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Personalitatea pe care am ales s o descriu este cea care a pus bazele artei

rzboiului. Sun Tzu, cel despre care voi vorbi, este cunoscut ca un strateg militar
chinez, filosof taoist i general din secolul 6 nainte de era noastr, care s-a fcut
cunoscut prin cartea Arta Rzboiului sau Cele 13 Capitole, cum mai este numit.
Sun Tzu nu este o personalitate inclus n topurile celor mai influeniale
persoane, ns eu am considerat c opera lui a fost i nc este un model pentru
strategiile militare ale multor ri i poate, dac nu sunt prea ndrznea, fr
opera lui Sun Tzu, consider c relaiile internaionale ar fi fost complet diferite
fa de cum le tim acum i mult mai multe rzboaie ar fi avut loc.
ncepnd cu nceputul, pot spune c existena nsi a lui Sun Tzu este disputat.
Dificultatea n constatarea istoricitii lui Sun Tzu provine din opere vechi care l
menioneaz: Analele Primverii i ale Toamnei i nregistrri ale Marelui Istoric.
Oamenii de tiin au criticat ambele lucrri pentru inexactiti i posibile
suprapuneri ntre evenimente. Argumentul mpotriva istoricitii lui Sun Tzu
susine c, dac aa minte militar extraordinar ar fi existat, mai multe ar fi fost
scrise despre el, n afar de simple referine. Totui, sunt multe nscrieri n cele
dou cri acceptate ca istoric precise, dar crora le este aplicat acelai
tratament scurt. Este, aadar, realistic existena lui Sun Tzu, ca autor al crii
care i poart numele.
n cartea sa, Sun Tzu trateaz rzboiul ca pe unul din multiplele instrumente
politice pe care liderii politici i naionali le pot folosi pentru a-i ndeplini scopuri
politice. Arta Rzboiului a fost descris ca un text revoluionar deoarece era prima
lucrare care lega direct modul de a face rzboi de arta guvernrii.
Ca s ne dm seama de implicaiile pe care le-a avut Arta Rzboiului asupra
relaiilor internaionale, este important s nelegem contextul istoric i filosofic
n care a fost scris. Arhivele chineze indic faptul c Sun Tzu a trit la finalul
perioadei Primvar i Toamn. n timpul acestei perioade, dinastia Chou, care
era la putere, s-a prbuit treptat, iar puterea a fost mprit ntre nobilii
provinciilor independente, care au devenit ulterior 6-12 regate, ntre care era
mprit China.
Perioada Statelor Combatante a marcat lupta dintre cele mai mari astfel de
regate pentru a-i distruge dumanii i a unifica China. Aceast perioad
reprezint cea mai apropiat paralel din lumea asiatic la politica balanei
puterii care a dominat Europa ncepnd cu secolele 18-20 i care a format baza
diplomaiei i mare parte a teoriei relaiilor internaionale moderne.
Astfel, cnd localizm Arta Rzboiului n contextul acesta istoric, vedem c
trebuie privit ca un ghid pentru sarcini complexe de lupt politic i militar,
pentru supravieuire, n unele cazuri, precum i triumf ntr-o vreme cnd rzboiul
era o condiie permanent.
Arta Rzboiului a lui Sun Tzu a influenat astfel multe figuri notabile. Sima Qian
amintete c primul mprat istoric al Chinei, Shi Huangdi din Dinastia Qin,
considera cartea nepreuit pentru ncheierea perioadei Statelor Combatante. n
secolul 20, liderul comunist chinez Mao Zedong a acordat parial merite crii
Arta Rzboiului pentru victoria mpotriva Chiang Kai-shek i Kuomintang. Lucrarea
a influenat puternic scrierile lui Mao despre rzboiul guerrilla, care au influenat
la rndul lor insurgenii comuniti din toat lumea.

