude of velocity/mrime vector vitez/
y&
(3.52)
= tan 1 C
x&
C
is the angle the velocity vector makes with respect to positive x axis/unghiul fcut de vectorul
vitez cu axa x pozitiv/
For the acceleration analysis, the second Pentru analiza acceleraiilor se deriveaz nc
derivative of the loop closure equation odat ecuaia vitezelor n raport cu timpul:

3-25

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

(acceleration loop equation) is:


ia 2 12 e i12 a 2 212 e i12 + ia 3 13 e i13 a 3 213 e i13 = ia 4 14 e i14 a 4 214 e i14

(3.53)
ia 2 12 e i12 a 2 212 e i12 ia 3 13 e i13 a 3 213 e i13 = ia 4 14 e i14 a 4 214 e i14

Note that the acceleration loop equation is Se va observa c ecuaiile acceleraiilor se pot
nothing but the acceleration vector equation in scrie n form vectorial:
the form:
(3.54)
Rearranging the terms so that only the unknown Prin re-aranjarea ecuaiilor de mai sus
acceleration variables are on the left hand side necunoscutele se vor trece n partea stng:
of the equation:

ia 2 12 e i12 + ia 4 14 e i14 = a 2 212 e i12 ia 3 13 e i13 + a 3 213 e i13 a 4 214 e i14


ia 3 13 e

i13

+ ia 4 14 e

i14

= a 4

14 e

i14

+ ia 2 12 e

i12

+ a 2

12 e

i12

+ a 3

(3.55)
2

13 e

i13

Solving the two linear equations for the Rezolvnd sistemul de ecuaii de mai sus avem:
acceleration variables:

13 =
14 =

1
sin(14
1
sin(14

a 2 2

a4 2
a
14 + 2 12 sin(12 14 ) + 213 cos(13 14 )
12 cos(12 14 )
13 ) a 3
a3
a3

a 2 2

a
a2
12 sin(12 13 ) 214 cos(13 14 ) + 3 213
12 cos(12 13 ) +
13 ) a 4
a4
a4

(3.56)

The acceleration of the coupler point C can be Acceleraia punctului C poate fi obinut i din
obtained from the second derivative of the a doua derivat a vectorului de poziie:
position vector:
r
2 i (12 )
a C = a 2 12
e
+ ia 2 12 e i (12 ) + ib 3 213 e i (13 +3 ) b 3 13 e i (13 +3 )
(3.57)
The graphical solution of the velocity and Soluiile prin metoda grafic ale vitezelor i
acceleration vector equations are as shown in acceleraiilor punctului C sunt date mai jos:
below.

3-26

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.22

Example 3.1

For the mechanism shown below, the piston (2)


has an upward velocity VA= V12=180 mms-1.
We are to determine the velocity and
acceleration of point D. In this example the
loop closure, velocity and acceleration
equations have been solved explicitly and
presented in Mathcad program below. It is left
to the reader to derive the equations used.

Exemplul 3.1

Fie un mecanism ca cel dat mai jos la care


pistonul 2 se mic n sus cu viteza VA=
V12=180 mms-1 . Se cere s se determine viteza
i acceleraia punctului D. n acest exemplu
ecuaiile de poziie, viteze i acceleraii sunt
date n Mathcad rmnnd cititorului s le
deduc.

Polar Plot of displacement, velocity and Graficul polar al deplasrii, vitezei i


acceleration of point D is as shown in Fig. 3.23. acceleraiei punctului D este dat mai jos pentru
The vectors are shown for s2/1=60 mm.
s2/1=60 mm.

3-27

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

deg = 0.017 This is /180


a3

76

b3

c3

270

b1

a1

180

300

405

Position analisys
0 .. 18

s12k
s34k

k .20 60
b1

s12k

angle s34k , a3

angle a1 , b1

14k

a1

a3

s12k

Path of point D (with A0 as the origin


and x axis is the horizontal line for the
coordinate frame used):

3-28

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
i

zDk

s34k

i.b3 .e

c3

( i .14 )

Velocity analysis
v12

180
v12 .
cos 14k

14k

s34k

v12 . .
a3 cos 14k

v34k

s34k .sin 14k

s34k

vDk

s34k

i .b3 . e

c3

( i .14 )

.i.14
k

Aceleration analisys
v12 .
14k .s34k .sin 14k
2
s34k
v12
s34k

aDk

s34k

. 14 .a3
k

v34k .sin 14k

i.b3 . i.a14k

c3

( i .14 )

v34k .cos 14k

a14k

a34k

v34k .e

14k

14k .s34k .cos 14k


.e

i .14

2 .i.v34k .14k .e

i .14

Some results
s120 = 60

vD0 = 420.923

vD0 = 90.385+ 411.105i

arg vD0

aD0 = 206.359+ 176.375i

= 77.6

deg

140 = 0.45

a140 = 0.381

aD0 = 271.463

a340 = 0.338

v340 = 148.279

Polar Plot of displacement, velocity and acceleration of point D is as


shown in Fig. The vectors are shown for s2/1=60 mm.

120

110

100 90 80

70

60

130
140

50
40

150
zD
k
vD
k
aD
k

30

160

20

170

10

180

0
0

190

200

400

600

200

350
340

210

330

220
230

320
310
240

250

290

300

260 270 280


arg zD , arg vD , arg aD
k
k
k

Fig.3.23

3-29

a34k .e

( i .14 )

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Example 3.2

In the mechanism shown in figure we are to


determine the velocity and acceleration of point
F on link 6 when the input link 2 is rotating at a
constant velocity of 4 rad/s. The link lengths
are as given on the figure.
In this problem, for the position analysis
stepwise solution and for the velocity and
acceleration analysis matrix inversion method
will be used.

Exemplul 3.2

n mecanismul dat mai jos se cere determinarea


vitezei i acceleraiei punctului F aflat pe
elementul cinematic 6 dat fiind viteza
unghiular constant a elementului de input 2
de 4 rad/s. Lungimile elementelor sunt date n
figur. Pentru rezolvare se va folosi analiza pas
cu pas prin metode matriciale.

Fig.3.24
Define the fixed link lengths/Definire lungime elemente/:
a1

365
a2

a4

b1

182

507

12

809

a3

876

a5

684

deg = 0.017

b3

85.7

c3

a3

a6

707

b6

385

1
b3

154.5.deg

Generate the input crank angle for every 50/Unghi input la fiecare 50 grade/.
0 .. 72

k
12

xB

yB

k.

36
a 2 .cos 12
k

b1

a 2 .sin 12

a1

xBk,yBk are the rectangular coordinates of B with respect to C0 with +ve x axis along
QC0/ xBk,yBk sunt coordonatele carteziene ale lui B fata de C0 cu + pe axa x
si de-a lungul lui QC0/
angle (x,y)-This function returns an angle
(in radians) between the positive x-axis, and the point (x,y)
/functia angle(x,y) intoarce valoarea in radiani a unghiului dintre dreapta
care uneste originea de punctul de coordonate (x,y) si axa Ox/

3-30

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

angle x B , y B
k
k

sk

xB

yB

Convert rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates


/Conversie coordonate carteziene in polare/

sk

acos

14

a3

Cosine theorem. for angle BC0C


/Teorema cosinusului in BC0C/

a4

sk

Cosine theorem for the transmission


angle BCC0/Teorema cosinusului
la unghiul de transmitere BC0C/

2 .a 4 .a 3
k

13

14

a 2 .cos 12
k

b1

a 4 .cos 14
k

b 3 .cos 13
k

xA

xD

a 4 .sin 14
k

yD

a3

a4

2 .a 4 .s k

acos

xA

xD

a 2 .sin 12
k

a1

b 3 .sin 13
k

xD ,y A
k
k

angle x A
k

sk

yA

yA

yD

yD

Note that , and s are used as dummy variables


/Se va observa ca , si s sunt variabile fictive/
k

acos

sk

16

15

a5

a6

2 .a 5 .s k

15

a5

acos

a6

sk

2 .a 5 .a 6

x numbers with A0 as the origin/originea cu A0/


Coordinates of F in complex numbers/Coordonatele lui F in complex/:

zF

a 2 .e

i . 12
k

a 6 .e

i . 16
k

b 6 .e

i . 16
k

3-31

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
k
In figure below, the path of point F is shown ( the x sign is the position of point F when
q12=900)/In graficul de mai jos este trasata traiectoria lui F/

1000
900
800
700

Im z F
k

600

Im z F
18

500
400
300
200
100
0
500

600
700
800
Re z F , Re z F
k
18

900

Path of point F/Traiectorie F/.


For velocity and acceleration analysis/Analiza vitezelor si acceleratiilor/
Create the coefficient matrix/Creare matrice coeficienti/

i.a 3 .e

Ak

i . 13
k
i . 13
k

i.a 3 .e
i.c 3 .e

i .a 4 .e
i.a 4 .e

i . 13
k
i . 13
k

i.c 3 .e

i . 14
k

i . 14
k

i . 15
k

i.a 5 .e

i.a 5 .e

i . 15
k

i.a 6 .e
i.a 6 .e

i . 16
k

i . 16
k

The angular velocities are found from the velocityloop equations/Vitezele


unghiulare rezulta din viteze/
i.a 2 .e

bk

i . 12
k
i . 12
k

i .a 2 .e
2 .i.a 2 .e

i . 12
k

2 .i.a 2 .e

i . 12
k

13
k
14
k
15
k

Ak

1.

b k . 12

16
k

3-32

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

The angular acceleration of the links are found from the acceleration loop equations
Acceleratiile unghiulare rezulta din acceleratii/
2
a 2 . 12 .e

i . 12
k

2
a 2 . 12 .e

ck

2
2 .a 2 . 12 .e
2
2 .a 2 . 12 .e

i . 12
k

i . 12
k

2
a 3 . 13 .e
k
2
a 3 . 13 .e
k

2
c 3 . 13 .e
k

i . 12
k

i . 13
k

2
c 3 . 13 .e
k

i . 13
k

2
a 4 . 14 .e
k

i . 13
k

2
a 4 . 14 .e
k

2
a 5 . 15 .e
k

i . 13
k

i . 14
k

2
a 5 . 15 .e
k

i . 15
k
i . 15
k

i . 14
k

2
a 6 . 16 .e
k

i . 16
k

2
a 6 . 16 .e
k

i . 16
k

a 13

a 14

a 15

Ak

1.

ck

a 16

Velocity and acceleration of point F/Viteze si acceleratii punct F/:


i . 12
k

VF

i.a 2 . 12.e

aF

2
a 2 . 12 .e

i. 16 .e
k

i . 12
k

i . 16
k.

2
i. 16 .e
k

b 6 .e

a6

i . 16
k.

a6

i .(

b 6 .e

i .(

i. a 16 .e
k

i . 16
k.

a6

b 6 .e

The polar plots of the velocity and acceleration vectors of point F for a complete cycle are
shown below/Grafic in coordonate polare a vitezelor si acceleratiilor punctului F/

130
140
150

120

110

50
40
30

1000

160
VF

100 90 80
70
60
2000

20

170
k

10

180

190

350

200

340

210

330

220
230

240

250

260 270 280


arg V F
k

290

300

Velocity of point F

Fig.3.25

3-33

320
310

i .(

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

120
130
140
150

110

1.5 10
1 10

160
aF

70

60

180
190

50
40
30

20

5000

170
k

100 90 80

10

0
350

200

340

210
220
230
240

250

260270 280
arg a F
k

290

330
320
310
300

Acceleration of F

Fig.3.26

Example 3.3

Exemplul 3.3

In the figure3.27, the crank (link 2) of the


mechanism rotates at a constant speed of 200
rpm counter-clockwise. Determine the velocity
and the acceleration of links for any input crank
angle 12.

n figura 3.27 este dat un mecanism a crui


manivel se rotete cu turaia constant de 200
rot/min n sens trigonometric. Se vor determina
viteza i acceleraia elementelor pentru diverse
valori ale lui 12.

Fig.3.27
In case of the analytical solution, the main
problem is the identification of the loop and the
position variables. If we redraw the mechanism
as in figure 3.28 above, the identification of the
position variables may be more obvious. The
most important rule is that one must disregard
the shape of the links and concentrate on the
joints involved. In such a case we can write the
loop equation in complex numbers as:

Fig.3.28
Pentru a calcula soluia analitic problema este
identificarea buclelor i a variabilelor de
poziie. Dac se redeseneaz schematic
mecanismul ca n figura 3.28 identificarea
variabilelor devine o sarcin uoar. O regul
este s fie considerate doar cuplele dintre
elementele cinematice iar forma elementelor
cinematice s fie simplificat. Se poate scrie
ecuaia de poziii n complex:

3-34

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

a 2 e i12 = a 1 ib1 + s 43 e i14 + ia 3 e i14


Using the method shown in the previous Folosind cele artate n paragrafele anterioare
sections, the loop equation can ve solved for the se poate rezolva ecuaia de poziie rezultnd 14
unknown position variables (14 and s34), and i s34 iar dup derivarea de dou ori a ecuaiei
the loop equation can be differentiated to obtain pozitiilor rezult ecuaiile vitezelor i
the velocity and acceleration loop equations acceleraiilor care rezolvate genereaz vitezele
which can be solved for the unknown velocity i acceleraiile cutate.
and acceleration variables.
Define the constants/Definire constante/
deg = 0.017
a1

100

a2
2

Const

a2

30
2

b1

a3
2

a1

150
K1

a3

b1

b3

150

2.a 2.a 1

K2

Change the input crank angle for every degree


/Unghi input element conducator/
0.. 360

k
12

k.deg

Determine the position variables s43 and14.


/Determinare pozitii s43 si 14/
s 43

Const

Za

a 2.e

K 1.cos 12
k

i . 12
k

s 43

14

ce

arg Z a

K 2.sin 12
k

i.b 1 a 1
i.a 3

Determine the position of point A and plot it.


/Determinare si grafic punct A/
1
0.96
0.92
0.88
0.84
Im Z a
k 0.8
0.76
0.72
0.68
0.64
0.6

0 0.080.160.240.32 0.40.480.560.640.72 0.8


Re Z a
k

3-35

150

2.b 1.a 2

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
a
k

Velocity Analysis/Analiza viteze/

200.
30

12

a3

v 43

.cos
12k

s 43
k

a2

14
k

14

.cos
12k

s 43
k

. .a
12 2

14

sin 12
k

14

For the acceleration analysis the above equations are differentiated with respect to time
directly/Pentru analiza acceleratiilor ecuatiile de mai sus se deriveaza in raport cu timpul/
a 2 . 12.

a 14

v 43

s 43
k

a 2 . 12. 12

a 43

.cos
12k

14 .
k

14

a3
s 43
k

.sin
12k

s 43
k

.sin
12k

14

14 . 12
k

cos 12
k

14

Now, the velocity and acceleration of point A can be determined.


/Se determina viteza si acceleratia punctului A/

VA

aA

i.a 2 . 12.e

i . 12
k

2
a 2 . 12 .e

130
140
150

i . 12
k

120

110

160
VA
k

170
180

i.b 3 . 14 .e
k

i . 14
k

2
b 3 . 14 .e
k

i . 14
k

i.a 14 .b 3 .e
k

i . 14
k

100 90 80
70
702.34
60
632.1
50
561.87
40
491.64
421.4
30
351.17
280.94
20
210.7
140.47
10
70.23
0
0

190

350

200

340

210
220
230
240

250

260 270 280


arg V A
k

290

300

330
320
310

Polar plot of the velocity of point A

3-36

14
k
v 43

s 43
k

.a .cos
3
12k

14

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

180

100 90 80
5 70
2.37 105
60
2.14 105
50
1.9 10 5
40
1.66 105
1.42 105
30
1.19 104
9.49 104
20
7.12 104
4.75 104
10
2.37 10
0
0

190

350

120
130
140
150

110

160
aA
k

170

200

340

210
220
230
240

250

260 270 280


arg a A
k

290

330
320
310
300

Polar plot of the acceleration of point A

Fig.3.29
3.3 Position, Velocity and Acceleration Analytical Calculation of Mechanisms/Calculul
Analitic al Poziiei, Vitezelor i Acceleraiilor n Mecanisme/

The analytical method is based on the existing


relations between the dimensional variables of
links of mechanisms and the Cartesian
coordinates of joints. These relations are nonlinear but the precision is better than of any
graphical methods.
As analytical methods are:
-the method of vectorial contours largely
discussed in the above paragraphs;
-the distance method.

Metoda analitic se bazeaz pe relatiile dintre


parametrii dimensionali ai elementelor si
coordonatele pozitiilor cuplelor cinematice.
Aceste relatii sunt neliniare in variabilele
miscrii si au proprietatea c exprim precis,
sub form implicit caracteristicile de deplasare
si traiectorii ale punctelor de pe elementele
mecanismului.
Ca metode analitice se folosesc:
metoda contururilor vectoriale discutat n
cele de mai sus;
metoda barelor (distantelor).

The method of vectorial contours

Metoda contururilor vectoriale

As already shown this method is replacing the


elements of the mechanism with vectors joined
together via the existing joints. The resulting
vectorial position equation is like:

Aa cum s-a artat deja, aceast metoda


schematizeaz diferite contururi de elemente
ale mecanismului prin vectori. Elementele sunt
schematizate prin vectori drepti, iar legtura
intre dou elemente este realizat printr-o
cuple. Ecuatia vectorial a conturului are
forma:

r r
r r
r
r1 + r2 + ... + ri + ri +1 ... + rn = 0

3-37

(3.58)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.23
By projecting the eq. (3.58) on the Cartesian Prin proiectarea ecuatiei (3.58) pe axele
system xOy axes, we have:
reperului cartezian xOy se obtine,

r1 cos 1 + r2 cos 2 + ... + ri cos i + ri +1 cos i +1 ... + rn cos n = 0


r1 sin 1 + r2 sin 2 + ... + ri sin i + ri +1 sin i +1 ... + rn sin n = 0 (3.59)
r j cos j = 0
j
; j = 1...n

r j sin j = 0
j

(3.59)

The unknowns are or r type and after the Necunoscutele sunt de tip si/sau r .Dupa
substitutiile

substitutions:
cos i =
sin i =

1 u i2
1 + u i2
2u i

with/cu/

u i = tg

i
2

(3.60)

1 + u i2

one may notice that the resulting equations


system is non-linear. For a complex cinematic
chain with n contours we may deduce n
contours for instance for which we write 2n
equations for 2n scalar unknowns.
The distance method is based on the existing
relations between the dimensions of cinematic
links and the coordinates of joints in the
defined Cartesian system. These relations are
known as position functions.
These position can be classified as:
- when the length of the links lij is constant as in
Fig.3.24, the position function is like:

se va observa ca sistemul ecuatiilor de pozitii


este neliniar. Intr-un lant cinematic complex
format din n contururi se scriu 2n ecuatii de
forma cu ajutorul crora se pot determina 2n
necunoscute scalare.
Metoda barelor (distantelor), se bazeaz pe
relaiile dintre parametrii dimensionali ai
elementelor
si
coordonatele
cuplelor
cinematice. Aceste relatii se numesc funcii de
pozitie.
Functiile de pozitie sunt de dou tipuri.
- Cnd lungimea elementului lij este constant,
(figura 3.24) functia de pozitie are forma:

3-38

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.24

(x

) (

(3.61)
x j + y i y j = l ij2
- For the case in fig.3.25 involving a translation -Pentru situatia prezentat in figura 3.25 se pot
pune in evident dou variante.
joint, we may have:
Ecuatia ghidajului este dat sub
The guide equation is:
forma:
i

Fig.3.25

Ax + By + C = 0
tg =

B
A

(3.62)

so that the position function is:

situatie in care functia de pozitie are forma:


Ax i + By i + C
2

A +B

The guide equation is:

(3.63)

=d

Ecuaia ghidajului este dat sub


forma normal:

x cos + y sin p = 0
so that the position function is:

(3.64)

situaie in care funcia de poziie are forma:


x i cos + y i sin p = d

3-39

(3.65)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.3.1 Kinematic analysis of a crank/ Analiza Cinematic a Elementului Conductor/


Suppose the crank is performing a rotation Dac elementul conductor este n miscare
around the rotation joint A (Fig.3.26). We de rotatie, (figura 3.26)
Date de intrare cunoscute:
know the input parameters:

Fig.3.26
&&
x 0 , y 0 , l1 , , & ,

And the unknown parameters to be calculated Date de iesire necunoscute:


are:
x 1 , y1 , x& 1 , y& 1 , &x&1 , &y&1
Positions calculation
Calculul Poziiilor
In order to calculate the links positions we may Pentru pozitii se scriu relatiile de mai jos din
deduce the equations below from which the care rezult coordonatele (x1, y1) ale cuplei B.
coordinates (x1, y1) of joint B may be
calculated:

x 1 = x 0 + l1 cos
y1 = y 0 + l1 sin

(3.66)

Velocities
Viteze
In order to determine the links velocities we Pentru viteze se deriveaz relaiile (3.66),
may differentiate function of time, eq. (3.66)
obtinandu-se:
r
r
r
r
r
x& 1 = l1& sin
VB = x& 1 i + y& 1 j = l1& sin i cos j
y& 1 = l1& cos
r
2
2
VB = (x& 1 ) + (y& 1 ) = l1&
(3.67)

Accelerations
Acceleratii
In order to calculate the accelerations one may Pentru acceleratii se deriveaz relatiile (3.67),
differentiate eq. (3.67) in report to time:
obtinandu-se

&& sin
&x&1 = l1& 2 cos l1

&& cos
&y&1 = l1& 2 sin + l1
3-40

(3.68)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

) (

r
r
r
r
r
a B = &x&1 i + &y&1 j = l1& 2 cos l1
&& sin i + l1& 2 sin + l1
&& cos j
r
2
2
4
&& 2
a B = &x&1 + &y&1 = l1 & +
Below an Mathcd example of calculation is Mai jos este przentat un program n Mathcad
shown:
spre exemplificare:
pas

x0

24

( pas )

y0

l1

vit

acc

Date de intrare

while i ( 2 .
i
i

pas )
pas

0 ..

2 .
pas

x0 l1.cos Phii

x1i

y1i

l1.vit .sin Phii

vitx1i

y0

2
l1.( vit ) .sin Phii

Calcul coordonate Cupla B

l1.sin Phii
l1.vit .cos Phii

vity1i

2
l1.( vit ) .cos Phii

accx1i
accy1 i

Generare vector unghiuri Phi


functie de Pas

( pas )

Phi

Calcul viteze Cupla B

l1.acc .sin Phii

Calcul acceleratii Cupla B

l1.acc .cos Phii

x1

y1

4
Phi

5
Phi

10

vity1

vitx1

1
0

4
Phi

3-41

4
Phi

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

accx1

accy1

4
Phi

4
Phi

Fig.3.27
Now suppose the crank is translating along Element conductor n miscare de translatie,
the guide 0 as shown in Fig.3.28.
(figura 3.28).
The known variables are:
Date de intrare (cunoscute):

Fig.3.28

x 0 , y 0 , l1 , s, s&, &s&, = ct., = ct.


The unknown parameters are:

Date de iesire necunoscute:


x 1 , y1 , x& 1 , y& 1 , &x&1 , &y&1

Positions
In order to calculate the positions of link:

Pozitii
Pentru pozitii se scriu relaiile:

x 1 = x 0 + S cos + l1 cos( + )

(3.69)

y1 = y 0 + S sin + l1 sin ( + )

Velocities
Viteze
For the calculation of velocities we may Pentru viteze se deriveaz relatiile (3.69),
deploy:
obtinandu-se:

x& 1 = S& cos


y& 1 = S& sin
r
r
r
r
r
VB = x& 1 i + y& 1 j = S& cos i + sin j
r
2
2
VB = (x& 1 ) + (y& 1 ) = S&

3-42

(3.70)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Acelerations
Acceleratii
And by diferentiating eq. (3.70) in report to Pentru acceleratii se deriveaz relatiile (3.70),
time:
obtinandu-se

&x&1 = &S&& cos


&& sin
&y&1 = S
r
r
r
r
(3.71)
r
a B = &x&1 i + &y&1 j = &S& (cos )i + (sin ) j
r
a B = &x&12 + &y&12 = &S&
Below an Mathcd example of calculation is Mai jos este przentat un program n Mathcad
shown:
spre exemplificare:

pas

0.1

x0

( pas )

y0

l1

1 s

1 vitS

Phi

while i ( s
i
i

1 Date de intrare

12

pas )

1 accS

pas

( pas )

S
i
x1i

0 ..

Generare vector distante functie de


Pas

Calcul coordonate Cupla B

pas

x0 Si .cos ( Phi )

l1.cos ( Phi

vitS .cos ( Phi )

vitx1i
accx1i

accS .cos ( Phi )

vity1i
accy1 i

y1i

y0

Si .sin ( Phi )

l1.sin ( Phi

Calcul viteze Cupla B

vitS .sin ( Phi )

Calcul acceleratii Cupla B

accS .sin ( Phi )

2.5

2.5
x1

y1
2

1.5

0.5
S

3-43

1.5

0.5
S

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

0.708

0.708

vity1 0.707

vitx1 0.707

0.706

0.706
0

0.5
S

0.708

0.5
S

0.708

accx1 0.707

0.706

accy1 0.707

0.5
S

0.706

Fig.3.29

0.5
S

3.3.2 Kinematic analysis of a link in general motion/Analiza cinematic a unui element n


miscare plan-paralel/

Lets consider a kinematic element with 3 Fie un element cinematic cu 3 cuple ca n


rotation joints as per Fig.3.30. The known Fig.3.30.
variables are:
Date de intrare cunoscute:
&&,
x 1 , y 1 , x& 1 , y& 1 , &x&1 , &y&1 , l 2 , l 4 , , & ,
The unknown variables are:

Date de iesire necunoscute:


x 3 , y 3 , x& 3 , y& 3 , &x& 3 , &y& 3 , x 4 , y 4 , x& 4 , y& 4 , &x& 4 , &y& 4

Fig.3.30

3-44

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Positions
Pozitii
To calculate the joints positions we use:
Pentru pozitii se scriu relatiile:
x 3 = x 1 + l 2 cos

y 3 = y1 + l 2 sin

x 4 = x 1 + l 4 cos( + )

(3.72)

y 4 = y1 + l 4 sin ( + )

Velocities
By differentiating eq. (3.72) we have:

Viteze
Pentru viteze se deriveaz relatiile (3.72),
obtinandu-se:

x& 3 = x& 1 l 2 & sin


y& 3 = y& 1 + l 2 & cos
x& 4 = x& 1 l 4 & sin ( + )

y& 4 = y& 1 + l 4 & cos( + )

r
r r
r
VC = x& 3 i + y& 3 j; VC =
r
r r
r
VE = x& 4 i + y& 4 j; VE =
Accelerations
By differentiating eq. (3.73) we have:

(3.73)

(x& 3 )2 + (y& 3 )2

(3.73)

(x& 4 )2 + (y& 4 )2

Acceleratii
Pentru acceleratii se deriveaz relatiile (3.73),
obtinandu-se

&& cos l 2 & 2 sin


&y& 3 = &y&1 + l 2

2
&& sin ( + ) l 4 & cos( + )
&x& 4 = &x&1 l 4
&& cos( + ) l 4 & 2 sin ( + )
&y& 4 = &y&1 + l 4
r
r r
r
2
2
a C = &x& 3 i + &y& 3 j; a C = (&x& 3 ) + (&y& 3 )
r
r r
r
2
2
a E = &x& 4 i + &y& 4 j; a E = (&x& 4 ) + (&y& 4 )
(3.74)
&& sin l 2 & 2 cos
&x& 3 = &x&1 l 2

Below an Mathcd example of calculation is Mai jos este przentat un program n Mathcad
shown:
spre exemplificare:
MathCad Solving
x0
l2

0.5

i
i

l4

0.3

l1

0.5

Date de intrare

30.deg

0 .. 360

x1

1 y0

x0

5 .i.deg
l 1 .cos i

y1

y0

l 1 .sin i

3-45

Calcul coordonate Cupla B

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

v x1

l 1 . 1 .sin i

a x1

2
l 1 . 1 .cos i

2
l 1 . 1 .sin i

a y1

v y1

l 1 . 1 .cos i

Calcul viteze Cupla B

l 1 . .sin i
l 1 . .cos i

Calcul acceleratii Cupla B

Position solving for joints/Calcul pozitii cuple/

x3

l 2 .cos i

x1

y3

y1

l 2 .sin i

x4

x1

l 4 .cos i

l 4 .sin i

y4

y1

Velocities solving for joints/Calcul viteze cuple/

v x3

v y3

v x4

v y4

v y1

v x1

v y1

l 2 . .sin i

v x1

l 2 . .cos i
l 4 . .sin i

l 4 . .cos i

Acceleration solving for joints/Calcul acceleratii cuple/

a x3

a x1

a y3

a y1

a x4

a x1

a y4

a y1

2
l 2 .( ) .sin i

l 2 . .cos i

l 4 . .sin i

2
l 2 .( ) .cos i

l 2 . .sin i

l 4 . .cos i

2
l 4 .( ) .cos i
2
l 4 .( ) .sin i

3-46

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
4

x3
i

y3
i

200

200

deg

deg

v x3
i

v y3
i

200

deg

deg

a x3
i

a y3
i

200

200

i
deg

200

i
deg

3.3.3 The Kinematic Analysis of a Dyad with 3 Rotation Joints Using Distance
Method/Analiza Cinematic a Grupei Structurale RRR Prin Metoda Distantelor/
The planar kinematic groups (Assur groups)

Grupele cinematice plane (Grupele Assur)

Most of the mechanisms used in practice are


planar. By definition the kinematic group is
an open kinematic chain with the mobility
degree zero which cannot be reduced to
simpler kinematic chains (see fig.3.31). The
groups may be dyads, triads, tetrads etc.

Marea majoritate (ca tipologie) a mecanismelor


utilizate n practica sunt mecanisme plane.
Prin definitie, grupa cinematica este un lant
cinematic deschis, avnd gradul de
mobilitate zero, care nu se poate
descompune n lanturi similare mai simple
(fig. 3.31). Grupele pot fi diade, triade, tetrade
etc.
Any kinematic group has inner joints which are Grupa are cuple interioare, care leaga
3-47

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

keeping together the elements of the groups, elementele grupei ntre ele si, cuple exterioare
and external joints for joining the group to:
care, n cadrul mecanismului, conecteaza grupa
cinematica la:
Crank,

elementul conducator si/sau la


Fixed element,
baza si/sau la

Other kinematic elements/groups.

elementele unui mecanism existent.


In order to check that the group mobility is zero Pentru calculul (verificarea) mobilitatii grupei
one may connect the external joints to the fixed avnd gradul de mobilitate zero, se leaga
element and whether no motion is possible ten cuplele exterioare la un element de nchidere.
the mobility is zero.
Aspectele diadei.
The dyad aspects
Function of the types of joints existing inside a Sunt date de componenta relativa, ca numar si
dyad (rotation R or translation T) we may have ca pozitie, n cuple de rotatie (R) si n cuple de
translatie (T) aa cum se pot vedea mai jos:
various types as described in figure below:

Fig.3.31

3-48

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

In the general case when for any type of dyad


one know the motion of joints B and D and we
are requested to calculate the motion of joint C,
and then we may look at the dyad as being a
kinematic dipole with 2 input variables as per
figure below. We may note that:
1. When a translation joint exists in a dyad in
order to determine its motion we need to
know the motion of the joints guide,
2. Most of the cases the motion of translation
joints guide is a general motion therefore
we need to know the motion of a point of
the guide and the angular motion of the
guide.
Considering a RRR dyad (Fig.3.32) the known
variables are:

In general in cazul in care la o diad oarecare


se cunosc miscrile cuplelor B si D si se cere
miscarea punctului C, diada poate fi
interpretat ca un dipol cinematic, avand dou
mrimi de intrare B, D, ca in figura (3.32).
Observatii
1. Atunci cand diada are cupl o cupl de
translatie, pentru a cunoaste miscarea acesteia
trebuie cunoscut miscarea ghidajului cuplei.
2. n general miscarea ghidajului este o miscare
plan-paralela si deci trebuie cunoscut miscarea
unui punct de pe ghidaj si miscarea unghiular
a ghidajului.
Date de intrare pentru diada RRR (cunoscute)fig.3.32:

x 1 , y1 , x& 1 , y& 1 , &x&1 , &y&1 , x 2 , y 2 , x& 2 , y& 2 , &x& 2 , &y& 2 , l 2 , l 3

Fig.3.32
Date de iesire necunoscute
The unknown vriables are:
&& 1 , 3 , & 3 ,
&& 3 ,
x 3 , y 3 , x& 3 , y& 3 , &x& 3 , &y& 3 , 1 , & 1 ,
Positions
For the calculation of the joints C position
(namely x3, y3) we may write the equations
below. After solving the system well consider
that solutions which ensure the continuity of the
motion (that solutions which are close to the
last solutions). So that:

Pozitii
Pentru a determina pozitia cuplei C, adic (x3,
y3) se scriu relatiile de mai jos. Dintre solutiile
sistemului (3.75) se adopt solutia cea mai
apropiat de solutia precedent.
Pentru a determina pozitiile elementelor:

(x 3 x 1 )2 + (y 3 y1 )2 = l 22
(x 3 x 2 )2 + (y 3 y 2 )2 = l 32
3-49

(3.75)

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

And more for angular positions:

i nc, pentru poziiile unghiulare:

(y 3 y 1 )
(x 3 x 1 )
(y y 2 )
tg 3 = 3
(x 3 x 2 )
tg1 =

(3.76)

Velocities
By differentiating the eq. (3.75) we may have
for point C:
2(x 3 x 1 )(x& 3 x& 1 ) + 2(y 3 y1 )(y& 3 y& 1 ) = 0

Viteze
Pentru a determina componentele vitezei cuplei
C se deriveaz ecuatiile (3.75):
(x 3 x 1 )(x& 3 x& 1 ) + (y 3 y1 )(y& 3 y& 1 ) = 0

(
x 3 x 2 )(x& 3 x& 2 ) + (y 3 y 2 )(y& 3 y& 2 ) = 0
2(x 3 x 2 )(x& 3 x& 2 ) + 2(y 3 y 2 )(y& 3 y& 2 ) = 0

r
r r
r
VC = x& 3 i + y& 3 j; VC =

(x& 3 )2 + (y& 3 )2

(3.77)

In order to calculate the angular velocities we Pentru a determina vitezele unghiulare ale
must differentiate eq. (3.76):
elementelor, se deriveaz relatiile (3.76) scrise
sub forma urmtoare:
(x& 3 x& 1 ) sin 1 + & 1 (x 3 x 1 ) cos 1 (y& 3 y& 1 ) cos 1 + & 1 (y 3 y1 ) sin 1 = 0

(x& 3 x& 2 ) sin 3 + & 3 (x 3 x 2 ) cos 3 (y& 3 y& 2 ) cos 3 + & 3 (y 3 y 2 ) sin 3 = 0

(y 3 y 1 )

(x 3 x 1 ) (x 3 x 1 )sin 1 (y 3 y1 ) cos 1 = 0

(y 3 y 2 ) (x 3 x 2 ) sin 3 (y 3 y 2 ) cos 3 = 0
tg 3 =

(x 3 x 2 )

tg1 =

(3.78)

Accelerations
Acceleratii
The calculation of components of point C Pentru a determina componentele acceleratiei
acceleration may be done using the differentials cuplei C, se deriveaz relatiile (3.77),
in report to time for eq. (3.77):
obtinandu-se:
[(x 3 x 1 )(x& 3 x& 1 ) + (y 3 y1 )(y& 3 y& 1 )]' =
2
2
= (x& 3 x& 1 ) + (x 3 x 1 )(&x& 3 &x&1 ) + (y& 3 y& 1 ) + (y 3 y1 )(&y& 3 &y&1 ) = 0
[(x 3 x 2 )(x& 3 x& 2 ) + (y 3 y 2 )(y& 3 y& 2 )]' =

= (x& 3 x& 2 ) + (x 3 x 2 )(&x& 3 &x& 2 ) + (y& 3 y& 2 ) + (y 3 y 2 )(&y& 3 &y& 2 ) = 0


2

(3.79)

r
r r
r
a C = &x& 3 i + &y& 3 j; a C =

(&x& 3 )2 + (&y& 3 )2

In order to calculate the angular accelerations Pentru a determina acceleratiile unghiulare ale
we must differentiate eq. (3.78):
elementelor, se deriveaz relatiile (3.78),
obtinandu-se:

3-50

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

[(x& 3 x& 1 ) sin 1 + & 1 (x 3 x 1 ) cos 1 (y& 3 y& 1 ) cos 1 + & 1 (y 3 y1 ) sin 1 ]' =

2
&& 1 (x 3 x 1 ) cos 1
= (&x& 3 &x&1 ) sin 1 + 2& 1 (x& 3 x& 1 ) cos 1 & 1 (x 3 x 1 ) sin 1 +
(&y& &y& ) cos + 2& (y& y& ) sin + & 2 (y y ) cos +
&& 1 (y 3 y1 ) sin 1 = 0

3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1

[(x& 3 x& 2 ) sin 3 + & 3 (x 3 x 2 ) cos 3 (y& 3 y& 2 ) cos 3 + & 3 (y 3 y 2 ) sin 3 ]' =
= (&x& &x& ) sin + 2& (x& x& ) cos & 2 (x x ) sin +
&& 3 (x 3 x 2 ) cos 3
3
2
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
2
3

(&y& 3 &y& 2 ) cos 3 + 2& 3 (y& 3 y& 2 ) sin 3 + & 32 (y 3 y 2 ) cos 3 +


&& 3 (y 3 y 2 ) sin 3 = 0
(3.80)
An example for solving in Mathcad a RRR
dyad is given below:
l1
x0i

0.1

Pozx0

Pozx0

0 Pozy0

y0i

Pozy0

viti

a
acci

0 .. 24

Date de intrare element motor rotativ cupla A

Generare vector unghiuri Phi


functie de Pas

12

( pas )

i
i

0
0

while i ( 2 .
i

i
i

x1i
vitx1i

pas

0 ..

