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be River, Czech Labe, one of the major waterways of central Europe.

It runs from the Czech


Republicthrough Germany to the North Sea, flowing generally to the northwest. The river
rises on the southern side of the Krkonoe (Giant) Mountains near the border of the Czech
Republic and Poland. It then makes a wide arc across Bohemia (northwestern Czech
Republic) and enters eastern Germany about 25 miles (40 kilometres) southeast of Dresden.
For the remainder of its course it flows through Germany. Above Hamburg the Elbe splits into
two branches; these rejoin farther downstream, and the river then broadens into its estuary, the
mouth of which is at Cuxhaven, where it flows into the North Sea.
Elbe River, ceh Labe, unul dintre cele mai importante cile navigabile din Europa Central.
Se ruleaza din Republica Ceh prin Germania la Marea Nordului, care curge n general, la
nord-vest. Rul se ridic de pe latura de sud a Krkonoe (gigant) Munii in apropiere de
frontiera Republica Ceh i Polonia. Apoi face un arc larg peste Bohemia (nord-vestul
Republica Ceh) i intr n Germania de Est la aproximativ 25 mile (40 km) sud-est de
Dresda. Pentru restul cursului su curge prin Germania. Deasupra Hamburg Elba se imparte in
doua ramuri; acestea reuni mai departe n aval, iar rul apoi extinde n estuar, gura, care este
la Cuxhaven, n cazul n care se vars n Marea Nordului.

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The total length of the Elbe is 724 miles (1,165 kilometres), of which roughly one-third flows
through the Czech Republic and two-thirds through Germany. Its total drainage area is 55,620

square miles (144,060 square kilometres). Major tributaries are the Vltava (Moldau), Ohe
(Eger), Mulde, and Saale rivers, all of which join it from the left, and the Iser, Schwarze
(Black) Elster, Havel, and Alster rivers from the right.

Lungimea total a Elba este 724 mile (1165 km), din care
aproximativ o treime curge prin Republica Ceh i dou
treimi prin Germania. Suprafaa sa total este de drenaj
55,620 mile ptrate (144,060 km patrati). Aflueni majore
sunt Vltava (Moldau), Ohe (Eger), Mulde, iar rurile
Saale, toate din care aceasta adera pe partea stng, i
Iser, Schwarze ("Black") Elster, Havel, iar Alster ruri
din dreap
Physical features
Physiography
The Elbe is formed by the confluence of numerous headwater streams in
the KrkonoeMountains a few miles from the Polish-Czech frontier. It flows south and west,
forming a wide arc for about 225 miles in the Czech Republic to its confluence with the
Vltava at Mlnk and is joined 18 miles downstream by the Ohe.
Elba este format din confluena a numeroase fluxuri afluent din KrkonoeMountains civa
kilometri de frontiera polono-ceh. Curge spre sud i vest, formnd un arc larg de aproximativ
225 mile n Republica Ceh la confluena acestuia cu Vltava la Mlnk i este mbinat 18
mile n aval de Ohe.
It then cuts to the northwest through the picturesque Elbe Sandstone Mountains, and, in a
gorge four miles long, it enters Germany. Between Dresden and Magdeburg the Elbe receives
many long tributaries, of which all except the Schwarze Elster are left-bank streams. These
are the Mulde and the Saale and its tributariesincluding the Weisse (White) Elster, the
Unstrut, and the Ilm. These left-bank tributaries rise in the Ore Mountains or the Thuringian
Forest and form the drainage basin of the middle Elbe, with its geographic foci in Halle and
Leipzig.
Apoi taie la nord-vest, prin munii pitoreti Gresie Elbe, i, ntr-un defileu patru mile lungime,
acesta intr Germania. ntre Dresda si Magdeburg Elba primete multe aflueni lungi, din care
toate, cu excepia Schwarze ELSTER sunt fluxuri stnga-bancare. Acestea sunt Mulde i
Saale i afluenii si, inclusiv-Weisse ("alb") Elster, Unstrut, i ILM. Aceste aflueni de
stnga-bancare crete n Munii Metaliferi Pdurea Turingiei sau i formeaz bazinul
hidrografic al Elbei mijloc, cu focare geografic n Halle i Leipzig.
Halle is on the Saale, just below the confluence of the Weisse Elster; Leipzig lies at the
confluence of the Pleisse and the Weisse Elster. Below Magdeburg the Elbe receives most of
its water from its right bank. Most of these tributaries rise in the uplands of Mecklenburg.
The river enters the North German Plain at Riesa, 25 miles below Dresden; below Riesa it
meanders in a wide floodplain and has some abandoned loops. Dikes begin there and continue
as far as the confluence of the Mulde.
Halle este pe Saale, chiar sub confluena Weie Elster; Leipzig se afl la confluena a Pleie i
Weisse Elster. Sub Magdeburg Elba primeste cea mai mare parte a apei de la banca dreapta.
Cele mai multe dintre aceste aflueni crete n zonele nalte de Mecklenburg.