Arta Rzboiului a fost introdus n Japonia n jurul anului 760 i a devenit


popular printre generali. Prin influena sa ulterioar asupra lui Oda
Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi i Tokugawa Ieyasu, lucrarea a afectat
semnificativ unificarea Japoniei n era modern.
Amiralul flotei Tg Heihachir, care a condus victoria Japoniei n rzboiul rusojaponez era un cititor avid al lui Sun Tzu.
Ho Chi Minh a tradus lucrarea pentru a fi material de studiu pentru ofierii si
vietnamezi. Generalul su, Vo Nguyen Giap, strategul din spatele victoriilor
asupra forelor franceze i americane n Vietnam, era de asemenea un student
nfocat i practician al ideilor lui Sun Tzu.
Conflictele americane din Asia mpotriva Japoniei, Coreei de Nord i Vietnamului
de Nord l-au adus pe Sun Tzu n atenia liderilor militari americani.
Departamentul Armatei din Statele Unite a ordonat tuturor unitilor s menin
librrii n fiecare dintre acestea, pentru educarea continu a personalului n arta
Rzboiului. Opera lui Sun Tzu este menionat ca un exemplu de lucrare ce ar
trebui s existe n fiecare facilitate.
n timpul Rzboiului din Golf, generalii Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. i Colin Powell au
folosit principiile lui Sun Tzu legate de decepie, vitez i lovirea punctelor slabe
ale inamicului.
Liderii chinezi, determinai s conving SUA c nu vor conflict, l-au luat pe Sun
Tzu de partea lor. n 2006, preedintele Hu Jintao i-a dat preedintelui George
Bush copii de mtase ale Artei Rzboiului n englez i chinez, nu ca s
sugereze ci mai bune de a lupta n Afghanistan i Irak, ci pentru a sublinia c
rzboaiele nu trebuiau purtate n prim faz.
Mai muli lideri chinezi au subliniat c opera lui Sun Tzu trebuie folosit pentru a
promova pace longeviv i prosperitate comun, aa numitul concept de soft
war.
Termenul, inventat acum peste 20 de ani de un american, Joseph Nye de la
Harvard University, descrie abilitatea de obine ce vrei prin atracie, n loc de
forare. Folosirea lui de ctre preedintele Hu n 2007 a dat semnalul unei
schimbri n gndirea partidelor. n ultimul deceniu, construirea soft power a
devenit o nou prioritate a partidelor, iar China s-a concentrat pe ideea de
construcie economic drept scop. China a ales s i bazeze viitorul pe relaii de
amiciie cu SUA, i nu s mearg calea rzboiului, ntr-o lume bipolar, cu ea i
SUA ca rivali.

LEARNING FROM SUN TZU & CLAUSEWITS http://theriskyshift.com/2012/01/essay-what-enduring-lessons-about-html/


Sun Tzu treats war just as one of the many political instruments that political and
national leaders can use in order to fulfill political aims.
The Chinese tradition, deeply influenced by Taoism, sees war as the product of
necessity, calling it a necessary evil. The Chinese emphasis on the minimum
use of force and the advice of deploying arms only when necessary
For Sun Tzu, the ideal victory is winning without fighting but using extensive
deception, in order to convince the enemys forces to yield
Sun Tzu and terrorism: cyclical patterns and lessons to seize on

The Art of War has been described as a revolutionary text because it was the
first handbook that directly linked warmaking to the art of government.[14] The
different conception on the nature of war explained by Sun Tzu provides an
approach which emphasizes stratagem and manoeuvre over firepower [and]
recognizes that the decisive battlefield lies in the political will of the opponent,
the hearts and minds of its citizens.[15] In fact, Sun Tzus ideal victory doesnt
involve any military or epic battle but it is articulated in the main idea of
neutralizing the enemys strategy and avoiding the use of military forces.
Accordingly, Sun Tzu recommends to set this kind of strategy without any
publicity, otherwise it would compel the enemy to respond. In this way, as
McCready underlines, Sun Tzu offers a way for weaker forces to defeat those
more powerful[16]: currently, international terrorist organizations are widely
embedded in the concept of weaker forces against powerful state actors as the
US.