2 .
pas

l1.cos Phii

x0i

pas )

( pas )

Phi

Cupla B

y1i

l1.viti .sin Phii

y0i

l1.sin Phii

vity1i

2
l1. viti .cos Phii

l1.acci .sin Phii

accy1 i

2
l1. viti .sin Phii

l1.acci .cos Phii

0.3

Pozy2
Pozx2

l3

0.33 Lungimi elemente 2 si 3

( l1 l2) .sin
y2i

l3.sin
6

Pozitii cupla B

l1.viti .cos Phii

accx1i

x2i

pas

l2

Un exemplu de rezolvare n Mathcad a unei


diade RRR este dat mai jos:

Viteze cupla B

Acceleratii cupla B
Pozx2

Pozy2 =

Pozy2

3-51

Cupla C

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Modul Calcul ecuatii x3 si y3 Cupla C-semiautomat


x33

.2
i

y33
24

x22

.2

Important-Valori aproximative pentru solut ii-se modifica functie


de ultimile solutii-Va ajutati si de desenul la scara

i=...Aici se pune numarul liniei din matricile


x1 si y1 din vectorii alaturati

x2i

y22

x22 = 0

y2i

x11

x1i

y11

y22 = 0.448 x11 = 0.1

y1i

y11 = 0

Verificare alocare corecta

Given
( x33 x11)

( y33

y11 )

l2

( x33 x22)

( y33

y22 )

l3

Find( x33, y33 ) =

Ecuatii pozitii Cupla C

0.265

Solutii sistem ecuatii

0.251

Se scriu x3i si y3i in vectorii de mai jos

x3

T
x3T

y3

0.3

T
y3T
0.3
0.25

x3

0.2

y3

0.2
0.15

0.1

4
Phi

0.1

4
Phi

0 .. 24

1i

atan

y3i

y1i

x3i

x1i

2i

3-52

atan

y3i

y2i

x3i

x2i

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

1.5

0.5

1
1

0.5

4
Phi

1.5

4
Phi

Modul Calcul ecuatii viteze Cupla


C-semiautomat

vx2

vy2

ax2

ay2

vitx2i

vx2

vitx33
i

vity33

24

x33

vity2i

Definire Viteze si acceleratii cupla D

vy2

accx2i

ax2

accy2 i

ay2

Important-Valori aproximative pentru solut ii-se


modifica functie de ultimile solutii

i=...Aici se pune numarul liniei din matricile


de viteze

x3i

y33

x33 = 0.265
vitx11
vitx11 = 0

vitx1i

y3i

x22

y33 = 0.25

x2i

x22 = 0

vity11

vity1i

vity11 = 0.1

y22

y2i

y22 = 0.448
vitx22

vitx2i

vitx22 = 0

x11

x1i

x11 = 0.1
vity22

y11

y1i

y11 = 0

vity2i

vity22 = 0
Verificare alocare corecta

Given

Ecuatii viteze Cupla C

( x33 x11) .( vitx33 vitx11)

( y33

y11 ) .( vity33

vity11 ) 0

( x33 x22) .( vitx33 vitx22)

( y33

y22 ) .( vity33

vity22 ) 0

3-53

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

0.1

vitx3

0.1

0.1

vity3

4
Phi

0.1

4
Phi

0 .. 24

vitx3i

v1i

vitx1i sin 1i
x1i cos 1i

x3i
vitx3i

v2i

y3i

vitx2i sin 2i

y1i sin 1i
vity2i cos 2i

vity3i

x2i cos 2i

x3i

vity1i cos 1i

vity3i

y3i

y1i sin 2i

0.5

50

0
v1

v2
50

0.5

4
Phi

100

4
Phi

Accelerati i
accx33

i
vitx11

24
vitx1i

vitx11 = 0

accy33

Important-Valori aproximative pentru solut ii-se


modifica functie de ultimile solutii

i=...Aici se pune numarul liniei din matricile


de viteze
vity11

vity1i

vity11 = 0.1

vitx22

vitx2i

vitx22 = 0

vity22

vity2i

vity22 = 0

3-54

vitx33

vitx3i

vitx33 = 0.05

vity33

vity3i

vity33 = 0.067

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

x33

x3i

y33

x33 = 0.265
accx11

y3i

x22

y33 = 0.25

accx1i

y22

x22 = 0

accy11

accx11 = 0.1

x2i

accy11 = 0.1

x11

y22 = 0.448
accx22

accy1 i

y2i

vitx2i

x1i

x11 = 0.1
accy22

accx22 = 0

y11

y1i

y11 = 0

vity2i

accy22 = 0

Ecuatii acceleratii Cupla C

Given
( vitx33 vitx11)

( x33 x11) .( accx33 accx11)

( vity33

vity11 )

( y33

y11 ) .( accy33

accy11 ) 0

( vitx33 vitx22)

( x33 x22) .( accx33 accx22)

( vity33

vity22 )

( y33

y22 ) .( accy33

accy22 ) 0

Find( accx33, accy33 ) =

7.843 10

Solutii sistem ecuatii

0.025

Se scriu vitezele in vectorii de mai jos

accx3

accx3

T
accx3T

accy3

T
accy3T

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

accy3

0.1
0.2

0
0.1

4
Phi

0.2

4
Phi

Accelerati i unghiulare
a11

i
11

a22

Important-Valori aproximative pentru solut ii-se


modifica functie de ultimile solutii

24

i=...Aici se pune numarul liniei din matricile


de viteze

1i

22

11 = 0.987

2i

22 = 0.641

v11

v1i

v11 = 0.2

3-55

v22

v2i

v22 = 1.331

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

vitx11

vity11

vitx1i

vitx11 = 0
x33

vitx22

vity11 = 0.1

x3i

y33

x33 = 0.265

accx11

vity1i

y3i

accx1i

accx11 = 0.1

x2i

y2i

y22 = 0.448
accx22

accy1 i

accy11 = 0.1

vitx2i

vitx33

vity2i

x11

vitx3i

vitx33 = 0.05

vity22 = 0
y22

x22 = 0

accy11

vity22

vitx22 = 0
x22

y33 = 0.25

vitx2i

x1i

y11

x11 = 0.1
accy22

vity33

vity3i

vity33 = 0.067
y1i

y11 = 0
vity2i

accy22 = 0

accx22 = 0

Solutii sistem ecuatii


Find( a11, a22) =

1.41

Se scriu vitezele in vectorii de mai jos

4.232

T
a1T

a1

T
a2T

a2

4.4

2
a1

a2

4.2

4
Phi

4
Phi

Fig.3.33
3.3.4 The Kinematic Analysis of RRT or TRR Dyads using Contour method / Analiza
Cinematica a Diadei RRT-TRR prin Metoda Contururilor/
Consider a RRT or TRR dyad like in the figure Fie o diad RRT sau TRR ca mai jos unde se
below, in which we name with e the noteaza cu e excentricitatea.
eccentricity:
Daca e 0
mecanism biela
manivela excentric.
If e 0 that is the mechanism is an
eccentric slider crank mechanism,
Daca e = 0
mecanism biela
manivela centric.
If e = 0 that is the mechanism is an
Fie S=legea de miscare cutata:
centric slider crank mechanism.
Noting with S the unknown motion variable:

3-56

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

l '4 =

s; l

''
4

=e

(3.81)

Fig.3.34
We note/Notatii/:
=

l1
e
; k= .
l2
l2

l1 + l2 + l3 + l4 = 0
l1 cos 1 + l 2 cos 2 + l '4 cos '4 + l '4' cos '4' = 0;
{ 1

0
S

l1 sin 1 + l 2 sin 2 + l '4 sin '4 + l '4' sin '4' = 0.


0
1

(3.82)

l1 sin 1 + e

= sin 1 + k sin 2 = sin 1 k


sin =
l2

'
'
''
''
sin 1 k
l1 cos 1 + l 2 cos 2 + l{4 cos 4 + l 4 cos 4 = 0 = l1 cos 1 + l 2 1
1
4
4
2
4
4
3

1
0

S
sin
4

144
4242444
3

cos

cu sin + k < 1
1
(3.83)

Using a Tylor series:

Se dezvolta S in serie:

1 4 1
1

2
6
cos 1 + l 2 1 ( sin 1 + k ) ( ) ( ) ...
(3.84)
8
16
2

For motion velocities and accelerations we Pentru viteze si acceleratii se deriveaza relatia
differentiate the above equation:
de mai sus:

s=l

v=

s& ; a = &s&.

3-57

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.3.5 The Kinematic Analysis of RTR Dyad using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica a
Diadei RRT- TRR prin Metoda Contururilor/

Fig.3.35
l1 + l3 + l4 = 0
l1 cos 1 + l 3 cos 3 + l 4 cos 4 = 0

l1 sin 1 + l 3 sin 3 + l 4 sin 4 = 0


1

(3.85)

O1 C
O2B
l1 cos 1

1
3

tg = tg 2 3 = tg = AB + BC = AB + BC = l sin + l

1
4
3
1

l1 sin 1 + l 4
;
3 = arctg
l1 cos 1

(3.84)

=
l
3

= l 2 + l 2 + 2l l cos + = l 2 + l 2 + 2l l sin ( )
1
4
1 4
1
1
4
1 4
1

2
4

1
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
3

Teorema _ cos inus _ O1O 2 A

Pentru viteze si acceleratii se deriveaza relatia


For motion velocities and accelerations we
de mai sus.
differentiate the above equation:

v=

s& ; a = &s&.

3-58

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.3.6 The Kinematic Analysis of TRT Dyad using Contour method / Analiza Cinematica a
Mecanismului ce Contine Diada TRT prin Metoda Contururilor/

Fig.3.36

l1 + l4' + l4'' = 0

For motion velocities and accelerations we


differentiate the above equation:
v=

'
4

s = l = sinl
1
s = l = tgl .
2

l1 cos 1 + l '4 cos '4 + l '4' cos '4' = 0

0
1

'
'
''
''
l1 sin 1 + l 4 sin 4 + l 4 sin 4 = 0
1
0

''
4

(3.85)

'
4

Pentru viteze si acceleratii se deriveaza relatia


de mai sus.

s& ; a = &s&.

3.3.7 The Kinematic Analysis of RTT-TTR Dyad using Contour method /Analiza Cinematica
a Mecanismului ce Contine Diada RTT-TTR prin Metoda Contururilor/

3-59

Kinematic Analisys of Mechanisms /Analiza Cinematic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.3.37

l1 cos 1 +
cos 3'' = 0

'
'
''
''
l1 sin 1 + l 3 sin 3 + l 3 sin 3 = 0
1
0

l 3'

l1 +

l3'

l3''

=0

cos 3' + l 3''


0

For motion velocities and accelerations we


differentiate the above equation:
v=

s = l = l sin
1
s = l = l cos
2

'
3

''
3

(3.86)
1

Pentru viteze si acceleratii se deriveaza relatia


de mai sus.

s& ; a = &s&.

3-60

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

INDEX/CUPRINS/
4.0 FOUR-BAR MECHNISMS ANALISYS/ANALIZA MECANISMELOR PATRULATERE/ _____2
4.1 INTRODUCTION/INTRODUCERE / _______________________________________________________2
4.2 DEAD-CENTRE POSITIONS OF CRANK-ROCKER MECHANISMS/POZIIA MOART A MECANIMELOR
MANIVEL-BALANSIER/ ________________________________________________________________6
4.3 TRANSMISSION ANGLE/UNGHIUL DE TRANSMISIE/ _________________________________________7
4.4 SLIDER CRANK MECHANISMS/MECANISMELE BIEL-MANIVEL/ ____________________________10

4-1

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.0 Four-Bar Mechnisms Analisys/Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/


4.1 Introduction/Introducere /
A four-link mechanism with four revolute joints Un mecanism patrulater (care are patru cuple
is commonly called a four-bar mechanism.
de rotaie) mai poate fi ntlnit n literatur sub
numele de mecanism cu (patru) bare.

Fig.4.1
Application of four-bar mechanisms to Aplicaiile mecanismelor patrulatere n
machinery is numerous. Some typical industrie sunt diverse. Cteva aplicaii tipice
applications
are
given
below. sunt date n continuare.
Correlation of the angular rotations of the links
connected to the fixed link. In such applications
we would like to have a certain functional
relation such as 14 = f(12) to be realised by the
four-bar mechanism. A simple example will be
to convert a linear scale to a logarithmic scale
(Fig.4.2).

4-2

Corelarea rotaiei unghiulare a unui element


conenctat la un element fix. n aceste aplicaii
se urmrete obinerea unei relaii funcionale
ntre anumite unghiuri precum 14 = f(12). Un
exemplu ar fi convertirea unei scri liniare ntro scar logaritmic (Fig.4.2).

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.4.2
The four-bar mechanism used for the dump Mecanismul patrulater folosit la un ncrctor
truck (Fig.4.3 and 4.4) requires that the center (Fig.4.3 i 4.4) asigur ca centrul de greutate a
of gravity of the dumper to move on an inclined cupei ncrctorului s se mite pe o linie
straight line while it is being tilted.
dreapt cnd este nclinat.

Fig.4.3

Fig.4.4
Teorema lui Grasshof

Grasshofs Theorem

Modul de micare a unui mecanism patrulater


va depinde de raportul care exist ntre
lungimile
elementelor
cinematice
care
alctuiesc mecanismul.
Elementele care se conecteaz la elementul fix
pot avea dou tipuri de micri:
Elementul poate avea o micare de
The link may have a full rotation about
rotaie complet n jurul cuplei drept
the fixed axis (we call this type of link
care elementul se numete manivel;
crank)

The motion characteristics of a-four-bar


mechanism will depend on the ratio of the link
length dimensions. The links that are connected
to the fixed link can possibly have two different
types of motion:

The link may oscillate (swing) between


two limiting angles (we call this type of
link rocker).

Elementul poate avea o micare


oscilant cu un anumit unghi drept care
elementul se va numi balansor;

In a four-bar mechanism we can have the ntr-un mecanism patrulater pot exista trei
4-3

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

tipuri de micri:

following three different types of motion:


1. Both of the links connected to the fixed
link can have a full rotation. This type of
four-bar is called "double-crank or
"drag-link".
2. Both of the links connected to the fixed
link can only oscillate. This type of fourbar is called double-rocker."
3. One of the links connected to the fixed
link oscillates while the other has a full
rotation. This type of four-bar is called
crank-rocker.

1. Ambele elemente conectate la elementul


fix au micare de rotaie complet caz n
care mecanismul este cu dubl manivel,
2. Ambele elemente conectate la elementul
fix au micare de oscilaie caz n care
mecanismul este cu dublu balansor;
3. Unul dintre elementele conectate la
elementul fix are micare complet de
rotaie iar cellalt element doar oscileaz,
caz n care mcanismul se numete
manivel-balansor.

The type of motion is a function of the link


lengths. Grashof's theorem (or Grasshofs rule)
gives the criteria for these various conditions as
follows.

Tipul de micare existent n mecanism (dintre


micrile artate mai sus) depinde de
lungimea elementelor cinematice. Tipurile de
micri vor fi definite de teorema lui
Grasshof.

Let us identify the link lengths in a four-bar


chain:

Lungimile elementelor cinematice dintr-un


mecanism patrulater vor fi notate astfel:

l= length of the longest link; s= length of the l=lungimea celui mai lung element;
shortest link; p,q = length of the two s=lungimea celui mai scurt; p,q=lungimile
elementelor mai scurte dect cel mai lung i
intermediate links.
mai lungi dect cel mai scurt.
The following statements may be demonstrated Urmtoarele afirmaii pot fi demonstrate ca
adevrate:
as being valid:
1. If l + s < p + q (if the sum of the lengths of
the shortest and the longest links is less than the
sum of the two intermediate links)

1. Dac l + s < p + q (suma lungimilor


elementelor cel mai lung i cel mai scurt este
mai
mic
dect
suma
elementelor
intermediare), atunci:

Fig.4.5
Then:
a&b) Two different crank-rocker mechanisms
are possible. In each case the shortest link is the
crank, the fixed link is either of the adjacent
links (Fig.4.6).
4-4

a&b) Sunt posibile existena a dou tipuri de


mecanisme manivel-balansier, n ambele
cazuri cel mai scurt element este manivel iar
elementul fix este unul din elementele vecine
manivelei (Fig.4.6).

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.4.6
c&d) One double-crank (drag-link) is possible c&d) Un mecanism cu manivel dubl poate
when the shortest link is the frame and one exist dac fie elementul cel mai scurt fie cel
double-rocker mechanism is possible when opus celui mai scurt sunt fixe (Fig.4.7).

the link opposite the shortest link is the


frame (Fig.4.7).

Fig.4.7
2. If l + s > p + q (if the sum of the longest and 2. Dac l + s > p + q (suma lungimilor
the shortest link lengths is greater than the elementelor cel mai lung i cel mai scurt este
sum of the lengths of the two intermediate mai mare dect suma elementelor intermediare),
links) only double-rocker mechanisms are atunci pot fi posibile doar mecanisme cu
possible (four different mechanisms, manivel dubl funcie de care este elementul
depending on the fixed link).
fix (deci 4 posibiliti).
3. If l + s = p + q the four possible
mechanisms will result. However these 3. Dac l + s = p + q pot exista patru tipuri de
mechanisms will suffer from a condition mecanisme posibile. Exist ns o poziie
known as the change point. The center lines special n funcionare numit punct central n
of all the links are collinear at this position. care centrele tuturor elementelor sunt coliniare
The follower linkage may change the n care apar o situaie de nedeterminare.
direction of rotation. This is an
undetermined position.
4. A parallelogram linkage is a special case of 4. Dac dou elemente sunt egale ntre ele ca
lungime
mecanismul
patrulater
devine
where the opposite links are equal (Fig.4.8).
paralelogram (Fig.4.8).
4-5

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.4.8
A deltoid linkage is another special case in Un mecanism deltoid este un alt caz special la
which two equal links are connected to two care dou elemente egale ca lungime sunt
equal longer links as shown in Fig. 4.9. With conectate la alte dou egale ntre ele. Dac un
the long link as the frame a crank-rocker element mai lung este fix va rezulta un
mechanism is possible. The frame as the short mecanism manivel-balansier, dac un element
mai scurt este fix rezult un mecanism cu dubl
link may give a double-crank mechanism.
manivel.

Fig.4.9
4.2 Dead-Centre Positions of Crank-Rocker Mechanisms/Poziia moart a mecanimelor
manivel-balansier/
In crank-rocker mechanisms the rocker
oscillates between two limiting angles. The
positions of the mechanism when the rocker is
at a limit position are called the dead-centre
positions of the four-bar. Since the rocker is
moving in one direction before it reaches the
limiting angle and since it moves in opposite
direction after it passes this limit position, the
velocity of the rocker at the limiting position
must be zero. Hence, we can define a deadcenter position as the position in which the
rocker has instantaneously zero velocity.
Consider a crank-rocker mechanism at an
arbitrary position B (Fig. 4.10). Assuming that
the crank is rotating with a speed 12, the
angular velocity of the rocker is:

4-6

La mecanismele manivel-balansier de regul


balansierul oscileaz ntre dou unghiuri limit.
Punctele n care balansierul atinge o astfel de
poziie se numete poziie moart. Cum
balansierul i schimb direcia de micare n
poziia moart, atunci este necesar ca n poziia
moart balansierul s aib viteza nul. Prin
urmare se poate defini poziia moart acea
poziie a mecanismului la care balansierul are
viteza instantanee zero.
Fie un mecanism manivel-balansier aflat ntr-o
poziie oarecare B din evoluia sa (Fig. 4.10).
Dac manivela are viteza unghiular 12, atunci
viteza unghiular a balansierului este:

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

14 =

a 2 sin(12 13 )
12 = 0
a 4 sin(14 13 )

(4.1)

sin(12 13 ) = 0 12 13 = 0 sau

Fig.4.10
From this equation we can state that the rocker Din ecuaia de mai sus pentru ca 14 s fie zero
angular velocity will be zero when sin(12- trebuie ca sin(12-13)=0 sau 12-13=0 sau
13)=0 or when 12-13=0 or . Extended dead- . Dac 12-13=0 atunci poziia moart se
center position is when the crank and the numete extins iar cnd 12-13= atunci
coupler links are extended (12=13) and folded poziia moart se numete nfurat. Unghiul
dead-center position is when the crank and the balansierului care se msoar ntre cele dou
coupler are folded on top of each other poziii moarte Be i Bf se numete unghi de
(13=12+). The oscillation angle of the rocker oscilaie . Rotaia (unghiul) corespunztoare
between the dead-center positions Be and Bf la manivel pentru execuia acestui unghi
and measured from the extended dead-center to este . Uneori n loc de unghiuri se definesc
the folded dead-center position is called the intervalele de timp dintre oscilaia ntr-un sens
swing angle, . There is a corresponding (nainte) i n sens opus (napoi) a
crank rotation, . Sometimes, rather than the balansierului, cu condiia ca manivela s aib
corresponding crank angle, time-ratio between vitez unghiular constant:
the forward and reverse oscillations (strokes) is
used. If we assume that the crank is rotating at a
constant speed, we define the time ratio as:

(4.2)

timp oscilatie inainte

=
TR =
timp oscilatie inapoi 360 0

4.3 Transmission Angle/Unghiul de transmisie/

It is rather important to understand how the


mechanism will function under loaded
conditions in practice while the kinematic
characteristics of the mechanism is being
considered. By the performance of the
4-7

Orice

mecanism

realitate

trebuie

transmit anumite fore care sunt


considerate nc din stadiul studiului
cinematic.

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

mechanism we mean the effective transmission


of motion (and force) from the input link to the
output link. We may define the transmission
angle as:

tan =

Prin performana unui mecansim se nelege


capacitatea transmiterii efective a micrii (i
implicit a forei de lucru) de la elementul
cinematic de input (manivel) la elementul de
ieire (balansier). Se poate defini unghiul de
transmisie astfel:

Componenta fortei care tinde sa miste elementul cinematic


Componenta fortei care aplica presiune pe lagarul elementului

or/sau/

(4.3)

Componenta fortei care tinde sa miste elementul cinematic


Forta totala aplicata elementului cinematic
Below the transmission angle for a four-bar n figura de mai jos sunt definite unghiurile de
mechanism and for a slider-crank mechanisms transmisie pentru un mecanism patrulater i un
are shown where F is the total force and Fb the mecanism biel-manivel unde F este fora
total i Fb fora care solicit lagrul
force on bearing.
elementului.
sin =

Fig.4.11
Clearly, the optimum value of the transmission Evident unghiul optim de transmisie este =900
angle is =900 since the total force is equal to dat fiind c la aceast valoare fora aplicat
the force driving the link. Since the angle will elementului cinematic de input este egal cu
be constantly changing during the motion cycle cea transmis mai departe de elementul de
of the mechanism, there will be a position at ieire. Dar n cursul funcionrii unghiul de
which the transmission angle will deviate most transmisie variaz i va exista un unghi mult
from 900. In practice it has been found out that deviat de la unghiul optim, uneori cu valori de
if the maximum deviation of the transmission 400 sau 500 la care, funcie de aplicaie,
angle from 900 exceeds 400 or 500 (depending mecanismul se poate chiar bloca. Prin urmare
on the type of application), the mechanism will variaia unghiului de transmisie nu trebuie s
lock. In certain cases this maximum deviation depteasc 200 dar exist aplicaii ca de pild

4-8

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

must be kept within 200 (e.g. reciprocating la trenurile de aterizare ale avioanelor la care
pumps) and in certain other applications deviaia poate atinge i 700 .
maximum deviations of up to 700 may be
permissible (e.g. aircraft landing gears).
One can express the transmission angle in terms Se poate exprima unghiul de transmisie funcie
of the crank angle 12 and the link lengths as de unghiul la manivel 12 i de lungimile
elementelor astfel (Fig.4.11):
(Fig.4.11):
1
cos =
a 24 + a 32 a 12 a 22 + 2a 1a 2 cos 12
(4.4)
2a 3 a 4

The minimum and the maximum of the Dac se egaleaz prima derivat a ecuaiei (4.4)
transmission angle can be determined by taking cu zero i dac se rezolv, vor rezulta maximile
the derivative of the equation (4.4) with respect i minimile ale :
to 12 and equating to zero:
a 24 + a 32 a 12 a 22 a 1a 2

(cos )' =
+
cos 12 '
(4.5)
2a 3 a 4
a 3a 4

sin d =

a a sin 12
a 1a 2
d
= 1 2
=0
sin 12 d12
a 3a 4
d12 a 3 a 4 sin

sin 12 = 0 12 = 0 sau
The minimum and the maximum values of the Valorile minime i maxime ale unghiului de
transmission angle will be when 12=0 or transmisie se ating dac 12=0 sau (cnd
(when the crank and the fixed link are collinear manivela i elementul fix sunt coliniare):
in extended or folded positions):
2
2
2
2

(cos min,max ) = a 4 + a 3 a 1 a 2 a 1a 2 (4.6)


2a 3 a 4
a 3a 4

1 = 90 0 min ;

(4.7)

2 = 90 0 max ;

(4.8)

max = max( 1 , 2 )

(4.9)

Fig.4.12
The critical transmission angle is either min or Unghiul de transmisie critic va fi fie min fie
max, whichever deviates most from 900.
max, oricare deviaz cel mai mult de la optimul
de 900.

4-9

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.4 Slider Crank Mechanisms/Mecanismele Biel-Manivel/

Another mechanism that has a very wide usage


in machine design is the slider-crank
mechanism. It is mainly used to convert rotary
motion to a reciprocating motion or vice versa.
Below a slider-crank mechanism is shown and
the parameters that are used to define the angles
and the link lengths are given. For eccentric
mechanisms, full rotation of the crank is
possible if the eccentricity, c, is less than the
difference between the connecting rod and the
crank lengths and the crank length is less than
the connecting rod length (e.g. c<(a3-a2) and
a3>a2) .

Un alt tip de mecanism des ntlnit n practic


este mecanismul biel-manivel. Este mai cu
seam folosit pentru transformarea micrii de
rotaie n micare de translaie i invers. Mai jos
este artat un asemenea mecanism mpreun cu
parametri care ii definesc lungimile elementelor
i unghiurile acestora. Pentru mecanismele cu
excentricitate rotaia manivelei este posibil
dac excentricitatea c este mai mic dect
diferent lungimilor bielei i manivelei c<(a3a2) i, nc, a3>a2 .

Fig.4.13
Using the right angled triangles formed at the Dac se consider triunghiurile dreptunghiulare
dead centre positions Ae, Af, Be, Bf:
dintre poziiile moarte Ae, Af, Be, Bf:
2
2
2
s e = (a 2 + a 3 ) c 2 ; s f = (a 2 a 3 ) c(4.11)
;
Noting s =se-sf =stroke = the distance slider Dac se noteaz cu s =se-sf =curs =distana
travels between dead-centres and if we let = parcurs de cupla de translaie ntre poziiile
a2/a3 and = c/a3 , the stroke will be given by:
moarte i dac se noteaz = a2/a3 i = c/a3,
atunci cursa este:

2
2
s = a3 (1 + ) 2 a3 (1 ) 2

(4.12)

If the eccentricity, c (or a1), is zero (c = 0) the Dac excentricitatea c=0 mecanismul bielslider crank mechanism is called an in-line manivel este centric iar cursa este dublul
slider-crank and the stroke is twice the crank lungimii manivelei (s = 2a2).
length (s = 2a2).
The transmission angle can be determined from
the equation:

Unghiul de transmisie se determin cu:

a3cos=a2sin12-c

(4.13)

Maximum deviation of the transmission angle Dac se egaleaz prima derivat a ecuaiei
occurs when the derivative of m with respect to (4.13) cu zero i se rezolv vor rezulta
4-10

Four-Bar Mechnisms Analysis /Analiza Mecanismelor Patrulatere/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

12 is zero. Hence differentiating equation


(4.13) with respect to 12:
cos 12
d
=
= 0 cos 12
d12
sin
Maximum or minimum deviation occurs when
12 is 900 or 2700 (Fig.4.14) and the value of
the maximum or minimum transmission angle
is given by:

maximile i minimile ale :


3
= 270 0
(4.14)
2
Minimul i maximul unghiului de transmisie
apar la 12 = 900 sau 2700 i au valorile :

= 0 12 = 90 0 sau

c a2
(4.15)
a3
If c is positive as shown below, transmission Aa cum se vede mai jos dac c>0 unghiul
angle is critical when 12=2700. If c is negative, critic de transmisie este la 12=2700 iar cnd
then the most critical transmission angle is at c<0 la 12=900.
12=900.
cos max,min =

Fig.4.14
If the eccentricity, c, is zero, maximum value of Dac c=0 atunci acesta este:
the transmission angle is:
a2
cos max,min =
(4.16)
a3

4-11

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

INDEX/CUPRINS/
5.0 FORCE ANALISYS IN MECHANISMS/ANALIZA DINAMIC A MECANISMELOR/ _______2
5.1 INTRODUCTION/INTRODUCERE / _______________________________________________________2
5.1.1 Principles of Dynamics/Pricipiile dinamicii/ _________________________________________2
5.1.2 Forces and Couples/Fore i Momente/ _____________________________________________3
5.2 FORCES IN MECHANISMS/FORELE DIN MECANISME/ _______________________________________7
5.2.1 Static Equilibrium/Analiza static / _______________________________________________10
5.3 STATIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF MACHINERY/ANLIZA STATIC A MECANISMELOR/ _________________12
5.3.1 Systems without Resisting Force/Sisteme fr fore rezistente/ __________________________12
5.3.2 Principle of Superposition/Metoda Superpoziiei/ ____________________________________16
5.3.3 Systems with Resisting Force/Mecanisme cu fore rezistente/ ___________________________22
5.4 DYNAMIC FORCE ANALYSIS/ANALZA DNAMC/ ________________________________________40
5.4.1 Center of Mass and Moment of Inertia of a Rigid Body/Centrul de mas si momentul de inerie al
rigidului/ ________________________________________________________________________40
5.4.2 Newton's Second Law of Motion for a Rigid Body/Legea a doua a dinamicii aplicat micrii
rigidului/ ________________________________________________________________________42
5.4.3 D'Alambert's Principle/Principiul lui DAlambert/ ___________________________________46
5.5 DYNAMIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF MACHNERY/ANALZA DNAMC A MECANSMELOR/_____________48
5.6 DYNAMIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF A FOUR-BAR MECHANISM/ANALZA DNAMC A UNU MECANSM
PATRULATER/ _______________________________________________________________________53

5-1

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.0 Force Analisys in Mechanisms/Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/


5.1 Introduction/Introducere /
Mechanisms, which have been designed to
meet certain kinematic specifications, may not
function properly when used as a part of a
machine. It may jam due to friction, the forces
acting on the links may be too high or, in case
of high speeds, intolerable inertia forces may
result. Except the transmission angle, these
force effects are neglected in the kinematics of
mechanisms.
A mechanism is specifically designed to
transmit force/couple and motion. After the
determination of motion in a mechanism, one is
involved with the physical shapes of each link
and of each joint. The designs of these machine
elements are mainly governed by the forces
acting on them. The forces acting on the links
and on the joints must be determined for such a
design. High forces acting on the links will
result with large link size and weight. Heavy
links will in turn create large inertia forces.
Machines also consist of elastic members, such
as springs, within their structure. Furthermore,
due to the motion of the links, the forces acting
on the members do not have constant
magnitude and direction. These forces, coupled
with the elasticity of the members, will result
with an oscillatory motion, which was
completely disregarded in previous sections.
The assumption of rigidity will still be used in
the force analysis for the bodies involved.
However, we may include specific elastic
members, such as springs within the machine
structure.

Pot exista situaii n care anumite mecanisme


proiectate s ndeplineasc anumite cerine
cinematice, s nu funcioneze corect ntr-o
main. Ele se pot bloca datorit frecrii, ori
dac forele care acioneaz asupra elementelor
cinematice sunt prea mari sau, n cazul
vitezelor mari, forele de inerie rezultate sunt
excesive. n analiza cinematic aceste efecte ale
forelor sunt neglijate (cu excepia unghiului de
transmisie).
Scopul unui mecanism este de a transmite
micarea dar i fora/momentul. Dup
determinarea micrilor dintr-un mecansim
trebuie inut seama de forma fizic a
elementelor/cuplelor mecanismului. Proiectarea
acestor elemente cinematice/cuple va fi dictat
de forele care acioneaz asupra lor. Aadar
pentru aceasta este nevoie s se determine
mrimea/direcia acestor fore. Cu ct forele
care actioneaz asupra mecanismului sunt mai
mari cu att mrimea elementelor/cuplelor va fi
mai mare. Cu ct elementele/cuplele vor fi mai
mari cu att forele de inerie vor fi mai mari.
Mainile pot avea n compunere i elemente
elastice precum arcurile i deci datorit micrii
forele care rezult vor fi variabile ca mrime i
direcie. Acest lucru poate induce n mecanism
micri oscilatorii care n analiza cinematic nu
au putut fi prevzute. n orice caz ipoteza
rigiditii elementelor va fi considerat i mai
departe n analiza dinamic a mecanismelor dar
pot fi incluse n analiza dinamic i elasticitatea
unor elemente dat de arcuri spre exemplu.

5.1.1 Principles of Dynamics/Pricipiile dinamicii/


Fundamental principles of dynamics are Principiile fundamentale ale dinamicii sunt
Newton's Laws of motion. These can be stated cunoscute ca Legile lui Newton de micare.
Ele se pot enuna astfel:
as follows:
1. A body will remain in a state of rest, or of 1.
5-2

Un corp va rmne n stare de repaos sau


n stare de micare uniform pe o

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

uniform motion in a straight line unless it is


acted by external forces to change its state.
2. The rate of change of momentum p of a body 2.
acted upon by an external Force F (or forces) is
proportional to the resultant external force F
and in the direction of that force. For constant
mass; m:

traiectorie liniar dac asupra lui nu va


aciona nici o for care s-i schimbe
starea.
Rata de schimbare a impulsului p unui
corp asupra cruia acioneaz o for F
(sau un sistem de fore) va fi proporional
cu fora extern F i va avea direcia acelei
fore. Dac rigidul are masa constant m:

p = mv Momentum/Impulsul/
dp
= F Second Law/Legea a doua/
dt
dp d(mv)
dv
F=
=
=m
= ma
dt
dt
dt

(5.1)

where v is the velocity of the body and where a unde v este viteza corpului i a este acceleraia
is the acceleration of the body imposed thru impus corpului de ctre fora F.
force F.
3. To every action of a force there is an equal 3. Fiecrei aciuni i corespunde o reaciune
egal i de sens contrar.
and opposite reaction.

