Sunteți pe pagina 1din 134

MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

ACADEMIA DE STUDII ECONOMICE A MOLDOVEI

ECONOMICA
Revist tiinifico-didactic

An. XXI, nr.1 (83), martie 2013

Departamentul Editorial-Poligrafic al ASEM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 1


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

COLEGIUL DE REDACIE:
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Ion BOLUN, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Vasile BUCUR, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. dr. Piotr BULA, Academia de Economie din Kracowia, Polonia
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Eugenia FEURA, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. dr. hab. Iurii MACAGON, Universitatea Naional, Ucraina
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Vitalii MACAROV, Academia de tiine, Rusia
Prof. univ. dr., acad. Anatolie MAZARACHI, Universitatea Naional de Comer i Economie din Kiev, Ucraina
Prof. univ. dr. hab. m.c. al AM, Gheorghe MICOI, Academia de tiine a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. hab. m.c. al AM, Dumitru MOLDOVAN, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. Ion PETRESCU, Universitatea Spiru Haret, Braov, Romnia
Prof. dr. Alban RICHARD, Universitatea Pierre Mends France de Grenoble, Frana
Prof. dr. Agop SARKISEAN, Academia de Economie din Svitov, Bulgaria
Prof. univ. dr. Ioan-Franc N. VALERIU, Institutul de Cercetri Economice al Academiei Romne
Prof. univ. dr. Gheorghe ZAMAN, m.c. al Academiei Romne, Institutul de Economie Naional
Prof. univ. dr. hab. Rodica HNCU, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Prof. univ. dr. Oleg STRATULAT, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Conf. univ. dr. Nadejda BOTNARI, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Conf. univ. dr. Oxana SAVCIUC, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei
Conf. univ. dr. Liubomir SCORIC, Universitatea de Comer, Economie i Cooperaie de Consum, Gomel, Belarus
Conf. cercet. dr.Corneliu GUU, Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei

ECHIPA REDACIONAL:

Redactor-ef: Grigore BELOSTECINIC,


prof. univ. dr. hab., academician al AM
Redactor ef-adjunct: Mihai MEREU
Redactor (l. romn): Constantin CRCIUN
Redactor (l. englez): Ludmila RURAC
Corector: Vera CHIRU
Operatori: Tatiana BOICO, Natalia IVANOVA
Redactor tehnic: Feofan BELICOV
Designer copert: Maria BUDAN

ADRESA REDACIEI:
Str. Mitropolit G. Bnulescu-Bodoni 59,
ASEM, bloc B, b.501,
tel: 402-995; 402-986
Cod: MD 2005, Chiinu,
Republica Moldova
E-mail: rev_economica@yahoo.com

Revista este acreditat de Consiliul Naional


pentru Acreditare i Atestare al RM, categoria B

Certificat de nregistrare nr.112 din 25.02.2002


Index potal: PM-31627
ISSN 1810-9136

Editura ASEM, Chiinu-2013


Redacia nu este responsabil pentru coninutul articolelor publicate

2 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES OF MOLDOVA

ECONOMICA
Scientific and didactic journal

Year XXI, nr.1 (83), March 2013

Editorial-Polygraphic Department of ASEM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 3


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

EDITORIAL BOARD:
Univ.Professor Dr. Hab. Ion BOLUN, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Univ.Professor Dr. Hab. Vasile BUCUR, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Prof. PhD. Piotr BULA, Krakow Academy of Economy, Poland
Univ.Professor Dr. Hab. Eugenia FEURAS, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Prof. Dr. Hab. Iurii MACAGON, National University, Ukraine
Univ.Professor Dr. Hab. Vitalii MACAROV, Academy of Science, Russia
Univ.Professor PhD, Acad. Anatolie MAZARACHI, Kyiv State University of Commerce and Economics, Ukraine
Univ.Professor Dr. Hab. c.m. of ASM Gheorghe MISCOI, Academy of Science of Moldova
Univ.Professor Dr. Hab. c.m. of ASM Dumitru MOLDOVAN, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Univ.Professor PhD. Ion PETRESCU, Spiru Haret University, Brasov, Romania
Prof. PhD. Alban RICHARD, Pierre Mends France de Grenoble University, France
Prof. PhD. Agop SARKISEAN, D. A. Tsenov Academy of Economics, Svishtov, Bulgaria
Univ.Professor PhD. Ioan-Franc N. VALERIU, National Institute of Economic Research of Romanian Academy
Prof. PhD. Gheorghe ZAMAN, c. m. of Romanian Academy, Institute of National Economy
Univ.Professor Dr. Hab. Rodica HINCU, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Univ.Professor PhD. Oleg STRATULAT, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Assoc.Professor PhD. Nadejda BOTNARI, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Assoc.Professor PhD. Oxana SAVCIUC, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova
Assoc.Professor PhD. Liubomir SCORIC, Belarusian Trade-Economic University of Consumers Cooperation, Gomel, Belarus
Assoc.Professor Researcher PhD. Corneliu GUTU, Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova

EDITORIAL STAFF:

Editor-in-chief: Grigore BELOSTECINIC,


Univ.Professor Dr. Hab., Academician
Vice-Editor-in-chief: Mihai MEREUTSA
Editor (Romanian): Constantin CRACIUN
Editor (English): Ludmila RURAC
Operators: Tatiana BOICO, Natalia IVANOVA
Technical editor: Feofan BELICOV
Designer of cover: Maria BUDAN

ADDRESS OF PUBLISHING DEPARTMENT:


59, Mitropolit G. Banulescu-Bodoni street
ASEM, block B, office 501,
tel: 402-995; 402-986
Postcode: MD 2005, Chisinau,
Republic of Moldova
E-mail: rev_economica@yahoo.com

The journal is accredited by the National Certification


and Accreditation Council of RM, Category B

Registration certificate nr.112 of 25.02.2002


Postcode: PM-31627
ISSN 1810-9136

Publishing department ASEM, Chisinau-2013


The editorial is not responsible for the content of the published articles

4 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

SUMAR
MANAGEMENT I MARKETING
Evoluia conceptului i metodelor de evaluare a calitii vieii 7
Conf. univ. dr. Svetlana Gorobievschi, UTM
Nivelul de via i factorii de influen asupra lui 25
Dr. n economie Vladimir Polearu, Trgu Mure, Romnia
Performana social o nou dimensiune a performanei entitii 36
Conf. univ. dr. Ada tahovschi, ASEM
Drd. Vasiliana Mircea-Dafinescu, ULIM
Strategii i tehnici de promovare a turismului rural sustenabil 40
Drd. Angela Botezatu, UASM
RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE
Datoria extern particulariti i limitri pentru o economie deschis 47
Dr. Eugeniu Ursachi, ASEM
Implicaii ale migraiei forei de munc asupra securitii naionale 54
Drd. Natalia Branaco, ASEM
ECONOMIE GENERAL
Comportamentul organizaional: modelare prin prisma dimensiunilor acestuia 60
Conf. univ. dr. Maria Manca, ASEM
Lect. sup. univ. master Elvira Jorovlea, ASEM
Metodologia evalurii stabilitii economice a ntreprinderilor agricole pe baza calculului 68
indicatorului integral
Drd. Ludmila Todorici, Universitatea de Stat din Comrat
Cadrul normativ-juridic de funcionare a sistemului educaional din Republica Moldova,
abordat prin prisma potenialului economic 73
Drd., lector superior universitar, Tatiana Bucos, ASEM
CONTABILITATE I FINANE
Relevana indicatorilor n msurarea performanelor ntreprinderii 81
Prof. univ. dr. Neculai Tabr,
Drd. Andreea Vasiliu, Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iai, Romnia
Analiza instrumentelor i metodelor de evaluare a situaiei financiare i dezvoltarea
entitilor municipale 94
Lect. sup. Rodica Cernit, ASEM
Perfecionarea sistemului de gestiune a capitalului circulant al ntreprinderilor de vinificaie 99
Drd. Ina Zlatovcena, Universitatea de Stat din Comrat
INFORMATIC
Era informaticii. Sisteme informatice n societatea informaional 107
Prof. univ. dr. hab., m. c. ARA, Dumitru Todoroi, ASEM
Utilizarea TIC n evaluarea cercetrii tiinifice n Republica Moldova 117
Drd. Igor Cojocaru, ASEM
Institutul de Dezvoltare a Societii Informaionale
RECENZII
Monografia Concepte i abordri metodologice de evaluare i cretere a Calitii Vieii 127
Dr. conf. univ. Svetlana Gorobievschi, Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei
Prima monografie n Republica Moldova despre modelarea Accesului Deschis ca o nou
form de comunicare a informaiei tiinifice 130
RECENZIE asupra lucrrii tiinifice URCAN, NELLY. Comunicarea tiinific n
contextul Accesului Deschis la informaie. Chiinu: CEP USM, 2012. 324 p. ISBN

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 5


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

CONTENT
MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING
Development Concepts and Methods of Assessing the Quality of Life 7
Assoc. Prof., PhD Svetlana Gorobievschi, UTM
Standard of Living and the Factors that Influence It 25
PhD in Economics Vladimir Polearus, Targul Mures, Romania
Social Performance a New Dimension of the Entitys Performance 36
Assoc. Prof., PhD Ada tahovschi, ASEM
PhD candidate Vasiliana Mircea-Dafinescu, ULIM
Promotion Srategies and Techniques of Sustenable Rural Tourism 40
PhD candidate Angela Botezatu, UASM
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS
External Debt Features and Limitations for an Open Economy 47
PhD Eugeniu Ursachi, ASEM
Labour Force Migration Effects on National Security 54
PhD candidate Natalia Branasco, ASEM
ECONOMICS
Organisational Behaviour: Modelling in the Light of Its Dimensions 60
Associate Ptof., PhD. Maria Manca, ASEM
Senior Lecturer, MA Elvira Jorovlea, ASEM
Methodology of Economic Sustainability Evaluation in Agricultural Enterprises Based on
Integral Index Calculation 68
PhD candidate Ludmila Todorici, Comrat State University
Normative and Regulatory Framework of Moldovan Education System under the Economic
Potential Approach 73
PhD candidate, Senior lecturer, Tatiana Bucos, ASEM
ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE
Relevance of Indicators in Measuring Company Performance 81
Professor, PhD Neculai Tabara,
PhD candidate Andreea Vasiliu, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Romania
Analysis of Tools and Methods for Assessing the Financial Situation and
the Municipal Entities Development 94
Senior Lecturer Rodica Cernit, ASEM
Improvement of Working Capital Management of Wineries 99
PhD candidate Ina Zlatovcena, Comrat State University
INFORMATICS
Information Era. Information Systems in Information Based Society 107
Professor, Dr. hab., ARA corr. member, Dumitru Todoroi, ASEM
Using ICT for Research Evaluation in the Republic of Moldova 117
PhD candidate Igor Cojocaru, ASEM, Information Society Development Institute
REVIEW
Monography Concepts and Methodological approaches to Assessing and Increasing
the Quality of Life, published at the Technical University of Moldova 127
Assoc. Prof., PhD Svetlana Gorobievschi
The first monograph in the Republic of Moldova on modeling Open Access as
a new form of scientific information communication 130
REVIEW of the scientific work of Turcan Nelly. Comunicarea tiinific n contextul
Accesului Deschis la informaie. Chiinu: CEP USM, 2012. 324 p. ISBN