As a matter of fact, international terrorist association like Al-Qaeda employs three


conceptual pillars which characterize the thought of warfare proposed by Sun
Tzu: deception, psychological considerations and the role of intelligence.
Deception and psychological factors are the heart of warfare because they allow
to manipulate the enemys perceptions. In fact, Sun Tzu perfectly knew that
enemies convinced of their superiority in terms of capabilities or military
resources werent attentive to the possibility of being misled.[17] In the same
way, Al-Qaeda might appear weak or not well-organized but being an
international network with links in 55 countries and having training camps in
many of them, its organizational structure is such that deception, misdirection,
secrecy and compartmentalization are heightened[18] and exploited extensively
and successfully. In addition, psychological warfare is the direct consequence of
deception: attacking enemy soldiers and their related citizens through indirect
methods is the best way to destroy their morale and create tension inside society.
Al-Qaedas tactics are in line with Sun Tzus recommendation, its main objective
is spreading fear striking targets societies through bombing, hijacking,
kidnapping, assassinations and suicide attacks. Doing so, Al-Qaeda aims to
undermine the overall support for the war effort, the sense of security among
citizens and, moreover, it is successful in avoiding an open and unbalanced
combat with the US.

Finally, the role of intelligence. Hendel asserts that Sun Tzus generals rely
heavily on the work of spies and agents [in order to] secure victory with the least
possible expenses and bloodshed[19], suggesting that this aspect of warfare is
one the most significant even for assuring an effective deception. As a matter of
fact, Sun Tzu wrote an entire chapter about Using Spies, in which he listed five
different kinds of them (local, inward, converted, doomed and surviving spies)
and described their most important tasks and aims, such as gaining the deepest
and the widest knowledge of the enemy.[20[ Similarly, Al-Qaeda has created a
highly sophisticated network of spies and human intelligence-gathering sources
throughout the world.[21] Such a system impressively resembles to the one
suggested by Sun Tzu given that, as Gunaratna reports, it is comprised of three
different levels of spies: two tiers of agent[s] [who] manage agents outside
Afghanistan and in the regional nodes. They also cultivate subagents whose
primary responsibility is penetrating and infiltrating Muslim migrant communities
to recruit, gather intelligence and conduct operations.[22]

In conclusion, studying The Art of War can be a very efficient way to understand
and face Al-Qaeda, which represents a model of Sun Tzus principles on indirect
warfare.[23] However, as Coker realistically points out, the defeat of terrorism is
not entirely possible. In order to comply with the so-called second paradox of
Sun Tzu (obtaining success by preserving the enemy from total destruction),
Coker asserts that the object of war cannot be total security but a better kind
of insecurity.[24] As for the case of Al-Qaeda it means living with Islamic
countries without attempting to overthrow their political regimes, because the
most dangerous peril would be to transform the war on terrorism into a war
against Islam.

Diplomacy archive - Sun Tzu and The Art of Warby Tim Hoyt http://www.diplomacyarchive.com/resources/strategy/articles/sun_tzu_and_the_art_of_war.htm
Historical information regarding Sun Tzu is spotty, and complicated by the
existence of a separate text by Sun Pin (apparently a descendant) which is also
titled The Art of War (to be examined, perhaps, in a later article). The oldest
Chinese historical records indicate the Sun Tzu lived at the end of the so-called
Spring and Autumn Period (703-481 B.C.). During this period, the ruling Chou
Dynasty gradually collapsed, and power drifted into the hands of increasingly
independent provincial nobles. As these nobles contested for power and
influence, China became divided into approximately a half-dozen to a dozen
sizeable "kingdoms".
The Period of the Warring States (403-221 B.C.) marked the struggles of the
largest of these kingdoms to destroy their enemies and unify China. This period
represents the closest parallel in the Asian world to the kinds of "balance of
power" politics that dominated Europe from the 18th-20th centuries, and which

form the basis of Diplomacy and, coincidentally, much of modern international


relations theory.

