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Timpurile verbelor in engleza

Pentru verbul in engleza timpurile difera fundamental fata de cele ale limbii romane.
De aceea nu trebuie cautate in permanenta echivalente exacte intre cele doua limbi.
Asa cum ne asteptam exista 3 timpuri de desfasurare a unei actiuni: prezent(present), trecut(past) si
viitor(future).
Verbul la aceste timpuri il voi numi deocamdata simplu. Mai jos se observa ca la randul lor aceste timpuri ale
verbului in engleza (tenses) pot fi: simple, continue, perfecte sau continuu perfecte.
Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza

Timp simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in timp.

Timp continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor care
in momentul acela se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune.

Timp perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent, trecut sau
viitor

Timp continuu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau
viitor si continuind sau nu in acel moment

In limba engleza nu exista conjugari ca in limbile latine (romana, franceza etc)


Verbul in engleza este fie regulat fie neregulat.
Pentru ilustrarea timpurilor in engleza vom folosi un verb regulat
Ca si in romana, verbul in engleza are 2 diateze: activa si pasiva
Verbul in Engleza la Diateza Activa
Actiunea e facuta de subiect
De exemplu luam verbul to work (a munci). In engleza verbul to work e regulat:work - worked - worked
Iar verbul to fall (a cadea) e neregulat: fall - fell - fallen
Desi doar Alice in tara minunilor poate cadea cu verbul la un timp continuu (pentru ca dureaza in timp), chiar
si acest verb are timpuri continui pentru ca apare in diferite expresii:
I am falling in love = Ma indragostesc
My life is falling apart = Mi se duce viata de rapa
Diferente intre timpurile verbelor regulate si timpurile verbelor neregulate nu exista. Ceea ce se poate observa
la verbul neregulat este ca cele trei cuvinte ex: fall, fell si fallen sunt diferite una fata de alta. Verbele

neregulate nu au o regula de formare a celor trei, acestea trebuie memorate. Verbele regulate adauga ed la
forma de baza (prima forma) in cazul formei numarul doi si trei.

To work = A munci (verb regulat)

Present Tense

I work

You work

He works

She works

We work

You work

They work

Present Continuous

I am working

You are working

He is working

She is working

We are working

You are working

They are working

Present Perfect

I have worked

You have worked

He has worked

She has worked

We have worked

You have worked

They have worked

Present Perfect Continuous

I have been working

You have been working

He has been working

She has been working

We have been working

You have been working

They have been working

Past Tense

I worked

You worked

He worked

She worked

We worked

You worked

They worked

Past Continuous

I was working

You were working

He was working

She was working

We were working

You were working

They were working

Past Perfect

I had worked

You had worked

He had worked

She had worked

We had worked

You had worked

They had worked

Past Perfect Continuous

I had been working

You had been working

He had been working

She had been working

We had been working

You had been working

They had been working

Future Tense

I will work

You will work

He will work

She will work

We will work

You will work

They will work

Future Continuous

I will be working

You will be working

He will be working

She will be working

We will be working

You will be working

They will be working

Future Perfect

I will have worked

You will have worked

He will have worked

She will have worked

We will have worked

You will have worked

They will have worked

Future Perfect Continuous

I will have been working

You will have been working

He will have been working

She will have been working

We will have been working

You will have been working

They will have been working

1.1. I work - Present Tense - Timpul Prezent


Verbul exprima o actiune prezenta nelimitata in timp.

1.Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

O actiune prezenta in derulare (mereu, cateodata sau niciodata)


What do you do? I work in a bank.

Cu ce te ocupi? Lucrez l

She never works so late

Ea niciodata nu lucreaza

Un adevar absolut, chiar daca se desfasoara si in clipa asta


The earth spins around the sun.

Pamantul se invarteste in jurul

Se poate folosi pe post de viitor


The store closes at 9:00pm

Magazinul se inchide la 9:00p

2.Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiune care se desfasoara acum (in clipa dialogului) - atunci se foloseste Prezent
I am working in the garden

Lu

Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te referi la clipa asta.
I work in the garden (work e prezentul simplu) - inseamna ca asta e ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti gradinar.

Atentie!: viitorul din limba romana se traduce cu Present Tense in limba engleza dupa: after, before, when, as soon
Someday when I am big and strong.