The basic quantities of dynamics are force, Aadar mrimile de baz ale dinamicii vor fi
mass and time. Only intuitive definitions to fora, masa i timpul. Asupra lor se pot da
definiii intuitive ca mai jos.
these words can be given.
Fora se poate defini n termenii primei legi a
dinamicii ca fiind acea aciune care tinde s
schimbe starea de repaos sau caracteristicile
micrii ale unui corp. O definiie cantitativ ar
fi c fora este acea aciune care modific
acceleraia unui corp standard de 1 kilogram,
cu 1 m/s2.
Mass of a body can be defined by using Masa se poate interpreta dup legea a doua ca
Newton's second law as the ratio of the force fiind acea constant a unui corp care rezult ca
acting on the body to the resulting acceleration. raport dintre o for care acioneaz asupra lui
i acceleraia care rezult n urma aplicrii
forei.
Time is a concept for ordering the flow of
Timpul este acel concept care ordoneaz
events in Universe.
desfurarea evenimentelor n Univers.
Force can be defined in terms of Newton's first
law as an action that tends to change the motion
of a body. The concept of a force can be made
quantitative by defining it as a quantity that
produces unit acceleration of (1 m/s2) upon a 1
kg standard body.

5.1.2 Forces and Couples/Fore i Momente/


Force is a vectorial quantity that has
magnitude, direction and point of application. If
the equilibrium of the rigid body is our only
concern, the point of application of a force is
not important. Note that this will not be correct
when the internal stress of a rigid body is
considered or when the body under
5-3

Fora este un vector care are mrime, direcie


i punct de aplicare. Dac este n discuie
echilibrul unui corp atunci punctul de aplicare a
forei nu mai este important. Aceasta ipotez nu
mai este valabil dac se calculeaz
tensiunile/deformaiile ce apar n corp sub
aciunea forei.

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

consideration is not rigid.


A force in space can be represented by using
r r r
unit vectors i , j, k directed along the coordinate axes of an arbitrary rectangular
reference frame. A unit vector in the direction
and sense of the force can also represent it.

O for n spaiu poate fi reprezentat cu


r r r
ajutorul a trei vectori unitate i , j, k aflai pe
axele de coordonate ale unui sistem de referin
oarecare. Vectorul unitate are i el direcie, sens
i punct de aplicare.

Fig.5.1
Different forms of representing a planar force O for n plan poate fi reprezentat vectorial n
are shown below :
mai multe moduri, ca mai jos:

Fig.5.2
Addition and subtraction of concurrent forces Adunarea i scderea unor fore concurente (ale
(forces whose lines of action intersect at one cror direcii se intersecteaz ntr-un punct), se
point) obey the parallelogram law of addition face dup regula paralelogramului, aa cum
that is schematically shown below Fig.5.3. The se vede n Fig.5.3. Adunarea se poate face
addition can be carried out graphically by grafic fie prin punerea vectorilor n sistem capplacing the force vectors one after the other in coad, unul dup cellalt, fie prin ducerea de
head-to-tail fashion, in which case half of the drepte paralele prin vrfurile fiecrui vector la
parallelogram is drawn.
direcia celuilalt, diagonala paralelogramului
rezultat fiind fora rezultant.

5-4

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.3
For a system of concurrent forces, the Pentru un sistem de mai multe fore concurente
parallelogram law of addition can be applied regula paralelogramului se poate aplica doar la
for the forces in pairs. Alternatively the perechi de fore. Mai simplu se poate construi
resultant of the system of forces can be poligonul forelor ca mai jos Fig.5.4. Dac
determined using a force polygon Fig.5.4. If all forele compuse sunt coplanare rezultanta va fi
the forces lie in a plane, then the resulting force aezat n acelai plan, iar dac forele sunt n
polygon is also in plane; otherwise a spatial spaiu rezultanta va fi deasemenea n spaiu.
force polygon will result.

Fig.5.4
If there are two equal and opposite forces Dac exist dou fore egale i de sens opus
whose lines of action are parallel to each other, avnd direcii paralele, acest sistem de fore se
the resultant of these two forces is known as a va numi cuplu.
couple.
The arm of a couple is defined as the Braul cuplului de fore este definit ca fiind
perpendicular distance, h, between the two lines distana h dintre cele dou direcii ale forelor.
of action. The moment of the couple is another Momentul cuplului este definit ca fiind un alt
vector M that is normal to the plane of the vector M care este perpendicular pe planul care
couple and is in accordance with the right-hand conine cele dou fore i a crui direcie se
rule. The magnitude of the moment is given by determin cu regula minii drepte. Mrimea
the product: M=hF. The moment vector can be acestui nou vector este dat de produsul M=hF.
determined by the vectorial product: (M=rxF), Vectorul M se determin prin produsul
where r is the position vector from a point on vectorial M=rxF , unde r este vectorul de
the line of action of F to another point on the poziie dus de la un punct al direciei unei fore
line of action of F (Fig.5.5). Note that:
ctre un alt punct al direciei celeilalte fore a
cuplului de fore (Fig.5.5). Se poate observa c:
The moment vector M does not have a
Vectorul moment M nu are un anumit
point of application. Hence, it is a free
punct de aplicare, deci este un vector
vector.
liber,
The relative position vector, r, is in
Vectorul de poziie r poate fi dus ntre
between any two points on the lines of
oricare dou puncte ale direciilor
action of the forces forming the couple.
forelor cuplului,
The force couple that creates a moment
Cuplul de fore care creaz un vector
moment M nu este unic, exist o
M is not unique, e.g. there are other

5-5

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

infinitate de cupluri de fore care


force couples that may create the same
creaz acelai moment M.
moment.
We also define the moment of a force about an Se poate deasemenea defini momentul unei
arbitrary point with the vectorial product: M = fore fa de un punct ca fiind produsul
r x F (Fig.5.6.).
vectorial M = r x F aa cum se vede n Fig.5.6.

Fig.5.5
In case of non-concurrent force systems, the Dac exist un sistem de fore neconcurente,
system of forces can be reduced to a force acest sistem fa de un punct oarecare, poate fi
acting at an arbitrary point and a moment redus la for rezultant i un moment rezultant
(Fig.5.6.).
(Fig.5.6.).

Fig.5.6
The resultant force and moment are given by Fora i momentul rezultant sunt date de
the equations:
relaiile:

r
r
F = Fi
i

r
r r
M = ri Fi

(5.2)

The resultant, F, is as if the forces were


concurrent at a point. However, there is also a
moment M acting at the particular point
considered. The system of forces can further be
reduced to a single force, R, provided that the
moment of this force about an arbitrary point is
equal to the moment of the system of forces,
e.g., where r and ri Fig.5.7 are the position
vectors of the resultant and the forces from an
arbitrary
point
A
The magnitude and direction of R can be
determined from the force polygon as if all of
the forces were concurrent.

5-6

Fora rezultant F se calculeaz ca i cum toate


fortele ar aciona n acelai punct. Exist ns
simultan i un moment M care acioneaz n
acel punct particular. Sistemul de fore poate
deci fi redus la o singur for R cu condiia ca
momentul acestei fore s fie egal cu momentul
generat de toate forele din sistem fa de
punctual considerat. De pild n Fig.5.7
momentele sunt date de fiecare for Fi avnd
vectorii de poziie ri care trebuie s fie
echivalente cu momentul forei R avnd
vectorul de pozitie r. Rezultanta R se poate
determina din poligonul forelor din sistem ca

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

i cum forele ar fi concurente.

r
r
R = Fi
i

r r r
r r
r R = M = ri Fi

(5.3)

Fig.5.7
5.2 Forces in Mechanisms/Forele din Mecanisme/

A machine system/mechanism is considered to


be a system of an arbitrary group of joined
bodies (links), which will be considered rigid.
We are involved with different types of forces
in such systems. Note that when the word
"force" is discussed it will refer to a
"generalized force" which will also include
moments.

Un mecanism este un sistem de elemente


cinematice rigide grupate mpreun prin cuple.
Exist trei tipuri de fore care acioneaz
asupra mecanismelor. Prin fore n cele ce
urmeaz se va nelege fore generalizate care
pe lng forele propriuzise includ i
momentele lor.

a) Reaction Forces: are commonly called the


joint forces in machine systems since the action
and reaction between the bodies involved will
be through the contacting kinematic elements of
the links that form a joint. The joint forces are
along the direction for which the degree-offreedom is restricted. For example, consider a
revolute joint in a planar mechanism. In such a
joint there is a rotational freedom and any
moment along the axis of the revolute joint will
not be transmitted from one link to the other.

a) Forele de Reaciune apar de regul n


cuplele cinematice ale mecanismelor de vreme
ce transmiterea forelor ntre elementele
mecanismelor se face prin suprafeele cuplelor
elementelor care intr n contact reciproc.
Forele din cuple apar de-a lungul direciilor
pe care gradele de libertate n cuple a fost
restricionat. De exemplu fie un mecanism
plan cu cuple de revoluie. Dat fiind c exist
un grad de libertate de rotaie de-a lungul axei
paralele cu axa cuplei, nu va exista un moment
posibil s fie transmis n sensul acelui grad de
libertate de la un element la altul.
n cazul unei cuple de translaie nu va exista
nici o for de reaciune n sensul n care cupla
se poate mica, dar vor exista fore/momente de
reaciune pe direciile perpendiculare pe axa
cuplei de translaie.

In case of a prismatic joint in a planar


mechanism there will be no reaction force
component along the axis of the slide but a
force perpendicular to the slider axis and a
couple along the z-axis will be transmitted
between the links joined.

5-7

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

In Fig.5.8 the reaction forces for different joints


are shown. In the joint forces, due to action and
reaction, there are two links that are involved.
As a convention we denote the joint force Fij
(Mij for the couple) as that force acting on link j
due to the reaction of link i, hence, from
Newton's third law Fij = -Fij.
b) Physical Forces: As the physical forces
acting on a rigid body we shall include external
forces applied on the rigid body, the weight of
the rigid body, electro-magnetic etc.

In machine systems, if the force distribution


within the rigid body considered is not our
concern, the weight of the rigid body can be
considered to be equivalent to a force applied at
the center of gravity of the rigid body, in the
sense and direction of the gravity field.
c) Friction or Resisting Force: In general the
resisting forces are those that result due to
motion and which resist the motion. Since the
rigid body assumption is made, one can neglect
the internal friction forces that will exist within
the body. In such a case friction forces are at
the joints in the direction of the relative motion
but in opposite sense.

n Fig.5.8 sunt date forele de reaciune pentru


diferite tipuri de cuple. n oricare cupl se
unesc dou elemente cinematice notate generic
i i j. Pentru simplificarea notaiei se va
reprezenta cu Fij (Mij pentru moment)
fora/momentul care acioneaz
asupra
elementului j datorit reaciunii din elementul i.
Conform celei de-a treia legi a dinamicii : Fij =
-Fij.
b) Forele fizice care acioneaz asupra unui
corp rigid pot fi fore externe aplicate, interne
volumice precum cele
de greutate sau
hidrostatice ori electro-magnetice etc.
n maini sau mecanisme modul cum este
distribuit fora n interiorul rigidului nu este de
interes, de pild fora de greutate se consider
simplificat ca acionnd doar n centrul de
greutate al corpului n sensul i pe direcia
cmpului gravitaional.
c) Forele de frecare sau rezistente sunt acele
fore care apar n urma micrii rigidului i care
se opun micrii acestuia. Cum rigidul s-a
presupus a fi rigid, forele interne de frecare nu
exist. Forele de frecare vor aprea doar la
nivelul cuplelor pe direcia micrii relative a
elementelor cinematice dar opuse ca sens.

d) Inertial Forces. Are the forces due to the d) Forele de inerie sunt cauzate de ineria
rigidului.
inertia of the rigid bodies involved.

In machine systems there are several rigid


bodies (links). A free-body diagram is a sketch
of a rigid body or a group of rigid bodies in
which all the forces and moments acting on the
rigid body are shown in Fig.5.9-5.10. In the
free-body diagram both the known forces and
the unknown forces are sketched. As an
example, consider a rigid body, i, as shown in
Fig.5.10. It is connected to other two rigid
bodies k and j. In the free-body diagram of link
i, this body is isolated from other rigid bodies
(and replaced by their reaction forces) and all
the forces (reaction forces, Fki, Fji, Mji ; external
forces Fei, Fei ) are shown.

5-8

n sistemele mainilor i mecanismelor apar


mai mult de un rigid (element cinematic). O
schem a rigidului sau a unui grup de rigide va
cuprinde
toate
forele/momentele
care
acioneaz asupra rigidului aa cum se vede n
Fig.5.9-5.10. n aceste scheme vor aprea att
forele cunoscute ct i cele necunoscute. Fie
un rigid i aa cum se vede n Fig.5.10. Acesta
este conectat la alte dou rigide k i j. n
schema elementului i acesta se consider izolat
de celelalte elemente (care sunt nlocuite de
forele lor de reaciune) i toate forele care
acioneaz asupra lui vor fi desenate (forele de
reaciune Fki, Fji, Mji ; forele externe Fei, Fei ).

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.8

Fig.5.9

5-9

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.10
In performing the static and dynamic force Pentru analiza static, cinetostatic i dinamic
analysis of machinery, almost always the free- a unui mecanism de regul aceste scheme sunt
body diagram of each rigid body is drawn and trasate pentru fiecare element n parte i sunt
the known forces are identified. One has to identificate forele cunoscute i cele
solve for the remaining unknown.
necunoscute.
5.2.1 Static Equilibrium/Analiza static /
From Newton's First Law, a body is in static Prima lege a dinamicii arat c un rigid este n
equilibrium if the resultant of all the forces echilibru static dac rezultanta tuturor forelor
(excluding the inertia forces) acting on a rigid care acioneaz asupra sa (excluznd forele de
body is zero. This condition results in two inerie) este zero. Aceast condiie se scrie
vector equations:
vectorial:
r
r
(5.4)
F = 0; M = 0
In space, these two vector equations yield six
n spaiu ecuaiile vectoriale de mai sus
scalar equations:
genereaz 6 ecuaii scalare:

Fx = 0; Fy = 0; Fz = 0;
M x = 0; M y = 0; M z = 0;
In case of coplanar force systems, there are
three scalar equations:

(5.5)

n cazul bidimensional:

Fx = 0; Fy = 0; M z = 0;

(5.6)

Usually the subscript z in Mz is dropped in De regul se renun la indicele z al lui Mz fiind


coplanar force systems and M implies the limpede c momentele calculate sunt pe o ax
moment perpendicular to the plane of the perpendicular pe planul forelor.
forces.
Static equilibrium equations in space will Ecuaiile de mai sus fac posibil calcularea a 6
permit the determination of six unknowns in necunoscute n spaiul tridimensional i a 3
spatial systems and three unknowns in planar necunoscute n cel bidimensional.
systems.
5-10

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

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In coplanar force systems under which the body n cazurile bidimensionale sistemele de fore
acted on is in equilibrium, we can have the care pot fi calculate cu ecuaia (5.6) sunt:
following force systems:
a) Two-force member: A rigid body acted on
by two forces is in static equilibrium only when
the two forces are collinear and equal in
magnitude but in opposite sense (Fig.5.11.). If
the point of application of the two forces are
known (points A and B), the direction of these
forces will be along the line joining the points
of application.

a) Element cinematic pe care actioneaza


dou fore. Un rigid pe care acioneaz dou
fore, pentru a fi n echilibru static este necesar
ca forele s fie coliniare i egale ca mrime dar
opuse ca sens (Fig.5.11.). Dac se cunsoc
punctele de aplicare ale forelor, A i B, atunci
linia care unete cele dou puncte este direcia
forelor.

Fig.5.11
b) Two force and one moment member: A b) Dou fore i un moment. Dac asupra unui
rigid body acted on by two forces and a rigid acvioneaz dou fore i un moment
moment (Fig.5.12) is in static equilibrium only (Fig.5.12), acesta va fi n echilibru static dac
when the two forces form a couple whose cele dou fore formeaz un cuplu al crui
moment is equal in magnitude but in opposite moment este egal i de sens contrar
sense to the applied moment.
momentului aplicat.

Fig.5.12
c) Three-force member: A rigid body acted on c) Sistem cu trei fore. Un rigid asupra cruia
by three forces is in equilibrium only if the acioneaz trei fore simultan este n echilibru
forces are concurrent (intersect at one point). doar dac forele sunt concurente. Fie ca n
Let the force (Fig.5.13) FA be completely Fig.5.13 fora FA cunoscut complet (mrime,
specified. The line of action of FB and the point direcie, sens, punct aplicare). Se mai cunosc
of application of FC be known (in plane there direcia i punctul de aplicare a forei FB i
are three equilibrium equations and one must punctul de aplicare a forei FC . Dac se scrie
have three unknowns to be able to solve the ecuaia momentelor ale forelor MO=0 fa de
equilibrium equations). When the moment punctul O de intersecie dintre direciile forelor
equilibrium equation is written for the sum of FA i FB , cum FA i FB trec prin O nu vor
moments about the point of MO=0, the genera moment, rmnnd ca i momentul dat
intersection of the line of action of FA and FB de FC fa de O s fie zero i deci FC trebuie s

5-11

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

(point O), since moment of FC about O must treac prin O.


be zero, or the line of action of the force FC
must pass through point O.

Fig.5.13
5.3 Static Force Analysis of Machinery/Anliza static a mecanismelor/
5.3.1 Systems without Resisting Force/Sisteme fr fore rezistente/
Initially, we shall neglect the forces associated ntr-o prim abordare vor fi neglijate forele
with the inertia of the links and the resisting precum cele de inerie i rezistente.
forces.

Static force analysis makes direct use of static


force equilibrium equations. For an analytical
solution formulation one must draw the freebody diagram of each rigid body and must
identify the unknown forces. Next, one must
write the static force equilibrium equations for
each link. If a correct formulation is performed,
the resulting equations will be equal to the
number of unknown force components and
these equations will be linear in terms of the
unknowns. Let us illustrate this by a simple
four-bar example shown below:

Analiza static a mecanismelor aplic direct


ecuaiile de echilibru artate mai sus. Pentru
scrierea ecuaiilor de echilibru trebuie trasat
schema fiecrui element pe care sunt
idenificate forele/momentele necunoscute.
Apoi se pot scrie ecuaiile de echilibru static
pentru fiecare element. Dac nu sunt greeli n
formularea analitic, numrul de ecuaii care
rezult va fi egal cu numrul de necunoscute iar
sistemul de ecuaii va fi liniar. Fie exemplul
unui mecanism patrulater ca mai jos:

Fig.5.14
The system is in equilibrium under the action of Mecanismul este n echilibru sub aciunea
the external force F14 and T12. T12 may be the forelor externe F14 i T12. T12 este momentul
torque delivered by the electrical motor to the impus la elemental de intrare de ctre motorul
inlet link. The magnitude and direction () of electric de exemplu. Se cunosc mrimea,
the force delivered by the system further to the direcia () i punctul de aplicare al forei utile
machine, F14 are known. We are to determine necesare mai departe n maina din care face
T12 needed to balance the force F14 and the parte mecanismul, F14. Se caut stabilirea

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Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

forces acting at the joints. In free-body momentului T12 necesar s echilibreze fora F14
diagrams of the moving links are shown.
i forele care acioneaz n cuple. Schemele
pentru fiecare element n parte sunt date mai
jos:

Fig.5.15
On the free-body diagrams the unknown joint Pe schemele elementelor de mai sus
force components (Fijx and Fijy) are all shown componentele necunoscute ale forelor ce
acting in the positive x and y directions. We trebuie s fie calculate sunt (Fijx i Fijy) i
took all the components direction for acioneaz n sensul pozitiv sau negative al
simplification. If a negative value is obtained in axelor de coordinate. Pe schem se iau
the result, it means that force component is in sensurile tuturor componentelor forelor
positive pentru simplificare. Dac dup
the opposite direction.
efectuarea calculelor rezultatul calculate este
In the example shown the equilibrium equations negativ, nseamn c n realitate sensul
and the equalities due to Newton's third law componentei forei este opus celui considerat n
(Fijx = -Fjix ) result with 13 scalar equations in schema de calcul.
13 unknowns (T12,F32x, F32y, F23x, F23y, F43x, n exemplul considerat innd cont de egalitatea
Fijx = -Fjix vor rezulta 13 ecuaii scalare cu 13
F43y, F34x, F34y, G12x, G12y , G14x, G14y).
necunoscute T12,F32x, F32y, F23x, F23y, F43x, F43y,
F34x, F34y, G12x, G12y , G14x, G14y .
For link 2:
Pentru elementul 2:
(Fy= 0) F32y + G12y = 0;
(Fx= 0) F32x + G12y = 0
(5.7)
(MA0= 0) F32ya2cos(12) - F32xa2sin(12) + T12= 0
For link 3:

Pentru elementul 3:

(Fy= 0) F23x + F43x = 0;


(Fx= 0) F23y + F43y = 0
(MA0= 0) F43xa3sin(13) + F34ya2cos(13)= 0
For link 4:

(5.8)

Pentru elementul 4:

(Fy= 0) F34x + G14x-F14cos()= 0


(5.9)
(Fx= 0) F34y + G14y-F14sin() = 0
(MB0= 0) (MA0= 0) F34xa4sin(14) + F34ya4cos(14)+ F14r4(cos()sin(14)-sin()cos(14))= 0
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Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

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and due to action-reaction (Newtons third i egalitile datorate legii a treia a dinamicii:
law):
F32y = - F23y; F32x =- F23x ; F43y = - F34y ; F43x = - F34x

(5.10)

Supposing that the displacement analysis was


already performed beforehand, e.g. if 13, 14
values are determined for different 12 values,
the above equations can be used for every
position of the mechanism (say for 150
intervals).

Presupunnd c deja a fost realizat analiza


poziional i se cunoasc valorile lui 13, 14
pentru fiecare valoare de intrare 12 , atunci
ecuaiile de mai sus pot fi scrise i rezolvate
pentru fiecare poziie a mecanismului (de pild
din 150 n 150 ).

One can reduce the number of equations to be


solved if the free-body diagrams are analysed to
some detail. One need not write the forces in
terms of its x and y components if the direction
is known and one can identify the forces that
are of equal magnitude before attempting for a
solution. The free-body diagrams of the links in
the four-bar mechanism are redrawn below.

Se poate reduce numrul de ecuaii prin


renunarea
scrierii
lor
n
termenii
componentelor pe x i y. Dac direcia forelor
este cunoscut atunci se pot identifica forele
egale i de sens opus i nlturate din sistem de
vreme ce efectul lor se anuleaz reciproc. Se
redeseneaz schema mecanismului ca mai jos:

Fig.5.16
In this case to simplify the calculations we note Se poate vedea c Fij = -Fji pentru forele care
that Fij = -Fji for the joint forces. Furthermore, acioneaz n cuple. Mai mult de veme ce
since link 3 is a two-force member, F23 and F43 forele care acioneaz asupra elementului 3
are equal, opposite and their line of action is sunt egale i opuse de-a lungul liniei de aciune
along AB. Also link 2 is a two-force plus a AB. Deasemenea la elementul 2 fiindc avem
dou fore i un moment, trebuie ca:
moment member. Therefore:
F32 = - G12

Hence/Deci/:

(5.11)

F 43= -F32 =-F34= -G12= -F23

Now, one can solve for the unknown forces if Acum trebuie ca pentru rezolvare s se scrie 3
we write the 3 equilibrium equations for link 4 ecuaii de echilibru pentru elementul 4 i una
and one moment equilibrium equation for link de moment pentru elementul 2:
2, which are:
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Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

- F14 cos + F34cos13+ G14 cos = 0

or /sau/

F14 cos + F34cos13+ G14x= 0

- F14 sin + F34sin13+ G14 sin = 0

or/sau/

F14 cos + F34cos13+ G14y= 0

r4F14(cos sin14 - sin cos14)+a4F34(sin13 cos14- cos13sin14) = 0


And/si/
a2F32(cos13sin13-sin13 cos12) + T12 = 0

(F32 = - F34)

(5.12)
There are four equations with four unknowns Rezult astfel 4 ecuaii cu 4 necunoscute F34,
T12, G14, sau F34, T12, G14x, G14y .
(F34, T12, G14, or F34, T12, G14x, G14y).
Another simplification in the solution of
moment equilibrium equations will result if we
use unit vector in the direction of the forces and
write a force vector in the form F = Fv where F
is the magnitude of F and v is a unit vector in
the direction of the force F.

O alt manier de a simplifica rezolvarea este


dac se folosesc vectori unitate pe direciile
forelor i prin scrierea vectorilor forelor n
forma F = Fv unde F este modulul (mrimea)
forei iat v este un vector unitate lut pe direcia
forei F.

We can similarly show the position vector r as :

La fel se pot scrie vectorii r de poziie ca:

r = ru

where r is the distance from point C to a point


on the line of action of F and u is a unit vector
in the direction of r. The moment of the force F
about an axis passing through O and
perpendicular to the plane will be:

(5.13)

unde r este distana de la punctul C la un punct


oarecare al direciei vectorului F iar u este
vectorul unitate luat pe direcia lui r. Momentul
forei F fa de axa care trece prin punctul O va
fi perpendicular pe plan :

Fig.5.17
M = rxF = ruxFv = rF(uxv)

Since/Dar/
u = 1 < = cos i + sin j ;

5-15

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

v = 1 < = cos i + sin j

(5.14)
u x v = (sin cos - cos sin ) k

Or/sau/:
u x v = sin (- ) k

Hence/Deci/

M = rxF = r F sin ( - ) k

Now, the free-body diagrams of the previous Dac se redeseneaz schema mecanismului:
example are redrawn

The moment equilibrium equations are:

Which result in:

Fig.5.18
Ecuaia de echililbru a momentelor:

a4u4 x F34u3 + r4u4 x (-F14)v1

(MB0 = 0 )

a2 u2 x (-F32 )u3 + T12 k = 0

(MA0 = 0 )

(5.15)

Care va da:
a4 F34 sin(13 -14 ) - r4 F14 sin( -14 ) = 0
-a2 F32 sin(13 -12 ) + T12 =0

(5.16)
(5.17)

5.3.2 Principle of Superposition/Metoda Superpoziiei/


In the previous examples, there was only one n exemplul anterior exista doar o singur for
known external force acting on one member of extern cunoscut care acioneaz asupra unui
the mechanism and the system was brought to element, mecanismul fiind inut n echilibru de
static equilibrium by an input or output force ctre un moment de input la manivel care
(or torque). The magnitude of this force or trebuia calculat. Dac asupra unui element al
torque was an unknown. If there are two or mecanismului acioneaz dou sau mai multe
more known external forces acting on one link, fore, aceste fore pot fi nsumate ntre ele, pe
these forces can be combined into a single element rmnnd s acioneze doar aceast
resultant and the problem reduces to the case for rezultant, caz care deja a fost discutat. n
we have already discussed. However, in real realitate ns forele externe acioneaz pe

5-16

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

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machinery there are several external forces


acting on different links. For example, if we do
not neglect the weight of the members, there
will be at least one known external force on
each link. In such a case, if we draw the free
body diagrams of the links, no simplification
will be possible and one has to write three
equilibrium equations for each link. The
resulting 3(l-1) linear equations will include
3(l-1) unknown joint force components and the
input force (or torque). Usually simultaneous
solution of the equilibrium equations would be
required.

elemente cinematice diferite. De pild dac nu


se mai neglijeaz greutatea elementelor atunci
va exista cel puin o for extern cunoscut
care va aciona asupra fiecrui element. n
acest caz dac se face schema mecanismului
simplificrile artate mai sus nu mai sunt
operabile iar ecuaiile de echilibru ale fiecrui
element trebuie scrise complet. Vor rezulta 3(l1) ecuaii liniare cu 3(l-1) componente ale
forelor i momentul/fora la manivel,
necunoscute ce vor trebui calculate.

Another solution method the principal of


superposition. This principal states that the
effect of the forces is the sum of the
individual effects of the forces considered
separately. In other words, if there are two or
more external forces present, one can neglect
all but one of the forces and determine the joint
forces and the unknown reaction force that
brings the system into equilibrium for this one
external force. If the above procedure is carried
out for each of the external forces, at each joint
there will be different joint forces
corresponding to each external force. The
resultant joint force is the vectorial sum of all
these forces. We shall explain this by solving
the same problem by (a) without using the
principal of superposition and (b) by using the
Principal of superposition.

Un alt mod de rezolvre a problemei este prin


metoda superpoziiei. Acest principiu afirm
c efectul general al unui sistem de fore este
egal cu suma efectelor fiecrei fore n parte.
Altfel spus dac sunt dou sau mai multe fore
prezente, se neglijeaz toate forele cu excepia
uneia pentru care se calculeaz reaciunile n
cuple. Apoi procedura aceasta se repet pentru
fiecare for n parte i vor rezulta diverse
valori pentru reaciunile n cuple pentru fiecare
for extern n parte. For de reaciune n
cupla final va fi suma vectorial a
reaciunilor pariale calculate. Se va da mai
jos un exemplu de calcul la care procedura de
calcul la fi (a) far principiul superpoziiei i
(b) folosind principiul superpoziiei.

Fig.5.19

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Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Example 5.2

For the mechanism shown in Fig.5.19, A0A=


a2= 80, AB= a3 =100, B0B= a4=120, A0B0= a1=
140, AC= b3 = 70, BC=80 and B0D= b4=90
mm. When 12=600, from kinematic analysis
13=29,980 , 14 = 96.400. Two forces F13=50 N
and F14= 100 N are acting on links 3 and 4
respectively.
(a) Solution
superposition

without

the

principle

Exemplul 5.2

Mecanismul din Fig.5.19 are A0A= a2= 80,


AB= a3 =100, B0B= a4=120, A0B0= a1= 140,
AC= b3 = 70, BC=80 i B0D= b4=90 mm. Cnd
12=600 din analiza cinematic s-a calculat
13=29,980 , 14 = 96.400. Dou fore externe
F13=50 N i F14= 100 N acioneaz asupra
elementelor 3 i 4.

of (a) Soluia fr metoda superpoziiei

Fig.5.20

The free-body diagrams of the moving links are Schema mecanismului este dat mai sus. Cele 3
shown above. The three equilibrium equations ecuaii de echilibru pentru elementul 4 sunt:
for link 4 are:
(Fx= 0) F34x + G14x - F14 cos200 = 0 (1)
(Fy= 0) F34y + G14y - F14 sin200 = 0 (2)
(MB0= 0) -F34x a4 sin14 + F34ya4 cos14 - F14 b4 sin(200-14 ) = 0 (3)
There are four unknowns in three equations, Aa cum se vede avem 4 necunoscute i trei
therefore the equations obtained from one free- ecuaii ca atare ecuaiile obinute nu sunt
body diagram is not enough to solve for the suficiente pentru aflarea necunoscutelor. Prima
unknowns. Equations 1 and 2 can be used to i a doua ecuaie de mai sus pot fi folosite la
solve for G14x and G14y, only when F34x and F34y calcularea lui G14x i G14y, doar dac se cunosc
are determined. The three equilibrium equations F34x i F34y. Pentru elementul 3 vom avea la
5-18

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

for link 3 must also be written (note that F34 echilibru (F34 i F43 sunt egale):
and F43 are of equal magnitude).
(Fx= 0) F23x - F34x - F13cos(500) = 0 (4)
(Fy= 0) F23y - F34y -F13sin(500) = 0 (5)
(MA= 0) -F34x a4 sin14 + F34ya4 cos14 - F14 b4 sin(200-14 ) =0 (6)
0
= 52.62 (using the cosine theorem for the = 52.620 din teorema cosinusului aplicat
triunghiului ABC.
triangle ABC).
Equations 4 and 5 above can be used to Din ecuaiile 4 i 5 de mai sus se pot determina
determine F23x and F23y. Equations 3 and 6 must F23x and F23y. Ecuaiile 3 i 6 se vor rezolva
be used simultaneously to solve for F34x and simultan i vor rezulta F34x i F34y. Inlocuind n
F34y. Substituting the known values into 3 i 6 vom avea:
equations 3 and 6 results:
-119.25 F34x - 13.38 F34y + 8748 =0
49.97 F34x - 86.62 F34y + 1886= 0
Simultaneous solution of the two equations Dup rezolvarea sistemului de mai sus:
yield:
F34x = 66.60 N

F34y = 60.20

F34 = 89.78 N

From equations 1 and 2:


G14x = 27.37 N

G14y = 26.00 N

G14 = 37.75 N

From Equations (4) and (5):


F23x = 98.74 N

F23y = 98.50 N

F23 = 139.46 N

Now, link 2 can be treated as a two force and a n fine elementul 2 poate fi tratat ca fiind
moment member (G12=-F32=F23). The moment ncrcat cu 2 fore i un moment. tiind c
(G12=-F32=F23), ecuaia de echilibru al
equilibrium (about A0):
momentelor fa de origine:
T12 -F23a2 sin(47.340-600) =0
(b) Solution
superposition

using

the

principle

or

T12 = -2908 N-mm (2.9 N-m CW)

of (b) Rezolvarea cu metoda superpoziiei

Let us consider two problems. In problem (1)


the mechanism is under the action of F14 and in
(2) F13 only. . If we denote the joint forces due
to F14 by a single prime and the forces due to
F13 by double prime, we have the free-body
diagrams due to F14 as shown:

Se vor considera dou probleme. n problema


(1) mecanismul este ncrcat doar de fora
extern F14 iar n problema (2) doar de F13 .
Pentru prima problem forele din cuple vor
avea doar un apostrof, iar pentru a doua dou.
Schema pentru prima problem (acioneaz F14
este dat mai jos):

5-19

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

a.

b.
Fig.5.21

Fig.5.22
Due to F14, the moment equilibrium for link 4 Pentru elementul 4 la echilibru vom avea:
yields:

F34a4sin (13-14)-F14b4sin (200-14) =0


from which F34'= 79.54 N < 29.980 (=13).
5-20

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

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Since F34'= - F43' = F23' = - F32' = G12 we have Cum F34'= - F43' = F23' = - F32' = G12 se poate
to write the moment equilibrium for link 2 only: scrie doar ecuaia de echilibru a momentelor
peste elementul 2:
T12'- F32' a2sin((13-12) = 0
from which T12'= -3184 N-mm = 3.18 N-m CW.
For the second problem, (for F13 only):

Pentru a doua problem considernd doar


aciunea lui F13 :

Fig.5.23
Link 4 is a two-force member, link 3 is a three Elementul 4 va fi ncrcat de dou fore, 3 de
force member while link 2 is a two-force and a trei fore iar 2 de dou fore i un moment.
moment member as before. The moment Ecuaia de echilibru a momentelor peste
elementul 3 este:
equilibrium equation for link 3 yields:

F43"a3sin(14-13)-F13b3sin(500-13)=0
from which F43"= -20.57 N < 96.400 (=14) or F34"= -F43"= 20.57 N < 96.400
F23x" and F23y" can be determined using the F23x" i F23y" se pot calcula folosind ecuaia de
force equilibrium equations for link 3:
echilibru a forelor pentru elemental 3:

F23x"= F13 cos500 + F43"cos(14) = 29.85 N


F23y"= F13 sin500 + F43"sin((14)) = 58.74 N
F23" = 65.89 N < 63.060
Now, the moment equilibrium for link 2 yields:

Ecuaia de echilibru momente peste elementul


2:

T12"- F32" a2sin(63.060-12) = 0

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Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

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from which/din care/: T12"= 282 N-mm (.28 N-m CCW)


One can now superimpose the two solutions. Dac se suprapun cele dou soluii calculate
For example, the torque T12 required for the mai sus va rezulta de pild pentru momentul
original system will be:
T12 :
T12 = T12'+ T12" = -3184 +282 = -2902 N-mm (2.9 N-m CW)
Similarly/Similar/:
F34x = F34x' + F34x" = 79.54 cos(29.980)+ 20.57cos(96.400) = 66.60 N
F34y = F34y' + F34y" = 79.54 sin(29.980)+ 20.57sin(96.400) = 60.19 N
F23x = F23x' + F23x" = 79.54 cos(29.980)+ 29.85 = 98.75 N
F23y = F23y' + F23y" = 79.54 sin(29.980)+ 58.74 = 98.49 N
F23 = G12= 139.5 N < 44.920
F34= 89.77 N < 42.110
The results are in good agreement with the Rezultatle astfel obinute sunt bine corelate cu
results obtained previously (differences are due rezultatele calculate fr a se folosi metoda
to the round-off errors)
superpoziiei.
5.3.3 Systems with Resisting Force/Mecanisme cu fore rezistente/
In the previous section we have only considered n seciunea anterioar s-au considerat doar
the physical forces and the reaction forces at the forele fizice i reaciunile din cuple. Acum se
joints. Now, let us consider the resisting forces. poate trece i la includerea forelor de
Since the rigidity assumption is still valid, the rezisten. Cum ipoteza elementelor cinematice
resisting forces in mechanisms are assumed to rigide este nc valid, forele de rezisten vor
exist at the joint only. Their direction is aprea i vor aciona doar n cuplele
governed by the direction of the relative motion cinematice. Direcia lor va fi dictat de direcia
between the links joined (resisting forces will micrii relative dintre elementele cinematice
always oppose the motion). Therefore, for force conectate n cupl (forele de rezisten se vor
analysis with resisting forces, the direction of opune mereu micrii). Aadar n analiza
motion of all the links in a mechanism must be dinamic cu fore de rezisten trebuie tiut
dinainte direcia micrii fiecrui element.
known.