Wiki - https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Tzu
Legacy
Sun Tzu's Art of War has influenced many notable figures. Sima Qian recounted
that China's first historical emperor, Qin's Shi Huangdi, considered the book
invaluable in ending the time of the Warring States. In the 20th century,
the Chinese Communistleader Mao Zedong partially credited his 1949 victory
over Chiang Kai-shek and the Kuomintang to The Art of War. The work strongly
influenced Mao's writings about guerrilla warfare, which further influenced
communist insurgencies around the world.[24]

The Art of War was introduced into Japan c.AD 760 and the book quickly became
popular among Japanese generals. Through its later influence on Oda
Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu,[24] it significantly affected
theunification of Japan in the early modern era. Prior to the Meiji Restoration,
mastery of its teachings was honored among thesamurai and its teachings were
both exhorted and exemplified by influential daimyo and shoguns. Subsequently,
it remained popular among the Imperial Japanese armed forces. The Admiral of
the Fleet Tg Heihachir, who led Japan's forces to victory in the Russo-Japanese
War, was an avid reader of Sun Tzu.[25]

Ho Chi Minh translated the work for his Vietnamese officers to study. His
general Vo Nguyen Giap, the strategist behind victories
over French and American forces in Vietnam, was likewise an avid student and
practitioner of Sun Tzu's ideas.[26][27][28]

America's Asian conflicts against Japan, North Korea, and North Vietnam brought
Sun Tzu to the attention of American military leaders. The Department of the
Army in the United States, through its Command and General Staff College, has
directed all units to maintain libraries within their respective headquarters for the
continuing education of personnel in the art of war. The Art of War is mentioned
as an example of works to be maintained at each facility, and staff duty officers
are obliged to prepare short papers for presentation to other officers on their
readings.[29] Similarly, Sun Tzu's Art of War is listed on the Marine
Corps Professional Reading Program.[30] During the Gulf War in the 1990s, both
Generals Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. and Colin Powell employed principles from Sun
Tzu related to deception, speed, and striking one's enemy's weak points.
[24]However, the United States and other Western countries have been criticised
for not truly understanding Sun Tzu's work and not appreciating The Art of War
within the wider context of Chinese society.

Economist - http://www.economist.com/node/21541714
Chinese leaders, determined to persuade America that they mean no harm, have
recruited Sun Tzu to their cause. In 2006 President Hu Jintao gave President
George Bush silk copies of the Art of War in English and Chinese (not, it
seemed, as a way of suggesting better ways of fighting in Afghanistan and Iraq,
but of hinting that the wars need not have been fought in the first place). Jia
Qinglin, the fourth-ranking member of the party's supreme body, the Politburo
Standing Committee, said in 2009 that Sun Tzu should be used to promote
lasting peace and common prosperity.
China has long been proud of Sun Tzu. Mao Zedong was a great fan, even
sending aides into enemy territory during the civil war to find a copy of the Art of
War. But it is only relatively recently that the party has seized upon the notion of
building up soft power, a term coined 20 years ago by an American, Joseph Nye
of Harvard University, a former chairman of America's National Intelligence
Council and senior Pentagon official, to describe the ability to get what you want
through attraction rather than coercion or payments. President Hu's use of it in
2007 signalled a shift in party thinking. Throughout the 1990s and into this
century, China had been trumpeting Deng Xiaoping's slogan of economic
construction as the core. Over the past decade building soft power has emerged
as a new party priority.
Mr Nye himself drew a link between soft power and Sun Tzu in a 2008 book, The
Powers to Lead. Sun Tzu, he said, had concluded that the highest excellence is
never having to fight because the commencement of battle signifies a political
failure. To be a smart warrior, said Mr Nye, one had to understand the soft
power of attraction as well as the hard power of coercion.
Sun Tzu is not so tainted. His is the only big name among China's ancient
thinkers to have survived the communist era with barely a scratch. In the 1970s
he was held up as an exemplar in Mao's struggles against leaders he disliked. The
study of Sun Tzu, said a typical tract published in 1975, offered useful guidance
for criticism of the rightist opportunist military line and the reactionary views
of the Confucianists. The party still keeps Confucius at the forefront of its softpower drive, but Sun Tzu is making headway.