6 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

EVOLUIA CONCEPTULUI I DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS


METODELOR DE EVALUARE A AND METHODS OF ASSESSING
CALITII VIEII THE QUALITY OF LIFE
Conf. univ. dr. Svetlana GOROBIEVSCHI, Assoc. Prof., PhD Svetlana GOROBIEVSCHI,
UTM UTM
n baza metodei istorico-dialectice, autorul Based on historical-dialectical method, the author
cerceteaz formarea conceptului de Calitate a Vieii (CV), examines the formation of the concept Quality of Life
percepute ca o categorie socioeconomic. Astfel, sunt (QOL), seen as a socio-economic category. Therefore, are
cercetate i caracterizate teoriile clasice, neoclasice i investigated and characterized the classical, neo-classical
contemporane, privind esena categoriei CV. and contemporary theories on the essence of the QOL
Sunt prezentate similitudinile i diferenele acestora category.
n tlmcirea CV, ca o categorie, sub diferite aspecte: Are brought similarities and differences in the
filozofice, psihologice, sociale i socioeconomice. interpretation of QOL as a category in different aspects:
Analiznd i sintetiznd evoluia opiniilor tiinifice cu philosophical, psychological, social and socio-economic.
privire la dezvoltarea categoriei CV, autorul distinge Analyzing and synthesizing the development of scientific
patru perioade evolutive ale acesteia: perioada economiei advice on the development of QOL category, the author
neorganizate i nereglate; perioada timpurie a economiei distinguishes four evolutionary periods: unorganized and
centralizate; perioada matur a economiei centralizate; unadjusted economy; early-centralized economy;
perioada economiei de pia. centralized economy, mature period; market economy.
Acestea din urm i ajut autorului s defineasc The latter helps the author to define the essence of
esena CV drept categorie socioeconomic. n funcie de QOL as a socio-economic category. Depending on the
perioadele de dezvoltare a conceptului CV, autorul QOL development concept, the author determined QOL
determin metodele de evaluare a CV: evaluarea evaluation methods: comparative subjective evaluation,
comparativ-subiectiv; evaluarea cantitativ; metoda quantitative evaluation, complex method and systemic
complex i metoda sistemic. method.

Existena statului, ca structur economic i politic, The state, as an economic and political unit, is
este determinat de msura n care acesta satisface nevoile determined by the extent to which it meets the needs
cetenilor si (inclusiv cele economice i sociale) i care of its citizens (including economic and social),
asigur o corelaie ntre nivelul dezvoltrii economice i which provides a correlation between the level of
creterea calitii vieii (CV). economic development and improved quality of life
Ca o condiie important pentru asigurarea gradului (QOL).
de dezvoltare a civilizaiei umane, CV reprezint una din As a condition to ensure the degree of
categoriile importante ale sistemului socioeconomic din development of human civilization, QOL is one of the
orice ar. Analiza i studierea acestei categorii presupune, major categories of socio-economic system of any
mai nti, o evideniere ct mai ampl a conceptelor country. Analysis and study of this category requires,
referitoare la CV. first, a broader outline of concepts on the QOL.
Pentru determinarea conceptului CV, autorul In determining the concept of QOL, the author
propune s se cerceteze de pe poziii istorico-dialectice proposes to investigate the historical-dialectical
aportul savanilor din diferite domenii n aceast direcie. positions of scientists from different fields in this
nceputurile tiinei economice au fost n mod direction.
semnificativ motivate de nevoia de a studia evaluarea The beginnings of Economics were
anselor, ca oamenii s duc o via mai bun. Ideile significantly motivated by the need to study the
conceptului CV, pentru prima dat, au fost fundamentate evaluating opportunities for people to live a better
n cercetrile savanilor Gregory King, Fracois Quesnay, life. The first concept of QOL ideas grounded in
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, researches of scientists Gregory King, Fracois
Alfred Marshall i alii. Acetia au analizat unele Quesnay, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Joseph-
componente ale CV, fr a-i da o definiie concret [11, Louis Lagrange, Alfred Marshall and others. They
p.192-211]. analyzed some components of QOL, without giving
Un aport important n problema studiat revine an exact definition [11, p.192-211].
savantului A.Marshall, autor al teoriei de compromis. An important contribution to the problem is
ntr-una din cele mai importante lucrri ale sale, given by the scholar A.Marshall, author of the theory
Principiile Economiei (1890), autorul vine cu demersul of compromise. In one of his most important works,
su teoretic ce se refer la rolul statului n reglarea Principles of Economics (1890), the author brings

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 7


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

bunstrii poporului. Recunoscnd diferenierea populaiei his theoretical approach that refers to the state's role
n societate dup venituri, autorul menioneaz c Statul in regulating people's welfare. Recognizing
poate influena bunstarea social i prin instrumentele population differentiation in society by revenue, he
fiscale impozite i subvenii. Utilizarea lor trebuie s fie whites that, The State can influence social welfare
determinat de raportul dintre veniturile i cheltuielile and fiscal instruments taxes and subsidies. Their use
publice, de aplicarea lor i de modificarea surplusului must be determined by the ratio of public income and
consumatorului. Spre exemplu, taxarea preurilor nu va expenses, their application and changing of consumer
majora bunstarea social, dect n cazul n care suma surplus. For example, taxation of prices will increase
impozitului colectat va depi reducerea surplusului welfare only if the amount of tax collected will
consumatorului n urma majorrii preurilor. Subveniile exceed the reduction in consumer surplus from higher
pltite productorilor, care determin reducerea preurilor, prices. Subsidies paid to producers, lead to lower
vor majora bunstarea social doar dac sporirea prices would increase welfare only if that increase
surplusului consumatorului va depi cheltuielile publice consumer surplus will exceed public expenditures for
de acordare a acestor subvenii [7, p.49]. granting such subsidies [7, p.49].
Unul din principalele postulate importante ale lui One of the main postulates of A.Marshall is that
A.Marshall este c, pe msura creterii consumului, with the increase of consumption decreases the utility
utilitatea sau valoarea bunurilor scade, menionnd c or value indicating that it is not about intellectual
acesta nu se refer la bunurile intelectuale: cu ct omul este property: the man is thirsty for knowledge, the more he
mai setos de cunotine, cu att mai multe cunoate, cu att knows, the more productive he becomes; nor the means
devine mai productiv; nici la mijloacele de producie, of production, because the more capital is used in
deoarece, cu ct mai mult capital este utilizat n procesul production, the more perfect it becomes.
de producie, cu att acesta devine mai perfect. So, A. Matshall was one of the first scientists
Deci, A.Marshall a fost unul dintre primii savani- who realized the important role of the human factor in
economiti, care a recunoscut rolul deosebit al factorului ensuring economic growth.
uman n asigurarea creterii economice. Interest in QOL is old and representatives of
Interesul fa de categoria CV este unul vechi, i different generations of economists, philosophers,
reprezentani ai diferitelor generaii de economiti, filozofi, sociologists, doctors and so on, sought to explain its
sociologi, medici etc. au cutat s explice esena acesteia din essence in different ways. Thus, E.Mayo (1930) created a
diferite puncte de vedere.Astfel,E.Mayo (1930) a creat un model based on social premises. He believes that people
model bazat pe premise sociale. El considera c oamenii pot can be motivated by social needs, that is why the social
fi motivai prin nevoi de ordin social, tocmai de aceea fora force of members of a group is more important than
social a membrilor unui grup este mai important dect effective control through management. This model is part
controlul eficient prin intermediul managementului. Acest of the four concepts concerning the behavior of the human
model face parte din cele patru concepii privitoare la individual and organizational environments expressed by
comportamentul individual i organizaional al fiinei umane Edgar H.Schein the study of the thinking behaviorist [16,
medii, exprimate de Edgar H.Schein n studiul su privind p.23].
gndirea behaviorist [16, p.23]. We believe that business at all times and
Considerm c activitatea economic, n orice historical circumstances, represent the primary
timpuri i mprejurri istorice, reprezenta strduina endeavor of people, concered to ensure the existence
primordial a oamenilor, grija de a-i asigura existena i and perpetuation of the species, the satisfaction of vital
perpetuarea speciei, satisfacerea unor nevoi vitale de needs for food, shelter, clothing, etc. Once satisfied,
hran, adpost, mbrcminte etc. Odat satisfcute, aceste these needs create preconditions for transition to meet
nevoi creeaz premise pentru trecerea la satisfacerea other needs: cultural, spiritual, political, and so on of
celorlalte nevoi: culturale, spirituale, politice ale indivizilor individuals and the community as a whole. This is why
i comunitii, n ansamblul ei. Iat de ce economia este economy is a vital and permanent aspect of society,
domeniul vital i permanent al societii, activitatea economic activity is directly or indirectly involved in
economic fiind implicat direct sau indirect n meeting the needs of society, representing the general
satisfacerea nevoilor societii, reprezentnd fundamentul basis of all human life.
general n viaa tuturor oamenilor. Such arguments were taken into account when
Asemenea argumente se aveau n vedere, cnd se attempting to draw a picture of the overall human
ncerca s se schieze un tablou de ansamblu al evoluiei economic development, reaching the idea that the
economiei umane, ajungnd la ideea c tranziia n transition in economy is constant, determined for the
economie este permanent; apreciat n sensul purposes of conversion, it cannot be concluded and any
transformrii, aceasta nu se poate ncheia, iar orice simplistic understanding, insufficient accurately
nelegere simplist, insuficient de precis a ncheierii completing the transition is counterproductive.
tranziiei este contraproductiv. Tranziia se dovedete a fi Transition turns out to be a permanent form of human
forma permanent de evoluie uman, iar costurile development and transition costs affect the individual
tranziiei prin via intereseaz pe fiecare individ i interests and social community as a whole.