There are different types of resisting forces in Exist tipuri diferite de fore rezistente n
mecanisme:
machinery:
1. Static Frictional Force is the force that is
necessary to slide one body relative to the
other. This force is along the contact surface
and it is related by the normal force (F32) acting
at the contacting surfaces by the equation:

1. Fora de frecare static este acea for


necesar pentru a face un corp s nceap s
alunece pe alt corp. Ea se dezvolt pe suprafaa
de frecare iar dac fora normal cu care un
corp este apsat pe cel de-al doilea corp este
F32, atunci fora de frecare este:

5-22

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

(5.19)
R32= - F32
The proportionality constant is known as the Constanta de proporionalitate se numete
coefficient of static friction. The negative sign coeficient de frecare static. Semnul minus
is used simply to denote that R32 tends to arat c R32 tinde s se opun micrii.
oppose the motion.
2. Sliding Frictional Force is the force
necessary to keep the relative motion of two
sliding bodies continuously. It is also given by
the equation R32= - F32, but, in this case, is
the coefficient of sliding friction, which is less
than the coefficient of static friction. Sliding
friction is also known as Coulomb friction.

2. Fora de frecare cinematic este acea for


necesar s fie meninut micarea relativ
ntre dou corpuri ntre care exist frecare.
Ecuaia pentru calculul acesteia este R32=F32, cu meniunea c n acest caz este
coeficientul de frecare cinematic (al lui
Couloumb) care este mai mic dect cel static.

Experiments have shown that the static or


sliding friction force does not depend on the
area of contact. It depends on the types of
materials in contact, on the surface quality in
contact and the type of film formed between the
contacting surfaces.

Experimentele au artat c fora de frecare


static sau cinematic nu depind de mrimea
ariei de contact ci depind de tipul materialelor
din care sunt fcute corpurile, calitatea
suprafeelor (netezimea) sau existena ungerii.

3. Viscous Damping Force is proportional to 3. Fora de Amortizare vscoas este


the relative velocity of the two contacting proportional cu viteza relativ dintre dou
corpuri n contact i este dat de:
surfaces and is given by:

R32 = -cv2/3

(5.20)

where c is the coefficient of viscous damping unde c este coeficientul de amortizare vscoas
iar v2/3 este viteza liniar relativ.
and v2/3 is the relative linear velocity.
In prismatic joints, the reaction force R
between the two links in contact will not be
perpendicular to the slider axis if resisting force
is taken into account. The resultant reaction
force will be inclined as shown in Fig.5.24. The
angle which is known as the friction angle is:

n cuplele de translaie fora de reaciune R


care actioneaz ntre cele dou elemente legate
prin cupl nu va mai fi perpendicular pe
direcia cuplei ca n cazul fr frecare, ci va fi
nclinat ca n Fig.5.24. Unghiul care este
cunoscut drept unghi de frecare are expresia:

tan = =R32/F32

Fig.5.24

5-23

(5.21)

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

In revolute joints without the resisting force, the


line of action of the reaction force F23 will pass
through the centre of the joint Fig.5.25). Due to
the resistance to the relative motion, there will
be sliding frictional force R23:

n cuplele de rotaie fr fore de rezisten


direcia forei de reaciune F23 va trece prin
centrul cuplei (Fig.5.25). Fora de frecare R23
va aciona n punctul de contact dintre
suprafeele n micare relativ i va avea
mrimea:

R23= - F23

(5.22)

Fig.5.25
R23 is in the opposite direction of the relative R23 va avea sensul opus sensului de micare
motion as shown. The sum of the resisting and relativ aa cum se vede mai sus. Suma dintre
the reaction force will give the total reaction fora de reaciune i de rezisten va genera
force F23R:
reactiunea total F23R:
F23R= R23+ F23
(5.23)

The line of action of F23R will not pass through Dircia forei F23R nu va mai trece prin centrul
the centre of the joint but will be tangent to a cuplei ci va fi tangent la un cerc numit cerc de
circle, which is known as the friction circle. frecare. Raza acestui cerc rf este:
The radius, rf , of this circle is equal to:
rf=rsin

(5.24)

r is the radius of the revolute joint. For small unde r este raza cuplei de rotaie. Pentru
angles sin=tan:
unghiuri mici vom avea sin=tan:
rf=rsinrtan=r
The reaction force tangent to the friction circle
can be replaced by a force passing through the
centre of the joint and a moment (friction
torque) which is in opposite direction of the
relative motion and which has the magnitude:

(5.25)

Fora de reaciune rezultant poate fi nlocuit


cu un sistem alctuit dintr-o for care trece
prin centrul cuplei i un moment de frecare care
are sens opus micrii relative de mrime:

M32=rf F23R

5-24

(5.26)

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Example 5.3

Exemplul 5.3

Figure 5.26 shows a centric slider-crank


mechanism. Assume = 0.1 in all the joints,
determine the joint forces and the input torque
T12 required for static equilibrium when 12=
550 and the eccentric is rotating CW. The radius
of the eccentric is 250 mm and the radius of the
other two revolute joint (between links 1 -2 and
3-4) are 50 mm.

Fig.5.26 arat un mecanism biel-manivel.


Dac se ia = 0.1 pentru toate cuplele se
dorete calcularea forelor din cuple i
momentul de input T12 necesar pentru echilibru
static la unghiul de input de 12= 550
(manivela avnd o rotaie n sensul orar). Raza
excentricului este de 250 mm i poziia
punctului A0 i B fa de elementul fix este de
50 mm.
0
0
From kinematic analysis when 12= 55 , 13= Din analiza cinematic dac 12= 55 avem
0
0
13= 168.059 i A0B = 897.56 mm.
168.059 and A0B = 897.56 mm.
The free-body diagrams of the links are drawn Schema mecanismului este dat n Fig.5.27.
in Fig.5.27.

Fig.5.26
If the procedure is to be carried out analytically, Dac soluiile se calculeaz analitic n locul
rather than the friction circles at the revolute cercului de frecare din Fig.5.27 se folosete
joints Fig.5.27, one must place the friction momentul de frecare ca n Fig.5.28. Acest
moments on the free body diagrams Fig.5.28. moment de frecare este opus micrii relative.
These friction moments must always oppose the
relative motion.

5-25

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.27
F14+F34+G14=0
For link 4/Elementul 4/:

-F34cos()-G14-F14=0

( Fx=0)

-F34sin()+G14 = 0

( Fy=0)

r34F34- sG14-aG14=0

( MB=0)

Substituting the known values/Se nlocuiesc cu valorile cunoscute/:


-F34cos()-G14 =100

(i)

-F34sin()+G14= 0

(ii)

5F34- sG14-5G14 =0

(M in N mm)

(iii)

Unknowns are/Necunoscutele sunt/ F34, , G14 and M14.


For link 3/Elementul 3/:

F43= -F34 = -F23

5-26

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.28

and the moment equilibrium equation yields/ecuaia de echilibru a moment/ ( MA=0):


-|AB| F43sin(13)-r23F23-r34F43=0
or/sau/:
-800F43sin(13)- 25F23 -5 F43 =0

since F43 = F23lor/ (in magnitude/ca mrime/):


-800F43sin(13)-30 F43 =0

(iv)

For link 2/Elementul 2/

F32= -F23 = -F34 =F43


G12 = - F32
and the moment equilibrium equation yields/ ecuaia de echilibru a moment/ (MA0=0):
|A0A|F23sin(12)+r23F23+ r12G12+T12 = 0
which can be simplified as/Se poate simplifica/ (noting F43 = F23)
200 F43sin(12)+30 F43 +T12= 0
From equation/Din ecuaia/ (iv):
5-27

(v)

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

sin(13) = -30/800
= 13 -2.1490 = 168.1830-2.1490 = 166.0340
From equations/Din ecuaiile/ (i-iii) :
F34 = 105.674N < -13.9660
G14 = 25.504N < 900 R14 = G14< 1800= 2.55 N <1800, G14R = 25.63 N < 95.710
s = 15.7 mm (towards left for CW moment/Spre stnga pentru momente n sens orar/)

From equation/Din ecuaia/ (v):


T12 =-22.90 Nm (CW)
If there are no resisting forces (e.g. =0) = 13 Dac nu ar exista fore rezistente (=0) = 13
= 168.1830. The results will be:
= 168.1830, am fi avut:
F34 = 102.165N < -11.8170 ; G14 = 20.922N < 900
s=0
T12 = 20.43 Nm (CW)

Example 5.4

In this second example the same centric slidercrank mechanism of the previous example is
considered. However, in addition to F14 two
additional forces F13 and F12 act on the
mechanism links.

Exemplul 5.4

n acest al doilea exemplu acelai mecanism


biel-manivel de mai sus va fi supus
suplimentar pe lng fora extern F14 la nc
dou fore F13 i F12 .

The free body diagrams of the links are shown Schema elementelor cinematice este dat mai
jos.
below.
The force equilibrium equations for link 4/Elementul 4/:
F34x - F14 - G14=0 or/sau/
F34y - G14=0

or/sau/

-sG14 - 5 G14 + 5F34 =0

F34x = 100 + 0.1G14


G14= F34y

or/sau/ s= (5F34- 5 G14)/ G14

5-28

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.29

F34= F342 x + F342 y

1/ 2

(iv)

For link 3/Elementul 3/:


-F34x + F13cos(2100) + F23x=0 or/sau/ F23x = F34x +129.904
F34y + F13sin(2100) + F23y = 0 or/sau/ F23y= 75- F34y
-F34y a3cos13 - F34x a3sin13 -25 F23-5 F34-400F13sin(2100- 13) =0
or

5-29

(v)
(vi)

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

783.045F34y - 163.829F34x -25 F23-5 F34-40005.218 =0

(vii)

and/i/

2
2
F23= F23
x + F23 y

1/ 2

(viii)

For link 2/Elementul 2/:


-F23x + G12x + F12cos(-600) =0 or /sau/ G12x = F23x - 50
-F23y + G12y + F12sin(-600) =0 or/sau/ G12y = F23y+ 86.603
T12+100 F12sin(-600- 12)+ 200F23x sin(550)
-200 F23y sin(550)-25 F23-5 G12=0
or/sau/
T12= 9063.078 -163.830 F23x + 114.715 F23y +25 F23+5 G12
And/i/

2
2
G12= G 12
x + G 12 y

There are 12 equations in 12 unknowns (F34x ,


F34y , F34, F23x, F23y, F23, G12x , G12y, G12 , G14 ,
s and T12). Equations (iv, viii, xii) are nonlinear, whereas the remaining equations are
linear. Direct solution of these equations will
not be attempted. An iterative procedure is
more suitable in such cases. Substituting
equations (i) and (ii) into equation (vii) and
solving for G14 yields:

1/ 2

(xi)

(xii)

Vor exista 12 ecuaii cu 12 necunoscute (F34x ,


F34y , F34, F23x, F23y, F23, G12x , G12y, G12 , G14 ,
s i T12). Ecuaiile (iv, viii, xii) sunt neliniare
dar restul sunt liniare. Rezolvarea direct a
sistemului de ecuaii este greoaie drept care se
recomand o procedur iterativ de rezolvare.
Dac se substituie ecuaiile (i) i (ii) n (vii) i
rezolvnd dup G14 avem:

G14 = 265.872 + 0.033 F23+0.007 F34


The last two terms of equation (xiii) are due to
friction at the joints and it is logical that these
terms will be small in comparison to the first
term, which is the value of G14 when =0. As
the first guess for G14, if we neglect the effect
of friction, the value of G14 can be easily
determined (G14 = 265.872 N). We can than
solve for F34x (using equation i) F34y and F34
(from eq.ii F34y= G14 then use eq.iv). Next
using equations (v, vi, viii) we can solve for
F23x , F23y ,and thus F23 . The values of F23 , and
F34 , thus found can now be used to refine the
value of G14. The procedure is repeated until
there is no significant change in G14. The
iteration steps for this example are shown in
Table 5.3. The procedure in general is rapidly
convergent, since the friction effect in
mechanisms is quite small.

(ix)
(x)

(xiii)

Ultimii doi termeni ai ecuaiei (xiii) sunt


datorai frecrii i logic ei vor fi mai mici dect
ceilali. Ca punct de pornire al iteraiei se ia
valoarea lui G14 pentru =0: (G14 = 265.872
N).
Se poate determina F34x folosind ecuaia (i),
apoi ) F34y i F34 (din (ii) F34y= G14 i apoi
(iv)). Urmtoarele ecuaii (v, vi, viii) se pot
rezolva rezultnd F23x , F23y i implicit F23.
Valoarile lui F23 i F24 pot fi folosite mai
departe pentru rafinarea valorii lui G14.
Procedura se repet pn valoarea lui G14
devine stabil. n tabelul 5.3 se pot vedea
rezultatele procedurii de iteraie. Cum n
general forele de frecare n mecanisme sunt
mici, procedura converge rapid.

5-30

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

TABLE 5.3
l. Step/Pas1/ 2.Step/Pas2/ 3.Step/Pas3/ 4.Step/Pas4/
G14(eq. xiii) ( G140= F34y)

265.872

278.484

278.854

278.865

F34x (eq. iv)

126.587

127.848

127.885

127.886

F34y(eq. iv)

294.469

306.429

306.780

306.791

F23x(eq. v)

256.491

257.752

257.789

257.790

-190.872 -203.484

-203.854

-203.865

328.652

328.659

F23y (eq. vi)


F23 (eq. vii)

319.718

328.393

After this iterative method of finding F34 , G14, Dup aplicarea procedurii iterative de mai sus
and F23, one can than solve for the other i gsirea valorilor lui F34 , G14, i F23 , se poate
trece la calcului restului de ecuaii:
unknowns from the remaining equations:
s = 0.96 mm (eq. iii),

G12x = 207.790 N (eq.ix), G12y = -117.262 N (eq.x) and/Si/


G12= 238.594 N (eq.xii)
T12= -47.148 Nm. (which means/adic/ T12 is CW/este n sens orar/).
Example 5.5
Exemplul 5.5

Consider the mechanism that is used as a


compressor. The eccentric is rotating at 600
rpm counter clockwise. We assume that the
bodies are massless and friction at the revolute
joints (except the eccentric) can be neglected.
Friction coefficient is =0.1.

Fie
mecanism folosit la acionarea unui
compresor. Excentricul se rotete cu 600 rpm n
sens orar. Se presupune c elementele i
cuplele au mas neglijabil i frecarea din toate
cuplele cu excepia excentricului, poate fi
neglijat. Coeficientul de frecare este =0.1.

Diagrama P-V a compresorului se d mai jos.


La punctul mort superior apare jocul (spaiul)
de of 0.103*10-3 m3. Compresia i expansiunea
din diagrm sunt socotite adiabaticei date de

ecuaia PV =C unde = 1.4 pentru aer iar C=


2.618 i 12.397 pntru expansiune i respectiv

governed by the equation PV =C where = 1.4 compresie.


(for air) and C is 2.618 and 12.397 for the
expansion and compression respectively. The Forele externe acioneaz asupra elementului 6
external force acting on link 6 is due to the i se datoreaz presiunii care este funcie de
volum. Cum volumul este funcie de deplasarea
pressure which is a function of volume. Since
pistonului (elementul 6), aceasta va depinde
the volume is a function of the displacement of mai departe de unghiul manivelei.
link 6, which is in turn a function of the crank
displacement, the external force acting on link 6
for each crank position is known. We would Se dorete calcularea momentului necesar la
like to determine the torque required and the manivel pentru un ciclu ntreg de funcionare
reaction forces at the joints for the whole cycle al mecanismului.

The P-V diagram of the compressor can be


approximated as shown below. At the top deadcentre there is a clearance volume of 0.103*10-3
m3. Both the expansion and the compression
intervals are assumed to be adiabatic and

5-31

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

of the mechanism.

Fig.5.30
The free-body diagrams of the links are shown Schema mecanismului este dat mai jos. Cum
in. Since the friction at the revolute joints is frecarea n toate cuplele cu excepia
neglected, links 4 and 5 are two force members excentricului este neglijat, pe elementele 4 i 5
actioneaz dou fore (F35 i F34 ca fore
(F35 and F34 are the resultant forces of both the
rezultante n urma nsumrii forelor normale n
normal joint force and the friction force). Link cuple cu forele de frecare). Asupra
2 is a two force and a moment member. Link 3 Elementului 2 actioneaz 2 fore i un moment
is a three force and a moment member. One iar asupra elementului 3 acioneaz 3 fore i un
must use the signum functions () which have moment. Pentru a putea fi modelate toate
the values of either -1 or +1 depending on the cazurile posibile, se va folosi funcia semn
value of the velocities thus taking care of all the care are valoarea 1 sau -1 funcie de valoarea
vitezelor. Rezolvarea se va face folosind
cases possible. The analytical solution is carried MathCad ca mai jos:
using MathCad and the following equations are
written in the form used by Mathcad:

5-32

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.31
Define constants/Definire constante/

conv
0.1 c 6 25
f
180
d6

120

a2

70

d5

100

c1

350

a1

atan ( )

250

b1

480

250

r 23

Motion anlysis/Anliza miscarii/


0 , 5 .. 360

n .conv

ys

a1

n
n

s3
n

s5
n
xn

xs
b1

a 2 .sin 2
n

xs

ys

2
n

a 2 .cos 2
n
angle x s , y s
n
n

a 2 .sin 2
n
sin n

a 2 .cos 2
n

s 5 .cos n
n

5-33

350

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
450
430
410
390
370
x

350
330
310
290
270
250

40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


n

Velocity analisys/Analiza vitezelor

600.
30
a2
.cos
2.
n
s3
n

2
n

a 2 . 2 .sin 2
n

ss 3
n

ss 5
n

sin n

xxn

. a . .cos
2n
2 2

2 .a 2 .sin 2
n

s 5 . n .cos n
n

s 5 . n .sin n
n

ss 5 .cos n
n

Signum functions/Functiile signum/


n

if xxn > 0 , 1 , 1

23

if n

s5

if ss 5 > 0 , 1 , 1
n

s3

2 > 0, 1, 1
4

1 10

8500
7000
5500
4000
xx

2500
1000
500
2000
3500
5000

0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


n

5-34

if ss 3 > 0 , 1 , 1
n

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
ss 5
n

0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000

0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


n

20
14
8
2
4

10

16
22
28
34
40

40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


n

Force analisys/Analiza fortelor/


External force acting on link 6 is the force due
the compression of the air/Forta externa care actioneaza
pe elementul 6 este datorata comprimarii aerului/
Determine the x values at the top and bottom dead centres
/Se determina valoarea lui x la varful si baza punctelor moarte/
a

max( x)

min( x)

417.083

282.917

which occur when the crank angle is 160 (TDC- point 3 on p-v diagram)
and 1640 (BDC - point 1 on p-v diagram).

5-35

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Using pv1.4=2.618, when p=1 Mpa v = 0.103 10-3 m3and when p=0.1 Mpa, v4=5.335
10-4 m3 or v = change in volume from TDC = 4.3048 10-4 m3 which corresponds to
38.06 mm displacement of the piston. Therefore at point 4 x=320.98 mm. Since
x70=320.109 and x71=321.484 , we can assume that point 4 is when 12 710.
Similarly, using pv1.4=12.397 , when p=0.1 Mpa v=1.62 10-3 m3 and when p=1 Mpa
v2=3.1277 10-4 m3 or v = change in volume from TDC = 2.0977 10-4 m3 which
corresponds to 18.55 mm displacement of the piston. Therefore at point 2 x=301.465
mm. Since x329=301.756 and x330=301.077 , we can assume that point 2 is when 12
3290.
Using the above results the force acting on link 6 can be determined for every crank
angle as:
V0

1.03.10

A = 0.011
m2

. 2.
d 6 10
4

0 .. 16

m1

330.. 360
16.. 70

m3

m4

Fm

Fm

Fm

6
1 .10 .A
6
1 .10 .A

2.618

A.

A . xm

V0

x16 .10

1.4

70.. 164
Fm

m5

5
1 .10 .A

164.. 329
Fm

12.397

A.

V0

A . xm

x16 .10

1.4

The external force acting on link 6 as a function of crank angle is:


4
1.5 10
4
1.35 10
4
1.2 10
4
1.05 10
9000
F

7500
6000
4500
3000
1500
0

100

200
n

5-36

300

400

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
n

n . s5 . f
n

Kn

cos n .c 1

. sin n

( 2 .x) n

n . .d 6

.d 6

xn

Fn .sin n .

G 161

. c
1

2
Kn

Fn .c 1

F 56

Kn

c1

Fn .sin n .

G 162

.d 6
2

Kn

(Note that G16' and G16" are denoted by G121 and G122 respectively.)
The above values are positive if they are in the direction shown on the free-body
diagrams.
Check:
F 56 .sin n

Un

G 161

1 10
8 10
6 10
4 10
2 10
U
n
2 10
4 10
6 10
8 10
1 10

G 162

This value must be zero

11
12
12
12
12
12

12
12
12
11
0

100

200

300

400

Solution for F23x, F23y and F43 requires iteration.


Initially assume friction is zero

F 43

F 56

s5
n

sin n

s3
n sin s3 . f
n

F 32x

F 56 .cos n

F 43 .cos

F 32y

F 56 .sin n

F 43 .sin n

F 32

F 32x

F 32y

5-37

s3 . f
n
s3 . f
n

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Now include the friction and assume the value of F23


calculated without friction is correct.
F 56 .s 5 .sin n
n
n

F 431

. 23 .r 23.F 32
n
n

s 3 .sin s3 . f
n
n

Recalculate F23:

F 321x

F 56 .cos n

F 431 .cos

F 321y

F 56 .sin n

F 431 .sin n

F 321

F 321x

F 321y

s3 . f
n
s3 . f
n

Iterate once more:


F 56 .s 5 .sin n
n
n

F 432

. 23 .r 23.F 321
n
n

s 3 .sin s3 . f
n
n

F 322x

F 56 .cos n

F 432 .cos

F 322y

F 56 .sin n

F 432 .sin n

F 322

F 322x

F 322y

s3 . f
n

s3 . f
n

Iterate once more:

F 433

F 56 .s 5 .sin n
n
n

. 23 .r 23.F 322
n
n

s 3 .sin s3 . f
n
n

F 323x

F 56 .cos n

F 433 .cos

F 323y

F 56 .sin n

F 433 .sin n

5-38

s3 . f
n
s3 . f
n

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

F 323

F 323x

F 323y

Iterate once more:


F 56 .s 5 .sin n
n
n

F 434

. 23 .r 23.F 323
n
n

s 3 .sin s3 . f
n
n

F 324x

F 56 .cos n

F 434 .cos

F 324y

F 56 .sin n

F 434 .sin n

F 324

F 324x

23
n

F 324y

s3 . f
n
s3 . f
n

angle F 324x , F 324y


n
n

In order to determine whether the solution has converged,


let us plot the difference between the last two
0.003
0.0027
0.0024
0.0021
100 .

F 324
n

F 323
n

F 324
n

0.0018
0.0015
0.0012
4

9 10
6 10
3 10

4
4
0

100

200
n

300

400

As can be seen, the difference between the last two iterations can be considered as
negligible (the maximum error is less than 0.003% of the magnitude of the force).
Therefore, the result is assumed to be sufficiently correct.
F 32

F 324

The joint forces can now be plotted as a function of input crank angle
The input torque required can be determined from the moment equilibrium of link 2
M 12

F 32 .a 2 .sin 23
n
n

2 .0.001 .r 23.F 32 .0.001


n
n

5-39

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
2000
1700
1400
1100
800
M 12
n

500
200
100
400
700
1000

100

200
n

300

400

The maximum torque M12= 1907 N-m


If friction were neglected ( =0) then the input torque required and the joint forces are:
4
4 10

4
2.6 10

F 56
n
G 161

G 162

F 43
n
F 32
n

4
1.2 10

2000

4
1.6 10

4
3 10

100

200

300

400

5.4 Dynamc Force Analyss/Analiza dinamic/


5.4.1 Center of Mass and Moment of Inertia of a Rigid Body/Centrul de mas si momentul de
inerie al rigidului/
Newton's second law of motion as stated can be A doua lege a lui Newton se poate aplica fr
applied directly if the body considered is of probleme numai dac rigidul are dimeniuni
negligible dimensions. Such bodies we call a neglijabile (particule). Rigidele reale pot fi
particle. Rigid bodies of finite dimensions can socotite ca fiind un sistem de mai multe
be considered to be composed of a system of particule pentru care trebuie s se calculeze
particles. For the rigid bodies we must define centrul de mas i momentul de inerie.
the center of mass and the moment of inertia.

5-40

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.32
Center of Mass, G, is commonly known as the Centrul de mas G (sau centrul de greutate)
center of gravity, and is defined as a point on este n fapt un punct al sistemului de particule a
the rigid body whose position is given by :
crui poziie este dat de:
r
ri m i
r
rG = i
(5.27)
m
Where m = mi , total mass of the rigid body Unde m = mi este masa rigidului format din i
particule.
comprising i particles.
In cartesian coordinates:
ncoordonate carteziene:

xG = ( ximi)/m
yG = ( yimi) /m

(5.28)

Momentul de inerie descrie distribuia maselor


particulelor n rigid. Dac rigidul este n plan
momentul de inerie fa de o ax normal pe
plan i care trece prin originea O este:

Moment of inertia gives us the particles mass


distribution within the rigid body. For rigid
bodies in a plane the moment of inertia with
respect to an axis normal to the plane and
passing through O (origin) is defined by:
I 0 = x i2 + y i2

)m = r

and by definition:

i prin definiie:

k0 =

2
i mi

I0
m

(5.29)

(5.30)

where k0 is known as the radius of gyration of unde k0 este raza de giraie a rigidului fa de
the rigid body with respect to an axis passing axa care trece prin origine.
through O.
The moment of inertia of the rigid body with Momentul de inerie a rigidului fa de centrul
respect to the center of gravity will be given by: de greutate este:
I G = u i2 + v i2 m i
(5.31)
i
We can write I0 as:
Astfel I0 se poate scrie:

I G = (x G + u i ) + (y G + v i ) m i
i

I G = u i2 + v i2 m i + x G2 + y G2
i

) m
i

(5.32)

5-41

+ 2x G u i m i + 2 y G v i m i
i

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Since ui and vi are the coordinates of the Cum ui i vi sunt coordonatele particulei i fa
particle i with respect to the center of gravity de centrul de greutate, uimi = vimi = 0 i
uimi = vimi = 0. Therefore:
deci:

I 0 = I G + mrG2 = m k G2 + rG2

(5.33)

Where kG is the radius of qyration about the


center of gravity and rG is the magnitude of the
position vector of the center of gravity G from
O. We thus have a fundamental theorem:
The moment of inertia of a body about any
axis is equal to the moment of inertia about a
parallel axis passing through the center of
gravity plus the product of the mass of the
rigid body and the square of the distance
between the two axes.

Unde kG este raza de giraie fa de centrul de


greutate iar rG este modulul vectorului de
poziie care leag centrul de greutate G cu
originea O. Avem deci teorema:
Momentul de inerie a unui rigid fa de
oricare ax este egal cu momentul de inerie
fa de o ax paralel ce trece prin centrul
de greutate plus produsul dintre masa
rigidului i ptratul distanei dintre cele
dou axe.

In the table 5.2, moments of inertia of some


simple bodies are shown: For bodies of a
complex shape the moments of inertia can be
computed by separating the rigid body into
some simple shapes and applying parallel axis
theorem.

n tabelul 5.2 sunt date momentele de inerie


pentru cteva tipuri simple de rigide. Pentru
corpurile mai complexe momentele de inerie
pot fi calculate separat pentru corpurile mai
simple componente, apoi compuse prin
aplicarea teoremei de mai sus.

5.4.2 Newton's Second Law of Motion for a Rigid Body/Legea a doua a dinamicii aplicat
micrii rigidului/

According to Newton's second law the rate of Dup legea a doua a dinamicii rata variaiei
change of momentum of a particle is impulsului unei particule este proporional cu
proportional to the resultant external force rezultanta forelor aplicate particulei. Dac o
acting on the particle. For a particle in the rigid asemenea particul de mas mi aparine unui
body of constant mass mi , Newton's second rigid, pentru aceasta legea a doua este:
law becomes:
r
r
r
d 2 (m i ri )
r
Fi + Fji = m i a i =
(5.34)
dt 2
j

5-42

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 5.2

where Fi is the external force acting on particle


i and Fji is the force acting on particle i due to
particle j. Fji is commonly known as the
internal force. If we consider all the particles

unde Fi este fora extern care acioneaz


asupra particulei i, Fji este fora cu care
particula j din rigid acioneaz asupra particulei
i (numit i for intern). Dac sunt

5-43

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

within the rigid body:

considerate toate cele i particule din rigid:


r

d 2 m i ri
r
r
r
i
Fi + Fji = m i a i = dt 2
i
i
j
i
Noting that/observnd c/:
r
r
Fi = F
i

the sum of all the external forces acting on the rigid body/suma forelor externe care
actioneaz asupra rigidului/ .
r
Fji = 0
(5.35)
i

since/cum/ Fij + Fji = 0 due to Newton's third law/datorit legii 2 a lui Newton/
and/i/
r
r

m i ri = mrG
i

We thus have Newton's Second Law of motion Avem astfel n final formularea legii a doua a
for Linear momentum for a rigid body, which dinamicii pentru impulsul liniar al unui rigid:
is:
r d 2 (mrrG ) d(mvr G )
r
F = dt 2 = dt = ma G (5.36)

From this equation one can see that the internal


force has no effect on the motion of the rigid
body, the center of gravity behaves as if the
whole mass were concentrated and the resultant
force F were acting upon this point. The term
mvG is known as the linear momentum of the
rigid body.

Din aceast ecuaie se poate deduce c forele


interne nu au efect asupra micrii rigidului,
centrul de greutate se comport ca i cum
ntreaga mas s-ar concentra n acesta iar fora
rezultant F acioneaz numai asupra sa.
Termenul mvG este denumit impulsul liniar al
rigidului.

Now if we take the moment of the forces in Dac se ia impulsul forelor din ecuaia (5.34)
equation (5.34) with respect to point O, we fa de punctul O, se obine:
obtain:
r r
rr
r r
ri Fi + ri Fji = m i (ri a i )
(5.37)
j

The acceleration of point i, ai, can be written in Acceleraia particulei i, ai, poate fi scris
terms of the acceleration of point O and relative funcie de acceleraia punctului O i
accelerations as:
acceleraiile relative astfel:
ai = a0 + ai/0 = a0 + ai/0 n+ ai/0t

where ai/0t and ai/0 n are the relative tangential


and normal accelerations of point i with respect
to point O. In vector notation these terms are
given by:
ai/0 t=

(5.38)

unde ai/0t i ai/0 n sunt acceleraiile tangeniale i


normale ale particulei i fa de punctul O. n
notaie vectorial:

r r
ri
(5.39)
r
ai/0 n= 2 ri
where and are the angular acceleration and Unde i sunt acceleraia i viteza
velocity of the rigid body respectively.
unghiular ale rigidului.
5-44

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Dac se nlocuiesc relaiile de mai sus n (5.36)


Substituting the above relations into equation
i nsumnd pentru toate particulele rigidului:
(5.36) and summing up for all the particles
within the rigid body results in:
r r
r r
r r
r r
r r
r
ri Fi + ri Fij = (ri a i )m i = ri a 0 + ri 2 ri m i

( (

))

(5.40)

Noting that/Observnd c/:


r
r r
ri Fi = M 0

= sum of the moment acting along an axis passing through O (perpendicular to the
plane)
/=suma momentelor care aciineaz fa de o ax care trece prin O (perpendicular pe
plan)/
r r
ri Fij = 0

(since Fij = -Fji and these forces have same line of action. The summation will be composed
of terms:
/de vreme ce Fij = -Fji iar aceste fore au o direcie comun. Suma va fi alctuit din termen:/
r r r
ri rj Fij = 0

((

The terms on the right hand side of equation Termenii din partea dreapta a ecuaiei (5.40)
(5.40) can be written as:
pot fi scrii ca:
r r
r r
r
r r r
r
r
r r
ri a 0 + ri 2 ri m i = (m i ri ri ) 2 (ri m i ri ) + (m i ri a 0 )

( (

))

Now/Acum/ :
r r
r r
(m i ri a 0 ) = mrG a 0
i

(5.41)

(m i ri ri ) = ri2 m i = I 0
i

r
r
(ri m i ri ) = 0
i

Hence, equation (5.40) simplifies into/Deci ecuaia (5.40) devine/:


r
r r
r
M 0 = mrG a 0 + I 0

r
r
r
r
In general M 0 I 0 . The first term on the n general M 0 I 0 . Primul termen al
right-hand side of equation (5.41) will vanish if membrului din dreapta al ecuaiei (5.41) va
a0=0 or rG=0 or if both are parallel. The deveni zero dac a0=0 sau rG=0 ori dac cele
acceleration of point O is zero if point O is the dou sunt paralele. Acceleraia punctului O este
acceleration pole or if the rigid body is in a nul dac O este polul acceleraiei sau dac
rotation about point O.
rigidul efectueaz o micare de rotaie n lurul
lui O.
rG = 0 means that point O coincides with the
rG = 0 semnific faptul c punctul O coincide
center of gravity G and a0 will be parallel to rG
cu centrul de greutate G i a0 va deveni paralel
only in very special cases. However in any
cu rG doar n anumite situaii speciale. n orice
general case the center of gravity can be made
caz, centrul de greutate poate fi stabilit ca fiind
coincident with the center of the reference axis.
centrul sistemului de referin. Astfel se poate
We thus have Newton's Second Law of
defini legea a doua a dinamicii pentru impulsul

5-45

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Motion for Angular Momentum of a rigid unghiular:


body, which is:
r
r
r
d 2 I G d(I G )
r
M G = dt 2 = dt = I G

(5.42)

5.4.3 D'Alambert's Principle/Principiul lui DAlambert/


Equations (5.36) and (5.42) can be written in Ecuaiile (5.36) i (5.42) pot fi scrise astfel:
the following form:
r
r
F ma G = 0
and/i/
(5.43)
r
r
M

=
0
G G
r
r
Now the term ma G has the magnitude of a Termenul ma G are dimensiunile unui vector.
force. Equation (5.36) is a vector equation Ecuaia (5.36) este o ecuaie vectorial care
which states that the vector sum of all the arat c suma vectorial a tuuror forelor
external forces plus the fictitious (nonexistant) externe plus o anumit for fictiv de
r
r
force of magnitude and direction ma G are mrime i direcie ma G este zero. Fora
r
r
zero. The fictitious force ma G is known as the fictiv ma G este cunoscut sub numele de
inertia force which will be denoted by Fi:
for de inerie i se va nota cu Fi :
ri
r
F = ma G
(5.44)
Fi has the same line of action of aG but is in Fi are aceai direcie cu acceleraia aG dar este
opposite direction.
orientat n sens opus.
r
r
Similarly, the term I G has the magnitude of Asemntor termenul I G are dimensiunile
a moment and equation (5.42) is a vector unui moment i ecuaia (5.42) este o ecuaie
equation which states that the vector sum of all vectorial care arat c suma vectorial a
the external moments about the center of tuturor momentelor externe n raport cu centrul
gravity plus a fictitious moment of magnitude de greutate plus un moment fictiv de mrime i
r
r
and direction I G are zero. This fictitious direcie I G este zero. Acest moment este
moment is known as the inertia torque and it numit moment de inerie i se va nota cu Ti :
will be denoted by Ti :
r
r
T i = I G
(5.45)
Ti is in opposite sense of the angular Ti are sens opus acceleraiei unghiulare .
acceleration . Using inertia force and inertia Folosind rezultatele deduse mai sus, legea a
torque Newton's Second Law of Motion for a doua a dinamicii se poate scrie astfel:
rigid body results with the equations:
r r
F + Fi = 0
and/i/
(5.46)
r
ri
M
+
T
=
0
G

We can as well treat the inertia terms as if they Termenii ineriali definii mai sus pot fi tratai
were another external force or moment acting ca fiind la rndul lor fore sau momente
on the rigid body, in which case:
externe drept care:

5-46

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

F = 0

and/i/

r
MG = 0

where the summation includes both the external


and inertia forces and moments. This concept is
known as D'Alambert's principle which can be
stated as follows:
In a body moving with a known angular
acceleration and a linear acceleration of the
center of gravity, the vector sum of all the
external forces and inertia forces and the
vector sum of all the external moments and
inertia torque are both separately equal to
zero.