Rul intr n nord Cmpia german la Riesa, 25 mile de mai jos Dresda; de mai jos Riesa se
meandre ntr-o zon inundabil larg i are unele bucle abandonate. Diguri ncepe acolo i
continu pn la confluena Mulde.
Between Wittenberg and Dessau the eastwest valley floor narrows to five miles in width,
and hilly land rises to the north (the Flming Heath) and south. From Dessau to Magdeburg
the floodplain widens, and dikes have been constructed continuously down to the sea. In its
course below Magdeburg the floodplain is two miles wide down to the confluence with the
Havel. The river keeps to the left of its floodplain and sometimes cuts into the low hills on its
banks.
ntre Wittenberg i Dessau vale podeaua est-vest se ngusteaz la cinci mile n lime, i
terenuri deluroase se ridica la nord (The Flaming Heath) i sud. De la Dessau a Magdeburg
luncii lrgete, iar digurile au fost construite n mod continuu pn la mare. n cursul sub
Magdeburg luncii este de dou km lime pn la confluena cu Havel. Rul pstreaz la
stnga de lunca sale i, uneori, taie n dealurile joase de pe malurile sale.
Below the confluence with the Havel the river flows southeastnorthwest; the floodplain
widens and has distributaries and backwaters often flanked by low sandy hills (geest).
Reclaimed salt marshes begin at Lauenburg. Above Hamburgwhich the Elbe transverses in
two arms, the Norder Elbe and the Sder Elbethe floodplain is eight miles wide but narrows
to four miles between the sandy geest of Schleswig-Holstein and the Lneburg Heath.
The estuary proper of the Elbe (Unterelbe) extends from Hamburg to Cuxhaven, a distance of
about 55 miles. It varies in width from one to two miles, but much of it is occupied by mud
flats and sandbanks. The main channel is buoyed and dredged. At high tide the channel has a
depth of some 53 feet (16 metres). The south or left bank is low and marshy and the river has
sandbanks; the right bank is steep below Hamburg, but farther downstream there are marshes,
diked and drained, that are intensively cultivated. The great port city of Hamburg grew up on
the Alster River on low sandy hills above the marshes. The modern port facilities have spread
to the low-lying south bank of the Elbe.

Hydrology
The flow of water in the Elbe varies considerably with the amount of precipitation and
thawing in its drainage basin. At Dresden the discharge rate averaged 11,200 cubic feet (317
cubic metres) per second in the period 193175, but the rate varied from a minimum of 800
cubic feet to a maximum of 118,700. At Neu-Darchau, about 140 miles above the mouth, the
discharge rate was 24,700 cubic feet per second in the period 192665, with extremes of
5,100 and 127,700. These great variations sometimes hinder navigation. Although there are
dams on the upper Elbe in the Czech Republic and at Geesthacht, Ger., and large dams have
been built on the Vltava and on the Saale in the Thuringian Forest, these are not sufficient to
control the water level of the Elbe.
Debitul de ap n Elba variaz considerabil cu cantitatea de precipitaii i topirea n bazinul
hidrografic al acesteia. La Dresda rata de descrcare de gestiune medie 11200 de metri cubi
(317 metri cubi pe secund) n perioada 1931-1975, dar rata a variat de la un minim de 800 de
metri cubi la un maxim de 118700. La Neu-Darchau, aproximativ 140 mile deasupra gurii,
rata de descrcare de gestiune a fost 24700 de metri cubi pe secund, n perioada 1926-1965,
cu extreme de 5100 i 127700. Aceste variaii mari mpiedic uneori de navigare. Dei exist
baraje pe cursul superior al Elba n Republica Ceh i n Geesthacht, Ger., i baraje mari au
fost construite pe Vltava i pe Saale n Pdurea Turingiei, acestea nu sunt suficiente pentru a
controla nivelul de ap din Elba.
The lower course of the Elbe is tidal as far as the dam at Geesthacht, above Hamburg, where
the river flow periodically reverses its direction. The average tide at Hamburg is about eight
feet. However, during storms the water may rise much higher, occasionally even flooding
parts of the city.