8 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

comunitatea social, n ansamblul ei. The concept of QOL launced in the 60s of the
Conceptul CV ca atare a fost lansat n anii 60 ai twentieth century by the. North American scholars,
secolului al XX-lea de ctre savanii nord-americani, care who believed that any growth should not be objective
considerau c orice cretere economic nu trebuie s but a means to create better living conditions to meet
constituie un scop n sine, ci un mijloc pentru crearea the needs of a given human collectivity. During this
condiiilor mai bune de trai, pentru satisfacerea nevoilor period was initiated the movement to achieve the
unei anumite colectiviti umane. n aceast perioad, se Social Indicators, namely, there is the application of
iniiaz micarea pentru realizarea Indicatorilor Sociali i, government programs (educational, social and
anume, are loc aplicarea unor programe ale guvernului environmental) and the use of indicators to measure the
(educaionale, sociale i de mediu) i utilizarea unor effectiveness to increase the QOL.
indicatori de msurare a eficacitii creterii CV. In the second half of XX century, QOL was
n a doua jumtate a secolului al XX-lea, CV a fost defined as an improved living standard in the new
definit ca standard de via bun n noua societate de consumer society: possessing modern appliances,
consum: deinerea de aparatur modern, automobile i cars and houses. Leisure, savings for holidays and
case. Timpul liber, economiile pentru vacane i activitile leisure activities were added later. Sociologist and
recreative au fost adugate mai trziu. Conceptul CV a fost economist A.Schlesinger and J.K.Galbraith, both
definit pentru prima dat de sociologul A.Schlesinger i American (1967), were the first who defined the
de economistul J.K.Galbraith, ambii americani (1967). QOL concept.
A.Schlesinger a tratat categoria CV de pe poziii A. Schlesinger treated QOL from the socio-
socio-psihologice, pe cnd profesorul american psychological point of view, while J. K.Galbraith
J.K.Galbraith, n cea mai recent lucrare a sa The Good American professor, in his latest book The Good
Society The Humane Agenda (1996) sau Societatea Society The Humane Agenda (1996) or Perfect
perfect (1997), a generat conceptul CV, n legtur cu Society (1997), generated the concept of QOL, related
necesitatea omului de recunoatere a dominaiei to the human need for recognition, domination of
scopurilor economice i a nu permite acestora s dein un economic goal and not to allow them to have a
monopol neadecvat asupra vieii, n detrimentul altor monopoly on life over other improper purposes, what
scopuri: ceea ce conteaz nu este cantitatea bunurilor matters is not the quantity of our goods, but quality of
noastre, ci calitatea vieii [2, p.11]. life [2, p.11].
J.K.Galbraith susine c nu exist anse pentru o J. K.Galbraith claims that there are no chances
societate perfect i realizabil att timp ct nu exist o for a perfect and feasible society as long as there is no
definire clar a ei. El meniona c n orice societate clear definition of it. He stated that in any society there
exist factori precum natura uman, gndirea, istoria are factors such as human nature, thinking, history
care constrng realitatea. Unele dintre caracteristicile constraining reality. Some of the features of a perfect
societii perfecte sunt: libertatea individual, society are: individual liberty, welfare, racial and
bunstarea, egalitatea rasial i etnic. Autorul ethnic equality. The author points out the importance of
puncteaz importana banilor, afirmnd c lipsa acut a money, claiming that there is an acute shortage denying
lor este cea care neag cel mai mult libertile most individual freedoms. The poor are marginalized
individuale. Sracii sunt marginalizai n favoarea celor in favor of the rich, because only the wealthy come to
bogai, deoarece doar cei avui ajung la putere, iar power and self-interest is accepted at the expense of a
interesul personal este acceptat n detrimentul dorinei desire in social change. J. K. Galbraith believes that
de schimbare la nivel social. J.K.Galbraith considera c this trend should be removed because it stands on the
aceast tendin trebuie nlturat, pentru c st n calea way of prosperity [2, p.14]. Thereby, J. K. Galbraith
prosperrii [2, p.14]. Prin aceasta, J.K.Galbraith, pentru first approached economic thinking of the social
prima dat n gndirea economic, a apropiat aspectul economic aspect of QOL.
economic de cel social al CV. Subsequently, the concept of QOL was
Ulterior, conceptul CV a fost dezvoltat de developed by the futurist B. de Jouvenel, who
viitorologul B. de Jouvenel, care urmrea creterea sought economic growth rate as a factor of wealth
economic n ritm ascendent ca factor al bunstrii. rile upward. Developed countries, on the one hand, were
dezvoltate, pe de o parte, se confruntau cu problema facing the problem of targeting the mass of material
direcionrii masei de resurse materiale de care dispuneau resources at its disposal to ensure a quality life, and,
pentru asigurarea unei viei de calitate, iar, pe de alt parte on the other hand the negative consequences of the
cu consecinele negative ale sistemului economic, economic system, such as poverty, environmental
precum srcia, degradarea mediului nconjurtor etc. n degradation, and so on. In this context, the policies
acest context, politicile CV erau un fel de msuri corective of QOL were a sort of corrective measures in
ale sistemului economico-social. n analizele timpurii ale economic and social systems. In early analyses of
CV, conceptul se referea, n acelai timp, att la bunstarea QOL, the concept refered to both individual
individual, ct i la calitatea societii. wellbeing and quality of society.
Thus, the futurist B. de Jouvenel, describes

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 9


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

Astfel, futurologul B. de Jouvenel, prin CV the conditions of human factor existence through
exprima condiiile de existen ale factorului uman, fiind QOL, being taken into account the overall effect of
luat n cont efectul global al facilitilor, avantajelor pe incentives, benefits, social progress available to
care progresul social l pune la dispoziia indivizilor. Mai individuals in a society. Specifically, QOL was
exact, CV era perceput ca totalitatea posibilitilor perceived as the possibilities offered by the
oferite individului de ctre societate de a dispune produsele company to individual to arrange existence, dispose
i de a folosi serviciile pentru a-i amenaja existena of used products and services to fit individual
personal dup nevoile, cerinele i dorinele proprii [13, existence after the needs, requirements and
p.108]. personal desires [13, p.108].
n viziunea noastr, ne-ar prea destul de simplu a In our view, it would seem simple enough to
reduce CV unui individ numai la factorii mediului extern reduce an individual's QOL to external environmental
sau nivelului de trai, fr a ine cont de rolul individului n factors and living standards, without taking into
asigurarea CV. account of the role of the individual in providing QOL.
Expresia Calitatea vieii a nceput s fie folosit n The term Quality of life began to be used in
cercurile politice. Astfel, ntr-un discurs al preedintelui political circles. Thus, in a speech of U.S. President
Statelor Unite, Lyndon B.Johnson, din 1967, s-a subliniat Lyndon B. Johnson in 1967, were outlined the
c obiectivele pe care le urmrete un preedinte de ar nu objectives that are pursued by a head of state cannot be
pot fi msurate n termeni bancari, ci n termenii CV. Din measured in terms of banking, but in terms of QOL.
acel moment, nalta societate nu mai este preocupat de From that moment high society is concerned not by
cantitatea bunurilor, ci de CV. the quantity of goods, but by QOL.
Deseori, se fceau similitudini ntre nivelul de trai i Often were made similarities between the level
CV. Cele dou concepte, dei, la prima vedere, se of living and QOL. The two concepts, although at first
confundau, totui, sunt diferite, datorit sferei de glance were confused, however, are different because
cuprindere [7, p.47-57]. of the scope [7, p.47-57].
Conceptul CV, precum i cercetrile sistematice The QOL concept and systematic research
desfurate n acest domeniu au contribuit la apariia conducted in this area contributed to the socio-economic
tiinelor social-economice, ns doar de cteva decenii. sciences just for a few decades. Prior to identifying and
Pn la identificarea i definirea clar a conceptului, clearly defining the concept, economists, sociologists and
economitii, sociologii i ali specialiti au fcut cercetri ale other specialists have done research of QOL without
CV fr a denumi efectiv conceptul. La nceput, s-a dovedit really naming it. At first, proved by scientific depth QOL
a avea o profunzime tiinific doar noiunea social de CV, was only a social notion that addressed the problems of
care aborda n mod sintetizator problemele existenei i existence and human development from demographic,
dezvoltrii omului de la cele demografice, economice, economic, social, health, legal, political, human rights to
sociale, sanitare, juridice, politice, ale drepturile omului la environmental, cultural, psychological and social.
cele ecologice, culturale i psihosociale. Thus, in XX century were developed two ways
Astfel, n secolul al XX-lea, s-au format dou of assessing QOL: objective and subjective.
modaliti de apreciere a CV: obiectiv i subiectiv. Objective assessment was based on statistical
Aprecierea obiectiv se baza pe indicatorii statistici, furnizai indicators provided by state institutions and NGOs;
de instituiile de stat i organizaiile neguvernamentale; aceti this index provides an overall assessment of the
indicatori ofereau o evaluare global, cu caracter general, a level of general QOL. Subjective assessment of QOL
nivelului CV. Aprecierea subiectiv a CV ncearc s attempts to identify the most important elements in
identifice elementele cele mai importante la stabilirea determining the standard of living of the individual.
standardului de via al individului. Aceste msurri erau mai These measurements were more personal, since they
mult personale, din moment ce ele se bazau pe aprecierile were based on people's feedback on the quality of
oamenilor asupra calitii propriilor viei. their lives.
Dac aprecierea obiectiv aborda CV la nivelul If objective assessment addresses the QOL in
societii n ansamblu, aprecierea subiectiv cobora la society, taken as a whole, the subjective assessment or
nivelul individului sau al colectivitilor, cu un anumit to specific communities (geographic, cultural, and
specific (geografic, cultural, al standardului de via). standard of living). The way of how the QOL can be
Modul n care putea fi msurat nivelul CV deriva din measured derived from the relationship between
raporturile dintre anumite dimensiuni ale existenei certain dimensions of human existence. In this respect,
umane. n aceast privin, prerile specialitilor din lume opinions of various specialists vary greatly.
difer foarte mult. The Bortwick-Duffy Model (1992), a work with
Modelul Bortwick-Duffy (1992) opera cu patru 4 key dimensions of QoL: residential environment,
dimensiuni eseniale ale CV: mediul rezidenial; relaiile interpersonal relationships, influence community and
interpersonale; influena comunitii i stabilitatea vieii. life stability.