(5.47)

unde simbolul sum include att forele i


momentele externe ct i cele ineriale. Acest
concept este cunoscut ca fiind principiul lui
DAlambert care poate fi formulat astfel:
ntr-un rigid care se mic cu o acceleraie
unghiular i o acceleraie liniar a centrului
de greutate cunoscute, suma vectorial a
tuturor forelor externe i celor de inerie
precum i suma vectorial a tuturor
momentelor externe i de inerie, sunt
(fiecare n parte) egale cu zero.

D'Alambert's principle is very useful in the Principiul lui DAlambert este foarte folositor
dynamic force analysis of machinery. In great n analiza dinamic a mecanismelor. n
many problems we know the acceleration majoritatea cazurilor se cunosc sau se pot
characteristics of the members in the machine calcula acceleraiile elementelor cinematice i
structure and we can determine the inertia astfel se pot determina forele i momentele de
forces and torques. These inertia forces and inerie. Aceste componente dinamice ineriale
torques can be treated as if they are external pot fi tratate ca fiind fore externe i atunci
forces and the procedure of static force analysis analiza dinamic se reduce la o analiz de
can be carried out for this dynamic case.
echilibru static.
Consider a rigid body with aG as the Fie un rigid cu aG i cunoscute ca n
acceleration of its center of gravity and as its Fig.5.33-a. Componentele ineriale vor aprea
angular acceleration (Figure.5.33-a). The inertia ca n Fig.5.33-b. Fora de inerie i momentul
force and torque will be as shown in de inerie pot fi combinate ntr-o singur for
Figure.5.33-b. The inertia force and torque can rezultant Ri ca n Fig.5.33-c dac:
be combined into a single resultant, Ri (Figure
c) , if:
r
r
R i = Fi
(5.48)
r ri ri
rR =T
where r is a position vector from the center of unde r este vectorul de poziie de la centrul de
gravity to a point on the line of action of Ri. In greutate la un punct de pe direcia lui Ri. n
such a case the resultant Ri has the magnitude acest caz Ri are mrimea i direcia forei de
and direction of the inertia force Fi and is inerie Fi i este deplasat fa de centrul de
displaced from the center of gravity by a greutate cu o distan hG n sens perpendicular:
perpendicular distance hG such that:
I k2
hG = G = G
(5.49)
ma G
aG
This fictitious force Ri will then replace the For fictiv Ri va nlocui astfel aciunea
effect of the inertia force and torque.
componentelor ineriale.

5-47

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.33
5.5 Dynamc Force Analyss of Machinery/Analiza dinamic a mecanismelor/

In this section we shall assume that the motion


of the machine parts are specified beforehand,
e.g. the position velocity and acceleration of
each rigid body is known or can be calculated
by performing kinematic analysis. We shall
also assume that the mass and the moment of
inertia of each machine member is known or
can be calculated from the given data. There
may be external forces of known magnitude
and direction or friction forces present.
However, we shall assume that there is one
external force (such as the input torque) of an
unknown magnitude but of a known direction
and a point of application. The system is in a
state of dynamic equilibrium under the action
of these forces. We would like to determine the
joint forces, forces acting on the members and
the magnitude of the unknown external force.
The above problem is commonly known as
kinetostatics or Wittenbauer's second
problem. Such a formulation is valid under
steady state conditions. The input speed(s) must
be almost constant for these assumptions to be
valid.
In kinetostatics we determine the velocity and
acceleration of each machine member by
performing kinematic analysis. If the mass and
mass distribution of the members are known,
we can calculate the inertia forces and torques.
Next we apply D'Alambert's principle so that
we can treat the fictitious inertia forces as if
they are external forces. The problem reduces
to static force analysis of machinery.

In aceast seciune se va presupune c este


cunoscut micarea mecanismului n termenii
poziiei, vitezelor i acceleraiilor pentru fiecare
element cinematic. Se presupune deasemenea
c se cunosc masele i momentele de inerie
pentru fiecare element cinematic sau pot fi
calculate din datele existente. Pot exista fore i
momente externe care s acioneze asupra
elementelor cinematice la care se cunosc
mrimea i direcia (punctul) de aciune i
deasemenea se poate presupune existena
forelor rezistente de tip fore de frecare, n
cuple. n orice caz nu se cunoate mrimea
momentului/fora de input la elementul
cinematic conductor (va trebui calculat) dar se
cunoate puctul de aplicare i sensul su.
Mecanismul se presupune a fi n echilibru sub
aciunea tuturor forelor/momentelor specificate
mai sus. Se urmrete calculul forelor din
cuple, din elementele cinematice i mrimea
forelor/momentelor externe (de input)
necunoscute.
Problema definit ca mai sus se numete
problema cinetostatic sau a doua problem
a lui Wittenbauer. Asemenea problem poate
fi rezolvat dac mecanismul nu evolueaz n
condiii de tranzient. Cu alte cuvinte vitezele de
input ale elementelor cinematice conductoare
trebuie s fie aproape constante.
n cinetostatic se determin vitezele i
acceleraiile fiecrui element cinematic prin
analiza cinematic. Dac se cunoate distribuia
masei n elementele cinematice se pot calcula
forele i momentele de inerie. Apoi se aplic
principiul
lui
DAlambert
prin
care
forele/momentele fictive de inerie sunt

5-48

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

asimilate unor forte/momente externe. Prin


acest procedeu problema dinamic se reduce la
o problem de echilibru static a mecanismului.

Example 5.6

Figure 5.34 shows a double slide. Link 2 is


moving with a constant velocity at 2 m/s in
positive Ox direction. Link 3 is a thin rod of
mass m3 = 5 kg and length AB = 500 mm. The
masses of links 2 and 4 are negligible.
Determine the force F12 acting on link 2 and the
joint forces that occur when the mechanism is
in the given state of motion and when x = 200
mm.
Assume the mechanism is operating on a
horizontal plane so that we can neglect the
gravitational acceleration. Also neglect friction.
As a first step, kinematic analysis must be
performed. Writing the loop equation:

Exemplul 5.6

Fig.5.34 nfieaz un mecanism cu dou


cuple de translaie. Elementul 2 se mic cu o
vitez constant de 2 m/s n sensul pozitiv al
axei Ox. Elementul 3 este o bar subire de
mas m3 = 5 kg i lungime AB = 500 mm.
Masele elementelor 2 i 4 sunt neglijabile. S
se determine fora F12 care acioneaz asupra
elementului 2 i forele rezultante din cuple
dac poziia mecanismului este x=200 mm.
Dac se presupune c mecanismul este n plan
orizontal se poate neglija fora de greutate. Se
pot neglija deasemenea i forele de frecare.
Mai nti se face analiza cinematic a
mecanismului. Se scrie ecuaia vectorial de
poziii:

Fig.5.34

x + a 3 e i = iy
Equating the real and imaginary parts:

Dac se egaleaz prile imaginare i reale ntre


ele:

Substituting x = 200 mm we obtain: = Daca se nlocuiete n cele de mai sus x = 200


mm se obine = 113.5780 i y = 458.258 mm.
113.5780 and y = 458.258 mm.
5-49

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Differentiation of the above equations give us Dac se deriveaz ecuaiile de mai sus n raport
the velocity:
cu timpul:

= 4.364 s-1 (CCW)


= -872.872 mms-1
The second differentiation yields/A doua derivat/ (

):

= 8.312 s-2 (CCW)


= -10.390 ms-2
The position, velocity and acceleration of point G3 is/Poziia, viteza i acceleraia punctului
G este/:

substituting the known values/nlocuind cu mrimile cunoscute/:


aG3= 5.194ei(-/2)= 5.194 ms-2 2700

In the second step, we must determine the n al doilea pas de calcul se determin forele i
inertia forces and torques. From Table 5.2 for a momentele de inerie. Din tabelul 5.2 pentru o
bar subire (r=0):
thin rod (r=0):

Hence/Deci/ IG 3=0.10417 kgm2 and:

= 25.97 N 900
865 N-mm (CW)
These forces are as shown in Fig.5.35-a. If a
graphical solution is to be performed, inertia
force and torque can be replaced by a single
resultant (Fig.5.35-b), which is at a distance h
from the center of gravity. h is given by:

Aceste fore sunt schematizate n Fig.5.35-a.


Dac se procedeaz cu rezolvarea grafic, fora
i momentul de inerie se pot nlocui cu o
singur for rezultant (Fig.5.35-b), aflat la
distana h fa de centrul de greutate. h este:

5-50

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.5.35

For the force analysis we proceed as if the Mai departe forele de inerie sunt tratate ca i
inertia forces were external forces and apply the cum ar fi fore externe aplicnd metodele
methods that were described before for a force echilibrului static al mecanismului.
analysis.

Graphical Method.

Fig.5.36
Metoda grafic

Link 4 is a two force, link 3 and link 2 are


three force members. For link 3, since R3i is
known, we determine the point of concurrency
of the three forces and draw the force polygon
for the equilibrium equation: R3i +F23+F43=0 as
shown in Fig.5.36. For link 4, G14=-F34=F43.

Elementul 4 este ncrcat cu 2 fore iar 2 i 3 au


3 fore.Pentru elementul 3 cum R3i este
cunoscut, se determin punctul de concuren
ale celor 3 fore i se deseneaz poligonul
forelor la echilibru: R3i +F23+F43=0 aa cum se
vede n Fig.5.36. Pentru elementul 4 G14=-

5-51

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

For link 2, F32+F12+G12=0. Since F32 = -F23 ,


the force polygon for the equilibrium equation
is that drawn for link 3 with all the arrows
reversed. Hence G12= - R3i and F12= -F43 .

F34=F43. Pentru elementul 2 F32+F12+G12


=0. Cum F32 = -F23 , poligonul forelor pentru
elementul 3 se deseneaz cu sgeile nversate.
Deci G12= - R3i i F12= -F43 .

Fig.5.37
Analytical Method

Metoda analitic

In the analytical method, since the moment and


force equilibrium equations are going to be
used separately, one need not combine the
inertia force and torque into a single resultant.
The free body diagrams of the moving links are
as shown in Fig.5.37.

n metoda analitic de vreme ce fora i


momentul de inerie apar n ecuaii de echilibru
diferite, nu mai este nevoie s fie combinate
ntr-o rezultant cum s-a fcut mai sus.Schema
mecanismului este dat n Fig.5.37.

Since/Cu:m/
F43=F43 1800
F3i= 25.97 N 900
For link 3 the equilibrium equations are/Pentru elementul 3 ecuaia de echilibru este/:
F43 - F23x = 0
F3i - F23y = 0
and the moment equilibrium about point A is/i momentul fa de punctul A este/:
500F43sin(180-113.578) + 250(25.97)sin(90-113.578)-865 = 0
or/sau/
458.258 F43 = 3461.981
F43 = 7.555 N 1800
F32= -F23 = 27.04 N 106.220
F23x = 7.555 N 00

F12 = 7.555 N 00

F23y = 25.97 N 2700

G12 = 25.97 N 2700

F23 = 27.04 N -73.780

5-52

G14 = F43

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.6 Dynamc Force Analyss of a Four-Bar Mechansm/Analiza dinamic a unui mecanism


patrulater/

In order to design links and joints one must


determine the worst loading conditions of each
link and joint. In order to select the driving
motor characteristics, input torque for the
whole cycle is required. In such cases analytical
methods suitable for numerical computation is
utilized.

Pentru proiectarea dimensional a elementelor


cinematice i a cuplelor trebuie identificat
acea poziie a mecanismului n care
elementele/cuplele sunt cel mai greu
ncrcate/solicitate. Pentru alegerea motorului
electric de acionare trebuie determinat modul
de variaie al momentului de input la elementul
conductor pentru ntregul ciclu de funcionare
al mecanismului. n aceste cazuri simularea
numeric a funcionrii mecanismului este
esenial iar metodele analitice de rezolvare
sunt preferabile metodelor grafice.

n cele ce urmeaz se va proceda la analiza


dinamic general a unui mecanism patrulater
iar rezultatele se vor aplica la un mecanism
patrulater particular.
Pentru mecanismul din Fig.5.38, ecuaiile de
Referring to the figure 5.38, the equations for
poziie, viteze, acceleraii sunt date mai jos:
the position, velocity and acceleration analysis
of the four-bar mechanism are:
In this part a general dynamic analysis of a
four-bar mechanism will be explained and the
results will be applied to a particular four-bar
for a complete force analysis.

E
Fig.5.38
(Note that rcos and rsin terms must be solved (S se observe c termenii care conin rcos i
for r and simultaneously and the correct rsin trebuie
rezolvai
simultan
pentru
quadrant must be ensured. The function signum determinarea lui r i . Funcia semn este =
is = 1 depending on whether the mechanism 1 dup cum mecanismul este n configuraie
is of open or cross configuration.)
deschis sau ncruciat.)

5-53

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Position Analysis/Analiza poziiilor/

Velocity Analysis/Analiza vitezelor/

Acceleration Analysis/Analiza acceleraiilor/

The above equations can be written in different forms/Ecuaiile de mai sus pot fi scrise n
forme diferite/
Acceleration of the centers of gravity/Acceleriile centrelor de greutate/

Using the above equations, one can determine Folosind ecuaiile de mai sus se pot determina
the angular acceleration of the links and the acceleraiile unghiulare ale elementelor i ale
linear accelerations of the centers of gravity for centrelor lor de greutate pentru orice valori de
5-54

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

any input condition (input position, velocity


and acceleration).
For dynamic force analysis in addition of the
inertia forces, we shall assume known external
forces F13 and F14 acting on links 3 and 4 and
an unknown torque, T12 acting on link 2 as
shown in Fig. 5.39. The system is in dynamic
equilibrium under theaction of these forces. We
would like to determine the input Torque and
the joint forces.

input precum poziii, viteze i acceleraii la


elementul conductor.
Pentru analiza dinamic se consider tiute (pe
lng forele de inerie) forele externe F13 i
F14 care actioneaz asupra elementelor 3 i 4,
iar momentul T12 care acioneaz asupra
elementului conductor 2 este necunoscut i
trebuie calculat (Fig. 5.39). Mecanismul se
consider n echilibru sub aciunea acestor
fore. Se vor calcula deci momentul de input i
forele care actioneaz asupra cuplelor.

Fig.5.39
Note that:
F2i=-m2aG2 , F3i=-m3aG3, F4i=-m4aG4

and
T2i=-IG212 , T3i=-IG3G3 , T4i=-IG414
The free body diagrams of each moving link Mai jos se deseneneaz schemele fiecrui
can be drawn and the equilibrium equations can element n parte i se scriu ecuaiile de
be written:
echilibru:

Fig.5.40
For link 4/Elementul 4/

F34x +G14x+F14cos4-m4aG4x=0
F34y +G14y+F14sin4-m4aG4y=0
5-55

(1)
(2)

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

F34ya4sin(/2-14) + F34xa4sin(-14) + F14f4sin(4-14-4) - I414


- m4aG4xg4sin(-14-4)-m4aG4yg4sin(/2-14-4) = 0 (3)
For link 3/Elementul 3/
F23x -F34x+F13cos3-m3aG3x=0

(4)

F23y -F34y+F13sin3-m3aG3y=0

(5)

F34xa3sin(-13) + F34ya3sin(-/2-13) + F13f3sin(3-13-3) - I313


- m3aG3xg3sin(-13-3)-m3aG3yg3sin(/2-13-3) = 0 (6)

Fig.5.47

Fig.5.41
For link 2/Elementul 2/
-F23x +G12x - m2aG2x=0
(7)
-F23y +G12y - m2aG2y=0
(8)
F23xa2sin(-12) + F23ya2sin(-/2-12) + T12 - I212
- m2aG2xg2sin(-12-2)-m2aG2yg2sin(/2-12-2) = 0 (9)
Hence, we obtain nine linear equations in n final se observ c s-au scirs 9 ecuaii
nine unknowns (Gl4x, Gl4y, F34x, F34y, F23x, F23y, liniare cu 9 necunoscute (Gl4x, Gl4y, F34x, F34y,
Gl2x, Gl2y and T12). If a computer subroutine for F23x, F23y, Gl2x, Gl2y and T12). Dac exist
the matrix solution is available, these equations programe de computer dedicate se pot calcula
can be solved directly for the unknowns. direct necunoscutele. Mai simplu ar fi s se
However, it is much simpler to solve equations rezolve simultan ecuaiile (3) i (6) pentru
(3) and (6) simultaneously for F34y and F34x and aflarea lui F34y i F34x apoi se vor rezolva restul
then solve for each unknown from the de ecuaii.
remaining equations.

5-56

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

A= + I414 +m4 g4[aG4y cos(14+4) - aG4xsin(14+4) ]- F14f4sin(4-14-4)


B= + I313 +m3 g3[aG3y cos(13+3) - aG3xsin(13+3) ]- F13f3sin(3-13-3)
F34x= [Aa3cos13+Ba4cos14] /[a3a4sin(13-14)]
F34y= [Aa3sin13+Ba4sin14] /[a3a4sin(13-14)]
G14x=-F34x+m4aG4x-F14cos4
G14y=-F34y+m4aG4y-F14sin4
F23x= F34x+m3aG3x-F13cos3
F23y= F34y+m3aG3y-F13sin3
G12x= F23x+m2aG2x
G12y= F23y+m2aG2y
T12 = F23ya2cos(12) - F23xa2sin(12) + I212
+ m2 g2[ aG2ysin(12+2) -aG2xsin(12+2)]
Example 5.7
Exemplul 5.7
The four-bar mechanism shown in is used to cut Fie un mecanism patrulater folosit pentru
running strip of material. The input link is tierea unei benzi metalice. Elementul
rotating at a constant speed of 900 rpm CCW. conductor se rotte cu 900 rpm in sens
The link dimensions are: A0A=85mm, trigonometric. Dimensiunile sunt: A0A=85mm,
AB=235mm, B0B=550mm, BC=238mm, AC= AB=235mm, B0B=550mm, BC=238mm, AC=
BAC3=7.60
, 467mm
BAC3=7.60
,
467mm
B0C=487
B0C=487
0
0
Folosind
programul
BB0C4=25.6 . Using SolidWorks modeller, BB0C4=25.6 .
the mass properties for links 3 and 4 are found SolidWorks se determin proprietile de mas
as: m3= 2 kg, k3= 268mm, AG3=231mm, ale elementelor 3 i 4 astfel: m3= 2 kg, k3=
BAG3=10 (CW), m4=5.1 kg, k4=424mm , 268mm, AG3=231mm, BAG3=10 (CW),
B0G4= 305mm , BB0G4=70 (CW). For link 2 m4=5.1 kg, k4=424mm , B0G4= 305mm ,
m2= 3 kg, k2= 100mm and its center of gravity BB0G4=70 (CW). Pentru elementul 2 m2= 3
is coincident with A0. We are to determine the kg, k2= 100mm i centrul su de greutate este
input torque required and the joint forces. We coincident cu A0. Se calculeaz momentul de
can neglect friction. A cutting force of 2000 N input i reaciunile din cuple. Frecarea se
acts vertically on both links 3 and 4 at point C neglijeaz. Fora de tiere este 2000 N i
is acioneaz vertical pe elementele 3 i 4 n C
when
the
crank
angle
12
0
0
0
0
124 <12<156 . MathCad solution for this cnd unghiul la manivel este 124 <12<156 .
Soluiile folosind MathCad sunt:
example is as follows:

Fig.5.42

5-57

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Link dimensions:
a1

410

b1

370

conv

a2

85

a3

235

a4

180
550

"Constant speed is assumed"


900.
12 0
30
Increment crank angle for every 2 degrees."
12

0 .. 180

2 .i .conv

12

2 .i

mi

m is crank angle in degrees

Solve for position variables


a 2 .cos 12
i

x1

si

x1

acos

14

a4

a3

2 .a 4 .s i

13

acos

14

b1

angle x 1 , y 1
i
i

si

a 2 .sin 12
i

y1

y1

a1

a3

a4

si

2 .a 4 .a 3

150
135
14
i
conv

120
105
90

13
i

75

conv

60
i

45

conv

30
15
0

13
i

14
i

12.

12.

a2
a3

a2
a4

40

80

120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


m
i

sin 12
i

14

sin 14
i

13

i
i

sin 12
i

13

sin 14
i

13

5-58

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

13

2
a 2 . 12 .cos 12
i

2
a 3 . 13 .cos 14
i
i

14

a 3 .sin 14
i

2
a 2 . 12 .cos 12
i

14

13

13

2
a 4 . 14 .cos 14
i
i

a 4 .sin 14
i

a 4 . 14
i

13

13

a 3 . 13
i

13

40
32
24
16
13
i
14
i

8
0
8
16
24
32
40

40

80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


m
i

4000
3000
2000
1000
13
i
14
i

0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000

40

80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


m
i

Acceleration of the centres of gravity of the links (in mm/s2):


g3

231

a G3x
i

a G3y

1 .conv

g4

305

7 .conv

2
a 2 . 12 .cos 12
i

2
g 3 . 13 .cos 13
i
i

2
a 2 . 12 .sin 12
i

2
g 3 . 13 .sin 13
i
i

5-59

3
3

g 3 . 13 .sin 13
i
i

g 3 . 13 .cos 13
i
i

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

a G4x

2
g 4 . 14 .cos 14
i
i

g 4 . 14 .sin 14
i
i

a G4y

2
g 4 . 14 .sin 14
i
i

g 4 . 14 .cos 14
i
i

Mass properties (mass in kg and the radii of gyration, ki, in mm)


m2

k4

k2

100

424

m3
10

k3

268

m4

5.1

This constant C is to be used to convert mm to m.


(Note that 1kg m/s2= 1 N)
The external forces:
f3

F ext

7.5.conv

475

f4

.
25.6353conv

495

62.. 78

F ext

2000

This external force will act vertically on both links 3


and 4 in opposite direction

2000
F ext
i

200
m
i

400

Determine the joint forces and the input torque.


Note that the joint forces are in Newton and the
torque is in Newton-meter
2
m 4 .k 4 . 14
i

Ai

Bi

m 4 .g 4 . a G4y .cos 14
i
i

2
m 3 .k 3 . 13

F 34x

m 3 .g 3 . a G3y .cos 13

A i .a 3 .cos 13
i

Bi .a 4 .cos 14
i

a 4 .a 3 .cos 13
i

14

a G4x .sin 14
i
i

.C

5-60

a G3x .sin 13
i

f 4 .F ext .

cos 14
i

f 3 .F ext .
i

cos 13
i
C

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

A i .a 3 .sin 13
i

F 34y

Bi .a 4 .sin 14
i

a 4 .a 3 .sin 13
i

G 14x

G 14y

m 4 .a G4y .C

F 34x

F 23y

F 34y

C.m 3 .a G3y

F ext

C. F 23y .a 2 .cos 12
i
i

T 12

F ext

C.m 3 .a G3x

F 23x

F 34y

.C

m 4 .a G4x .C

F 34x

14

F 23x .a 2 .sin 12
i
i

Input torque as a function of crank rotation:


4

4 10

3.2 10

2.4 10

1.6 10

8000
T 12
i

0
8000
4

1.6 10

2.4 10

3.2 10

4 10

0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


m
i

Convert the forces to polar form


F 23

F 23x

F 34

F 34x

F 34y

G 14

23
i

F 23y

34
i

G 14x

G 14y

5-61

14
i

angle F 23x , F 23y


i
i

angle F 34x , F 34y


i
i

angle G 14x , G 14y


i
i

Force Analysis in Mechanisms /Analiza Dinamic a Mecanismelor/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
5
5 10
5
4.5 10
5
4 10
5
3.5 10
5
3 10
F 23
i

5
2.5 10
5
2 10
5
1.5 10
5
1 10
4
5 10
0

5 10
4.5 10
4 10
3.5 10
3 10
F 34
i

2.5 10
2 10
1.5 10
1 10
5 10

40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


m
i

40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


m
i

5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
0

5
5 10
5
4.5 10
5
4 10
5
3.5 10
5
3 10
G 14
i

5
2.5 10
5
2 10
5
1.5 10
5
1 10
4
5 10
0

40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400


m
i

5-62

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

INDEX/CUPRINS/
6.0 GEAR TRAINS/TRENURI DE ROI DINATE/ ________________________________________2
6.1 GENERAL ISSUES, CLASIFICATION/GENERALITAI, CLASIFICRI/______________________________2
6.2 THE FUDAMENTAL LAW OF GEARING/LEGEA FUNDAMENTAL A ANGRENRII/ __________________4
6.3 Curves to be Used for Teeth Profiles Generation /Curbele Folosite Pentru Construcia Profilului
Danturii Roilor Dinate/ _____________________________________________________________7
6.4 The Gear Basic Rack/Cremaliera de Referin/ ________________________________________9
6.5 GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SIMPLE GEARS/ ELEMENTELE GEOMETRICE ALE ROILOR
DINATE CILINDRICE CU DINI DREPI/ _________________________________________________10
6.6 SIMPLE GEAR TRAINS/ TRENURI DE ROI DINATE CILINDRICE/ ______________________________12
6.7 PLANETARY GEAR TRAINS/TRENURI DE ROI DINATE PLANETARE/ __________________________16
6.8 GEAR TRAINS WITH BEVEL GEARS/TRENURI DE ROI DINATE CONICE/________________________22

6-1

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.0 Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/


6.1 General Issues, Clasification/Generalitai, Clasificri/
The mechanisms with external or internal spur
gears are simple devices very often used in
many applications. They are composed by at
least two spur gears working in tandem with the
purpose of transmitting rotating motion and
torque between two axles (shafts) placed at a
small relative distance, by the means of
pressing the tooth of the pinion against the
second gear tooth.

Mecanismele cu roi dinate sunt cele mai


simple mecanisme ntlnite n practic. Ele sunt
formate din cel puin dou roi dinate, care au
rolul de a transmite micarea de rotaie i
puterea ntre doi arbori situai la distan mic
unul de altul, prin fora de apsare a dintelui
roii conductoare pe cel al roii conduse.

The spur gears mechanisms are very often used


for many kinds of machines, installations or
devices, having a broad range of dimensions
(small, medium and big), having simple teeth
(straight, oblique and helical) or complex ones
(V shape, W shape etc.).

Mecanismele cu roi dinate sunt foarte utilizate


n construcia de maini, aparate i instalaii,
fiind de dimensiuni diferite (mici, mijlocii i
mari), avnd danturi simple (cu dini drepi,
nclinai sau curbi) sau compuse (cu dini n V
sau n W).

The Gear is a cinematic link with equally Roata Dintaa este un element cinematic, care
deployed teeth at its circular boundary. A gear are la periferia sa dini dispui n mod regulat
pe o suprafa de revoluie. O roat dinat se
has three areas:
compune din trei pri:

The hub mounted on the axle via


(usually) parallel or taper keys,
The crown with teeth,
The link between the hub and the
crown which may be solid or with
spokes.

The Gearing has at least two gears rotating on


two shafts with fixed relative positions, one of
the gears named pinion putting in motion the
second gear via the teeth which are in
intermittent and successive contact. The
process of so transmitting the motion between
the two axles is named gearing.

butucul roii, montat pe arbore, de


regul prin pene longitudinale;
partea dinat (coroana), care cuprinde
dantura i obada roii;
spie sau disc, care reprezint partea de
legtur dintre butuc i dantur.

Angrenajul este format din dou roi dinate


mobile n jurul a dou axe avnd poziie
relativ invariabil, una din aceste roi
(conductoare) antrennd-o pe cealalt
(condus) prin intermediul dinilor aflai
succesiv i continu n contact. Procesul
continuu de contact dintre dinii celor dou roi
dinate conjugate se numete angrenare.
The gearing with two gears is the

Angrenajele alctuite din dou roi


simple gearing,
dinate se numesc angrenaje simple.
The gearing with multiple gears are the

Angrenajele alctuite din cel puin


gear trains.
trei roi dinate se numesc angrenaje
multiple sau trenuri cu roi dinate.
The gearing classification may support various Clasificarea angrenajelor poate fi fcut din
mai multe puncte de vedere:
6-2

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

a) Dup poziia relativ a axelor celor


dou roi, angrenajele pot fi:

criteria:
a) Considering the relative positions of
the axles axes one may define:
Parallel gearing (Fig.6.1.a);
Concurent gearing (Fig.6.1.b);
Crossed gearing (Fig.6.1c).
Planetary gearing (Fig.6.3)

paralele (vezi Fig.6.1.a);


concurente (vezi Fig.6.1.b);
ncruciate (vezi Fig.6.1c).
planetare (Fig.6.3)

Dac o roat dinat are un numr de dini z


foarte mare, care tinde la infinit acesta
genereaz o cremalier dinat. Angrenajul
format dintr-o roat dinat i o cremalier
dinat servete la transformarea micrii de
rotaie n micare de translaie i invers (vezi
Fig.6.2).
b) Dup forma dinilor roilor componente, pot
b) Taking into account the form of the fi:
teeth one may define:

Whether a gear has an infinite number of teeth


then this new gear is called Gear Rack. The
gearing formed by a gear and a gear rack is
meant to transform the rotation motion of the
gear in translation motion of the Gear Rack
(and vice versa- Fig.6.2).

Straight teeth (Fig.6.1);


Oblique teeth (Fig.6.1);
Helical teeth;
V shape teeth;
W shape teeth.

6-3

cu dini drepi (vezi Fig.6.1);


cu dini nclinai (vezi Fig.6.1);
cu dini curbi;
cu dini n V;
cu dini n W.

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.6.1
b) Dup profilul dinilor angrenajelor, pot
c) Taking into account the teeth profile one
fi:
may define:

Profiles defied by an evolvent;


Cycloid profiles;
Circle-arc profiles;
Special curves.

evolventice (profilul este evolventic);


cicloidale (profilul este o cicloid);
arc de cerc (profilul este un arc de cerc);
speciale (profilul este o alt curb);

d) Counting the form of the gears:

c) Dup forma roilor:

Cylindrical gears;
Bevel gears;
Worm gearing (Fig.6.1c).

roi cilindrice (vezi Fig.6.1a);


roi conice (vezi Fig.6.1b);
roi melcate (vezi Fig.6.1c).

Fig.6.2

Fig.6.3

6.2 The Fudamental Law of Gearing/Legea Fundamental a Angrenrii/


Lets consider a gearing with two gears with
centres in points O1 and O2 (Fig.6.4) having
their teeth profiles in contact in the point M. In
this contact point M is established so an inferior
kinematic pair. Actually here on M point we
have two superposed points belonging to each
gear. The vectorial equation for the velocity of
point M2, belonging to gear number 2, is:

M 1 (1)

Se consider dou roi dinate cu centrele n O1


i O2 (vezi Fig.6.4) ai cror dini au profilele n
contact n punctul M. n punctul M avem o
cupl de clasa a IVa format de contactul a doi
dini. n M avem dou puncte suprapuse.
Ecuaia vectorial a vitezei punctului M2, ce
aparine profilului roii (2) este :

M 2 ( 2)

6-4

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.6.4

v M 2 = v M1 + v M 2M1
MO2 MO1

tt

'

(6.1)

v M1 = O1 M 1

It is common sense to say that the velocities of Plecnd de la observaia c vitezele punctelor
the superposed points M1 M2, on the common suprapuse M1 M2, n momentul considerat al
perpendicular direction (n n) are equal, then: micrii pe normala comun (n n) sunt egale,
se poate scrie relaia:
prnn ' (v M1 ) = prnn ' (v M 2 ) v M1 cos 1 = v M 2 cos 2
1O1 M 1 cos 1 = 2 O 2 M 2 cos 2
1
424
3
1424
3
v M1

(6.2)

vM 2

For/Deoarece/: O1 M 1 cos 1 = O1 K 1
O 2 M 2 cos 2 = O 2 K 2

we may derive the relations/se deduc relaiile/:


1 O 2 K 2
=
2 O1 K 1 (6.3)
Since the squared triangles O1K1C and O2K2C Din asemnarea triunghiurilor dreptunghice:
are similar, we have:
O1K1C i O2K2C rezult:
1 O1 K 1 = 2 O 2 K 2 ; i 12 =

6-5

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

i12 =

1 O 2 C
=
= ct.
2 O1C

(6.4)

where i12 is the gear ratio.

Unde i12 este raportul de transmitere.

The fundamental law of gearing is:

Enunul legii fundamentale a angrenrii:

In order to have two gears teeth profiles


transmitting the rotating motion with a
constant gear ratio between tow shafts, it is
needed that the common perpendicular line
n-n to the both profiles to intersect all the
time a fixed point C named the gearing pole
and placed on the line connecting the centers
of the gears (center line). The point C is
dividing this center line in two segments
having their length ratio equal to the gear
ratio.

Pentru ca dou profile s asigure un raport


de transmitere constant este necesar ca
normala comun (n n) la cele dou profile
s treac tot timpul printr-un punct fix C,
numit polul angrenrii, punct situat pe linia
centrelor, pe care o mparte ntr-un raport
egal cu cel de transmitere.

By noting 1 , 2 -angular velocities of gears;


n1, n2 the rotative speeds of gears (rpm); O1C
= r W 1, O2C = r W 2 the pitch circle radiuses; z1,
z2 number of teeth for each gear, the
fundamental law becomes:

Notnd cu 1 , 2 - vitezele unghiulare ale


roilor; n1, n2 turaia roilor; O1C = r W 1, O2C
= r W 2 razele cercurilor de rostogolire; z1, z2
numrul de dini, legea fundamental se poate
scrie astfel:

rW
1 n 1
z
=
= 2 = 2 = ct. (6.5)
2 n 2
rW1
z1
where the positive sign is for the internal n care semnul plus se ia pentru angrenarea
interioar i semnul minus pentru angrenarea
gearing and minus for external gearing.
exterioar.
Observaii:
Notes:
i 12 =

Equation (6.5) works for any type of Relaia (6.5) se aplic tuturor mecanismelor
cu roi dinate avnd axele fixe,
gearings with fixed shafts;
The relative velocity v
of the Viteza relativ de alunecare v M 2 M1 dintre
M 2 M1

geared profiles is smaller if point M is


moving closer to gearing pole C. In C
its value is zero and after passing the
point M, it starts to increase again in
opposite direction. As a consequence
of this variable velocity v M 2 M1 is

cele dou profile este cu att mai mic cu ct


punctul M se apropie de polul angrenrii C.
Aceast vitez n punctul C se anuleaz, dup
care i schimb sensul. Consecinele prezenei
vitezei relative de alunecare

v M M sunt:
1 2

frecrile, uzura danturii, nclzirea, consum de


mecanic
i
implicit
scderea
friction on teeth flanks, wearing, lucru
randamentului
transmisiei.
heating, decreasing of the transmitted
Consecinele schimbrii de sens a vitezei
power.
Other consequences of v M 2 M1 is relative de alunecare v M1M 2 sunt: ruperea
de
lubrifiant,
turbionarea
breaking the continuity of lubricant peliculei
film, noise in function, micro-spots of lubrifiantului, mrirea rezistenei hidraulice,
6-6

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

welding on flanks and the pitting of apariia zgomotului i intrarea danturilor n


contact direct sub o for mare de natur
flanks.
dinamic, ceea ce produce un fenomen
instantaneu de sudur, i ciupire, (denumit
pitting) care genereaz oboseala superficial a
materialelor.
6.3 Curves to be Used for Teeth Profiles Generation /Curbele Folosite Pentru Construcia
Profilului Danturii Roilor Dinate/
The curves to be used for the teeth of gears Curbele folosite pentru construcia profilului
should observe the fundamental law of gearing. danturii roilor trebuie s respecte legea
There is such a class of curves namely the fundamental a angrenrii. Curbele care
cyclic curves such as involute, epicycloids, respect aceast lege sunt curbele ciclice de
nfurare reciproc. Dintre aceste curbe ciclice
hypocycloids etc.
evolventa,
epicicloida,
enumerm:
The most often used is the involute having hipocicloida.
Dintre aceste curbe ciclice cea mai folosit este
certain advantages as:
evolventa datorit avantajelor pe care le
prezint:
Can be generated using simple tools,
Capacity to transmit high loads se execut cu scule simple, de serie;
maintaining constant direction and capacitate de transmitere ct mai mare, prin
meninerea constant a direciei i a mrimii
magnitude of transmitted forces,
forelor,
cu alunecare redus i durabilitate
Ensure interchangeability,
mare;
Noiseless functioning,
asigur interschimbabilitatea;
Low sensitivity to execution errors.
funcionare silenioas, fr ocuri;
sensibilitate redus n procesul angrenrii
la erorile de execuie (abateri de profil i
pas) i de montaj (abateri de la distana
dintre axe i de la paralelismul axelor de
rotaie).
The involute
Evolventa

The involute is a plane curve generated by a


point M placed on a generating line D which
rolls on a fixed circle with radius (rb) named
base circle (Fig.6.5).
The involute has two branches E and E
concurent to a return point M0 placed on the
base circle. The same involute can be
kinematically generated with a rotating base
circle around the center O with an angular
velocity and the line D having a pure
translation motion with the velocity v = rb
so that to meet the condition of reciprocal
rolling between line D and the base circle.

