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COLECIA DE MAINI PENTRU PRELUCRAREA PRIMAR

A CEREALELOR
Cerealele fac parte din familia Gramineae i Polygonaceae. Familia Gramineae cuprinde:
grul, porumbul, secara, orzul, ovzul, orezul, meiul, sorgul, iar din familia Polygonaceae face
parte hrica. Datorit coninutului ridicat de amidon, cerealele poart denumirea de produse
agricole amidonoase. Cerealele se cultiv pentru semine i paie. Sub diferite grade de prelucrare,
seminele se utilizeaz n alimentaia omului i, ca furaj, n hrana animalelor. Paiele se utilizeaz
ca materie prim pentru fabricarea fibrelor.
Seminele de cereale au o structur anatomic aproximativ asemntoare. Bobul de gru
are form de cariops, care, la majoritatea speciilor iese la treierat din nveliul floral. Seminele
diferitelor specii i varieti de gru, se deosebesc prin forma, culoarea, mrimea i aspectul
suprafeei lor. Bobul de gru este un fruct format din urmtoarele pri anatomice principale:
nveliul fructului sau pericarp i smna. Smna este format din nveliul seminal i stratul
pigmentat, stratul nucelar, endosperm i embrion.
Operaiile de prelucrare primar a seminelor de cereale aveau un rol deosebit de
important n pregtirea produsului pentru diverse destinaii ulterioare, deoarece procentul de
impuriti, semine ale unor culturi strine sau sprturi ale seminelor culturii de baz, coninut n
masa de produse agricole recoltat cu batoza, ajungea la valori destul de nsemnate, iar procesele
de cretere a puritii produselor agricole difer n funcie de natura lor i de destinaia pe care
acestea o capt dup recoltare (pstrare, consum, industrializare, comercializare, material de
nsmnare etc.). Aceste operaii aveau ca scop eliminarea impuritilor de orice natur, crearea
unor condiii mai bune de pstrare, precum i o reducere a volumului la transport i depozitare.
Patrimoniul tehnic agricol al Muzeului Agriculturii cuprinde urmtoarele categorii de
maini: Batoze manuale de treierat (3 piese) ale firmelor SAM-WAGNER, AND RIEGERSIBIU; Vnturtori (11 piese) - ale firmelor SIEB-KASTEN-RIEGER-SIBIU, J. BAKERS
PATENT WISBECH; Maini de btut porumb (4 piese) - ale firmelor AND RIEGER-SIBIU,
HOFHERR-SCHRANTZ; Mori de mcinat (4 piese); Toctori de nutre (8 piese) - produse ale
firmelor UMRATH ASPOL PRAHA, UZINELE DE FIER REIA, MORAVIA.
Adrian STROE, muzeograf

THE COLLECTION OF MACHINERIES FOR


GRAINS PRIMARY PROCESSING
Cereals are part of the family Gramineae and Polygonaceae. The Gramineae family
includes: wheat, corn, rye, barley, oat, rice, millet, sorghum, and part of the Polygonaceae family
is buckwheat. Due to the high starch content, cereals are called starchy agricultural products.
Cereals are grown for seeds and straws. Under different degrees of processing actions, the seeds
are used in human nutrition, and as fodder for feeding the animals. The straws are used as raw
material for the manufacture of fibres.
Cereal grains have approximately the same anatomical structure. The wheat grain is
shaped in the form of caryopsis, which at most species comes out of their floral coating during
threshing. The seeds of these different species and various types of wheat differ in shape, colour
and size, and their surface appearance. The wheat grain is a fruit consisting of the following main
anatomical parts: the coating of the fruit, or pericarp, and the seed. The seed consists of a semen
husk and a pigmented layer, a nucelar layer, the endosperm and an embryo.
The primary processing operations regarding cereal grains had an important role in
preparing the product for further various destinations, this is because of the percentage of
impurities, seeds belonging to other foreign cultures or broken grains of the basic crop, contained
in the mass of agricultural products harvested with the thresher, would reach quite significant
values, and the processes for increasing the purity of the agricultural products vary depending on
their nature and the destination acquired after the harvesting (storage, consumption,
industrialization, marketing, planting, etc.). These operations were aiming for the removal of
impurities of any kind, to create better conditions for storage and an abatement in the volume of
their transportation and storage.
The technical agricultural patrimony belonging to the Museum of Agriculture includes the
following categories of machines: manually operated threshing machines (3 pieces)
manufactured by SAM-WAGNER, AND RIEGER-SIBIU; winnowing machines (11 pieces)
manufactured by SIEB-KASTEN-RIEGER-SIBIU, J. BAKERS PATENT WISBECH; corn
decobbing machines (4 pieces) manufactured by AND RIEGER-SIBIU, HOFHERRSCHRANTZ; grinding mills (4 pieces); forage chopper machines (8 pieces) manufactured by
UMRATH ASPOL PRAHA, UZINELE DE FIER REIA, MORAVIA.