10 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

Familia i prietenii /
Family and friends

Locul de munc /
Cultura / Work
Culture
Vecintatea /
Neighborhood
Caracteristicile Calitatea vieii /
demografice / Sensul bunstrii
Demographic Comunitatea / Quality of life /
condition Community Welfare meaning
Sntatea /
Health
Condiiile
socioeconomice /
Socio-economic Educaia /
condition Education

Spiritualitatea /
Spirituality

Figura 1.1. Conceptul CV propus de cercettorii Universitii din Oklahoma /


Figure 1.1. QoL concept proposed by researchers of the University of Oklahoma
Sursa/Source: [7, p.59]
n viziunea noastr, acest model reprezint una We believe that this model is one of the first
din primele abordri ale CV sub aspectul vieii sociale approaches to QOL in terms of social life and human
i al relaiilor interumane, fiind mai puin luat n relationships, in which the economic side is less taken
consideraie latura economic. into consideration.
n anii 1998-2002, un grup de experi, sub During 1998-2002 an expert group under the
conducerea lui Hansen Bruno, a elaborat conceptul leadership of Bruno Hansen has developed the
european, n care CV se studia numai de pe poziiile European concept, where QOL is studied from the
fiziologic i social, cea economic nefiind luat n physiological and social positions, the economic one
consideraie [12, p.48]. Bruno Hansen, membru al was not taken into account [12, p.48]. Bruno Hansen,
Comisiei Europene pentru tiinele Vieii, Directorul European Commissioner for Life Sciences, Director
General XII, n cadrul Programelor realizate de UE n General XII, for the EU Programs in this field, believes
acest domeniu, consider c mbuntirea CV se that improving QOL can be achieved in the following 4
poate realiza acionnd n urmtoarele 4 direcii: areas: nutrition, health, occupation and environment
nutriie, sntate, ocupaie i mediu (figura 1.2). (figure 1.2).
n acelai timp, o echip de cercettori ai Meanwhile, a team of researchers from the
Universitii din Toronto a identificat trei dimensiuni University of Toronto has identified three major
majore ale CV: existena, apartenena i aciunile umane. dimensions of QOL: existence, membership and human
Aa, n perioada 1994-2001, aici s-a desfurat un proiect actions. Therefore, during 1994-2001 there was
de cercetare a CV, la care au participat cei mai vestii conducted a research of QOL and the most famous
profesori ai Universitii din Toronto: Dennis Rafael, teachers of the University of Toronto have participated
Renwick Rebecca, manager de proiect fiind Ivan in it: Dennis Raphael, Rebecca Renwick, Ivan
Brown. Ted Myerscough a fost responsabil de Brown as project manager. Ted Myerscough was
gestionarea datelor i difuzarea lor pentru analiza CV responsible for data management and dissemination for
persoanelor cu handicap. Deci, CV a fost studiat prin analyzing the QOL of disabled persons. Therefore, the
prisma influenei factorilor endogeni (cu caracter QOL was studied through the influence of endogenous
psihologic i fiziologic) asupra persoanelor cu dezabiliti factors (psychologic and phynplpgic) over the disabled
[14, p.49]. Dimensiunea factorilor endogeni a fost persons. [14, p.49]. The size of endogenous factors was
divizat n 3 subdomenii, i anume: cea a existenei divided into three subdomains, namely: physical
fizice, psihic i spiritual. Existena fizic caracterizeaz mental and spiritual existence. Physical existence
aspectele vieii legate de nutriie, sntate fizic, igien characterizes the aspects of life related to nutrition,
personal, aspect fizic, vestimentaia i nfiarea physical health, personal hygiene, appearance, clothing
exterioar a omului. Existena psihic abordeaz and outward appearance of an individual. Mental

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 11


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

sntatea psihic a individului, percepiile, sentimentele existence is related to mental health of the individual,
i starea sa sufleteasc, evalurile legate de propria his perceptions, feelings and his state of mind about
persoan. Existena spiritual reflect valorile personale, self-assessments. Spiritual existence reflects personal
normele individuale de conduit i convingerile values, individual rules of conduct and spiritual beliefs,
spirituale, care n majoritatea cazurilor, pot fi asociate cu which in most cases can be associated with existing
religiile actuale. religions.

Nutriie / Nutrition Sntate/ Health


- Alimente mai sntoase / - Prevenirea i tratamentul bolilor /
Healthier foods, Prevention and treatment of illnesses
- mbuntirea calitii - Mediul de via i condiiile
i siguranei alimentelor / Improve de lucru mai sntoase / Healtier life
quality and food safety and working conditions
- Procese de fabricaie noi - Reducerea costurilor serviciilor
sau mbuntite / New or improved medicale / Reduced health care costs
manufacturing processes

CALITATEA VIEII /
QUALITY OF LIFE

Ocupaie / Occupation Mediu / Environment


- Crearea de noi locuri de munc / - Utilizarea sustenabil a resurselor /
Creating new jobs Sustainable use of resources
- Pregtirea, perfecionarea i mobilitatea - Mediul nconjurtor mai curat /
profesional / Profesional education, Cleaner environment
training and mobility - Folosirea pe scar larg
- Dezvoltarea regional / a bioproceselor /
Regional development. Extensive use of bioprocesses

Figura 1.2. Calitatea Vieii perceput ca o categorie sociopsihologic /


Figure 1.2. Quality of Life perceived as a socio-psychological category
Sursa/Source: [12, p.48]
Apartenena este o dimensiune ce include Belonging is a dimension that includes
comuniunea individului cu mediul su de via i are, la individual community of life with his environment and
rndul su, 3 subdomenii. Apartenena fizic cuprinde has, in turn, three subdomains. Physical belonging
conexiunile pe care individul le are cu mediul su de via, includes connections that the individual is having with
format, de regul, din locuin, loc de munc, coal, his usually environment, like home, work, school,
vecintate, comunitate. Apartenena social include neighborhood, and community. Social belonging
legturile cu mediul social i abordeaz acceptarea includes links to the social environment and addresses
individului n intimitatea altor persoane, relaiile cu the individual accepting in the privacy of others,
familia, prietenii, colegii de munc, colaboratorii i vecinii. relationships with family, friends, co-workers,
Apartenena comunitar reprezint accesul pe care colleagues and neighbors.
individul l are la resursele ce stau, de obicei, la dispoziia Community belonging represents the individuals
membrilor comunitii, precum serviciile sociale, de access to the resources usually available to community
sntate sau de ocupare a forei de munc, activitile members, such as social and health services,
educaionale, culturale sau recreative. employment, educational, cultural or recreational
Aciunile umane se refer la activitile susinute de activities.
individ, ce au drept scop ndeplinirea speranelor Human actions refer to activities supported by
(dorinelor) personale. Aciunile practice descriu o serie de individual, aimed at fulfilling the personal hopes
activiti zilnice, cum ar fi activitile domestice, munca (wishes). Practical actions describe a series of daily
prestat, activitile colare, cele legate de sntate sau de activities such as domestic work, labor, educational
nevoile sociale. Activitile din timpul liber includ activities, health-related or social needs. Leisure

12 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

activitile care contribuie la relaxarea (odihna) i activities include activities that contribute to relaxation
reducerea stresului. (rest) and stress reduction.
n opinia noastr, din punct de vedere al persoanelor In our view, from the point of view of disabled
cu dezabiliti sau cu probleme de sntate, conceptul people or those with health problems, the QOL
existenial de evaluare a CV a fost formulat corect. assessment concept is formulated correctly.
Modelul R.Schalock (1996), autor de origine The Model R.Schalock (1996), of the American
american, n aprecierea CV, prevedea 8 dimensiuni author, takes into account in assessing QOL 8 main
principale: dimensions:
bunstarea spiritual (sigurana, spiritualitatea, spiritual welfare (safety, spirituality, happiness,
fericirea etc.); etc.).
relaiile interpersonale (intimitatea, afeciunea, interpersonal relatios (intimacy, affection,
familia etc.); family, etc.).
bunstarea material (proprietatea, securitatea material welfare (property, financial security,
financiar, posesiunile etc.); possessions, etc.).
dezvoltarea personal (educaia, calificarea, personal development (education, qualification,
competena etc.); competence, etc.).
bunstarea fizic (nutriia, sntatea, physical well-being (nutrition, health, recreation
modalitile de recreere etc.); arrangements, etc.).
autodeterminarea (autonomia, opiunile, self-determination (autonomy, options, personal
controlul personal etc.); control, etc.).
apartenena social (acceptarea, statutul i social affiliation (acceptance, status and social
role, etc.) rights (to privacy, etc.).
rolul social); drepturile (la intimitate etc.).
In developing the R. Schalock model were
La elaborarea modelului R.Schalock au participat
involved professionals from different fields, trying to
specialiti din diferite domenii, care ncercau s determine
determine the objective and subjective indicators to
indicatorii obiectivi i subiectivi de msurare a CV. Tot
measure QOL. More frequently appeared opinions
mai frecvent apreau opinii care vedeau CV ca pe o
regarding QOL as a function of freedom, human rights
funcie a libertii, drepturilor omului i fericirii lui. Dar,
and happiness. But, since happiness is a subjective
deoarece fericirea este o valoare subiectiv i e greu de
msurat, reprezentanii acestei opinii au dat prioritate altor value and is difficult to measure, the representatives of
this view have prioritized other indicators to assess the
indicatori de evaluare a CV. Ca urmare, concluzia final a
QOL. Therefore, the conclusion was that the
conceptului R.Schalock a fost c bunstarea ar trebui s fie
luat n seam la msurarea fericirii sau satisfaciei de via R. Schalock concept of welfare should be taken into
account to measure happiness or satisfaction with life
[11, p.55].
[11, p.55].
Din cele expuse, se poate meniona c opiniile
descrise n vizorul diferitelor coli au apreciat CV strns From the above mentioned, it can be noted that
the opinions described by different schools, appreciated
legat de mediul social, n care persoanele i duc existena.
QOL closely related to the social environment in which
Fiecare ar are un stil propriu de via i, de aceea, exist o
larg varietate de tendine n interesul comunitii globale. people live their lives. Each country has its own style
of life and, therefore, there is a wide variety of trends
Din fericire, unele dintre ele sunt comune colectivitilor,
in the interest of the global community. Fortunately,
aparinnd grupului de ri industrializate i pot servi drept
baz pentru o serie de evaluri privind cerinele some of them are common, belonging to the group of
industrialized countries and can serve as the basis for a
consumatorilor de produse i servicii, de tehnic
series of evaluations of consumer demands for products
electronic i de uz casnic.
and services, electronics and household technology.
Crizele petroliere din anii 1973 i 1979 au influenat
Oil crises of 1973 and 1979 have influenced the
apariia celor mai multe opinii ale criticilor creterii
emergence of several views of economic growth
economice. n aceast perioad, cercetrile privind CV
critics. During this period, research on QOL was
reprezint un domeniu preferenial de activitate care
preferential area comprised of experts in the field of
reunete specialiti din sfera tiinelor economice i
sociale. Explicaia const nu numai n interesul practic, economic and social sciences. The explanation lies not
only in the practical and political interest of this
politic al acestei probleme, ci i n statutul ontologic al CV
problem, but also in the ontological status of the QOL
i al conceptului corespunztor n cadrul realitii sociale i
al tiinelor acesteia. Aa, cunoscutul savant american and the corresponding concept in social reality and its
sciences. Therefore, the famous scholar J. Schumpeter
J.Schumpeter [1939], fondator al teoriei antreprenoriale,
[1939], founder of the entrepreneurial theory, saw the
vedea sensul ntregii activiti sociale n asigurarea
existenei oamenilor. De aici provine caracterul sintetic al meaning of social activities to provide human
existance. Hence its synthetic character, this explains
acesteia; astfel se explic de ce dup ea se orienteaz i se
why it is also aimed to correlate all other aspects of the
coreleaz toate celelalte aspecte ale sistemului social. CV
social system. QOL is like a coin that accurately