Evolventa este o curb plan descris de un


punct M care aparine unei drepte generatoare
(D), care se rostogolete fr alunecare pe un
cerc fix, de raz (rb) numit cerc de baz (vezi
Fig.6.5).
Evolventa are dou ramuri E i E cu punctul de
ntoarcere M0 ce se gsete pe cercul de baz.
Aceeai evolvent poate fi generat i
cinematic, dnd cercului de baz o micare de
rotaie n jurul centrului (O) cu viteza
unghiular iar dreptei (D), o micare de pur
translaie cu viteza v = rb astfel ca s fie
ndeplinit condiia de pur rostogolire ntre
dreapta (D) i cercul de baz.

The polar coordinates inv and (r) of the Coordonatele polare inv i (r) ale evolventei,
involute depends on the pressure angle as n funcie de parametrul (unghi de presiune)
6-7

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

follows:

se deduc pe baza observaiei c:

Fig.6.5
arc(M 0 T ) = rb (inv + )
= inv = tg
arc(M 0 T ) = MT = rb tg
= tg = inv = ev

(6.6)

rb
cos
The cartesian coordinates x, y of involute are/Coordonatele carteziene x, y ale evolventei sunt/:
r=

x = OTx + Tx M x = rb sin(180 o inv. ) +


{
1442443

Ty OT
Ty OT

+ rb (inv + ) cos(180 inv. )


14
4244
3

MT arcM 0 T

y = OT + M T = r cos(180 o inv. ) +
y
y y
b

+ rb (inv + ) sin(180 o inv. )


14243

MT arcM 0 T

(6.7)

Taking into account (6.6)/innd cont de relaia (6.6), se obine/:

x = rb [sin( tg ) tg cos( tg )]
(6.8)

y = rb [cos( tg ) + tg sin( tg )]
Length S of involute arc can be calculated with/Lungimea (S) a arcului de evolvent se obine din
relaia/:
dS = dx 2 + dy 2
tg
dx = rb
sin( tg ) d
cos 2
tg
dy = rb
cos( tg ) d
cos 2

(6.9)

By manipulating relations (6.9)/Prin combinarea relaiilor (6.9) se obine/:


dS = rb

tg

tg
cos 2

1
S = rb
d = rb tg 2
2 6-8
2
cos
0

(6.10)

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

The involute arc S is proportional to the square of pressure angles tangent/Deci arcul de evolvent
(S) crete cu ptratul tangentei unghiului/:
inv. + = tg
(6.11)
It may be demonstrated that the curvature radius/Se poate demonstra ca raza de curbur/
3/ 2

dx 2 dy 2


+
d
d
(6.12)
MT
=
dx d 2 y dy d 2 x

d d 2 d d 2
The way to generate the involute and its Modul de generare a evolventei i ecuaiile ei
pun n eviden cteva proprieti:
equations shows some conclusions:

All the perpendicular lines to the


involute are tangent to the base circle,
From (6.12) we may derive that the
curvature center of involute in point M
is the line MT so that:

M = MT
M0 = 0

The line which is perpendicular in M


to D can generate the involute so that
the flanks of the generating tool may be
a straight line,
When
rb
the
involute

degenerates into a straight line,

Normalele la evolvent sunt tangente la


cercul de baz.
Din relaia (6.12) rezult c centrul de
curbur al evolventei n punctul M, este
tocmai MT deci:

(6.13)

Dreapta perpendicular n M pe D,
nfoar evolventa, deci evolventa
poate fi prelucrat i cu o scul cu
profil rectiliniu.
Cnd rb evolventa degenereaz

ntr-o dreapt.

6.4 The Gear Basic Rack/Cremaliera de Referin/


The shape and dimensions of teeth profile are Forma i dimensiunile profilului danturii sunt
definite de cremaliera de referin.
defined by gear basic rack.

The geometrical characteristics of the basic


rack are defined inside the applicable standards.
Supposing that one of the gears has the base
circle radius rb then the base circle and
the pitch circle degenerate into a straight line
(base line) and the gear degenerate into a rack.
The geometrical characteristics of basic rack
are shown in Fig.6.6. The generating rack is the
negative of the base rack.

6-9

Elementele geometrice ale cremalierei de


referin pentru dantura n evolvent, sunt
definite i standardizate. Presupunnd c una
din roile angrenajului are raza cercului de baz
rb , cercul de divizare i cel de baz se
transform ntr-o linie dreapt (linie de
referin), iar roata respectiv se transform n
cremalier.
Elementele
geometrice
ale
cremalierei de referin sunt urmtoarele (vezi
Fig.6.6). Cremaliera generatoare este negativul
cremalierei de referin.

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

0 = 20 o (Pressure angle of the basic profile/unghiul profilului de referin/);

c *0 =

c0
c Base clearence/jocul de referin ( joc de cap ); p0 pitch/pasul de referin;
= 0,25 0
m

h *0a =

h 0a
= 1,0
m

Fig.6.6
h0a addendum/nlimea capului de referin;

r0 = 0.38 m
h *0f =

h 0f
= 1,25
m

h0f dedendum/nlimea piciorului de referin/;

(6.14)

Whole depth/nlimea dintelui de referin /

h 0 = h 0a + h 0f
m=

-(root/raza de racordare);

p0

Module-standardised/modulul standardizat /

6.5 Geometrical characteristics of the simple gears/ Elementele Geometrice ale Roilor
Dinate Cilindrice cu Dini Drepi/

The base rack geometrical characteristics n funcie de elementele geometrice ale


define all the geometrical characteristics of a cremalierei de referin se pot defini
principalele elemente geometrice ale roii
gear (Fig.6.7).
dinate (Fig.6.7).
On the pitch circle the circular tooth thickness Pe cercul de divizare grosimea unui dinte este
is equal to half of the circular pitch. The egal cu jumtate din pasul danturii.Diametrul
diameter of the pitch circle and module are cercului de rostogolire se noteaz cu dw.
Valoarea modulului obinut se standardizeaz
standardized.
p
d
d
p0 =
m= 0 =
d =mz
(6.15)
z
z
Distana de referin dintre axele roilor (care este standardizata):

a=

d1 d 2 m
+
= (z 1 + z 2 )
2
2
2

6-10

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

a-English terminology and notation/Notaia i terminologia n sistemul englez/

b-ISO notation/Notaiile ISO/


Fig.6.7

6-11

(6.16)

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

6.6 Simple Gear Trains/ Trenuri de Roi dinate cilindrice/

The geometric representation of a gear train


with one gear pair is shown below Fig.6.8. The
circles drawn as centerline are the known as the
pitch circle of the gear. The point of contact P,
is the point where the relative velocity between
the two links is zero (there is pure rolling and
no sliding between the toothed surfaces). The
gear ratio R23 is defined as:
R 23 =

Un tren de roi dinate cu o singur pereche de


roi este dat n Fig.6.8. Cercurile sunt cercurile
de divizare ale rotilor dinate. Punctul de
contact P este punctul n care viteza relativ
dintre cele dou roi (elemente cinematice) este
zero (adic exist rostogolire pur i nu exist
alunecare ntre flancurile dinilor). Raportul de
transmitere a angrenajului R23 este:

13 n 13
=
12 n 12

where n1j is the angular speed of link j with unde n1j este turaia rotii j fa de elementul fix
respect to the fixed link 1 expressed in rpm. 1 (batiu) n rpm. Viteza punctului P este:
Velocity of point P is:
VP = VP 3 = VP 2 = 13 r3 = 12 r2
Hence/Deci/:
(6.16)
13 n 13 r2 d 2
R 23 =
=
= =
12 n 12 r3 d 3

Fig.6.8
where dj and rj are the diameters and radii of the unde dj i rj sunt diametrele/razele cercurilor de
divizare ale roilor dinate.
pitch circles of the gears.

From the law of gearing for the gears to be in Din legea angrenrii este necesar ca pentru
mesh, the diametral pitch, which is the ratio of angrenare s avem pasul diametral care este
the number of teeth over the pitch diameter raportul dintre numrul de dini i diametrul de
divizare, s fie acelai pentru ambele roi:
must be the same for two mating gears: e.g.:
T
T
(6.17)
PD = 3 = 2 = Diametral pitch/Pas diametral/
d3 d2
where Tj is the number of teeth on gear j. In unde Tj este numrul de dini ai rotii j. n
European countries rather than the diametral Europa n locul pasului diametral se folosete
pitch, Module, m, which is the ratio of the pitch Modulul m care este raportul dintre
circumference to the number of tooth (pdj/Tj), is circumferina cercului de divizare i numrul
6-12

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

used. Unit for diametral pitch is in 1/inch and


the
unit
for
module
is mm.
We define that the gear ratio as positive when
the two gears in mesh are rotating in the same
direction and negative if they are rotating in the
opposite direction. As seen in the Fig.6.8
above, if P is in between the fixed centers, the
gear ratio will be negative and such gear pairing
we shall call external mesh. If the pairing is
as shown below, the point of contact is outside
the fixed centers and the gear ratio is positive.
Such gear pairing will be called internal
mesh. (Fig.6.9).

de dini pdj/Tj . Pentru pasul diametral unitatea


de msur este 1/inch i pentru modul este mm.
Se definete raportul de transmisie ca fiind
pozitiv dac cele dou roi dinate se rotesc n
acelai sens, i negativ dac se rotesc n sensuri
opuse. Aa cum se vede n Fig.6.8 dac
punctual P se afl ntre centrele de rotaie ale
roilor dinate atunci raportul de transmitere
este negative i avem de-a face cu angrenare
exterioar. Dac punctual P este n afara liniei
ce unete centrele atunci raportul este pozitic i
angrenarea este interioar (Fig.6.9).

Fig.6.9
Therefore, the gear ratio of a gear train with one Aadar raportul de transmitere pentru un tren
gear pair can be expressed as:
de roi dinate format dintr-o pereche de roi:
13 n 13
r
d
T
R 23 =
=
= 2 = 2 = 2
(6.18)
12 n 12
r3
d3
T3

+ if internal/angrenare interioar/,
- if external mesh/angrenare exterioar/.

Fig.6.10
Simplest gear trains have one gear pair on each Cel mai simplu tren de roi dinate are n
link. A simple example is, shown in Fig. 6.10. compunere 3 roi ca n Fig.6.10. Raportul total
The overall gear ratio of the gear train, R24, will de transmitere R24 va fi:
be:

n 13
T
= 2
n 12
T3
T2
R 24 = R 23 R 34 =
T
n
T3
= 14 = 3

n 13
T4

R 23 =
R 34

6-13

T3

T4

T2
=
T4

(6.19)

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Hence, for such gear trains, the intermediate


gears have no effect on the gear ratio, except
the sign of the gear ratio. They are used either
to change the direction of rotation or they can
be used to transmit motion between two shafts
that are far apart while the gear sizes are kept
small.

Deci pentru trenurile de roi dinate roile


dinate intermediare nu influenteaz mrimea
raportului de transmitere final ci doar semnul
acestuia. Roile intermediare sunt folosite de
regul pentru schimbarea sensului rotaiei la
roata final sau la transmiterea micrii ntre
arbori aflai la o oarecare distan.

Fig.6.11
A gear train is called a compound gear train if Un tren de roi dinate se numete compus dac
there is more than one gear on each link. An exist mai mult de 3 roi dinate in angrenare.
example is shown above. The gear ratio for the Ca i mai sus, raportul general de transmitere se
whole gear train can be determined by face considernd raportul de transmitere pentru
considering the gear ratio for each gear pair. fiecare pereche de roi dinate n parte:
We can write:
n
T
R 23 = 13 = 2
n 12
T3

R 34 =

T
n 14
= 3
n 13
T4

R 45 =

n 15
T '
= 4
n 14
T5 '

n 16
T '
= 5
n 54
T6 '
Then /Deci

R 56 =

n 13 n 14 n 15 n 16
T T 'T '
4 T T T ' T '
= R 23 R 34 R 45 R 56 = ( 1) 2 3 4 5 = 2 4 5
(6.20)
n 12 n 13 n 14 n 54
T3 T4 T5 ' T6 ' T4 T5 ' T6 '
Note that the gears that appear in the numerator Se poate observa c la numrtorul relaiei de
are all driving gears and those that appear in the mai sus apar numrul de dini ai roilor dinate
denominator are all driven gears. Also, each conductoare i la numitor al celor conduse.
external gear mesh changes the sign of the gear Fiecare pereche de roti dinate schimb semnul
ratio once. If the number of external gear raportului final. Dac numrul de perechi este
meshes is odd, the gear ratio will be negative; if impar raportul final va fi negativ, dac este par
it is even, the gear ratio is positive. We can va fi pozitiv. Relaia de mai sus poate fi
generalise the above result and define the gear generalizat astfel:
ratio for any simple compound gear train as:
R 26 =

6-14

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

R ij =

n1j
n 1i

= ( 1)

Product of driving gear tooth numbers


k Produs nr.dinti roti conducatoare
= ( 1)
Product of driven gear tooth numbers
Produs nr.dinti roti conduse
(6.21)

The gear ratio is a constant. Therefore, the Raportul de transmitere este constant.
angular displacements and the angular Deplasarea unghiular i acceleraia unghiular
accelerations are also related with the same sunt legate de raportul de transmitere. Dac
gear ratio. If link i is rotated by 1i the roata/elementul i se rotete cu ughiul 1i
corresponding angular rotation of link j, 1j, atunci unghiul de rotaie al rotii j , 1j, este:
is:
1j=Rij1i
(6.22)
Another type of simple gear train is the gear
train that is used to change the output speed for
a constant input speed. Most common examples
are the transmission boxes in cars or in machine
tools. In general, they are called speed-change
gear trains and they are made up of compound
gear trains in which the output speed can be
changed by meshing different gears in the train.
For each speed ratio one can treat the gear train
as a different compound gear train and thus
obtain the gear ratio for that particular
arrangement. One example is given below; a
four speed manual gear box is shown. Five
speed gear boxes can also be seen in most cars
that use the same principle (to increase the fuel
efficiency). Using the gear shift lever one of the
gears is engaged to the output shaft with one of
three clutches.

Un alt tip de tren de roi dinate este sistemul


tip cutie de viteze, folosit la schimbarea vitezei
de ieire din sistem avnd la intrare o vitez
constant. Ele sunt alctuite din compunerea
mai multor trenuri de roi dinate care pot intra
n angrenare succesiv astfel nct viteza la
arborele de ieire din cutia de viteze s aibe o
variaie discret. Pentru fiecare vitez la ieire
intr n angrenare un tren diferit de roti dinate
cu un raport de transmitere particular. Mai jos
se d un exemplu de astfel de sistem.
Majoritatea cutiilor de viteze ale autoturismelor
au cinci trepte de vitez care funcioneaz pe
prinipiul
enunat
mai
sus.
Folosind
schimbtorul de viteze se pot active unul dintre
cele trei cuplaje.

One other feature of the gear box is that all the


mating gears have the same centre distances, or
the sum of the radii of two mating gears (A-B,
F-C, G-D) since the distance between the
output and the intermediate shaft is constant. If
the gears are to be made with the same pitch or
module, than the sum of the number of teeth of
any two mating gears must be the same (in Fig.
6.12: 17+43; 24+36; 33+27 are all equal to 60).

O caracteristic a cutiilor de viteze este c


distana dintre toate centrele perechilor de roi
dinate este aceeai (A-B, F-C, G-D) dat fiind
c distana dintre axele arborilor de ntrare i
ieire este constant. Dac modulul tuturor
rotilor dinate este acelai acest lucru nseamn
c suma numrului de dinti a fiecrei perechi
de roi este constant (n Fig. 6.12: 17+43;
24+36; 33+27 sunt toate egale cu 60).

6-15

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.6.12
6.7 Planetary Gear Trains/Trenuri de roi dinate planetare/

In simple gear trains the axes of each gear was


connected to the fixed link by revolute joints. A
gear train is called a planetary gear train if
there are some gears whose axes are not fixed.
The velocity ratio between the rotating links
will be different than the gear ratio. They can
produce large changes in speed using very few
gears. They are used in differentials, computing
devices, in automatic car transmission.
The simplest form of a planetary gear is as
shown in Fig.6.13-14. The arm (link k) can
rotate about A0. Link j (which is called sun
gear, if external or ring gear, if internal) is also
connected to the fixed link by a revolute joint at
Ao. Link i, which is called the planet gear, is
connected to the arm at A by a revolute joint,
and links i and j are gear paired.

n trenurile de roi dinate prezentate mai sus


cuplele de roatie ale roilor erau fixe. Un tren
de roi dinate este numit tren planetar dac
anumite roti dinate au axele mobile. Raportul
vitezelor cuplelor de rotaie va fi astfel diferit
fa de raportul de transmitere. Cu alte cuvinte
un astfel de angrenaj poate varia foarte mult
rapotul dintre turaia de intrare i cea de ieire
chiar dac raportul dintre numrul de dini
angrenate nu este att de mare. Acest tip de
trenuri de roi dinate se folosesc n
mecanismele
difereniale,
calculatoare
mecanice i transmisiile autovehiculelor.
Un astfel de angrenaj planetar este dat n
Fig.6.13-14. Braul angrenajului (elementul k)
se rotete n jurul punctului A0. Elementul j
(care se mai numete i roata soare dac
angrenarea este extern sau roata inel dac este
intern) se rotete n jurul lui A0 printr-o cupla
de rotaie.Roile dinate i i j sunt n angrenare.
Roata i se numete roat planet.

6-16

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.6.13

Fig.6.14

Fig.6.15
Planetary gear trains are also called "Epicyclic Trenurile de roi planetare se numesc i trenuri
Gear Train" from the fact that a point on the epiciloide sau hipocicloide dat fiind c un punct
planet will describe an algebraic curve which is aflat pe roata planet descrie o curb numit
an epicycloid or hypocycloid. This curve can be epicicloid sau hipociloid. Aceste curbe scrise
represented in parametric form as:
parametric, au ecuaiile:
x = a1cos +a2cosR
y = a1 sin +a2sinR
(6.23)
or in complex numbers/sau n numere complexe/:
(6.24)
z = a 1 e i + a 2 e R
where is the variable parameter (usually the unde este parametrul variabil (de regul
angle of rotation of the arm) a1, a2 and R are unghiul descris de bra), a1, a2 i R sunt
constants (R is a function of the gear ratio, a1 constante (R este funcie de raportul de
and a2 are the link lengths of the arm and the transmitere al angrenajului, a1 i a2 sunt
position of the point relative to the moving lungimea braului i respectiv, poziia punctului
pivot of the planet respectively).
de coordonate x, y fa de centrul rotii planet.

6-17

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.6.16
For large force transmission, there is usually La angrenajele planetare care transmit fore
more than one planet located symmetrically mari se folosesc dou sau mai multe roi
around the sun gear as shown in Fig. 6.17-18.
planet aezate simetric fa de roata soare cum
se vede n Fig. 6.17-18.

Fig.6.17

Fig.6.18

For the motion analysis of planetary gear trains


one can refer to the relative motion concept.
The motion of the planet can be considered as
composed of two parts: one is the motion of the
centre of the planet (point A) and the other is
the rotation of the planet about the planet axis.
Let us derive an equation that relates the
angular speeds of the links and the gear ratio.
Consider the simple planetary gear train as
shown in Fig. 6.19. Point P is the point of
contact of the gear teeth, and due to pure rolling
between the mating gears the velocity of the

Pentru analiza trenurilor de roi planetare


trebuie considerat conceptul de micare
relativ. Micarea rotii planet este compus
din dou micri: una este micarea centrului
roii planet (punctul A) iar a doua este rotaia
roii planet n jurul axei sale.
Se caut s se determine o relaie care s lege
viteza unghiular a elementelor cinematice cu
raportul de transmitere al angrenajului. Fie un
sistem planetar ca n Fig. 6.19. Punctul P este
punctul de contact dintre flancurile dinilor
roilor n angrenare i dat fiind rostogolirea

6-18

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

coincident points Pi and Pj (coincident in P) are pur dintre roile angrenate, vitezele punctelor
equal. The velocity of point P can be expressed coincidente n P, i anume Pi i Pj , sunt egale.
Viteza punctului P este:
as:
VP=VPi = VPj = VA + VP/A

(6.25)

Fig.6.19

VPj = VPi = 1j rj
VA = 1k(rjri)
VP/A=1iri

(+ if external/angrenare extern/, - if internal mesh/angrenare


intern/)
+ if external/angrenare extern/, - if internal mesh/angrenare
intern/)

Where ri and rj are the radii of the gears. Then/unde ri i rj sunt razele roilor/ :
1j rj=1k(rjri) 1iri
or/sau/:

1 j 1k
ri
=
r j 1i 1k

(6.26)

+ if external/angrenare extern/, - if internal mesh/angrenare intern/)


The left side of the equation can be expressed Membrul stng al ecuaiei se poate scrie:
as:
r
d
T
(6.27)
i = i = i = R ij
rj
dj
Tj
Note that the definition of the gear ratio is the Se poate observa c definiia raportului de
same for the planetary gear trains and for transmitere este identic pentru angrenajul
simple gear trains. For external gearing Rij= - planetar cu cea a angrenajului simplu. Pentru
Ti/Tj and for internal gearing Rij =+Ti/Tj. It is angrenare extern Rij= -Ti/Tj iar pentru intern
also interesting to note that the terms (lj - 1k) Rij =+Ti/Tj. Este interesant s se vad c
and (1i - 1k) are really the angular speeds of termenii (lj - 1k) i (1i - 1k) sunt vitezele
6-19

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

the sun and planet gears relative to the arm:


kj = (1j - 1k)
ki = (1i - 1k)

unghiulare ale rotii soare i rotii planet fat de


bra:

(angular speed of link j with respect to link k/viteza unghiular a


elementului j fa de k/)
(angular speed of link i with respect to link k/viteza unghiular a
elementului i fa de k/))
Therefore/Aadar/:
1 j 1k kj
R ij =
=
1i 1k ki

(6.28)

1iRij + 1k(1-Rij)-lj = 0
If the number of teeth on each gear is known, Dac se cunoate numrul de dinti pentru
there are three unknowns (1j, 1i, and 1k ). If fiecare roat atunci rmn doar trei
any two of the angular speeds are given, one necunoscute de calculat (1j, 1i, and 1k).
can
solve
for
the
third
speed. Dac una dintre cele trei viteze unghiulare este
dat se poate afla oricare din celelalte dou.
In simple gear trains the speed ratio, 1j/1i, La angrenajele simple raportul vitezelor
1j/1i, era egal cu raportul
and the gear ratio, Ti/Tj were the same. The unghiulare
symbol Rij was used to represent both of these numrului de dini Ti/Tj i egale cu Rij. La
ratios. In planetary gear trains these two ratios angrenajele planetare cele dou rapoarte nu mai
are not the same. Therefore, the symbol Rij = sunt egale i deci Rij = Ti/Tj se va folosi pentru
Ti/Tj will be used as the gear ratio and the raportul dintilor i Nij =1j/1i pentru raportul
symbol Nij will be used as the speed ratio: Nij = vitezelor unghiulare.
1j/ 1i.
As a simple example (Fig.6.20), consider an Fie un angrenaj planetar epiciclic (Fig.6.20), la
epicyclic gear train shown below. The sun gear care roata soare are 60 de dini i planeta 22 de
has 60 teeth and the planet has 22 teeth. The dinti. Braul se rotete cu 100 rpm n sens
arm rotates at 100 rpm counter clockwise and trigonometric i roata soare cu 150 rpm n sens
the sun gear rotates at 150 rpm clockwise. orar. Considernd micarea trigonometric ca
Denoting the counter clockwise rotation as avnd semn pozitiv, vom avea:
positive we obtain:
100
60
60

= 13
13 = 250
+ 100 = 782
22
22 150 100

Fig.6.20

6-20

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

As another example (Fig.6.21), consider the Fie alt exemplu (Fig.6.21). Se poate scrie:
planetary gear train shown below in side view,
We can write:
R ij =
R pj =
R ip =

1 j 1k
1i 1k
1 j 1k
1p 1k
1p 1k
1i 1k

kj

ki

=
=

kj
kp
R ij
R pj

Since/Cum/
1
k T j Ti
= R jp ; R ip = R ij R jp = ( 1)
R pj
T ' j Tp

Fig.6.21
Hence the gear ratio has the same meaning as in Deci se vede c raportul angrenajului are
aceeai semnificaie ca i la angrenajele simple.
the simple gear trains.

If there is more than one arm in the planetary


gear train, the gear train is called
compound planetary gear train. In such a case
the above equations must be written for each
simple planetary gear train. One example are
given below.

Dac ntr-un tren de roi planetare exist mai


multe angrenaje planetare atunci sistemul
devine un tren compus de roi planetare. n
astfel de cazuri ecuaia de mai sus trebuie scris
pentru fiecare angrenaj planetar n parte. Mai
jos se d un exemplu de calcul:

Example 6.1

Exemplul 6.1

Determine the output speed of the compound in S se determine turaia de ieire i direcia
Fig.6.22, and the direction of rotation when the rotaiei a trenului compus din Fig.6.22, tiind
c turaia de intrare este 3000 rpm.
input speed is 3000 rpm.
Link 3 does not have a fixed axis of rotation. Elementul 3 nu are o ax fix de rotaie deci
6-21

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Therefore it is a planet. Link 2 is connected to este o roat planet. Elementul 2 este un bra.
link 3 by a revolute joint. Therefore it is the Angrenajul planetar va avea:
arm. For this planetary system:

R 45 = ( 1)

38 42 n 15 n 12
=
40 36 n 14 n 12

or
n 15 n 12 =

133
(n 14 n 12 )
120

Fig.6.22
For the remaining portion of the gear train all Toate celelalte angrenaje au roi dinate cu axe
the gears have a fixed axis of rotation .
fixe deci sunt angrenaje simple:

R 46 = N 46 =

12 n 16
=
54 n 14

R 56 = N 56 =

120 n 16
=
54 n 15

9
9
n 14 = n 16 ; n 15 = n 16 ;
2
20
substituting into the first equation and solving for n16 yields/nlocuind n prima ecuaie i rezolvnd
dup n16 /:
26
n 16 =
n 12
1305
and for/pentru/ n12=3000 rpm: n16=-59.8 rpm (in opposite direction of the input speed/n sens
opus turaiei de intrare).
6.8 Gear Trains with Bevel Gears/Trenuri de roi dinate conice/

If the motion is to be transmitted between non- Dac micarea trebuie s fie transmis ntre
parallel shafts, bevel gears are often used. arbori neparaleli atunci se pot folosi rotile

6-22

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Bevel gears in kinematic terms are equivalent


to the rolling of two cones without slippage.
They can be used in simple, compound or in
planetary gear trains. Their kinematic analysis
is exactly similar to the cylindrical gears
discussed
in
the
previous
sections.

dinate conice. n termini cinematici roile


dinate conice sunt echivalente cu dou conuri
care se rotesc reciproc fr alunecare. Roile
conice se folosesc n angrenaje simple sau n
trenuri compuse sau chiar n sisteme planetare.
Analiza cinematic este identic cu analiza
cinematic a roilor dinate cilindrice.
Figure below shows two bevel gears in contact, Figura de mai jos arat dou roi conice n
the angle between the axes of the gears being . angrenare, avnd unghiul dintre axe . Vom
avea c:
It follows that:

Fig.6.23

Fig.6.24

=+

13
12

r2

r
T
OP
= 2 = 2 =
r3 T3 r3

OP

(6.29)

13 sin
=
= R 23
12 sin

The direction of rotation must be determined by


noting that the velocity of the two cones at the
point of contact (P) will be the same. If link 2 is
rotating CW when viewed from point O, link 3
will rotate CCW when viewed from point O.

Sensul micrii poate fi determinat dac se


observ c vitezele celor dou conuri n
punctual de contact P sunt egale. Dac
elementul 2 se rotete n sensul orar atunci
elementul 3 se va roti n sens invers.

Example 6.2

Exemplul 6.2

Consider a compound gear train shown in Fie un tren compus ca n Fig.6.25. Sa se


Fig.6.25. Determine R24.
determine R24 .

6-23

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.6.25

We have/Avem/:
13 20

18
= R 34
=
= R 23 ; 14 =
13 60
12 80
R 24 =

14 20 18 3
=
=
12 80 60 40

Example 6.3

Exemplul 6.3

Consider the planetary gear train shown. We Fie un tren planetar cu roi conice ca mai jos.
can write the gear ratio between links 1 and 4, Se poate scrie raportul de transmitere dintre 1 i
when the arm (link 2) is considered fixed as:
4 (elementul 2 este braul fix) astfel:
R 24 =

Noting n11 = 0, we obtain:

14
3
=
= 0.075
12 40

Fig.6.26
tiind c n11 = 0, avem:

6-24

Gear Trains/Trenuri de Roi Dinate/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

14
n 14 = 1 n 12
3

n
11
N 24 = 14 =
n 12
3

where (-) sign states that link 2 (arm) and link 4 Unde semnul minus arat c braul 2 i
rotate in opposite direction relative to each elementul 4 se mic n direcii relative opuse.
other.

6-25

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

INDEX/CUPRINS/
7.0 CAMS/CAME/ _____________________________________________________________________2
7.1 CAM TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF CAMS/TIPURI DE CAME I CLASIFICAREA LOR/ _______________3
7.2 CAM DESIGN/PROIECTAREA CAMELOR/ _________________________________________________4
7.3 BASIC CAM MOTION CURVES/CURBE FOLOSITE LA PROFILELE CAMELOR/ _______________________8
7.3.1 Linear motion/Curba micrii liniare/ ______________________________________________8
7.3.2 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)/Curba armonic simpl/ _____________________________11
7.3.3 Parabolic or Constant Acceleration Motion Curve/Curba parabolic sau de acceleraie
constant/ _______________________________________________________________________11
7.3.4 Cycloidal Motion Curve/Curba cicloidal/ _________________________________________15
7.3.5 Combined Straight Line-Circular arc motion curve/Curba combinat Linie dreapt-Arc circular/
________________________________________________________________________________18
7.3.8 Cubic or Constant Pulse Motion Curve/Curba cubic sau de impuls constant/ _____________20
7.3.9 Double Harmonic motion curve/Curba dublu armonic/_______________________________22
7.3.10 Polynomial Motion Curves/Curbele polinomiale/ ___________________________________24
7.4 CAM SIZE DETERMINATION/DETERMINAREA MRIMII CAMEI/ _______________________________27
7.4.1 Pressure angle/Unghiul de presiune/ ______________________________________________28
7.4.2 Cam Curvature/Curbura camei/__________________________________________________33
7.5 CONSTRUCTION OF THE CAM PROFILE/CONSTRUCIA PROFILULUI CAMEI/ ______________________37

7-1

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.0 Cams/Came/
Cam is a higher kinematic pair which is used to
transmit motion from one link to another. In
everyday usage, a cam is a rigid body with a
curved surface that is in contact with another
rigid body named follower (usually the second
rigid body is of simple shape such as a flat face
or a cylinder).

Mecanismele cu cam folosesc o cupl


cinematic de clas superioar. n termeni
simpli, o cam este un corp rigid avnd la
exterior o suprafat curb care este n contact cu
un alt rigid numit tachet (care de regul are o
form simpl tip cilindru, plan etc.).

A Cam Mechanism is a mechanism that


contains at least one cam pair in its kinematic
structure. Cam mechanisms are one of the most
widely used mechanisms because they can
realize different motion curves and are simple
to design. However, cams are expensive to
manufacture and due to the contact stresses,
they wear out easily in comparison to
mechanisms that contain lower kinematic pairs
such as revolute joints. Also at high speeds
and/or under heavy loads dynamic effects
become very critical and kinematic design is
not sufficient for the proper functioning of the
cam mechanism. The main reason for the use
of cam mechanisms is that they provide simple
means of obtaining unusual, irregular motions
that would be difficult, if not impossible, to
obtain with the other types of mechanisms.
However, during the design of a machine, one
should try to avoid cams, especially if high
speeds and high torques are being transmitted.

Un mecanism cu cam este un mecanism care


conine cel puin o pereche de elemente
cinematice tip cam-tachet. Tipul acesta de
mecanisme este des ntlnit dat fiind c asigur
o mare varietate de tipuri de micri i sunt
simplu de proiectat. n schimb nu sunt att de
simplu de executat/fabricat iar datorit
tensiunilor de contact se uzeaz destul de
repede fa de alte mecanisme cu cuple de clas
inferioar. La turaii mari forele dinamice
dezvoltate pot fi mari i funcionarea corect a
camei poate fi compromis.
Camele sunt de preferat n situaiile cnd este
nevoie de micri mai puin obinuite i
imposibil de realizat prin mecanismele clasice.
n orice caz n proiectarea mainilor folosirea
camelor trebuie evitat sau redus la minim mai
ales dac turaiile sunt mari i forele de
transmis sunt importante.

Fig.7.1

7-2

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.1 Cam Types and Classification of Cams/Tipuri de came i clasificarea lor/


Simple cam mechanisms are 3-link kinematic
chains with one cam pair. The other two
kinematic pairs can either be revolute R or
prismatic pair P. Hence, we can have 3
kinematic chains with joints R-C-R, R-C-P, PC-P and 7 different simple cam mechanisms.
Both of the kinematic elements that form the
cam pair can be of a complex shape, but
usually one (follower) of the kinematic
elements is of a simple shape like a straight line
or a circle. In order to reduce the friction and to
convert sliding friction to rolling, a roller is
attached.

Mecanismele cu came au n compunere trei


elemente cinematice n care o cupl este
format de cupla cam-tachet (notat cu C).
Celelalte dou cuple pot fi de rotaie R sau de
translaie T. n consecin putem avea 3 tipuri
de lanuri cinematice cu cuple precum R-C-R,
R-C-T, T-C-T. Putem deasemenea avea 7 tipuri
diferite de came.
Ambele elementele cinematice care formeaz
perechea cam-tachet pot avea forme complexe
dar de regul tachetul are form simpl (linie
dreapt sau cerc). Pentru a reduce frecarea se
poate folosi la tachet o rol.

According the shape cams are radial, face, Dup forma camei acestea pot fi radiale, plane,
pan,
cilindrice,
sferice,
conice,
wedge, cylindrical, spherical, helical, conical, 3 tip
tridimensionale
etc.
(Fig.7.2-3).
dimensional, etc. (Fig.7.2-3).

Fig.7.2

7-3

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

.
Fig.7.3
Perechea cam-tachet poate fi inut n contact
fie pri aplicarea unei fore fie prin forma lor
specific. Cele inute n contact prin aplicarea
unei fore sunt cele mai rspndite fiind mai
ieftine dect cele cu contact prin form.
Followers, in general, are classified in one of Tacheii n general sunt clasificai astfel:
two ways:
Cam pairs are classified as force closed or
form closed. Force closed cam pairs are more
common since it is expensive to manufacture
form closed cams.

The construction of the surface in contact


(roller, flat faced, cylindrical, spherical)
The type of movement (translating or
oscillating). The translating follower is also
classified as radial or off-set according to
the location of movement with respect to
the cam rotation axis.

Funcie de construcia suprafeei de


contact pot fi cu rol, plani, cilindrici,
sferici,
Funcie de tipul de micare pot fi de
translaie sau oscilaie. Cei de translaie pot
fi radiali centrici sau excentrici funcie de
pozitia lor fa de axa camei.