Candva, cand voi fi m

Sus
1.2. I am working - Present Continuous - Prezent Continuu
Verbul exprima o actiune in derulare in prezent care se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Este legat de actiuni
concrete.
1. Situatii in care timpul prezent din romana este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune ce se petrece in clipa asta (simultana cu momentul in care se vorbeste)
I am working on my new book.

Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu o alta actiune

Lucrez la no

By the time the alarm goes off I am already working.

Cand suna ceasul e

2. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului prezent 1.1. I work

Sus
1.3. I have worked - Present Perfect - Prezent Perfect
Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent
1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect al
limbii engleze

Daca actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului prezent si e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul ei
se vede in prezent
I have worked all my adult life.

Am muncit toata viata mea adulta (si inca mai

Daca verbul e insotit de un adverb (mereu, cateodata, niciodata etc):


I have never worked so late before.

Niciodata nu am mai lucrat atat de tarziu

Atentie: Fata de 1.1. exista urmatoarea diferenta:


I never work so late. inseamna: Nu lucrez atat de tarziu (ca si in romana) adica refuzi ideea pentru ca nu
lucrezi niciodata atat de tarziu, pe cand I never have worked so late before inseamna ca desi nu ai mai lucrat
atat de tarziu, acum lucrezi (atat de tarziu).
2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus al limbii romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect din limba
engleza

1. Cand se foloseste Present Perfect Continuous 1.4 I have been working

2. Cand se foloseste Past Tense 1.5 I worked

Sus
1.4. I have been working - Present Perfect Continuous - Prezent Perfect Continuu
O actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor.

1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous din

Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa in trecut, continuata in prezent, si care poate continua si in viitor

I have been working on the railroad


All live long day
I've been working on the railroad
Just to while my time away.

Am m
Cat e z
Am m
Ca sa

E un binecunoscut cantec englezesc. Am muncit la calea ferata toata ziua si o voi face probabil si in viitor.

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked

Vezi cazurile timpului Past Tense 1.5. I worked

Sus
1.5. I worked - Past Tense - Timpul Trecut
Past Tense reprezinta actiunea care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat.
1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune trecuta ce nu a fost intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune, nu se continua
I worked till my hands hurt

Am muncit pana ma dureau palme

Adica, am muncit dar acum m-am oprit.

Deasemeni acest timp se foloseste foarte mult in povestiri (de exemplu vezi poeziile de la Literatura)

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect Continuous 1.5. I have been working

Atentie! Exista situatii in care Past Tense din limba engleza nu se traduce prin Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba rom
pentru copii de mai jos.
All around the cobbler's bench

In jurul mese

The monkey chased the weasel

Maimuta fug

The monkey thought it was all in fun

Maimuta cre

Pop! goes the weasel

Bum! face n

Dupa cum vedeti verbul to chase cu Past Tense chased (e verb regulat la fel ca to work) se traduce prin fugarea (Imperfect) s

thought(Past Tense de la to think) se traduce tot prin Imperfect.

Atentie: Daca aveti indoieli ce timp trecut al verbului sa folositi in propozitii alegeti acest timp - Past Tense. Va fi mai putin
Sus
1.6. I was working - Past Continuous - Trecut Continuu
Past Continuous se refera la un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu un alt
eveniment.
1. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Continuous din
limba engleza

Verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de alta actiune (ca si "munceam" pe
romaneste)
I was working when the meteorite fell/the phone rang/you showed up.

Munceam cand

I was walking in the park one day


In the merry, merry month of May
I was taken by surprise
By a pair of pearly eyes
In the merry, merry month of May

Ma plimbam in
In vesela, vesela
Am fost luat pri
De niste ochi pe
In vesela, vesela

Atentie: In cantecul de mai sus was walking este Past Continuous dar was taken nu este Past Continuous. I
was taken inseamna am fost luat (este la Diateza Pasiva). Daca vrei sa exprimi verbul la Past Continuous zici I
was taking.
2. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Continuous din
engleza

Verbul folosit nu are forma continua - atunci se foloseste deobicei Past Tense.
He wanted to come with us. El vroia sa vina cu noi. (was wanting e gresit)

Actiunea e de durata, e o rutina pe care nu o mai practicam - atunci se foloseste used to obisnuiam sa/obisnuiai sa etc.
As a boy, I used to wander through the woods Fiind baiet, paduri cutreieram

Verbul arata o actiune inceputa inaintea unui moment dat sau inaintea altei actiuni din trecut atunci se foloseste Past Perfect

I had worked as a goldminer for a long time when Lucram de mult timp ca miner de aur cand in
I finally struck it rich.
sfarsit am dat de bogatii.
Sus
1.7. I had worked - Past Perfect - Trecut Perfect
Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute.

1. Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Perfect din en

Verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se raporteaza
Emily a spus (trecut) ca lucrase in gradina (si mai vechi) in dimineata aceea
Emily said she had worked in her garden that morning.

Sus
1.8. I had been working - Past Perfect Continuous - Trecut Perfect Continuu
Verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprit de o alta actiune a carui
urmari continua si azi.
1. Situatii in care imperfectul (munceam, lucram) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect
Continuous din engleza

Verbul exprima o actiune trecuta, ce se afla inca in desfasurare, in momentul cand s-a produs o
alta actiune tot din trecut.

They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it

(Ei)lucrau la ca

He had been working slowly before hearing of the new deadline.

(El)muncea inc

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past
Perfect Continuous din engleza
They had been working on the new house for many months before the fire destroyed it

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul si/sau imperfectul din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past
Perfect Continuous din engleza

Sus

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.6. I was working

Vezi cazurile timpului Past Continuous 1.7. I had worked

(Ei) lucrasera lu

1.9. I will work - Future Tense (I am going to work) - Timpul Viitor


Verbul reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp.
1. Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana este echivalent cu Future Tense din
engleza

Daca verbul reprezinta o actiune in viitor si nu va fi intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta


actiune folositi Future Tense.
I will work OK?
Am sa muncesc, BINE?
Someday when I am big and strong
I will walk that road and sing a song
I will sing of roads so green and wide
That turn and bend from side to side
I will sing of roads that turn and bend
That go from town to rainbow's end
Intr-o zi cand voi fi mare si puternic
Voi merge pe acel drum si voi canta un cantec
Voi canta despre drumuri verzi si late
Care se indoaie si serpuiesc dintr-o parte in alta
Voi canta despre drumuri serpuitoare
Care merg din oras pana la capatul curcubeului

Atentie: vezi (1.1 I work) pentru primul vers din poezia de mai sus
2.Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Future Tense din
engleza
Cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor - atunci se foloseste Future
Continuous 1.10. I will be working
I will be working in Paris next year
Un alt mod de a exprima viitorul e folosind to be going to - intentionez sa, am de gand sa
I am going to wait for him at the station
Sus
1.10. I will be working - Future Conntinuous - Viitor Continuu
Verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor
She will be coming round the mountain when she comes

Cand vin

Sus
1.11. I will have worked - Future Perfect - Viitor Perfect

Echivalentul lui voi fi lucrat


I will have worked for 20 years next month. Luna viitoare eu o sa fi lucrat de 20 de ani.

Sus
1.12. I will have been working - Future Perfect Continuous - Viitor Perfect Continuu
Acest timp nu prea se foloseste, pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lunga de timp decat 1.11 Future
Continuous
Se traduce tot prin voi fi lucrat, si ca toate formele de timpuri continue implica o actiune in derulare
By 2020 he will have been working for 40
years

In 2020 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani

Verbul in Engleza la Diateza Pasiva


Actiunea e suportata de subiect. Diateza pasiva exista si in limba romana
De exemplu verbul to wash - a spala (verb regulat: wash - washed - washed)
Eu spal rufele saptamanal (Diateza Activa) devine Rufele sunt spalate saptamanal (de mine)
2.1 I wash the laundry weekly - The laundry is washed weekly (by me).
2.2 I am washing laundry now - The laundry is being washed now (by me).
2.3 I have washed the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.4 I have been washing the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.5 I washed the laundry yesterday - The laundry was washed yesterday (by me).
2.6 I was washing the laundry - The laundry was being washed (by me).
2.7 I had washed the laundry- The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.8 I had been washing the laundry - The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.9 I will wash the laundry- The laundry will be washed (by me).
2.10 I will be washing the laundry - The laundry will be washed (by me).
2.11 I will have washed the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).
2.12 I will have been washing the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).