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 13


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

este ca o moned n care se oglindete fidel ntregul reflects the entire social universe [17, p.112].
univers social [17, p.112]. In the 80s of the XX century, there were
n anii 80 ai secolului al XX-lea, au existat discuii extensive discussions and numerous investigations
intense i investigaii numeroase referitoare la CV. n regarding the QOL. However, during this time, the
aceast perioad, conceptul s-a individualizat. CV a concept was individualized. QOL began to be
nceput s fie, din ce n ce mai des, conceptualizat prin increasingly more often conceptualized as individual
bunstarea individual, care este determinat nu numai welfare, which is determined not only by the objective
de condiiile obiective de via bun, dar i de bunstarea conditions of a better life, but also subjective
subiectiv: CV se studiaz prin ochii tritorului. welfare: QOL is studied through the eyes of the living
Cercetarea prin anchete sociologice devine o metod person. Sociological survey becomes a favorite method
favorit, deoarece permite combinarea caracteristicilor because it allows combining objective and subjective
obiective i subiective ale situaiei reale la nivel individual characteristics of the real situation individually
[1, p.11]. [1, p.11].
Cu toate acestea, dezvoltarea economic a societii However, the economic development of a
a urmat o nou cale, care a provocat discuiile despre society followed a new path, which caused discussions
bunstare i CV. n cercetrile efectuate de W.Zapf about welfare and QOL. In research conducted by
[2000], apare din nou legtura dintre bunstarea populaiei W.Zapf [2000] there is again the link between welfare
sau starea naiunii i CV, care au constituit un pas nainte of the population and QOL, which constituted a step
n direcia cercetrii categoriei CV. Constatarea c forward in the research of the QOL. Finding that
progresul economic nu duce n mod automat la bunstarea economic progress does not automatically lead to
general i la eliminarea srciei a fost unul din motivele general welfare and poverty elimination it was one of
care au condus la apariia unei direcii de cercetare att de the reasons that have led to a growing research of
cultivate n prezent, cum este CV. QOL.
Problemele de coninut ale CV jucau un rol Content of QOL issues played an important role
important n cadrul concepiei originale, conform creia in the original conception, according to which
bunstarea individual i calitatea societii se influenau individual welfare and society quality influenced each
reciproc i erau interdependente. Potrivit studiului realizat other and were interdependent. According to the study
de W.Zapf, exist, totui, cteva aspecte care s-au conducted by W.Zapf, there are still some aspects
modificat fa de perioada anilor 70 [18, p.22-35]: which have changed during the 70s [18, p.22-35]:
1. Conceptul CV i al bunstrii, n contextul 1. QOL and welfare concept in the context of a
economiei concureniale, nu mai erau competitive economy, were not oriented
orientate ctre modul socialist de via; towards a socialist way of life;
2. Conceptul CV devenise unul rspndit i nu 2. QOL concept became widespread and was not
mai era construit n baza contradiciilor, de built on contradictions any more, for example,
exemplu, cantitate versus calitate sau quantity versus quality or economy versus
economie versus ecologie; ecology;
3. Au disprut speranele i iluziile legate de o 3. Hopes and illusions about a society using plan
societate n care se utilizeaz o planificare i and control to ensure the QOL vanished;
un control riguros pentru asigurarea CV; 4. Centralized economy was no longer a
4. Economia centralizat nu mai constituia prominent model, other management systems
modelul proeminent, au prins contur diferite emerged: market, state, associations, families
alte sisteme de administrare: piaa, statul, and small social groups.
asociaiile, familiile i grupurile sociale mici. Along with QOL and welfare concepts there
Paralel cu conceptele CV i bunstrii, a aprut i appeared the concept of human development, which
conceptul dezvoltrii umane, care a devenit un program became a global program promoted by the United
global promovat de Naiunile Unite; calitatea Nations, quality of people and living conditions
persoanelor i condiiile de trai sunt concepte prin care are concepts which aim to extend the subjective notion
se dorete extinderea noiunii subiective de prosperitate, of prosperity i.e. welfare. Exclusion is a new
respectiv de bunstare. Excluderea constituie o nou perspective in inequality research. Social capital
perspectiv n cercetarea inegalitilor. Capitalul social describes the social resources of solidarity. Welfare
descrie resursele sociale ale solidaritii. Pluralismul pluralism or prosperity mixture refers to the
bunstrii sau amestecul de prosperiti se refer la innovative potential of the welfare [20].
potenialul inovativ al strii de bunstare [20]. The basics of the human development concept
Bazele conceptului dezvoltrii umane au fost puse have been made with the Global Annual Reports of the
odat cu Rapoartele Globale Anuale ale Programului United Nations Human Development Program
Naiunilor Unite pentru Dezvoltarea Uman (PNUD). (UNDP). The first report was released in 1990.
Primul raport a fost lansat n 1990. Potrivit definiiei According to the definition, human development is a
formulate aici, dezvoltarea uman este un proces care process that helps to expand the range of options to be

14 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

contribuie la lrgirea gamei de posibiliti care se acord granted to each person.


fiecrei persoane. Currently, human development is the most
n prezent, dezvoltarea uman constituie cel mai ambitious and far-reaching concept of welfare. The
ambiios i mai de anvergur concept de bunstare. Ideea basic idea is to develop individual options, the QOL of
de baz este de a dezvolta opiunile individuale, a CV people. This concept looks beyond the human
oamenilor. Aceast noiune intete dincolo de dezvoltarea resources development and the state welfare programs,
resurselor umane i de programele de stat privind consider people as receptors rather than players of
bunstarea, care consider oamenii mai mult simpli achievements. Theoretically, human development
receptori dect actori ai realizrilor. Teoretic, dezvoltarea involves productivity, equity, sustainability and
uman implic productivitate, egalitate, sustenabilitate, authority. Empirically, Human Development Index
precum i autoritate. n mod empiric, toate naiunile lumii (HDI) classifies all nations of the world. Currently,
sunt clasificate dup Indicele Dezvoltrii Umane (IDU). n HDI is one of the most widely used indicators of
prezent, IDU este unul dintre indicatorii cei mai larg human development. It is especially used for global
utilizai ai dezvoltrii umane. Este folosit, n special, la and regional international comparisons. HDI is
nivel global, pentru comparaii internaionale i regionale. calculated as a simple average of the indices:
IDU este calculat ca o medie simpl a indicilor Educaiei, education, life expectancy and GDP. Global Human
Speranei de Via i PIB. Rapoartele Globale ale Development Reports and the HDI are, despite
Dezvoltrii Umane i IDU sunt, n pofida criticilor, criticism, the result of two basic requirements of social
rezultatul a dou cerine de baz ale raporturilor sociale, reporting, namely the international comparisons and
anume ale comparaiilor internaionale i prezentrii unui present a full indicator that includes relevant
indicator integral care cuprinde o informaie relevant information about human development.
despre dezvoltarea uman. In terms of integration, the problem of
n condiiile integrrii, problema excluderilor exclusions draws attention to the most pressing
atrage atenia asupra celor mai actuale probleme ale CV i issues of the QOL and the most modern forms of
asupra celei mai moderne forme de inegalitate din cadrul inequality in the European Union: Not only the
Uniunii Europene: Nu numai distana, dar i excluderea distance but also the social exclusion: not only
din viaa social: nu numai excluderi, marginalizri din exclusion, marginalization because of poverty and
cauza srciei i a omajului, dar i excluderi prin unemployment, but also exclusion through
discriminri i refuzul accesului la posibilitile oferite de discrimination and denial of access to the possibilities
via [H.Silver,1994]. Excluderea distruge solidaritatea, of life [H. Silver, 1994]. Exclusion destroys
spiritul just, cinstit al competiiei, drepturile politice ale solidarity, the fair honest and spirit of competition, the
participrii i integrrii ntr-o societate. Solidaritatea i political rights of participation and inclusion in society.
integrarea pot fi pstrate, extinse sau rectigate cu att mai Solidarity and integration can be retained or regained
bine, cu ct capitalul social este mai mare i mai bun: cu as long as the social capital is bigger and better: in
alte cuvinte, cu ct setul de norme i valori, sistemele de other words, the stronger are the sets of norms and
dezvoltare personal i conexiunile sociale sunt mai values, personal development systems and social
puternice [5, p.88]. connections [5, p.88].
R.Putnam [1995] meniona c n timp ce capitalul R.Putnam [1995] noted that while the social
social crete, crete competena de a rezolva mult mai bine capital increases, the power to solve social problems
problemele sociale: Angajamentele civile i contactele grows Civil commitments and adequate social
sociale adecvate produc rezultate pozitive coli mai contacts produce positive results better schools, faster
bune, o dezvoltare economic mai rapid, o rat a economic growth, lower crime rate, more efficient
criminalitii mai sczut, o administrare mult mai administration [5, p.89].
eficient [5, p.89]. According to A.Evers [1996], contributions to
n opinia lui A.Evers [1996], contribuiile la welfare pluralism or welfare mix focuses on a
pluralismul bunstrii sau la mixul de bunstare se prominent problem, namely institutional crisis and
concentreaz asupra unei probleme proeminente, i anume financial status and welfare insurance system[20, p.91].
criza instituional i financiar a statului bunstrii i a The basic idea is that the market and the state cannot
sistemului asigurrilor sociale [5, p.91]. Ideea de baz este guarantee social security and civil society resources
c securitatea social nu mai poate fi garantat numai de must be enabled. By combining the results of these
ctre pia i stat, iar resursele societii civile trebuie s fie institutions through a savings portfolio [R.Rose,
activate. Prin combinarea rezultatelor acestor instituii, 1996], the overuse some can be prevented. Most
printr-un portofoliu de economii [R.Rose, 1996], practical example is the elderly pension system, which
suprasolicitarea unora poate fi prevenit. Exemplul cel mai relies on several pillars. For example, in addition to
concret este sistemul pensiilor persoanelor vrstnice, care public pensions can come pension plans and life
mizeaz pe civa piloni. De exemplu, n completarea insurance of private companies. The pension systems,
pensiilor publice pot veni planurile de pensii ale built on the principle of solidarity, are not propagated
companiilor i asigurrile de via private. Nu mai sunt any more, as the emphasis is on diversification [5,

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 15


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

propagate sistemele de pensii construite pe principiul p.92-94].