7.2 Cam Design/Proiectarea camelor/


Kinematic (and dynamic) cam design is mainly
concerned with the generation of the cam
profile for a certain type of motion. From the
standpoint of design, cams can be classified
into two as:

Proiectarea cinematic (i dinamic) a camei se


reduce la generarea profilului camei astfel ca s
fie executat o anumit micare. Din acest
punct de vedere camele pot fi:

Low-speed cams: For these cams the


kinematics is our main concern. The inertia
forces may be neglected. Since the surface
quality is not very critical, these types of
cams can be produced very cheaply.
However, one must keep in mind the
pressure angle even for low speeds.
High-speed cams: The concept of
strength in case of high speeds will prevail.
In case of high speeds, low stiffness, large
mass or resonance, dynamics of the system
7-4

Came de turaie redus la care


intereseaz doar cinematica asigurat de
cam dat fiind c forele de inerie pot fi
neglijate. Cum i calitatea suprafeei nu este
foarte important preul de fabricaie poat fi
sczut. Oricum unghiul de presiune al camei
trebuie considerat chiar i la turaii mici a
acesteia.
Came de turaie nalt la care rezistena
camei la solicitri devine important.
Dinamica sistemului devine important i

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

dat fiind c la turaii mari pot aprea efecte


dinamice ale maselor neechilibrate, vibraii,
rezonan. Aceste condiii pot fi ntlnite la
camele motoarelor cu ardere ntern la care
turaiile maxime pot ajunge la 6000 8000
rpm, tachetul trebuie s-i fac cursa n 0.05
secunde iar acceleraiile pot fi de cteva ori
mai mari dect acceleraia gravitational
(30-38 m/s2). Aceast categorie de came
este dincolo de aria de interes a acestui
volum.

will be of great concern. For example, one


of the application of cams is the internal
combustion engine. The cam is used to
open and close the intake and exhaust
valves of the pistons. The motor speed of
6000 8000 rpm is very common. In such a
case the follower must be raised (or the
valve must be opened) in less than 0.05
seconds. Acceleration of the follower will
reach several gs. Dynamic design of high
speed cams is beyond the topic of this
volume.
For low speed cams the motion curve which
shows the input-output relation theoretically
can be of any shape. Usually the motion repeats
itself after a full rotation of the cam. When s =
f() (0 < < 2) function is given, even for
low speed applications, this function must be
continuous (mathematically speaking) , and
the slope of the curve must not be above a
certain value. Otherwise, one may face
problems such as excess power requirement,
large forces at the bearings, etc. during the
operation of the cam.

Pentru camele de turaie mic curba de micare


ce descrie relaia dintre micarea camei i a
tachetului, n teorie poate avea orice form.
Oricum, dup o rotaie complet, tachetul reia
micarea deci aceasta va fi ciclic. Dac se d
legea de micare f() (0 < < 2), pentru
orcare sistem de came aceast lege trebuie s fie
continu n sens matematic iar panta curbei nu
trebuie s fie mai mare dect o anumit valoare.
n caz contrar pot apare fore foarte mari n
funcionare.

Fig.7.4
In most cam applications the motion curve for n majoritatea aplicaiilor curba de micare
the whole cycle must be exactly defined. What pentru ntregul cilclu trebuie perfect definit. Se
is usually required is in certain parts of the cam cere de regul ca pe o anumit poriune din
rotation the output must remain stationary. This ciclu tachetul s nu se mite. Aceast condiie
este faza inactiv a mecanismului.
condition is known as the dwell.
Usually the dwell periods must be kept as large
as possible and the rise and return portions in
between the dwells must be as fast as possible.
However if the rise and return portion of the
cycle is small, the displacement curve in

Se recomand ca faza inactiv s fie meninut


ct mai mult posibil n cadrul ciclului iar
ridicarea i coborrea tachetului s se fac ct
mai rapid. n orice caz cu ct ridicareacoborrea este mai rapid cu att panta curbei

7-5

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

between the two dwells will get steep hence the profilului camei va fi mai mare i deci vitezele
i acceleraiile n faza de ridicare-coborre vor
velocity and the acceleration will increase
fi mai mari.
Assuming constant velocity of the input, the Dac se presupune c turaia de input a camei
angular rotation of the cam, , is proportional este constant atunci unghiul de rotaie al camei
este proporional cu timpul.
to the elapsed time.
The cam motion curve can have the following Curbele de micare ale camelor pot fi clasificate
astfel:
global characteristics:

Dwell-Rise-Dwell: After a certain dwell


period the follower rises (or returns) to
another dwell period. This is the most
frequent cam motion. D-R-D portion of the
cam cycle will be followed by a DwellReturn-Dwell motion which is analysed in a
similar manner with D-R-D (Fig.7.5-a)
Dwell-Rise-Return (D-R-R): After a
certain dwell period the follower rises and
returns to the original motion (Fig.7.5-b)
Rise-Return (R-R): There is no dwell
period (Fig.7.5-c).

Came tip Pauz-Ridicare-Pauz la care


dup un anumit interval inactiv tachetul se
ridic i rmne inactiv. De regul acest tip
este completat de un ciclu Pauz-CoborrePauz (Fig.7.5-a).
Came tip Pauz-Ridicare-Coborre la
care dupa o perioad de inactivitate tachetul
se ridic apoi coboar (Fig.7.5-b).
Came tip Ridicare-Coborre far
perioad de inactivitate (Fig.7.5-c)

a.

b.
c.
Fig.7.5
Note that if the global characteristics of the Se poate observa c din analiza funciei s() din
motion curve is as shown in Fig 7.6, there will Fig.7.6 care definete curba de funcionare i
be no single function s() that defines the profilul camei, de vreme ce de pild s4=s9 exist
motion curve since for instance s4=s9. Instead mai multe valori ale parametrului care ntorc
for each portion of the cycle we will have aceeai deplasare a tachetului. Ca atare pentru
fiecare poriune a ciclului se pot defini funcii
different functions.
diferite.
For example for the dwell portions we will n acest sens se poate vedea c pentru poriunile
have s= 0 or s= H and s& = 0; &s& = 0 . The motion de faz inactiv putem avea funciile s= 0 sau
curves for the rise and return portions has been s= H i s& = 0; &s& = 0 . Pentru fazele de ridicare i
selected as some basic mathematical functions de coborre se pot alege funcii matematice
so that the motion characteristics can be astfel nct caracteristicile cinematice ale
micrii tachetului s fie controlate.
controlled.
Let us consider Fig.7.7 explain the general Pentru explicarea procedurii generale de
procedure of graphical determination of the determinare grafic a profilului camei se
consider Fig.7.7.
cam profile.
7-6

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.7.6
Assume a motion curve as shown in Fig. 7.7 is Dac se d curba de funcionare a camei se
given. We would like to realize this motion poate determina profilul camei care s realizeze
curve using a radial cam with an inline aceast micare impus de curb. Se determin
translating roller follower. We must first mai nti raza rolei (rr) i raza cercului de baz
determine the roller radius (rr) and the base (rb) pe care se va aplica profilul camei.
circle radius (rb) onto which the cam profile
will be applied.

The roller radius is usually determined


according to the allowable contact stress
(known as Hertz stress) after we determine the
forces acting at the contact point/line. The base
circle radius is selected so that the cam profile
is not very steep or in other words, the force
transmission from the cam to the follower is
reasonable.

Raza rolei se determin funcie de tensiunile


herziene de contact dup ce s-au determinat
forele care acioneaz n punctul/linia de
contact dintre rol i cam. Raza cercului de
baz se alege astfel nct profilul camei s nu
rezulte cu o pant foarte nclinat i prin urmare
fora care apare la transmiterea micrii de la
cam la tachet, s aibe o mrime rezonabil.

Let us assume that we know the roller radius


(rr) and base circle radius (rb). Now, let us draw
a circle (prime circle) of radius rb+rr. The roller
centre will be located on this circle when it is at
a dwell at the bottom position. Now let us
divide the motion curve and the prime circle at
equal number of intervals. In constructing the
cam profile we perform kinematic inversion.
We keep the cam fixed and release the fixed
link and impart a motion to the fixed link of
follower with 2 = 1 such that the relative
position of the links in this inverse motion is
the same as the relative positions of the original
motion.

S presupunem c deja din condiiile de mai sus


au fost determinate (rr) i (rb). Se deseneaz mai
departe un cerc (primar) de raz rb+rr. Centrul
rolei se va situa pe acest cerc atunci cnd va fi
n faza inactiv. Apoi se divide curba de
micare ntr-un numr n de intervale egale.
Pentru construirea grafic a profilului se
procedeaz la inversiunea cinematic adic se
consider cama ca fiind fix i se presupune c
tachetul se mic n jurul camei cu 2 = 1 .

For example, assuming that the cam is rotating


counter clockwise 300, the follower will be
displaced by a distance s1 relative to the fixed
link. When the cam is fixed, for the same
relative motion, the fixed link will rotate by 300
clockwise relative to the cam (fixed) and the
follower will be displaced by a distance s1
relative to the fixed link which has now rotated

Dac de pild se presupune c dac se rotete


cama cu 300 n sens trigonometric atunci
tachetul se va ridica cu distana s1 fa de
ghidajul su. Dac invers cama se consider
fix pentru a avea aceai distan s1 parcurs
este necesar ca tachetul s se roteasc n sens
orar cu 300.

7-7

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

300 clockwise. Hence we measure s1 radially


from the prime circle. Thus we can determine
the position of the centre of the roller on the
follower and we can draw the roller circle for
every increment. The cam profile is a smooth
curve that is tangent to all these roller circles
(Fig.7.7).

Aadar s1 se va msura radial de la cercul


primar. Astfel se poate determina poziia
centrului rolei tachetului i se poate desena
cercul rolei pentru fiecare poziie astfel
obinut. Profilul camei se obine ducnd o
curb tangent la cercurile astfel desenate ale
rolei (Fig.7.7).

Fig.7.7
7.3 Basic Cam Motion Curves/Curbe folosite la profilele camelor/

In this section we shall discuss the basic


philosophy in the selection of motion curves
will be discussed and some well known motion
curves will be explained. We shall consider the
rise portion of the motion curve only. n
MathCad programes given as examples, we
shall see how a full motion curve can be
constructed.

n cele ce urmeaz se dau cteva elemente de


baz ale filozofiei de alegere a curbelor folosite
pentru profilul camelor. Se va considera doar
poriunea de ridicare a profilului (dar
programele n MathCad date spre exemplificare
conin modelarea ntregului ciclu).

7.3.1 Linear motion/Curba micrii liniare/

Equation (7.1) is describing a linear motion Ecuaia (7.1) descrie micarea liniar a unui
with respect to time is:
tachet funcie de timp:
s= a1 t +a0

7-8

(7.1)

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Assuming constant angular velocity for the Dac turaia de input


input cam (=ct.), since t =/ :
=ct., atunci timpul t =/ :

este

constant

(7.2)
s = a1 + a 0

Let H= Total follower rise (Stroke) Fie H = este cursa total a tachetului i
= angular rotation of the cam corresponding =rotaia unghiular a camei corespunztoare
to the total rise of the follower.
cursei de ridicare a tachetului.

Fig.7.8
Also assume when s = 0 at = 0 (rise is to Deasemenea se presupune c s = 0 la = 0
start when t=0). This assumption leads to s = H (ridicarea ncepe cnd t=0). Deci fcnd
, = . When these boundary conditions are ipotezele de mai sus avem s = H , = . Dac
applied to the linear equation: a0=0 and sunt aplicate aceste condiii la limit ecuaiei de
a1=H(/). The linear motion curve is
mai sus, avem a0=0 i a1=H(/).

s = H ; v = s' = H ; a = v' = 0 =ct (7.3)

The motion curve and velocity and acceleration


curves are as shown below in MathCad. Note
that the acceleration is zero for the entire
motion (a=0) but is infinite at the ends. Due to
infinite accelerations, high inertia forces will be
created at the start and at the end even at
moderate speeds. The cam profile will be
discontinuous.
One basic rule in cam design is that this
motion curve must be continuous and the
first and second derivatives (corresponding
to the velocity and acceleration of the
follower) must be finite even at the
transition points.
i

0 .. 120

i.deg

1
si

121.. 180

rb

Curba de micare, a vitezei i a acceleraiei sunt


calculate mai jos n MathCad. Se va vedea c
acceleraia este nul n timpul fazelor de
funcionare mai puin la capetele acestora unde
este infinit. Datorit acestor acceleraii infinite
se vor dezvolta fore de inerie foarte mari chiar
i la turaii moderate. Profilul camei rezultat va
fi astfel considerat discontiuu.
O regul de baz n proiectarea camelor este
c este necesar s avem curbe de micare
continue iar prima derivat (viteza) i a doua
derivat (acceleraia) trebuie s fie finite
chiar i la capetele fazelor.

120.deg
H.

i
1

7-9

vi

50
H.

rb

50

Rise

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

j.deg

sj

181.. 300

k .deg

rb

301.. 360

l.deg

vj

Dwell

300.deg

2
sk

rb

H.

sl

rb

vl

H.

vk

Return

Dwell

m 0 .. 360
rb
50
m
100

150

94

130

88

110

82

90

76
s

70

70

64

50
30

58

10

52

10

46
40

30

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

0.8

1.6

110

130
140
150
160
m

rb

2.4

3.2

120

50

170
180

100 90 80
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

190

350

200

340

210

330

220

320
230

310
240

250

260 270 280

Fig.7.9

7-10

290

300

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.3.2 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)/Curba armonic simpl/

Fig.7.10
Simple harmonic motion curve is widely used Curba armonic simpl este des ntlnit n
since it is simple to design. The curve is the practic dat fiind proiectarea sa relative simpl.
projection of a circle about the vertical axis as Curba este rezultat prin proiectarea unui cerc
shown in the figure 7.10. The equations peste axa vertical cum se vede n Fig.7.10.
relating the follower displacement, velocity and Ecuaiile care leag deplasarea, viteza,
acceleration to the cam rotation angle are:
acceleraia tachetului cu unghiul ei de rotire
sunt:
2



1
1
1
cos ;
s = H1 cos ; v = s' = H
sin ; a = v' = H

2
2
2



(7.4)
In figure below the displacement, velocity and
acceleration curves are shown in MathCad
(Fig.7.11). The maximum velocity and
acceleration values are given by equations
(7.5). Note that even though the velocity and
acceleration is finite, the
maximum
acceleration is discontinuous at the start and
end of the rise period. This curve will not be
suitable for high or moderate speeds.
v max =

Mai jos sunt calculate deplasrile, viteza i


acceleraia n MathCad (Fig.7.11).
Acceleraiile i vitezele maxime sunt calculate
cu ecuaiile (7.5). Se va observa c dei
viteza/acceleraia sunt finite, la nceputul i
sfritul fazei de ridicare acceleraia maxim
este discontinu. Aadar acest tip de curb nu
este potrivit pentru turaii mari sau moderate.

1
1

H
; a max = H

2
2

(7.5)

7.3.3 Parabolic or Constant Acceleration Motion Curve/Curba parabolic sau de acceleraie


constant/

Noting that the velocity must be zero at the two


ends, we can assume a constant acceleration for
the first half and a constant deceleration in the
second half of the cycle. The resulting motion
curve will be two parabolas (Fig.7.12). This
curve can be graphically drawn by dividing
each half displacement into equal number of
divisions corresponding to the divisions on the
horizontal axis and joining these points with O

Cum ideal ar fi ca la capetele fazei de ridicare


viteza s fie zero, se caut un profil la care pe
jumtate din faza de ridicare tachetul s
accelereze constant i pe a doua jumtate s
decelereze constant. O asemenea curb va fi
alctuit din dou parabole (Fig.7.12). O
asemenea curb se poate obine grafic prin
mparirea fiecrei jumti de interval n
subintervale egale pe axa orizontal i vertical

7-11

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

and O for the first and second halves


respectively. Point of intersection of these lines
with the corresponding vertical lines yield
points on the desired curve as shown in figure
7.12.
i

0 .. 120

i.deg

si

121.. 180

181.. 300

k .deg

rb

301.. 360

l.deg

0 .. 360
m

rb

. i
H . . .
sin
2 1
1

vi

rb

50

H . .

ai

.cos

. i
1

vj

aj

Return
300.deg

2
H.

rb

. i

cos

sj

sk

50

Dwell

j.deg

Rise

H.

rb

120.deg

(H), i unind punctele verticale corespunztoare


cu O i O. Punctele de intersecie ale liniilor
oblice cu cele verticale dau punctele prin care
trece curba ca n Fig.7.12.

cos

. k
2

H . .

vk

2 2

.sin

. k
2

ak

H.

4.8

.cos

. k
2

Dwell
sl

rb

vl

al

50
m
200
100

160

94

120

88

80

82

40

76
s

70

64

80

58

120

52

160

46
40

0
40

200
0

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

7-12

5.6

6.4

7.2

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
120

110

130
140

2000

150

1600
s

1200
800

rb

400
a
m

160

170
180

70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

190

350

200

400

340

210

800

330

220

1200

320
230

1600
2000

100 90 80
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

310
240

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

250

260 270 280

290

300

Fig.7.11

Fig.7.12
The
equations
relating
the
follower Ecuaiile deplasrilor, vitezelor i acceleraiilor
displacement, velocity and acceleration to the sunt date mai jos:
cam rotation angle are:

For the range 0 < < /2

s = 2H


v = s' = 4H 2

For the range /2 < <


2


s = H 1 21


v = s' = 4H 1


a = v' = 4H

In this case the velocity and accelerations will


be finite. However the third derivative, jerk,
will be infinite at the two ends as in the case of
simple harmonic motion. Displacement,
velocity and acceleration curves are as shown


a = v' = 4H

(7.6)

n cazul acesta vitezele i acceleraiile vor fi


finite. Oricum derivata acceleraiei (numit i
sritur) va fi infinit la capetele intervalului la
fel ca i n cazul curbei armonice simple. Se
arat mai jos un calcul de asemenea cam n

7-13

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

below. This motion curve has the lowest MathCad. n orice caz acceleraia asigurat de
possible acceleration.
acest tip de cam este cea mai mic posibil de
realizat tehnic.
i

0 .. 120

i.deg

120.deg

2 . . i
1.
sin
2
1

.
H . i

rb

ai

2
2 . . i
2 .H . . .
sin
2
1
1

121.. 180

sj

181.. 300

k .deg

sk

s 180

vi

H.
1

rb

vj

aj

rb

50

. 1

cos

2 . . i
1

Return
2

.
H . k

300.deg
2 . . k
1.
sin
2
2

vk

2
2 . . k
2 .H . . .
sin
2
2
2

ak

Dwell

j.deg

50

Rise

si

301.. 360

l.deg

Dwell
sl

rb

vl

al

m 0 .. 360
rb
50
m

7-14

H.

. 1

cos

2 . . k
2

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
100
94

500

88

400

82

300

76

200
100

70

64

100

58

200

52

300

46
40

400

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

500

0.8

1.6

120

110

130
140
150
2000

1600

160
m

rb
m

1200
800

170
180

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

100 90 80
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
350
340

210

330

220

800

320
230

1200

310
240

1600
0

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

200

0
400

2000

3.2

190

400
a
m

2.4

250

260 270 280

290

300

Fig.7.13

7.3.4 Cycloidal Motion Curve/Curba cicloidal/


If a circle rolls along a straight without
slipping, a point on the circumference traces a
curve that is called a cycloid. This curve can be
drawn (Fig.7.14) by drawing a circle with
center C=O. The circumference of the circle is
equal to the total rise; or the diameter is H/.
The circumference is divided into a number of
equal parts corresponding to the divisions
along the horizontal axis. The points around the
circle are first projected to the vertical
centerline of the circle and then parallel to OO
to the corresponding vertical line on the
diagram (Fig. 7.14).

Dac un cerc se rostogolete de-a lungul unei


linii drepte fr alunecare, oricare punct al
circumferinei sale traseaz o curb numit
cicloid. Grafic o asemenea curb se obine
(Fig.7.14) prin desenarea unui cerc cu originea
n C=O. Circumferina cercului trebuie s fie
egal cu cursa tachetului deci va avea diametrul
egal cu H/. Circumferin se divide ntr-un
numr de arce egale i la fel se divide axa
orizontal. Punctele cercului se proiecteaz mai
nti pe axa vertical din care se duc paralele la
dreapta OO iar la intersecia cu liniile verticale
se obin punctele curbei (Fig.7.14).

The
equations
relating
the
follower Ecuaiile care leag deplasarea, viteza i
displacement, velocity and acceleration to the acceleraia tachetului de unghiul de rotaie
sunt:
cam rotation angle are:

7-15

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.7.14

s=

0 .. 120

i.deg

120.deg

ai

2
2 . . i
2 .H . . .
sin
2
1
1

121.. 180

a = v' =

2
2H2

sin
2

50

rb

(7.7)

50

vi

H.
1

. 1

cos

2 . . i
1

Dwell

j.deg

sj

181.. 300

k .deg

sk

s 180

ak

2
H

1 cos

2 . . i
1.
sin
2
1

.
H . i

rb

v = s' =

Rise

si

H 1 2

sin
2

rb

aj

Return
2

.
H . k

vj

300.deg
2 . . k
1.
sin
2
2

vk

2
2 . . k
2 .H . . .
sin
2
2
2

7-16

H.

. 1

cos

2 . . k
2

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

301.. 360

l.deg

Dwell
sl

rb

vl

al

m 0 .. 360
rb
50
m

m
100

100

80

94

60

88

40

82

20

76
s

v
m

70

64

20

58

40

52

60

46

80

40

100

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

0.8

1.6

2.4

120

110

130
140
150
2000

1600
1200

160
m

170

rb

180

800

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

100 90 80
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
350

200

340

210

400

330

220

800

320
230

1200

310
240

1600
2000

4
m

190

400
a
m

3.2

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

250

260 270 280

290

300

Fig.7.15
Within the curves we have thus far seen, Dintre toate curbele posibile, curbele cicloidale
cycloidal motion curve has the best dynamic au cele mai bune proprieti dinamice.
characteristics. The acceleration is finite at all Acceleraia este finit mereu iar la capetele
times and the starting and ending acceleration fazelor acceleraia este zero. n consecin
is zero. It will yield a cam mechanism with the aceste curbe genereaz profile de came cu cele
lowest vibration, stress, noise and shock mai mici vibraii n funcionare, fore/tensiuni
characteristics. Hence for high speed mici, zgomot i ocuri mici. Deci pentru
applications
this
motion
curve
is aplicaii cu turaii mari aceast curb este cea
recommended. The maximum velocity and mai recomandat. Viteza i acceleraia maxim
acceleration values are given below.
se calculeaz ca mai jos.
H
v max =

(7.8)
2H2
a max =
2

7-17

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.3.5 Combined Straight Line-Circular arc motion curve/Curba combinat Linie dreaptArc circular/
This curve is an improvement to the linear Aceast curb este o soluie mbuntit a
motion curve. To avoid infinite acceleration at profilului liniar. Pentru evitarea acceleraiilor
the ends of the rise motion, circles are drawn as infinite la capetele fazelor, profilul este rotunjit
shown. Although the acceleration is finite, it cu arce de cerc (Fig.7.16). Dei finit
acceleraia la capetele intervalului va fi oricum
will be of a high magnitude.
mare.
Instead of circular arc the initial and final n locul arcului de cerc se pot folosi alte curbe
motions can be simple harmonic or constant precum cele armonice simple sau de acceleraie
acceleration as well as it will be shown in the constant, aa cum se va vedea n exemplul
following example. Straight line motion results urmtor. Linia dreapt a profilului are
in constant velocity. If we are to perform an caracteristic viteza constant care poate fi
operation such as cutting steel plates, during cerut de anumite procese tehnologice precum
the cam rise, constant velocity is the required tierea tablelor de oel.
motion characteristics.

Fig.7.16

Example 7.1

A cam rotates at 50 rpm constant velocity.


After a certain dwell period the follower must
start to rise at constant acceleration and reach a
speed of 200 mm/s and keep this velocity for
600 crank rotations. The follower must then
move by constant deceleration till it has a rise
of 60 mm and dwell.

Exemplul 7.1

O cam se rotete cu turaia constant de 50


rpm. Dup faza inactiv tachetul trebuie s
nceap s se ridice cu viteza de 200 mm/sec i
a menin aceast vitez constant pentru un
unghi de rotire al camei de 600.Apoi tachetul
trebuie s decelereze constant pn la nlimea
de 60 mm unde urmaz o alt faz de
inactivitate.

Fig.7.17

7-18

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

The rise motion is composed of three parts.


Within the crank rotation 0<<1 we have
constant acceleration (or parabolic) motion,
within the range 1 < < 2 we have constant
velocity (or straight line) motion and within the
range 2 < < we have constant
deceleration (parabolic) motion curves.
Angular velocity of the cam is given as
=50*(/30) = 5.238 s-1, therefore /3 cam
rotation will take place within t= 0.2 s. If the
speed of the follower is kept at 200 mm/s
during this phase of the motion, then the
amount of rise with constant velocity is
H=200(0.2)=40mm. During the acceleration
and deceleration periods total rise will be 6040=20 mm. If we assume the rise for each
constant acceleration periods is equal than
there will be 20/2=10 mm rise for each
interval. Note that the amount of crank rotation
is not known for the constant acceleration
periods but the follower rise.

Faza de ridicare a camei cuprinde 3 pri. Dac


unghiul de rotaie al camei este cuprins ntre
0<<1 va trebui s avem acceleraie constant
(profil parabolic) apoi ntre 1 < < 2 trebuie
vitez constant (profil liniar) i la sfrit cnd
2 < < trebuie s avem deceleraie
constant (parabol). Viteza unghiular a camei
este =50*(/30) = 5.238 s-1 i deci unghiul /3
va fi mturat n t= 0.2 secunde. Dac este
nevoie ca viteza tachetului s fie contant i de
200 mm/sec, atunci el trebuie s parcurg n t
distana H=200(0.2)=40mm. Prin urmare
pentru deceleraiile de la nceputul i sfritul
cursei de ridicare avem disponibile 60-40=20
mm.
Dac
fiecare
perioad
de
accelerare/decelerare sunt presupuse egale,
atunci pentru fiecare din ele vom avea
disponibil 20/2=10 mm. Pentru moment se va
observa c nu se cunoate nc unghiul de rotire
al camei pentru accelerare/decelerare ci doar
cursa tachetului.

Within the range 0 < <1 constant acceleration Pentru unghiul de rotire al camei 0 < <1 se
results with a second order motion curve (a alege ca profil al camei o parabol de
acceleratie constant. Aceast curb este:
parabola). This curve can be written as:
s=c0+c1+c2 2
The boundary conditions is when

Condiiile la limit sunt pentru capetele cursei:

=0, s=0 and s& = 0 (since the motion starts


from a dwell period, we want continuity on

velocity);
and when =1, s=10 mm and
s& = 200mm / s .

=0, s=0 cnd s& = 0 (cum cursa de ridicare


pornete cu tachetul n repaos) i pentru
=1, s=10 mm cnd s& = 200mm / s

Using the conditions for =0 results c0=c1=0. Prin nlocuirea n ecuaia de mai sus rezult
The condition for =1 results with the pentru =0 constantele c0=c1=0. Pentru =1
avem ca mai jos:
equations:
2
c21 = H1 = 10mm
2c21 = 200mm/s
Solving the two equations we obtain/rezolvand ecuaiile de sus/:
1 = /6 (=300 ) and c2=360/2 .
For the deceleration period 2 < < again we Pentru decelerare 2 < < avem curba
have a second order algebraic curve
s=c0+c1+c2 2 . Cnd = 2 = /2 s=50 mm,
2
s=c0+c1+c2 for the motion. When = 2 = avem s& = 200mm / s i cnd = , s=H=60 mm
/2 s=50 mm, s& = 200mm / s and when = , avem s& = 0 .
s=H=60 mm and s& = 0 . Using these boundary
7-19

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

conditions

Folosind aceste condiii la frontiere


determin constantele:
= - 2 = /6,
c0 = H-1002/
c1 =2002/
and/i c2 =-1002/
Now for the whole rise period the motion Acum pentru ntreaga faz de ridicare:
curves are:
Within/ntre/ 0< </6
s=

se

360 2
720
1200
720 2
; v = s& = 2 =
mm/sec; a = v& =
= 2000mm / s 2
2

Within/ntre/ /6 < </2


c0 = H-s=200 , s& = 200mm / s; &s& = 0

(7.9)

Within/ntre/ /2< <2/3 :


100
200
( )2 ; v = s& =
( ) = 1200 ( ); a = v& = 1200 = 2000mm / s 2
s = 60

The displacement, velocity and acceleration


curves are as shown. Note that although the
displacement and velocity curves are
continuous and the acceleration curve is finite,
the third motion derivative (jerk) will be
infinite at all the transition points. This motion
curve can only be used for low speeds.

Curbele deplasrii, vitezei i acceleraiei


tachetului sunt date mai jos. Dei deplasarea i
viteza au curbe continue, derivata acceleraiei
(sritura) este infinit i deci acest profil
combinat se folosete doar la turaii joase.

7.3.8 Cubic or Constant Pulse Motion Curve/Curba cubic sau de impuls constant/
The acceleration of cubic curves is a Acceleraia curbelor cubice este o linie continu
continuous line with a negative slope. There is cu pant negativ. Dei la capetele curbei
a finite acceleration at the ends which result acceleraia este finit, sritura sau derivata
with a step change. Jerk will be infinite at these acceleraiei este infinit. Caracteristicile acestei
points. Its characteristics is very similar to the clase de curbe sunt foarte asemntoare
harmonic motion curve. The displacement, caracteristicilor curbei armonice. Ecuaiile
velocity and acceleration equations are (7.10): deplasrii, vitezei i acceleraiei sunt (7.10):

7-20

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

s = H

0 .. 120

i.deg

ai

6. H .

121.. 180

. 3

1
2

50

vi

6. H.

rb

1 2 ;

(7.10)

50

2.

i
1

. i .
1
1 1

i
1

2 .i

. 1

Dwell

j.deg

sj

181.. 300

k .deg

ak

H.

s 180

120.deg

Rise

rb

sk

3 2 ; v = s& = 6H 1 ; a = v& = 6H

si

rb

6. H .

aj

Return
300.deg

2
H.

vj

. 3

. 1

2.

2 . k

301.. 360

l.deg

0 .. 360

vk

6. H.

Dwell
sl

rb

rb

vl
50

7-21

al

. 1

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
100
200

94

160

88

120

82

80

76
s

40

70

v
m

64
58

80

52

120

46
40

0
40

160

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

200

0.8

1.6

2.4

120

110

130
140
2000

150

1600

1200
800
400
a
m

160
m

170

rb
m

180

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

100 90 80
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
350

200

340

210

800

330

220

1200

320
230

310
240

1600
0

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

190

400

2000

3.2

250

260 270 280

290

300

Fig.7.18

7.3.9 Double Harmonic motion curve/Curba dublu armonic/


The curve is composed as the difference of two Curba este compus din diferena a dou
harmonics. It is an unsymmetrical curve. The armonice. Ea este o curb asimetric. Rata
rate of change of acceleration at the start of the variaiei acceleraiei la nceputul curbei este
mic. Ecuaiile curbei sunt date n (7.11).
rise period is small. The equations are (7.11).

s=

2
1
1

H 1 cos 1 cos
2

4

v = s& =

1 1 2
sin sin

H
2 2
2

2
1
cos cos

a = v& = H
2

7-22

(7.11)

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

0 .. 120

i .deg

H.

rb

ai

1 . . .
H
2
1

121.. 180
j

j .deg

.i

cos

1 .
1
4

1
.i

. cos

sj

181.. 300

k .deg

sk

s 180

rb

50

2 . .i

vi

2 . .i
1 .
sin
2
1

.i
1 . . . .
H
sin
2
1
1

2 . .i

cos

cos

rb

vj

aj

1 .
1
4

300.deg

2
H .
1
2

cos

1 . . .
H
2
2

301.. 360

l.deg

0 .. 360

Return

. k
2

. k
1 . . . .
H
sin
2
2
2

ak

Dwell

vk

50

Rise

si

120.deg

. cos

. k

cos

2 . . k
2

2 . . k
1 .
sin
2
2

al

cos

2 . . k
2

Dwell
sl

rb
rb

vl

50

100
94

400

88

320

82

240
160

76
s

80

70

64

0
80

58

160

52

240

46
40

320

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

400

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

7-23

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

120
130

4000

140

3200

150

2400
s

1600
800
a
m

160
m

170

rb
m

180

100 90 80
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0

190

800

350

200

1600

340

210

330

220

2400

320
230

3200
4000

110

310
240

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

250

260 270 280

290

300

Fig.7.19
7.3.10 Polynomial Motion Curves/Curbele polinomiale/
The general expression for a polynomial is Expresia general a unei curbe polinomiale
given by:
este:
s= c0 + c1 + c22 + c33 +.+cnn
(7.12)
where/unde/
s= displacement of the follower/deplasarea tachetului/
= cam rotation angle/unghiul de rotire al camei/
ci = constants/contante/ (i= 0,,,n)
n= order of the polynomial/gradul polinomului/
For a polynomial of order n we have n+1 Pentru un polinom de grad n vom avea n+1
unknown constant coefficient. These constant coeficieni constani necunoscui. Aceste
can be determined by considering the end constante pot fi determinate dac se consider
conditions. For cam motion we at least want to condiiile la limit. Pentru o cam trebuie s
have continuity in displacement, velocity and existe continuitatea deplasrii, vitezei i
acceleration which results with the boundary acceleraiei la capetele curbei i deci:
conditions:
For/pentru/ =0
for/pentru/ =
s=0
s=H

Since there are 6 boundary conditions, one can Astfel avem 6 condiii la limit i deci putem
evaluate the value of 6 constants Hence the calcula 6 constante. n consecin gradul maxim
polynomial must be of fifth order. The al polinomului este 5. n acest caz avem:
function and its derivatives are:
s= c0 + c1 + c22 + c33 + c44+c55
s&
= c1 + 2c2 + 3c32 + 4c43+5c54

&s&
= 2c2 + 6c3 + 12c42+20c53

7-24

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Substituting the boundary conditions we have 6 equations in six unknowns (constants)/Substituind


condiiile la limt vom avea 6 ecuaii cu 6 necunoscute/:
0= c0
(=0, s=0)
2
3
4
5
(=, s = 0)
H= c0 + c1 + c2 b + c3 +c4 +c5
0= c1
(=0,
)
0= c1 + 2c2 + 3c3 2 +4c4 b3 +5c5 4
(=, s& = 0 )
0=2c2
(=0, &s& = 0 )
(=, &s& = 0 )
0=2 c2 + 6c3 +12c4 2 +20c5 3
Simultaneous solution of these equations yield/Rezolvnd/:
c0=c1 =c2 =0
H
H
H
c 3 = 10 3 ; c 4 = 15 4 ; c 5 = 6 5 ;
(7.13)

Below (7.14-15) are given the equations for a Mai jos sunt date ecuaiile unui polinom de grad
5th order polynomial and the MathCad program 5 (7.14-15) i programul MathCad de calcul.
for generating the solutions.

s = H

2
2
2




10 15 + 6 ; v = s& = 30H 1 2 + ;


a = v& = 60H

2


1 3 + 2 ;

Using the same procedure one can construct


other higher order polynomials as well.
However, one must not over-design. Usually
the difference between two high order motion
curves is very small. If this difference is less
that your manufacturing tolerances, even if you
use a curve of very good acceleration and jerk
characteristics, you will not be able to
manufacture such a cam.

(7.14)

(7.15)

Folosind aceeai procedur se pot construi


curbe polinomiale de grad mai nalt. ns
folosirea polinoamelor de grad nalt nu este
mereu benefic. De regul diferena dintre dou
polinoame de grad succesiv este mic iar dac
tolerana de fabricaie este egal sau mai mare
dect aceast diferen, dei n teorie
comportamenul dinamic este mai bun, aceste
curbe nu vor putea fi fabricate cu tehnologiile
curente.

7-25

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

0 .. 120

i .deg

H.

120.deg

. 10

ai

2
. i .
.
.
1
60 H
1
1

121.. 180
j .deg

sj

181.. 300

k .deg

s 180

rb

rb

3.

6.

50

vi

2.

. i .
30. H .
1
1 1

i
1

H.

ak
l

301.. 360

l .deg

0 .. 360

aj

300.deg

. 10 15.

60. H .

vj

Return
2

30. H .

vk

Dwell

sk

15.

rb

50

Rise

si

. 1

2.

6.

. 1

3.

al

Dwell
sl

rb
rb

vl

50

7-26

2.