BATOZ MANUAL (MAIN DE MBLTIT) - Main agricol manual folosit pentru desprinderea
boabelor din spicele de gru. Se compune din: manivel, volant, arbore, angrenaj de roi dinate, tob cu cuie,
contrabttor, gur de alimentare, gur de evacuare, corpul mainii, roi de susinere. Provenien: Cernat, jud.
Covasna. Datare: 1930-1932. Productor: AND RIEGER, Sibiu. Dimensiuni: L - 180 cm, l - 165 cm, H - 150 cm.
MANUALLY OPERATED THRESHER (THE FLAIL MOWER) Manually operated agricultural machine
used for removing the grains from the ears of wheat. It consists of: hand crank, flywheel, shaft, sprocket gear, drum
with pegs, concave, feed inlet, feed outlet, the body of the machine, supporting wheels. Origin: Cernat, Covasna
county. Dated: 1930 1932. Manufacturer: AND RIEGER, Sibiu. Dimensions: length 180 cm, width 165 cm,
height 150 cm.

VNTURTOARE (DOBIRO/ MOAR PENTRU VNTURAT) - Obiect de uz gospodresc utilizat la


vnturatul boabelor de cereale. Este construit n totalitate din lemn i se compune din: cutia cu palete pentru vnt,
coada, picioare de sprijin, co alimentare, roi dinate (roi cu msele). Provenien: Pomi, jud. Satu Mare. Datare:
2/4 sec. XX. Dimensiuni: L - 250 cm, l - 140 cm, H - 130 cm.
WINNOWING MACHINE (DOBIRO/,, WINNOWING MILL) Household item used to fanner cereal
grains. It is made entirely of wood and it consists of: box with wind blades, tail, supporting legs, supplying basket,
sprocket gear (wheels with fangs). Origin: Pomi, Satu Mare county. Dated: 2/4 of the twentieth century. Dimensions:
length 250 cm, width 140 cm, height 130 cm.

TOCTOARE DE NUTRE - Main manual cu jgheab de alimentare, acionat prin manivel i angrenaje, cu
mecanism de tiere cu lame, folosit pentru tierea furajelor fibroase, n vederea folosirii la hrana animalelor.
Provenien: Dridu, jud. Ialomia. Datare: 2/4 sec. XX. Productor: BACHER-R MELICHAR F. - BUDAPESTA,
UNGARIA. Dimensiuni: L - 182 cm, l - 122 cm, H - 127 cm.
FORAGE CHOPPER MACHINE - Manually operated machine having a supplying mill trough, set in motion by a
hand crank and gearings, with a cutting blades mechanism, used for chopping fibres forages for animal feeding. .
Origin: Dridu, Ialomia county. Dated: 2/4 of the twentieth century. Manufacturer: BACHER-R MELICHAR F.
BUDAPEST. Dimensions: length 182 cm, width 122 cm, height 1275 cm.

MOAR PENTRU PSAT - Obiect de uz casnic, folosit la prepararea psatului, compus dintr-un cadru de lemn pe
care sunt montate: coul mare n care se afl o piatr mobil i una fix, angrenajul i manivela de antrenare a pietrei
mobile, coul de alimentare al pietrelor. Provenien: Pomi, jud. Satu Mare. Datare: 2/4 sec. XX. Dimensiuni: L - 145
cm, l - 110 cm, H - 175 cm.
MILLET GRINDING MILL- Household item used for preparing the grinded millet, consists of a wooden frame
which has the following mounted on it: the big basket in which there is a movable stone and a stationary one, the
driving gear and the hand crank of the movable stone, the supplying basket for the stones. Origin: Pomi, Satu Mare
county. Dated: 2/4 of the twentieth century. Dimensions: length 145 cm, width 110 cm, height 175 cm.

VNTURTOARE - Main agricol acionat manual, destinat separrii impuritilor pe principiul vitezei de
plutire, format din: corp, co de alimentare, mecanism de antrenare, ventilator, gur de evacuare. Tipul de main a
fost rspndit n toat Romnia. Provenien: Rnov, jud. Braov. Datare: 2/4 sec. XX. Productor: J.BAKERS,
Anglia. Dimensiuni: L - 170 cm, l -120 cm, H - 155 cm.
WINNOWING MACHINE Manually operated agricultural machine, designed for separating impurities based on
the floating speed principle, it consists of a body, supplying basket, driving mechanism, fan, feed outlet. This type of
machine was very popular all over Romania. Origin: Rnov, Braov county. Dated: 2/4 of the twentieth century.
Manufacturer: J.BAKERS, Great Britain. Dimensions: length 170 cm, width 120 cm, height 155 cm.

MAIN DE BTUT PORUMB (MACHIN) - Main manual cu dou guri de alimentare, acionat prin
manivel i angrenaje, cu mecanism conic randalinat, folosit pentru curatul boabelor de porumb de pe tiulei.
Provenien: Vrancea. Datare: 2/4 sec. XX. Productor: AND RIEGER SIBIU. Dimensiuni: L - 125 cm, l - 105 cm,
H - 128 cm.
CORN DECOBBING MACHINE (MACHIN) - Manually operated machine having two feed inlets, set in
motion by a hand crank and gearings, cone-shaped knurled mechanism used for the removal of the corn grains from
the corn cob. Origin: Vrancea Dated: 2/4 of the twentieth century. Manufacturer: AND RIEGER SIBIU. Dimensions:
length 125 cm, width 105 cm, height 128 cm.