solidaritii, ci se pune accentul pe diversificarea acestora It is hard not you agree with these arguments. In
[5, p.92-94]. order to show the differences between existing
Este greu s nu cazi de acord cu aceste argumente. concepts, the author tries to differentiate them.
Pentru a surprinde diferenele dintre conceptele existente, Based on existing opinions, the author defines
autorul ncearc s le diferenieze. the standard of living as a range of economic, non-
Plecnd de la versiunile opiniilor existente, autorul economic, social, cultural and political conditions,
definete nivelul de trai drept ansamblul condiiilor which the society creates for its members, but also the
economice i noneconomice, sociale, culturale i politice, capacity and skills of individuals to better satisfy their
pe care societatea le creeaz membrilor si, dar i needs, starting from their income. Defining the aspects
capacitatea, aptitudinile indivizilor de a-i satisface ct of living standards they relate to: the level and
mai bine nevoile, pornind de la venitul lor. Aspectele evolution of venues, the prices of consumption goods
definitorii ale nivelului de trai sunt legate de nivelul i and services, that make up the population consume, the
evoluia veniturilor; de mrimea preurilor la bunurile i level and structure of consumption of goods and
serviciile ce alctuiesc consumul populaiei; de nivelul i services, working conditions and leisure, living
structura consumului de bunuri i servicii; de condiiile de conditions, health and access to insurance, education,
munc i petrecere a timpului liber; de condiiile de trai; culture, etc.
de starea de sntate i accesul la serviciile de asigurare, Living standard is objective, because it can only
educaie, cultur, art etc. be accomplished in certain parameters. As science and
Nivelul de trai are un caracter obiectiv, deoarece se technology developed, the considered parameters
poate realiza numai n anumii parametri. Pe msur ce a (natural environment, social background, education,
evoluat tiina i tehnica, parametrii luai n considerare health, politics, economy, etc.) underwent a series of
(mediul natural, cadrul social, educaia, sntatea, cadrul changes, giving, in this respect, to the concept of living
politic, economic etc.) au suferit o serie de modificri, standards, a socio-historical character. Thus, with the
conferindu-i, n acest sens, conceptului nivelul de trai un evolution of humanity, changed the living conditions,
caracter social-istoric. Astfel, odat cu evoluia umanitii, aspirations and needs of people. If decades ago certain
s-au modificat condiiile de via, aspiraiile i nevoile conditions were considered normal, today, the same
oamenilor. Dac acum cteva decenii, anumite condiii conditions can no longer be regarded as normal.
erau considerate normale, s-ar putea ca astzi, aceleai Summarizing the above, the author mentions that
condiii s nu mai poat fi calificate ca fiind normale. QOL is defined as the value of a persons life, manner
Sintetiznd cele expuse, menionm c aria CV este and extent to what life conditions offer the opportunity
definit drept valoarea, pentru om, a vieii sale, modul i to satisfy many of his needs, the extent to which life is
msura n care condiiile vieii ofer omului posibilitatea satisfactory for him.
satisfacerii multiplelor sale necesiti, gradul n care viaa There is no universally accepted definition of
este satisfctoare pentru el. QOL, particularly because the concept is at the
Nu exist o definiie universal acceptat a CV, n intersection of Humanities and Economics. Meaning of
special, datorit faptului c conceptul se afl la intersecia QOL can vary considerably depending on the nature
dintre tiinele umaniste i cele economice. Semnificaia of the study. In general, the QOL is seen as the result
expresiei CV poate varia considerabil n funcie de of interaction of a number of factors (health, social,
natura studiului. n general, CV era privit ca fiind economic, environmental) that affect the social and
rezultatul interaciunii unui numr de factori (de sntate, human development of the individual and of society in
sociali, economici, de mediu), care afecteaz dezvoltarea ways often unknown. In a sense, the QOL was defined
uman i social a individului i a societii n moduri to the extent that, in a given society or region, are the
deseori necunoscute. ntr-un anume sens, CV era definit psychological and physiological conditions that induce
n msura n care, ntr-o anumit societate sau regiune, feelings of satisfaction [2, p.128].
erau asigurate condiiile psihologice i fiziologice ce induc According to the author, QOL is a measurable
sentimentul de satisfacie [2, p.128]. variable and refers to both, the subjective and the
Astfel, considerm c CV, fiind variabil i objective side of the study. From this perspective, the
msurabil, se refer att la partea subiectiv, ct i la QOL analysis shows both psychological and
cea obiectiv a studiului. Din acest punct de vedere, environmental aspects, involving a psychological
analiza CV prezint att aspecte psihologice, ct i legate evaluation made by an individual or a group, or a
de mediu, implicnd o evaluare psihologic, fcut de un satisfaction evaluation given by living conditions and
individ sau un grup, a satisfaciei date de condiiile de trai lifestyle.
i stilul de via. QOL study involves consideration of human
Studiul CV implic luarea n consideraie a needs, hopes and values. In a study published in the
necesitilor oamenilor, a speranelor i valorilor lor. ntr- dictionary Wish (Wikipedia) is mentioned that if we
un studiu publicat n dicionarul Wish (Wikipedia), se analyze the most widely used definitions of QOL, we
menioneaz c, dac se analizeaz definiiile cele mai can see similarities between them. All definitions

16 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

utilizate ale CV, se observ anumite similitudini ntre include a statement designed by one or more residents
acestea. Toate definiiile includ o situaie proiectat de of a region that is rendered on several levels of
unul sau mai muli rezideni ai unei regiuni, care este satisfaction [http / / en.wikipedia.org /, 12.03.2012].
translat pe mai multe grade de satisfacie The World Health, Organization (WHO) defines
[http//en.wikipedia.org/, 12.03.2012]. QOL in the context of individual perception of their
Organizaia Mondial a Sntii (OMS) definete life position regarding culture and values in which they
CV n contextul percepiei indivizilor a poziiei lor de via live and relate to their goals, expectations, standards
n planul cultural i de valori n care triesc i n relaionare and concerns. It is a broad concept that is affected by
cu scopurile, ateptrile, standardele i preocuprile health condition of the individual, his psychological,
acestora. Este un concept larg, afectat ntr-un mod personal beliefs, social ties and the most prominent
complex de starea de sntate fizic i psihologic, de features of the environment.
credinele individului, de legturile sale sociale i de In the 70s of the XX century, a great
trsturile cele mai proeminente ale mediului de via. contribution to the development of the concept is given
ncepnd cu anii 70 ai secolului XX, o deosebit to the QOL Russian school, and namely, scientists
contribuie la dezvoltarea conceptului CV revine colii from the Russion Public Opinion Research Center
ruseti i, anume, savanilor din cadrul Vserosiiskogo () and All Russion Centre of Living
entra Izucenia Obscestvennogo Mnenia () i Standard (Moscow): I. Levada, J. Bestujev-Chest,
Vserosiiskogo entra Urovnea Gizni (Moscova): N. Rimaevskaia, V. Bobcow, N. Grigorieva, V.
I.Levada, J.Bestujev-Lada, N.Rimaevskaia, Maier, V. Rutgaizer, A. Subbeto, L. Zubova, T.
V.Bobcow, N.Grigorieva, V.Maier, V.Rutgaizer, Zaslavskaia, etc., as well as G.Prudenschii and .
A.Subbeto, L.Zubova, T.Zaslavskaia, precum i ganbeghean, representatives from Novosibirsk
reprezentanilor filialei din Novosibirsc: G.Prudenskii i branch, who studied the problems of evaluation and
.ganbeghean, care au studiat problemele evalurii i QoL differences in different countries and geographical
diferenierii CV din diferite ri i zone geografice. Acestor areas. These scientists performed the first researches in
savani le aparin primele cercetri n spaiul postsovietic the post-Soviet evaluation of methodological aspects
ale aspectelor metodologice de evaluare a oului de consumer basket, problems of social exclusion,
consum, n domeniul studierii problemelor de excluziune inequality in income distribution, economic and
social, inechitii la distribuirea veniturilor, modelrii mathematical modeling of economic growth
economico-matematice a incertitudinii creterii uncertainty, QOL evaluation nationally and regionally,
economice, evalurii CV, la nivel naional i regional, i and argued the need to improve global QOL
argumentrii necesitii perfecionrii evalurii CV, la evaluation.
nivel global. Russian scientist A.Subetto, representative of
Savantul rus A.Subetto, reprezentant al Russian Public Opinion Research Center said that
Vserosiiskogo entra Izucenia Obscestvennogo QOL is a summary of the material and spiritual needs
Mnenia, meniona c V reprezint o sintez a of a creative human life, the level of skills
necesitilor materiale i spiritual-creative ale vieii umane, implementation, intellect and human creative feelings.
a nivelului de punere n aplicare a competenelor, It cannot be reduced to the standard to achieve material
intelectului, sentimentelor creative de via ale omului. CV needs, although they play an important role in the life
nu poate fi redus la standardul de realizare a necesitilor of the individual. QOL is a complex and contradictory
materiale, cu toate c acestea joac un rol important n category, a system of spiritual, intellectual, social and
viaa individului. CV este o categorie cu caracter complex cultural characteristics, as well as scientific,
i contradictoriu, un sistem de caracteristici spirituale, educational, environmental and demographic,
intelectuale, fizice, sociale i culturale, tiinifice, characterizing individuals life family, nation and
educaionale, de mediu i demografice, ce caracterizeaz human society as a whole. This socio-economic
viaa unui individ, unei familii, naiuni, societi umane n category combines both, the individual and the social
ansamblu. Aceast categorie socioeconomic mbin n life, shows diversity of needs and personal skills and
sine att laturile individuale, ct i sociale ale vieii, relev abilities to develop harmoniously through his
diversitatea nevoilor i abilitilor personale, capacitilor creativity [19, p.18].
individului de a le completa i dezvolta armonios prin Russian schools contribution was the
creativitatea sa [19, p.18]. development of a methodology that identifies the social
colii ruseti i revine aportul la elaborarea strata differentiation according to income; self-esteem,
metodologiei de identificare a diferenierii pturilor sociale etc. and in particular, the development of the middle
n funcie de venituri; a autoaprecierii etc. i, n special, class theoretical concept of human society and its
elaborrii conceptului teoretic al clasei de mijloc a evaluation indicators.
societii umane i indicatorilor de evaluare a acesteia. During the 70-80s QOL was taken by other
n perioada anilor 70-80, termenul CV a fost socialist countries, Romania being among the first
preluat i de alte ri socialiste, Romnia fiind printre who adaptedit. Research conducted before 1990
primele care l- au adoptat i adaptat. Cercetrile realizate contained a solid methodological basis and was used to