2.

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
100

400

94

320

88

240

82

160

76
s

80

70

64

80

58

160

52

240

46

320

40

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

400

0.8

1.6

2.4

Fig.7.20
120

110

130
140
150

2000
1600

1200
800

160
m

rb

400
a
m

170
180

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

100 90 80
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

70

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
350

200

340

210

800

330

220

1200

320
230

310
240

1600
0

0.8

1.6

2.4

3.2

4.8

5.6

6.4

7.2

190

400

2000

3.2

250

260 270 280

290

300

Fig.7.21
7.4 Cam Size Determination/Determinarea mrimii camei/

Cam size determination is related to the


determination of the base circle of the cam. In
almost all applications we would like to
minimize the size of the cam being used. Large
cams are not desired due to the following
reasons:

Calculul mrimii camei se leag de


determinarea cercului de baz al camei. n
aproape toate aplicaiile se dorete minimizarea
mrimii camei. Camele mari nu sunt de dorit
dat fiind c:

1. More space is required.


2. Unbalanced mass increases (vibrations)
3. Follower has a longer path to follow
for each cycle. Hence the angular
velocity of the follower and the surface
velocity increases with dynamic
behavior consequences.

1. Este necesar un spaiu mai mare,


2. Masele excentrice sunt mai mari i deci
se nrutete comportamentul dinamic
(apar vibraii n fincionare)
3. Tachetul parcurge un drum mai lung pe
circumferina camei ntr-un ciclu i deci
trebuie s avem o turaie mai mare a
camei ceea ce determin o vitez mai
mare a tachetului cu consecine
dinamice nedorite.
Pe de alt parte pe msur ce cama devine mai
mic vom avea:

However as we decrease the cam size, the


following
factors
take
into
effect:
1. The force transmission characteristics
deteriorate. The cam profile steepness

7-27

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Caracteristicile de transmitere a forelor


se nrutesc prin faptul c panta camei
crete,
2. Curbele camei devin mai ascuite
(curbura descrete),
3. Strength requirements due to the forces and
3. Cama trebuie s fie mai robust de
moments acting on the cam.
vreme ce forele care acioneaz asupra
sa
cresc.
In practice the cam size is determined by
n
practic
la proiectarea camelor se ine cont
considering two factors: the pressure angle and
de
unghiul
de
presiune i raza minim a curburii
the minimum radius of curvature.
camei.
increases.
2. The curvature of the cam profile decreases
(sharp curves)

7.4.1 Pressure angle/Unghiul de presiune/


The pressure angle, which is the reciprocal of Unghiul de presiune este complementul
the transmission angle (i.e. =/2 ) is unghiului de transmitere (=/2 ) i este
defined as:
definit astfel:

tan =

Componenta fortei care tinde sa aplice presiune pe lagarul tachetului


Componenta fortei care tinde sa miste tachetul

(7.19)

In cams there is point contact between the two


profiles. The force is transmitted along the
common normal of the two contacting curves.
Pressure angle for oscillating and translating
roller follower radial cams are shown below
(Fig.7.22).

In mecanismele cu came punctul de contact


ntre cam i tachet aparine n egal masur
camei i tachetului. Fora care se va transmite
va avea direcia de-a lungul normalei comune
ale curbelor profilului camei i profilului
tachetului. Unghiul de presiune pentru tacheii
cu translaie sau oscilani este dat n Fig.7.22.
Curvature characteristics are used for the Mrimea curburii camei are rol n determinarea
mrimii finale a camei.
determination of cam size.
The pressure angle is a function of cam rotation
angle. We can express the force ratio
expression (7.19) for the pressure angle using
the kinematics of the mechanism.

Unghiul de presiune este funcie de unghiul de


rotaie al camei. Se poate exprima relaia dintre
componentele forelor transmise (7.19) care
definesc unghiul de presiune, folosind
cinematica mecanismului.

7-28

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.7.22
Consider an inline translating roller follower Fie o cam ca n Fig.7.23. Unghiul de presiune
radial cam (Fig.7.23). The pressure angle is a este funcie de unghiul de rotaie al camei i de
function of cam rotation and the amount of rise, mrimea cursei s (care este i ea funcie de
s (which is also a function of the cam rotation unghiul de rotaie al camei). La un moment dat
angle). At the instant considered, velocity of viteza n punctul B a tachetului (elementul 3) va
point B on link 3 (follower) will be vB3 along fi vB3 cu direcia de-a lungul axei tachetului.
the slider axis (vertical). The velocity of a point Viteza punctului B ca aparinnd de ast dat
B on link 2 (cam) at this instant is vB2 camei (elementul 2) este vB2 care este paralel
perpendicular to the line OB. These two cu linia OB. Aceste ecuaii sunt legate ntre ele
velocities are related by the equation:
cu relaia:

Fig.7.23
vB3 = vB2 + vB3/B2

(7.16)

In this equation/n care/:


vB3= Follower velocity/Vitez tachet/ = ds/dt= s& ()
Here s is the derivative of s with respect to . Fie s derivate lui s n raport cu . Dac se
If the motion curve is known, the pressure cunoate curba de micare, variaia unghiului de
angle variation can be determined (at the dwell presiune poate fi determinat (n faza inactiv
avem tan=0 sau =0 i deci nu se transmite
7-29

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

periods note that tan=0 or =0, no motion is


transmitted). During the rise or return portion
s() is monotonically increasing or decreasing.
Except the double harmonic, for symmetric
curves, s() is maximum at the midpoint
(s=H/2, =/2). Hence the pressure angle is
maximum or minimum at half the rise or return
motion for inline roller followers. It will be
given by the equation:
tan max

micare). n timpul fazei de ridicare sau


coborre s() va crete/scade monoton. Cu
excepia curbelor dublu-armonice care sunt
asimetrice, s() va avea un maxim n punctul
aflat la mijlocul intervalului cu (s=H/2, =/2).
Deci unghiul de presiune este maxim/minim la
jumtatea cursei de ridicare/coborre. Pentru
tacheii centrai expresia de calcul este:

ds

d max
=
H
+ rb + rr
2

Normalization of the motion curves-In order


to compare the motion curves that were
discussed we let: =1 rad/s; H= 1 unit
= 1 radian. This procedure is known as
normalization. Using this procedure one
can then easily compare all these curves with
respect to each other. This comparison is
shown in table 7.1 below. Cv, Ca and Cj, are the
maximum velocity, acceleration and jerk
values for the normalized curves. One can
determine the maximum velocity, acceleration
and jerk for any H, and as shown below.
Also the equations given for the normalized
motion curves can be converted for any rise H,
angular velocity and crank rotation by
multiplying the equation by H substituting /
instead of . For example the cubic curve is
given as:
H
v max = C v ; a max = C a

(7.17)

Pentru normalizarea curbelor de micare care


servete comparrii diferitelor tipuri de curbe
ntre ele, se presupune c: =1 rad/s; H= 1
unitate i = 1 radian. Prin introducerea acestor
valori n ecuaiile curbelor aa cum se arat n
tabelul 7.1, se vede c Cv, Ca i Cj, sunt vitezele,
acceleraiile i sriturile maxime ale acestor
curbe normalizate. Se pot determina ecuaiile de
micare pentru orice curb, cunoscnd valorile,
H, i . Deci curbele normalizate pot genera
rezultate pentru oricare H, i dac n
ecuaiile normalizate se trec H real, i punnd
/ n loc de . Se d ca exemplu ecuaia unei
curbe cubice:

H 2
H
; j max = C j 3 3 ;
2

s=32-23 (cubic curve/curb cubic/)


If we multiply the equation by H and substitute / instead of we have/Dac se nmulete cu H i
se pune / n loc de / :
3
2
2



s = H 3 2 = H 3 2




Since Cv=1.5, Ca=6, the maximum velocity and acceleration values will be/Cum Cv=1.5, Ca=6
viteza i acceleraia maxim/:

vmax=1.5*H(/) , amax=6*H(/)2.

7-30

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Table 7.1
Since (ds / d)max = C v (H / ) ) , this value can Cum (ds / d)max = C v (H / ) ) , aceasta poate fi
easily be determined for a given motion curve. calculat pentru o anumit curb dat a
Usually rr is determined from strength profilului camei.
considerations. The designer selects an De regul rr se determin din considerente de
acceptable maximum pressure angle and solves rezisten. Proiectantul alege o valoare
the above expression for the base circle radius acceptabil a ughiului de presiune i rezolv
rb.
ecuaia (7.17) pentru o valoare a razei ceruclui
Maximum pressure angle usually depends on de baz rb.
the speed, load and place of application of the Unghiul maxim de presiune depinde de turaia
cam mechanism. In the literature as a rule of camei i solicitrile la care este supus cama.

7-31

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Orientativ avem:

thumb:

If the cam speed is less then 30 rpm:


max450 ,
If the cam speed is greater then 30
rpm: max600

Dac turaia camei este mai mic de 30


rpm avem max450 ,
Dac turaia camei este mai mare de 30
rpm avem max600 ,

If the follower is eccentric then the pressure Dac tachetul este excentric unghiul de presiune
este dat de:
angle is given by the equation:
ds

(7.18)
d
tan = ;
s() + c

c = rb2 e 2 rb = c + e 2
Where e is the eccentricity /Unde e este exentricitatea/

Example 7.2

Determine the minimum radius of the base


circle for the cam motion given in Fig.7.24,
assuming an inline roller follower radial cam,
with maximum permissible pressure angle 260.

Exemplul 7.2

S se determine raza cercului de baz a unei


came date ca n Fig.7.24, presupunnd c
tachetul este cu rol cu un unghi de presiune
admisibil 260. (H=40, =600).

Supposing the rise is in cycloidal motion, Cv=2. Se presupune c profilul camei este cicloidal cu
Cv=2 i deci:
Hence:
H
40
120
ds
=
= 38.2mm
= Cv = 2

2


max

3
Hence/Deci/:
(rb+H/2+rr ) tanmax= 38.20 or/sau rb+20+rr =38.20 /tan(260)= 78.32 mm
rb+rr =58.32 mm
If the roller radius is 10 mm (rr=10 mm) then a Dac rola are o raz de rr=10 mm atunci raza
base circle radius of 50 mm (rb=50 mm) will be cercului de baz poate fi aleas rb=50 mm.
an acceptable choice for the cam. Pentru un tachet oscilant:
In case of oscillating roller followers, The
pressure angle is given by:

1
1 a
1

= sin + tan
R2
a 2 R 2 l2
R
2

2Ra sin
la sin '
d
' =
; () = 0 + ()
d
Where =+1 or -1 if the cam is rotating away Unde =+1 dup cum cama se rotete nspre
or towards the follower arm pivot. For braul tachetului sau =-1 dac invers. Dac de

7-32

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

example, for a counter clockwise rotating cam pild n exemplul nostru, cama se rotete n
=1.
sens orar atunci =1.
R = l 2 + a 2 2al cos
a 2 + R 2 l2
= cos 1

2Ra

f() is the motion curve and 0 is the value of the angle when the roller is on the base circle/f()
este curba de micare iar 0 este valoarea unghiului cand rola evolueaz pe cercul de baz/ :
2
1 rb

0 = cos

l2 a 2
2la

Fig.7.24
7.4.2 Cam Curvature/Curbura camei/
In practice for roller followers it is common to
determine the cam size using the maximum
pressure angle criteria and then check that the
cam curvature is satisfactory. In case of flat
faced followers, the cam curvature is the
determining criteria for the cam size.
Graphically when laying out the cam profile,
first the successive positions of the follower
according to the cam motion curve is drawn
while keeping the cam fixed.

Consider the case shown below (Fig.7.25).


According to the cam motion requirements,
with the selected roller radius and base circle
radius the positions of the roller are A, B, C, D,
E. Suppose it is not possible to draw a smooth
curve that is tangent to all the roller circles.
With Profile#1, the cam profile is tangent to the

n aplicaiile practice pentru tacheii cu role se


obinuiete s se calculeze mrimea camei
folosind unghiul maxim de presiune dup care
mai apoi se verific dac rezult o curbur a
camei care satisface. n cazul tacheilor cu fa
plan, curbura camei devine criteriul principal
de proiectare a mrimii camei. Cnd se
folosete metoda grafic de proiectare a
profilului camei, mai nti se deseneaz
poziiile successive ale tachetului funcie de
curba de micare a camei, n ipoteza inversiunii,
adic a meninerii camei fixe.
Fie cama din Fig.7.25. n rezolvarea grafic
tiind raza rolei i curba de micare a camei e
obin centrele succesive ale rolei A, B, C, D, E.
Sa presupunem c nu se poate desena o curb
neted tangent la toate punctele poziiilor
rolei. Fie astfel Profilul 1 tangent la A, C, E i
Profilul 2 tangent la A, B i D. Ca urmare nu

7-33

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

circles at positions A, C and E, and in Profile#2


the cam profile is tangent to positions A, B and
D of the roller. There is no cam profile that will
be tangent to all the positions of the roller. This
is known as undercutting and occurs
whenever the radius of curvature of the cam
profile is less than the radius of the roller
( p < rr ). The only way to eliminate this

exist nici o curb posibil care s satisfac


simutan cele dou cerine. Acest fenomen se
numete subtiere i se petrece de fiecare
dat cnd raza curburii profilului camei este
mai mic dect raza rolei ( p < rr ). Singurul

mod de eliminare a acestui fenomen este de a


selecta un cerc de baz mai mare sau de a
reduce raza rolei dac condiiile de rezisten o
condition is that one must select a larger base permite.
circle radius or (if strength conditions permit)
reduce the radius of the roller.

Fig.7.25
A similar case is shown in case of flat faced Un caz similar poate avea loc pentru tacheii
followers (Fig.7.26). The cam profile is not plai (Fig.7.26) la care profilul camei este
tangent to all the successive positions of the posibil s nu fie tangent la toate poziiile
follower.
successive ale tachetului.

Fig.7.26
The radius of curvature of a curve in plane is Raza de curbur a camei n coordinate polare
given in polar coordinates as:
este:

2 dr 2
r +
d

3/ 2

d2r
dr
r 2 + 2 r 2
d
d

7-34

(7.19)

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

For a radial cam with roller follower the radius Pentru o cam radial cu tachet cu rol raza de
of curvature of the pitch curve (the curve curbur a curbei descris de centrul rolei este
described by the centre of the roller follower, dat de:
when the cam is fixed) will be given by:

p =

ds
2
(rb + rr + s ) +
d

3/ 2

(7.20)

d 2s
d 2
d
As a rule of thumb for roller followers the Ca o regul, la rola tachetului, pentru a evita
following recommendations are made to avoid fenomenul de subtiere, trebuie ca:
undercutting:

(rb + rr + s )2 + 2 ds

Use smaller roller diameter (this is limited


by the contact stress at the surface)

Utilize a larger cam size (this is usually


not desired. It must be applied if necessary)

Employ an internal cam (the curvature is


less critical but they are more expensive to
manufacture)

(rb + rr + s )

Diametrul rolei trebuie s fie ct mai mic


(limitat de rezistena la solicitarea de
contact),

Cama s fie ct mai mare (nu este de dorit


i se aplic doar dac nu este alt soluie),

Cama extern se nlocuiete cu o came cu


curba pe o suprafa intern (mai scumpe de
fabricat).

For flat faced follower, the radius of curvature


Pentru un tachet plan:
will be given by:

p =

ds
2
(rb + s ) +
d

3/ 2

(7.21)

d 2s
d 2
d
The Location of the contact point P for flat Poziia punctului de contact P pe tachet se poate
faced follower (Fig.7.27) on the follower can scrie (pentru un tachet plan-Fig.7.27) n numere
be written in complex numbers as:
complexe astfel :

(rb + s )2 + 2 ds

(rb + s )

r
OP = X + (rb + s )i
or/sau/
r
OP = OC + i = rC cos( + ) + i[rC sin ( + ) + ]
Equating the real and imaginary parts/egalnd prile imaginare i reale ntre ele/:
X = rC cos( + ); (rb + s ) = rC sin ( + ) +
(7.22)
Noting that the centre of curvature does not
change for an infinitesimal motion, the first
rates of change of rC and a with respect to is
dr
zero ( C = 0 ). Taking the derivative of OP
d
with respect to yields:

Cu observaia c raza de curbur nu variaz


mult dac micarea camei este infinitezimal,
dr
prima derivat a lui C = 0 . Dac se deriveaz
d
OP n raport cu avem:

7-35

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

dX ds
+
i = rC sin ( + ) + irC cos( + )
d d
or/sau/
dX/d = -rCsin(+)

ds/d = rCcos(+)
Also/Deasemenea/:
X= ds/d
Differentiating/Derivnd/:
dX d 2 s
=
= rC sin ( + )
d d 2
d 2s
d 2s
rb + s = 2 + = rb + s + 2
d
d

(7.23)

Fig.7.27

Din ecuaiile de mai sus se poate concluziona


astfel:

From the above equations we can conclude:

Xmax=(ds/d)max
and Xmin=(ds/d)min
which is the maximum/minimum velocity
during the return motion allow to calculate
the length of the follower L=Xmax-Xmin.

The minimum radius of curvature is when


2
d s/d2 is at its minimum (largest negative
value). The radius of curvature must always
be greater than zero (when = 0, the curve
has a cusp).

Xmax=(ds/d)max and Xmin=(ds/d)min care


sunt viteza maxim/minim permit calculul
lungimii feei plane a tachetului L=XmaxXmin.

Raza minim de curbur se obine cnd


2
d s/d2 este minim. Oricum raza de curbur
trebuie s fie mereu mai mare dect zero
(dac = 0, curba are un punct de
ntoarcere).

7-36

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.5 Construction of the Cam Profile/Construcia profilului camei/

After the motion curve is defined and the cam


size is determined, the actual cam profile can
be found. One can either use geometrical or
analytical
method
for
cam
profile
determination. Since the accuracy of the cam
profile is very important for fabrication on
numeric tools-machines, mathematical methods
are preferred.

Dup definirea curbei de micare i


determinarea mrimii camei, se poate determina
profilul real al camei. Se pot folosi att metode
grafice ct i analitice. Cum de regul camele
sunt fabricate pe maini unelte cu comand
numeric, generarea matematic a profilului
este metoda cea mai folosit.

Geometrical method for the cam profile


determination for a flat faced follower radial
cam was shown in Fig.7.28. In this case the
procedure in generating the cam profile
involves kinematic inversion. Before laying out
the cam profile, the base circle radius and the
motion curve for the whole cycle must be
known. Through this process the cam profile is
obtained as the envelope of all the cam profile
positions.

Metoda grafic este exemplificat n Fig.7.28


pentru o cam radial cu tachet plan. n acest
caz procedura de generare a profilului camei se
face prin metoda inversiunii cinematice. nainte
de a proceda trebuie cunoscute raza cercului de
baz i curba de micare. Profilul camei se va
obine ca fiind nfurtoarea tuturor poziiilor
tachetului pe cam.

Analytical method of cam profile determination Metodele analitice de determinare a profilului


makes use of envelope theory. An Envelope camei se bizuie pe teoria nfurtoarelor. O
nfurtoare are urmtoarea proprietate:
has the following propriety:
If each member of a family of curves is
tangent to a certain curve then for each
point of this curve at least one member of
the family is tangent.

Dac fiecare membru al unei familii de curbe


este mereu tangent la o alt curb
nfurtoare dat, atunci pentru fiecare
punct al acestei curbe nfurtoare exist
cel puin un membru al familiei de curbe
care s fie tangent n acel punct.

O familie de curbe cu un parametru are forma


A family of curves with one parameter is in the
f(x,y,c)=0 unde c este un parametru. Pentru
form f(x,y,c)=0 where c is the parameter. For
fiecare valoare a lui c se obine un membru al
each value of c we obtain a member of the
familiei de curbe. De exemplu:
family of curves. For example:

7-37

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig.7.28

(x-c)2+y2=r2
The above equation ise equation of a circle
with radius r (constant) and center (c, 0), since
c is the parameter for each value of c we have a
different circle (Fig.7.29). Hence we have a
family of circles.

(7.24)

Ecuaia de mai sus este ecuaia unui cerc de


raz r constant i centru de coordinate (c, 0) ca
n Fig.7.29. Cum c este un parametru el poate
lua orice valoare real i deci vom avea o
familie de cercuri.

Fig.7.29

We shall assume that the function f(x,y,c)=0


has as many continuous derivatives with
respect to x, y and c as may be required. The
slope of any member in the family is:

Se face ipoteza c funcia f(x,y,c)=0 are


derivate de ordinul 1 continue fa de x, y i c.
Ecuaia tangentei ntr-un punct oarecare (x, y)
este:

7-38

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

df

df
dy
dx
df
df dx df dy
= dx + dy = 0
+
=0
dx
dy
df dx
dx dc dy dc


dy
This slope relation is valid for any member
within the family. If another curve (the
envelope) is tangent to a member of the family
at a single point, its slope, likewise, must
satisfy the above equation (7.25).

(7.25)

Aceast relaie este valid pentru fiecare


membru al familiei de curbe. Dac o alt curba
(numit nfurtoare) este tangent la oricare
membru al familiei ntr-un singur punct, aceast
curb va trebui s satisfac ecuaia (7.25).

The total derivative of the function f(x,y,c)=0 Derivata parial a funciei f(x,y,c)=0 pentru
toate variabilele x, y, c este:
is:
f
f
f
f dx f dy f
dx +
dy + dc = 0
+
+
=0
x
y
c
x dc y dc c
Since the sum of the first two terms is equal to zero from the slope relationship (7.25)/Cum suma
primipor doi termeni este egal cu zero conform ecuaiei (7.25)/:
f
= fc = 0
c
Hence the envelope must satisfy f(x, y, c) = 0 equation and/Deci nfurtoarea trebuie s satisfac
ecuaia f(x, y, c) = 0 i n plus/:
f
= fc = 0
c

Then the envelope of the family of curves


f(x,y,c)=0
is
obtained
by
eliminating c from f(x,y,c)=0 and the partial
derivative of the function with respect to the
f
= fc = 0 .
parameter c:
c

(7.26)

Aadar, analitic, pentru obinerea ecuaiei


anvelopei familiei de curbe f(x,y,c)=0, se
elimin parametrul c din f(x,y,c)=0, i se
f
calculeaz derivata parial
= fc = 0 .
c

Sometimes the family of curves is given in Uneori familia de curbe este dat n forma
parametric form as:
parametric:
x = (s , c )
(7.27)
y = (s, c)
where s is the curve parameter. For example unde s este parametrul curbei. Ca exemplu
the family of circles can be written in familia de cercuri dat mai sus poate fi scris n
parametric form as x=c+rcos(s), y=rsin(s)) The form parametric x=c+rcos(s), y=rsin(s). Dac
envelope is obtained by the elimination of c se elimin c ntre aceste ecuaii se poate obine
ecuaia nfurtorii:
from these eqations and:

7-39

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

=0
s c
c s

Example 7.3

(7.28)

Exemplul 7.3

Determine the envelope of the family of circles S se determine nfurtoarea familiei de


cercuri dat de ecuaia:
given by the equation:
f(x,y,c)=(x-c)2+y2-1=0

f(x,y,c)=(x-c)2+y2-1=0

Using the above equation and its partial Dac se folosete aceasta ecuaie i derivata
parial funcie de c:
derivative with respect to c:
fc=-2(x-c)=0

fc=-2(x-c)=0

We can eliminate c from f = 0 and fc =0 to Din ecuaiile de mai sus se elimin c i se


obine ecuaia nfurtoarei:
obtain the equation of the envelope:
y=1

y=1

Thus the horizontal lines y=1 and y=-1 are the


envelopes of the family of circles as shown.

Astfel liniile orizontale y=1 i y=-1 sunt


infutorile acestei familii de cercuri:

Fig.7.30

Example 7.4

Now let us apply the envelope theory to a basic


cam-follower system: a radial cam with a
translating roller follower. We shall assume
that the follower sliding axis is offset by an
amount c from the centre of rotation of the
cam.
As in the case of geometrical construction, let
us use kinematic inversion and fix the cam and
release the fixed link. For the same relative
motion, if the cam rotates by a counter
clockwise angle , the fixed link will rotate by
a clockwise angle and the follower will be
displaced by an amount s() with respect to the

Exemplul 7.4

Fie acum un exemplu de aplicare a teoriei


nfurtoarelor pentru o cam radial cu tachet
de translaie cu rol. Se presupune c axa de
translaie a tachetului este excentric cu distan
c faa de centrul camei.
Fie, ca i la metoda grafic de rezolvare,
considerarea inversiunii cinematice a camei cu
tachetul (cama fix, tachetul rotiror n jurul
camei). Pentru obinera aceleiai micri
relative, dac unghiul de rotire al camei este
n sens trigonometric, tachetul se va roti n
cazul inversiunii cu acelai unghi n sens orar,

7-40

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

fixed link as shown in Fig.7.31. The roller


takes different positions for each angle, hence
it is the roller profile that is the generating
curve and any point P(xp, yp) and for any cam
angle , will have the equation is:
2
f ( x , y, ) = x x p

iar deplasarea sa va fi s(), aa cum se vede n


Fig.7.31. Rola va avea diferite poziii pentru
fiecare unghi , deci nsi profilul rolei va fi
curba generatoare i un punct P(xp, yp) (centrul
rolei), pentru fiecare unghi va avea ecuaia:
2
+ y y p rr2 = 0

Where rr is the radius of the roller. P(xp, yp) are


the coordinates of a point on the pitch curve
(the centre of the roller), which is a function of
the cam angle . xp, yp is given by equation
below.

Unde rr este raza cercului rolei. Punctul P(xp, yp)


descrie o poziie instantanee a centrului rolei
care depinde (poziia) de . xp, yp sunt date de
ecuaia de mai jos.

) (

One can also write the coordinates of point P in Se pot scrie coordonatele punctului P i cu
numere complexe:
complex numbers as:
z = x p + iy p = ce i + i(k + s)e i

z = x p + iy p = ce i + i(k + s)e i

The real and imaginary parts of this complex Partea imaginar i real a acestui numr
number will yield xp and yp coordinates as complex sunt date mai jos:
given in equation below:
x p = (k + s ) sin + c cos

y p = (k + s ) cos c sin

k=

(rb + rr )2 c 2

Note that the equation for the roller profile is a


generating curve which depends on constant
parameters rb, rr, and c and on the follower
displacement s and cam rotation angle . Since
s is also a function of defined by the motion
curve, the generating curve (roller profile) is in
the form f(x,y,). is a parameter (for each
value of we obtain a member within the
family of curves). Hence the generating curve
is as already stated:

f ( x , y, ) = x x p

Se poate vedea de mai sus c ecuaiile curbei


generatoare depind de rb, rr, i c precum i de
deplasarea tachetului s, alaturi de unghiul de
rotaie . Cum deplasarea s este i ea funcie de
unghiul (curba de micare), n final avem c
profilul rolei (curba generatoare) va depinde de
f(x, y, ). n acest caz joac rol de parametru
dat fiind c pentru fiecare valoare a sa rezult
un nou membru al familiei de curbe. Aadar,
aa cum s-a artat deja mai sus, curba
generatoare va fi:

) + (y y )
2

rr2 = 0

(3)

If we take the partial derivative of f(x,y,) with respect to /Dac se calculeaz derivatele pariale
ale f(x,y,) fa de /
x p
y p
f ( x , y, )
= 2( x x p )
2( y y p )
=0

In this equation/n aceast ecuaie/:

7-41

(4)

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

x p

ds

=
c sin + (k + s) cos
d

y p ds

=
c cos (k + s) sin
d

(5)

Fig.7.31
We obtain the envelope equation in parametric Se poate obine ecuaia nfurtoarei n form
form by eliminating y from the two equations parametric prin eliminarea lui y din cele dou
(solve for (y-yp) from equation 4 in terms of (x- ecuaii (se scoate (y-yp) din ecuaia 4 funcie de
xp) and substitute into equation 3) we obtain:
(x-xp) i se nlocuiete n ecuaia 3), se obine:

x = xp

rr

1 +

x p

y p

and solving for y/i rezolvnd dup y/


x p

y = yp x x p
y p

The envelope is the cam profile. Note that we Infurtoarea este profilul camei. Se va
have not obtained an explicit expression for the observa c nu s-a obinut o expresie explicit

7-42

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

cam profile. Instead we have an algorithm with


which we can determine the coordinates on the
cam profile in terms of the parameter , which
is the cam rotation angle. Also note that for
every cam rotation angle we obtain two points
on the profile which means that the envelope is
of two parts. One is the inner envelope and the
other is the outer envelope (external or internal
cam profile).

pentru profilul camei. n schimb avem un


algoritm de determinare a coordonatelor
punctelor profilului camei pentru fiecare
valoare a parametrului care este dat de rotaia
camei. Semnul de la coordonata lui x arat
ca se obin dou profile ale nfurtorii, una
este nfurtoarea interioar care intereseaz,
cealalt (cu minus) este nfurtoarea
exterioar care nu intereseaz.

Example 7.5

Design a radial cam with an offset roller


follower which rises to 50 mm in 1200 cam
rotation using simple harmonic motion and
dwells at 50 mm for 600 cam rotation. For the
next 1200 cam rotation, the follower returns on
in simple harmonic motion. Let the roller
radius be 20 mm, base circle radius 50 mm and
let the eccentricity c=20 mm. Let us calculate
for every 100 of cam shaft rotation using
Mathcad.

Exemplul 7.5

S se proiecteze o cam radial cu tachet cu


rol de translaie care se ridic cu 50 mm pentru
un unghi de rotire a camei de 1200, cama avnd
o curb de micare armonic, apoi cama
rmne nemicat la nlimea de 50 mm pentru
un unghi de 600 . Pentru urmtoarele 1200
tachetul revine la poziia iniial tot pe o curb
armonic. Dac raza rolei este 20 mm, raza
cercului de baz este 50 mm i excentricitatea
c=20 mm, s se calculeze pentru fiecare 100 i
folosind MathCad caracteristicile camei.

Fig.7.32

7-43

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

i.

si

180

50. 1

rb

cos 3 .

i
75 .
sin 3 .
2
2

vi

Rise

121.. 180

j.

sj

180

150

vj

Dwell

Return

181.. 300

k.

sk

180

50. 1

s 180

cos 3 .

k
75 .
sin 3 .
2
2

vk

301.. 360

s l 50
vl 0
Dwell
180
The displacement and velocity diagrams are shownbelow.
(we assume =1 s-1, therefore v=ds/d )
The coordinates of the centre of the roller and their derivatives
m 0 , 1 .. 360
with respect to cam angle , m is the dummy index ( m=0,1.360)
rb
50
l.

40
150

32

140

24

130

16

120

110
s

v
m

100
90

16

80

24

70

32

60
50

0
8

40
0

40

80

120

160

200
m

240

280

320

360

130
140

120

400

110

150
s

160
m

rb
m

170
180

40

80

100 90 80
70
150
60
135
50
120
40
105
90
30
75
60
20
45
30
10
15
0
0

190

350

200

340

210
220
230

330

240

250

260 270 280

7-44

290

300

320
310

120

160

200
m

240

280

320

360

400

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

rb
K

rb

rr

sp
m

sm

rb

130
140
sp
m
s

rb

50

120

110

150
160
170
180

50

100 90 80
70
217.08
60
195.37
50
173.67
40
151.96
130.25
30
108.54
86.83
20
65.12
43.42
10
21.71
0
0

190

350

200

340

210
220
230

330

240

250

260 270 280

290

7-45

300

320
310

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

xp

yp

sm

K .sin m

c .cos m

sm

K .cos m

c .sin m

xp
yp

c .sin m

vm

c .cos m

vm

s m .cos m

s m .sin m

dxp and dyp are the partial derivatives of xp and yp with respect to
xp

um

yp

rr

pm
1
x1

xp

y1

xp

um

pm

x2

p m .u m

y2

xp

xp

pm

p m .u m

Note that x1, y1 and x2, y2 gives us two pairs of cam profile coordinates
depending on the + or - sign in the equation for x. x1, y1 and x2,y2
will be on the inner envelope or on the outer envelope for certain portions
of the curve (one cannot state that x1, y1 is on the inner or outer envelope.
x1, y1 will lie on the outer envelope for a certain range of and will lie
on the inner envelope for the other range of ). If we want to draw the cam
profile in external contact with the roller follower, we can convert the cam
profile coordinates to polar form and select the coordinate closer to the
origin:
1

x1

y1

x2

y2

if 1 < 2 , 1 , 2
m
m
m
m

xm

if 1 < 2 , x 1 , x 2
m
m
m
m

ym

angle xm , y m

7-46

if 1 < 2 , y 1 , y 2
m
m
m
m

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

if(cond, tval, fval)


This function returns one of two values
depending on the value of a logical condition.
Arguments:
cond is usually an expression involving a logical operator.
For example you can use:
(i < 2)
(x<1)*(x>0) for an and gate
(x>1)+(x<0) for an or gate
tval is the value returned when cond is true.
fval is the value returned when cond is false.
130
140

300
270
240

150

170
m

180

100 90 80
70
277.25
60
249.53
50
221.8
40
194.08
166.35
30
138.63
110.9
20
83.18
55.45
10
27.73
0
0

190

150
120

350

200

340

210

90
60
30
0

110

160

210
180

120

220
230

0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2

4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2

330

240

250

260 270 280

290

300

320
310

One can determine the pressure angle


for every position as shown.
m

angle x p

m
m

m
m .

xm , y p

ym

180

if m < 180, m , 360 m

The variation of the pressure angle within one cycle is shown below.
Note that with c=20 mm the pressure angle during the rise is
within -160 < < 110 and during the return motion max=340.
The pressure angle curve when the eccentricity is zero is also
shown..The maximum pressure angle is 22.30 for both rise and
return periods. By employing eccentricity, the maximum pressure
angle during the rise portion is decreased at the expense of the maximum
pressure angle during the return motion (which is less critical).

7-47

Cams/Came/

_________________________________________________________________________________________________
150
130
110
90
70

50
30
10
10
30
50

0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2

7-48

4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2

Bibliografie

___________________________________________________________________________
BIBLIOGRAFIE
1.ARTOBOLEVSKI,L.:Teoria mecanismelor i mainilor, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti 1955.
2.BUCULEI,M..a: Metode de calcul n analiza mecanismelor cu bare, Editura Scrisul Romnesc,
1986
3.CONIU,TR.: Culegere de probleme din teoria mecanismelor i a

mainilor, Editura

Tehnic,Bucureti 1967.
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1980.
5.GRAFIANU,M.:Organe de Masini vol II, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,1983.
6.GRIGORESCU,L.,ZIDARU,N.: Mecanisme - ndrumar de proiectare, Editura Nautica,Constana
2008.
7. MANOLESCU,N. s.a: Probleme de teoria mecansimelor i a mainilor, Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, Bucureti 1968.
8.MANOLESCU,N..a:Teoria mecanismelor i a mainilor, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti 1972.
9.POPESCU,I.: Mecanisme Probleme, Universitatea din Craiova, 1973.
10.PELECUDI,CHR.: Bazele analizei mecanismelor, Editura Academiei R.S.R., Bucureti, 1967.
11.POPOVICI,M.,.a: Mecanic tehnic pentru muncitori Vol.II, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,1982.
12.POPOVICI,M.,.a: Mecanic tehnic pentru muncitori Vol.III, Editura Tehnic, Bucureti,1985.
13.PELECUDI,CHR.: Mecanisme, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,1980.
14.RDULESCU GH.,.a: ndrumar de proiectare n construcia de maini Vol.III, Editura Tehnic,
Bucureti,1986.
15. RZMERI,I .a: Mecanic i organe de maini- Aplicaii, vol.I, Universitatea din Galai, 1983.
16. RIPIANU,I s.a: Mecanic tehnic, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti 1982.
17.TUTUNARU,D.,s.a: Teoria mecanismelor i organelor de maini, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti 1962.
18.ZIDARU ,N: Angrenaje cilindrice, Editura Printech, Bucureti 2002.
19. ZIDARU ,N: Organe de maini. Transmisii mecanice Vol.I.Angrenaje, Editura Printech, Bucureti
2004.
20. ZIDARU ,N: Angrenaje Conice,Melcate,Hipoide, Editura Printech, Bucureti 2004

Bibliografie

___________________________________________________________________________
21. MANUALUL INGINERULUI MECANIC : Mecanisme, organe de maini, dinamica mainilor,
Editura Tehnic, Bucureti 1980.

Tiparul executat n
Tipografia
UNIVERSITII MARITIME
Constana