That's partly because the West's enthusiasm for Sun Tzu makes him an easy sell.
The Art of War is widely used by after-dinner speakers short of ideas. Take, for
example (from the 1910 translation by Lionel Giles, the first authoritative one in
English): The best thing of all is to take the enemy's country whole and intact; to
shatter and destroy it is not so good; all warfare is based on deception; and it
is the business of the general to be still and inscrutable, to be upright and
impartial. Sun Tzu beat the Christmas-cracker industry by two and-a-half
millennia.

In the West Sun Tzu's advice has been adapted for almost every aspect of human
interaction from the boardroom to the bedroom. The publishing industry feeds on
Sun Tzu spin-offs, churning out motivational works such as Sun Tzu For Success:
How to Use the Art of War to Master Challenges and Accomplish the Important

Goals in Your Life (by Gerald Michaelson and Steven Michaelson, 2003),
management advice such as Sun Tzu for Women: The Art of War for Winning in
Business (Becky Sheetz-Runkle, 2011) and sporting tips such as Golf and the
Art of War: How the Timeless Strategies of Sun Tzu Can Transform Your Game
(Don Wade, 2006). Amazon offers 1,500 titles in paperback alone. Paris Hilton, an
American celebrity and author of an aphorism of her own: Dress cute wherever
you go, life is too short to blend in, has been seen dipping into him (see picture).

Rather more seriously, in his recent book, On China, Henry Kissinger revealed
how impressed he was by the ancient strategic wisdom Chinese officials seemed
to draw upon when he visited the country in the 1970s as America's national
security adviser. Mao, he noted, owed more to Sun Tzu than to Lenin in his
pursuit of foreign policy. To some historians Mao was a dangerously erratic
despot. To Mr Kissinger, he was enough of a Sun Tzu disciple to pursue
seemingly contradictory strategies simultaneously. Whereas Westerners prized
heroism displayed when forces clashed, the Chinese ideal stressed subtlety,
indirection and the patient accumulation of relative advantage, Mr Kissinger
enthused in a chapter on Chinese Realpolitik and Sun Tzu's Art of War. Praise
indeed, from the West's pre-eminent practitioner of Realpolitik, whose mastery of
the art of ideology-free diplomacy enabled President Nixon's visit to China in
1972.

Yet a closer look reveals Sun Tzu's flaws as a tool of soft power. Chinese attempts
to remould him as a man of peace stumble over the fact that his book is a guide
to winning wars, avidly studied by America's armed forces as it was by Mao. Sam
Crane of Williams College in Massachusetts says that during the Abu Ghraib
prison scandal in Iraq he delighted in telling students attending his Sun Tzu
classes (some of whom were preparing to join the army) that the Art of War
advised that prisoners be treated kindly. But, he says, I think the thing that
makes [the book] universal in a grim way is war and competition. War is not a
Western construct: the Chinese have been really good at war for a long time.

American strategists often read the Art of War to understand China not as an
alluring and persuasive wielder of soft power, but as a potential enemy. A
psychological operations officer in America's Army Central Command, Major
Richard Davenport, argued in the Armed Forces Journal in 2009 that China was
making use of Sun Tzu's advice to wage cyber warfare against America. The
incriminating quotation was Supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's
strategy.

The sage's popularity in the West still owes more to Hollywood, source of much
American soft power, than China's own efforts. John Minford, whose translation
was published in 2002, says that after Gordon Gekko, a villainous corporate
raider played by Michael Douglas in the film Wall Street, quoted a line from Sun
Tzu (Every battle is won before it's ever fought), the book acquired a
mystique among students of entrepreneurship.

Professor Minford says he is mystified by this. I had to struggle with the book at
the coal face, with the actual Chinese, and it's a very peculiar and particularly
unpleasant little book which is extremely disorganised, made up of a series of
probably very corrupt bits of text, which is very repetitive and has extremely little
to say. He calls the work (whose authorship is even disputed) basically a little
fascist handbook on how to use plausible ideas in order to totally destroy your
fellow man.