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 17


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

pn n anul 1990 conineau o baz metodologic achieve a deeper knowledge of the QOL of the
temeinic, care trebuia folosit pentru realizarea unei Romanian people. Thus, under the Central Bureau of
cunoateri profunde, n detaliu, a CV a poporului romn. Statistics (DCS) in 1974, was developed a work
Astfel, n cadrul Direciei Centrale de Statistic (DCS), n entitled Methodological principles of social indicators
1974, a fost elaborat o lucrare intitulat Principii composition, and in 1977 was completed the
metodologice de alctuire a indicatorilor sociali, iar n methodological study Quality of Life Indicators
1977 a fost finalizat studiul metodologic Sistemul de System, which contained more than 200 indicators
indicatori ai Calitii Vieii, care coninea peste 200 de grouped into seven areas, a system which was further
indicatori grupai pe apte domenii, sistem care a fost improved.
ulterior mbuntit. Institute for Quality of Life Research (ICCV),
Institutul de Cercetare a Calitii Vieii (ICCV), founded in Romania by the members of the Romanian
ntemeiat n Romnia de membrul corespondent al Academy, Catalin Zamfir, Doctor of Sociology,
Academiei Romne, Ctlin Zamfir, doctor n sociologie, Professor, starting with 70-80s studied the multilateral
profesor universitar, ncepnd cu anii 70-80, studiaz issues of QOL, which became known as an attempt to
multilateral problematica CV, care a devenit cunoscut ca take into account the needs and aspirations of the
o ncercare de a lua ct mai mult n considerare nevoile i people. Thus, there were separated three major
aspiraiile populaiei. Astfel, s-au desprins trei mari funcii functions of the research topics of QOL [10, p.30-35]:
ale tematicii de cercetare a CV [10, p.30-35]: defining more detailed socio-economic
definirea mai detaliat a obiectivelor dezvoltrii objectives;
social-economice; evaluating the effectiveness of human
evaluarea eficienei dezvoltrii umane i development and determining its impact on
determinarea impactului ei asupra CV; QOL;
aprecierea CV ca instrument de evaluare a assessing QOL as an evaluation tool of social
progresului social. progress.
Rezultatul acestei perioade s-a exprimat ntr-o serie The results of that period were expressed in a
de cercetri, printre care menionm cele coordonate de series of studies, including those coordinated by C.
economitii C.Zamfir, N.Lotreanu i I.Rebedeu. Zamfir, N. Lotreanu and I. Rebedeu. The problem of
Problema CV i a stilurilor de via a avut o semnificaie QOL and lifestyles had a completely different meaning
complet diferit n Romnia, comparativ cu cea existent in Romania compared to that during 70-80s. The topic
n societatea anilor 70-80. Tematica CV s-a bucurat din of QOL from the very beginning enjoyed a broad
start de un interes larg, mai mult ideologic i politic, dect interest, more ideological and political than scientific.
tiinific. Cercetarea oferea un mod de a discuta i Research provided a way to discuss and promote the
promova avantajele regimului comunist prin prisma benefits of the communist regime through the endpoint,
criteriului final, al bunstrii populaiei [10]. the welfare [10].
Actualmente, ICCV a devenit un centru sociologic Currently, ICCV became a national sociological
naional al Romniei, care promoveaz noua paradigm a center of Romania that promotes new paradigm of the
rolului factorului uman n cadrul sistemelor sociale: nu role of the human factor in social systems: not only as
numai ca membru al sistemelor sociale, integrat, modelat a member of social systems, integrated molded and
i controlat de logica acestora, dar i ca principalul obiectiv controlled by their logic, but as the main focus of all
al tuturor activitilor sociale. Dezvoltarea cea mai social activities. The most spectacular development of
spectaculoas a tematicii ICCV, n aceast direcie, s-a ICCV in this direction occurred in the area of
produs n sfera indicatorilor de evaluare a CV. Spre indicators to assess the QOL. Towards the end of the
sfritul secolului al XX-lea, C.Zamfir, mpreun cu twentieth century, C.Zamfir together with
colegii si, I.Marginean, G.Socol, A.Blaa [1991], au I.Marginean, G.Socol, A.Blaa [1991] mentioned
menionat dou motive bine argumentate, care au two well motivated reasons, which determined the
determinat actualitatea acestor cercetri: n primul rnd, topicality of this research: First, the conclusion that
concluzionarea c progresul economic nu duce n mod economic progress does not automatically lead to
automat la bunstarea general i la eradicarea srciei, general welfare and eliminates poverty, a segment of
respectiv, un segment al populaiei continu s triasc n the population continues to live in poor living
condiii de via precare. n al doilea rnd, un impuls conditions. Secondly, an impetus for the research
pentru cercetarea CV a venit din direcia ecologiei, came from the QOL research from ecology,
perturbaiile suferite de mediul ambiant, ca efect al environmental disturbances because of
industrializrii i urbanizrii societii umane [10; 5]. industrialization and urbanization of human society
n perioada actual, conceptul CV este folosit nu [10; 5].
numai de economiti, sociologi sau politologi, dar a Nowadays the QOL concept is used not only by
devenit o moned de schimb n dezbaterile publice. economists, sociologists and political scientists, but has
Avnd n vedere contextul politic i economic actual, n become a bargaining chip in public debate. Given the
special aderarea de perspectiv a Republicii Moldova la current political and economic context, especially the

18 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

Uniunea European i recunoaterea resurselor umane prospective accession of Moldova to the European
drept capital uman, asigurarea creterii CV devine o Union and the recognition of human resources as
prerogativ pentru atingerea rapid a unui standard de human capital, ensuring the QOL growth is a
via la un nivel acceptabil de civilizaie i definit n prerogative to quickly achieve a standard of living at an
context concurenial. acceptable level of civilization, defined in the
n masele largi ale populaiei, conceptul CV este competitive context.
asimilat de conceptul popular fericire uman [L.Begu, Within most of the population, the concept QOL
1999]. Fericirea se refer la o stare-afect, ce reflect is assimilated as a popular concept human happiness
sentimente de mplinire, satisfacie, de deplintate, pe cnd [L.Begu, 1999]. Happiness refers to an affect state,
CV vizeaz condiiile care produc i contribuie la reflecting feelings of fulfillment, satisfaction, fullness,
dezvoltarea strii de fericire [6, p.32]. while QOL aims the conditions that cause and
n lucrarea Compendiu de macroeconomie contribute to the state of happiness [6, p.32].
[Bcescu, 1997], CV este definit printr-o viziune mai In Compendium of macroeconomics
lrgit, fiind perceput ca totalitatea condiiilor vieii [Bcescu, 1997] QOL is defined in a broader vision,
umane, care asigur integritatea vieii biologice, being perceived as human life conditions, which
satisfacerea cerinelor de ordin economico-social, de nivel ensure the integrity of biological life, economic
de trai material i cultural, de via spiritual, care permit satisfaction, social and material living standards,
echilibrul continuu al omului [6, p.35]. cultural and spiritual life, allowing continuous balance
ntr-o explicare mai profund a CV, se presupune of the individual... [6, p.35].
abordarea conceptului conform urmtoarelor arii de In a larger illustration the QOL addresses the
investigaie: calitatea mediului nconjurtor, care este concept according to the following areas of
caracterizat printr-o relaie permanent i normal ntre investigation: environment quality, which is
om i mediul natural; calitatea mediului social, care characterized by a permanent and normal relationship
trebuie s asigure condiii stabile de via material, between humans and the natural environment; the
ocuparea complet a forei de munc, asigurarea timpului quality of the social environment, which must ensure
liber, relaii umane fireti, o activitate politic, moral i stable conditions of material life, full employment,
spiritual nestingherit; calitatea mediului familial, prin leisure, natural human relations, political, moral and
realizarea integrrii complexe a familiei ca unitate spiritual activity; quality of family environment by
demografic, economic i de consum; calitatea mediului achieving family integration, complex demographic
de munc, condiii care s permit posibilitatea mplinirii unit, economic and consumption working environment
idealurilor profesionale sau sociale. quality, conditions which allow for the possibility to
Pentru c are o finalitate practic, acea de a indica fulfill professional or social ideals.
oamenilor sau colectivitilor ce trebuie fcut pentru a Since it has a practical purpose, to indicate
mbunti condiiile de trai, conceptul CV are un caracter people or communities what is to be done to improve
evaluator. Pe lng condiiile de via, percepute ca situaii living conditions, the concept of QOL has an
obiective ale vieii, CV include i criterii de evaluare assessement character. In addition to living
subiectiv a satisfaciei de via, definete I.Mrginean, conditions, perceived as objective situations of life,
A.Blaa, n lucrarea sa, Calitatea vieii n Romnia, QOL includes subjective evaluation criteria of life
2005: CV cuprinde ansamblul condiiilor de via fizice, satisfaction defined by I.Marginean; A.Balasa, in his
economice, sociale, culturale, politice, de sntate etc. n work Quality of life in Romania, 2005 states that:
care oamenii triesc, coninutul i natura activitilor pe QOL includes all physical, economic, social, cultural,
care le desfoar individul, caracteristicile relaiilor i political, health, etc. conditions on. where people live,
proceselor sociale la care particip, bunurile i serviciile the content and nature of the activities they carry out
la care are acces, modelele de consum adoptate, modul i individually, the characteristics of relationships and
stilul de via, evaluarea gradului de obinere a social processes in which goods and services are
rezultatelor n viaa sa ce corespund ateptrilor available, adopted consumption patterns and how
populaiei, care provoac strile subiective de satisfacie, lifestyle evaluates the results obtained in life,
insatisfacie, fericire, frustrare etc. [5, p.51]. corresponding to people's expectations, causing
n opinia autorului tezei, nu putem fi de acord cu o subjective states of satisfaction, dissatisfaction,
asemenea definiie a CV dect parial, cci ea oglindete happiness, frustration, etc. [5, p.51].
doar latura obiectiv a acesteia i exprim, practic, gradul According to the author, we can agree with such
de satisfacie a individului de via n funcie de factorii a definition of QOL only partly, because it reflects and
mediului exterior. Aceast definiie ns nu ine cont de expresses its objective side, namely, the individual
factorul subiectiv gradul de realizare a nevoilor umane satisfaction with life according to external
privind CV. environmental factors, but this definition does not take
Este important de menionat c anume coala into account the subjective factor the degree of
romn a fost printre primele n spaiul european care a realization of human needs on QOL.
recunoscut caracterul interdisciplinar al categoriei CV i It is important to note that the Romanian school