Cursul inferior al Elba este mareelor n ceea ce barajul de la Geesthacht, peste Hamburg, n
cazul n care debitul rului inverseaz periodic direcia sa. Valul medie la Hamburg este de
aproximativ opt metri. Cu toate acestea, n timpul furtunilor apa poate crete mult mai mare,
uneori chiar inundaii pri ale oraului.

The economy
By means of the Elbe and its connecting waterways, vessels from Hamburg can navigate
to Berlin, the central and southern sections of eastern Germany, and the Czech Republic.
The Mittelland Canal, a short distance below Magdeburg, runs westward about 200 miles to
the DortmundEms Canal, carrying barges of up to 1,000 tons to the German industrial cities
of Osnabrck, Hannover, Salzgitter, Hildesheim, Peine, and Wolfsburg and connecting with
the Weser and Rhine rivers. The ElbeHavel Canal carries traffic from Magdeburg eastward
to the network of waterways around Berlin and farther on to Poland.
Prin intermediul Elba i cile navigabile sale de legtur, navele din Hamburg poate naviga la
Berlin, seciunile centrale i de sud ale estul Germaniei, i Republica Ceh.Mittelland
Canalul, o distan scurt de mai jos Magdeburg, ruleaza spre vest aproximativ 200 de mile la
Canalul Dortmund-Ems, care transport lepuri de pn la 1.000 de tone la oraele industriale
germane de Osnabrck, Hannover, Salzgitter, Hildesheim, Peine, iar Wolfsburg i conectarea
cu Weser i Rin rurile.Elbe-Havel Canal transport trafic de la Magdeburg spre est la reeaua
de ci navigabile n jurul Berlin i mai departe pe Polonia.
The Kiel Canal runs from the mouth of the Elbe to the Baltic Sea, and the ElbeLbeck
Canal, starting at Lauenburg, also runs to the Baltic, following an older (14th-century) canal.
Another canal connects the lower Elbe with Bremerhaven on the Weser River. The Elbe itself
is navigable for 1,000-ton barges as far as Prague through the Vltava. In eastern Germany it
serves the river ports of Magdeburg, Schnebeck, Aken, Dessau, Torgau, Riesa, and Dresden,
carrying bituminous coal, lignite, coke, metal, potash, grain, and piece goods. Although
Hamburg lies far upstream from the mouth of the Elbe, it is one of the largest seaports in
Europe; a six-line railway tunnel and a multilane road tunnel under the Elbe there are
important links in trans-European traffic flows.

Kiel Canal curge de la gura de Elba pn la Marea Baltic,


precum i Canalul Elbe-Lbeck, ncepnd de la Lauenburg, de
asemenea, ruleaza la Marea Baltic, n urma unei mai vechi (din
secolul 14) canal. Un alt canal conecteaz Elba inferior cu
Bremerhaven pe rul Weser.Elba sine este navigabil pentru barje
de 1.000 de tone, n msura ar fi Praga prin Vltava. n Germania
de Est se servete porturile fluviale de Magdeburg, Schnebeck,
Aken, Dessau, Torgau, Riesa, i Dresden, care transport
mrfuri bituminoase de crbune, lignit, cocs, metalice, potasiu,
cereale, i piese. Dei Hamburg se afl departe n amonte de
gura de Elba, este una dintre cele mai mari porturi maritime din
Europa; un tunel de cale ferat de ase-line i un tunel osea cu

mai multe sub Elba exist legturi importante n fluxurile transeuropene de trafic.
istoria
Bazinul de Elba a fost stabilit inca din vremuri preistorice. Pn
la Evul Mediu rul era limita vestic a zonei locuite de slavi nord.
n secolul al 12-lea, germanii au nceput s colonizeze terenurilor
la est de Elba i de-a lungul Mrii Baltice. n al doilea rzboi
mondial un punct de pe Elba n apropierea Torgau a fost locul de
ntlnire al SUA i armatelor sovietice. De la sfritul rzboiului
pn n 1990, rul a fcut parte din delimitarea ntre Est i
Germania de Vest.

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