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 19


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

aceasta a format paradigma CV de pe poziii was among the first in Europe, that recognized the
socioeconomice, pe parcursul istorico-dialectic de interdisciplinary character of QOL, and it formed the
dezvoltare a conceptelor expuse de savani din diferite QOL paradigm of socio-economic positions during
domenii: filozofic, religios, psihologic, sociologic i historical-dialectical development concepts, presented
economic. by scientists from different fields: philosophy, religion,
Simultan cu coala romneasc, se dezvolt i cea psychology, sociology and economics.
ruseasc n direcia perfecionrii conceptului CV, care, Simultaneously with the Romanian school is
pornind de la cercetarea CV de pe poziii filozofice i developed the Russian one, starting with QOL research
social-psihologice, a ajuns la recunoaterea caracterului based on social, psychological and philosophical
socioeconomic al acesteia. positions, reaching socio-economic recognition.
Aspectele socioeconomice cu impact asupra CV au Socio-economic aspects with impact on QOL were
fost cercetate i n Republica Moldova, n special, de membrul also investigated in Moldova, particularly, by the
corespondent al AM, A.Timu, dr.hab., prof. univ., legenda correspondent member of the ASM, A.Timu, Dr. Hab.,
tiinei socio-umane moldave, care i-a nfiinat coala sa de Professor, legend of the Moldovan Social and Human
cercetare n direcia menionat. n anii de tranziie, A.Timu Sciences who has established his research school in this
mpreun cu discipolii si din cadrul AM, a efectuat un ir de domain. During transition, A. Timu, together with his
cercetri ale dezvoltrii proceselor economice i sociale, followers in the ASM, conducted a series of studies of the
schimbrilor orientrilor valorice, structurii sociale i development of economic and social processes, changes in
mobilitii diferitelor grupuri sociale n condiiile economiei value, social structure and mobility of different social
de pia. Ca soluie, s-a evideniat necesitatea imperioas a groups in a market economy. As a solution was highlighted
dezvoltrii capitalului uman, considerat izvorul necesar de the urgent need to develop human capital, considered a
sporire a potenialului economic i social al rii. n cercetrile necessary source to increase the country's economic and
efectuate i publicate n cele 25 de monografii tiinifice s-au social potential. The conducted research was published in
abordat problemele numeroaselor mecanisme de 25 scientific monographs and addressed the problems of
perfecionare a conducerii rii, managementului instituional, numerous mechanisms to improve the state leadership,
de stimulare i interesare a populaiei n activizarea institutional management, incentives, population
capacitilor sale intelectuale [9]. motivation, develop intellectual capabilities [9].
O contribuie important la cercetrile nivelului de An important contribution to the research of
trai, inclusiv la capitolele veniturilor i cheltuielilor standard of living, including revenue and expenditure
populaiei din R.Moldova, analizei dinamicii preurilor la issues of the population of Moldova, analyzing price
produsele de consum, la determinarea coului minim de dynamics in consumer products, determining minimum
consum naional, impactului nivelului de asigurri sociale national consumption basket, the impact of social
asupra nivelului de trai al pensionarilor i copiilor, security level on living standards of pensioners and
stabilirea standardelor de via pentru populaia moldav, a children, setting standards of living for the Moldovan
fost adus de cercettorii Institutului de Economie, population, was made by researchers of the Institute of
Finane i Statistic al AM, n frunte cu confereniarul, Economy, Finance and Statistics of the ASM, led by
dr. A.Rojco [8]. the Associate Professor dr. A.Rojco [8].
Interesant este investigaia sociologic a dlui Of great interest is the sociological investigation of
T.Danii, dr. hab., profesor universitar, referitoare la CV, PhD., Professor, Mr T.Danii, on the QOL, who started
care a determinat i a atenuat n R.Moldova contradicia and reduced the attenuated acute contradiction between
acut dintre necesitatea vital a mbuntirii CV al the vital need to improve populations QOL in Moldova
populaiei (creterea veniturilor i a consumului, accesul la (increasing income and consumption, housing, healthcare,
locuin, ocrotirea sntii, asigurarea cu locuri de munc, providing employment, personal security, etc.) and the
securitatea personal etc.) i posibilitile reale ale statului real possibilities of the state to improve the situation for
de ameliorare a situaiei create pentru majoritatea the majority of its citizens [1, p.58]. Definitions discussed
cetenilor si [1, p.58]. Definiiile analizate anterior above on the QOL, impose the recognition of the complex
referitoare la CV ne impun recunoaterea caracterului socio-economic character of QOL or is perceived as an
complex, social-economic al CV, or aceasta din urm este interdisciplinary, multidimensional and variable category
perceput ca o categorie cu caracter interdisciplinar, that causes the need for its assessment. Assessing the
variabil i multidimensional, care provoac necesitatea value of QOL is a vital issue in the market economy and
evalurii sale. Evaluarea valoric a CV devine o countries' competitiveness on the world stage [4, p.121-
problem vital, n condiiile economiei de pia i de 132].
competitivitate a rilor pe arena mondial [4, p.121-132]. Analyzing and synthesizing the development of
Analiznd i sintetiznd evoluia opiniilor tiinifice scientific opinions on the development of QOL
cu privire la dezvoltarea categoriei CV i bazndu-ne legea category and based on philosophical law of uniqueness
filozofic a unicitii formei i coninutului acesteia, of form and content, the author distinguishes 4
distingem patru perioade evolutive de dezvoltare i patru evolution periods and 4 methods of QOL assessment
metode de evaluare al CV(fig.1.3): (fig.1.3):

20 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

ECONOMIA DE PIA / MARKET ECONOMY


Economia
neorganizat /
ECONOMIA ECONOMIA CENTRALIZAT / CENTRALIZED ECONOMY
Unorganized NEREGLAT /
economy UNAJUSTED
ECONOMY Conceptul Conceptul
bunstrii / dezvoltrii umane /
Concept Concept of human
Statul influeneaz of welfare development
repartizarea
resurselor materiale,
Nivelul de trai Sursa bunstrii de stabilire a
starea financiar a este venitul care Bunstarea Oamenii dezvoltarea
bunstrii /
oamenilor liberi/ satisface nevoile / ntregul set i punerea n aplicare
State influences
Living standards Source of income de condiii care a capacitii lor
the distribution
financial status that meets the determin CV determin: CV /
of material
of free men needs of welfare a individului / People development
resources,
Welfare the entire and implementation
establishing welfare
set of conditions of their abilities
Imposibilitatea that determine determines QOL
de comparaii individual QOL
Imposibilitatea interpersonale,
de a msura CV; abordare
comparaie Compararea veni-
subiectiv/ Comparaia veni- Compararea posibilit-
subiectiv/ turilor personal
Impossibility of turilor persoanelor ilor de realizare a CV la
Failure to i naional/
interpersonal fizice/ nivel nalt / Comparison
measure QOL; Comparison of
comparisons; Comparison of of the means to realize
subjective personal and
subjective personal income high-level QOL
comparison national income
approach

Evoluia conceptelor tiinifice pe marginea evalurii Calitii Vieii /


The evolution of scientific concepts on the assessment of Quality of Life

Metoda de evaluare Metoda de evaluare


comparativo-subiectiv / cantitativ / Metoda Metoda
Comparative Quantitative complex / sistemic/
subjective method evaluation method Complex method Systemic method

Figura 1.3.Etapele dialectico-istorice de dezvoltare a conceptelor i metodelor de evaluare a CV /


Figure 1.3. Dialectical and historical development stages of concepts and methods for assessing QOL

Sursa: elaborat de autor n baza sintezei opiniilor studiate / Source: prepared by the author based an
the synthesis of studied views

Perioada I, a economiei neorganizate i Period I, unorganized and unadjusted


nereglate, cnd s-a dezvoltat metoda economy, when the comparative subjective
comparativ-subiectiv a CV. n aceast perioad, method QOL of developed. During this period
nivelul de trai era determinat de starea financiar the standard of living was determined by the
a oamenilor liberi. Sursa bunstrii presupunea financial status of free men. Welfare income
doar venitul care satisfcea nevoile umane. source was supposed to meet only human
Exista o abordare subiectiv a CV, fiindc needs. There is a subjective approach towards
persista imposibilitatea de msurare i comparare QOL as it was impossible of measure and
a acesteia la nivel interpersonal. compare it at interpersonal level.
Perioada 2, perioada timpurie a economiei Period 2, the early years of centralized economy.
centralizate. n aceast perioad, preurile erau During this period prices were capped and the
plafonate, iar veniturile garantate, deoarece income guaranteed because it knew the deficit in
aceasta a cunoscut deficitul n produse i goods and services; the quantitative assessment
servicii; aici s-a dezvoltat metoda cantitativ de method of QOL developed. The state monitored

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 21


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

evaluare a CV. Statul monitoriza repartizarea the distribution of material and financial
resurselor materiale i financiare pentru resources to stabilize the population welfare and
stabilizarea bunstrii i asigurarea egalitii ensure equality in realizing their rights,
populaiei n realizarea drepturilor sale, regardless of abilities. The concept of equality in
indiferent de abiliti. Se propaga conceptul income, education, possibilities for personal
egalitii n venituri, studii, n posibiliti de development, etc. was propagated and therefore
dezvoltare personal etc., deci i starea the financial situation was basically about the
financiar era, practic, cam aceeai la toi. same for all.
Perioada 3, perioada matur a economiei Period 3, mature period of centralized
centralizate. Graie fenomenului de economy. Thanks to the convergence
convergen a dou sisteme economice, phenomenon of two economic systems,
dezvoltarea economiei de pia n rile development of market economy in advanced
avansate a influenat regimul socialist n countries has influenced the socialist regime
perioada matur i atunci bunstarea devine during the mature period and then the welfare
condiia de baz, care determin CV al became the basic condition that determined
individului. Aici se permite comparaia the individual QOL. This allowed comparison
veniturilor persoanelor fizice cu venitul of personal income to national income of the
naional al rii. n aceast perioad, se country. During this period was used a
utilizeaz metoda complex de evaluare a CV, complex method a assess the QOL,
rspndit i caracteristic ariei ntregului widespread and characteristic for the entire
spaiu al fostei URSS, inclusiv al Republicii area of the former USSR, including the
Moldova. Republic of Moldova.
Perioada 4, a economiei de pia. Economia Period 4, the market economy. Market
de pia promoveaz libera concuren a tuturor economy promotes free competition of all
factorilor de producie i a diferitelor produse i factors of production and different products
servicii finale. n aceast perioad, n centrul and services. During this period, the man was
relaiilor de producie, se afl Omul, iar the center of production relations and the
dezvoltarea i punerea n aplicare a development and implementation of his
capacitilor acestuia determin gradul de abilities determined the competitiveness of
competitivitate al ntreprinderilor. Astfel, CV al enterprises. Thus, QOL of employees became
angajailor devine factor de competitivitate al a competitive factor of businesses. Under
ntreprinderilor. n condiiile economiei de market economy conditions was used the
pia, se utilizeaz metoda sistemico-calitativ. systematic-qualitative method.
rile dezvoltate ale Europei de Vest i majoritatea The Western Europe developed countries and
rilor lumii n-au activat n condiiile economiei most world countries have not levid under centralized
centralizate, de aceea, acestea au trecut doar prin trei etape economy, so they just went through three development
de dezvoltare a relaiilor economice i a conceptelor stages of economic and scientific concepts and
tiinifice i metodelor de evaluare a CV. methods of evaluation of QOL.
n concluzie, putem meniona c perfecionarea In conclusion, we can be state that the
multilateral a resurselor de munc, a sistemului i comprehensive improvement of human resources, of
procesului de educaie, formarea i perfecionarea acestora education system and process, their development
corespunztor exigenelor ce decurg din coordonatele corresponding to the requirements arising from current
actuale ale dezvoltrii economice constituie o opiune economic development, is a fundamental option and a
fundamental i un imperativ major al strategiei de major imperative of the consolidation strategy of the
consolidare a economiei de pia. market economy.
Geneza i evoluia economiei constau ntr-un proces Genesis and evolution of the economy is a
permanent de valorificare, realizat de om n mod contient, constant process of recovery, made by a conscious
aadar, economia este forma real a aciunii umane. Ea a man, therefore, the economy is a real form of human
aprut i s-a dezvoltat prin om i pentru el, avnd action. It appeared and was developed by men and for
ntotdeauna un caracter uman. Economia uman nu este un men, always having a human nature. Human
concept actual, ea are o istorie ndelungat i a evoluat pe economy is a modern concept; it has a long history
parcurs. Coninutul i transformarea continu a economiei and has evolved over time. The content and the
reflect modalitatea n care indivizii reuesc s coreleze ongoing transformation of the economy reflects the
nevoile lor nelimitate, n permanent diversificare, cu way in which individuals match their unlimited
resursele rare, dar cu ntrebuinri alternative. diversified needs with scarce resources but
Fiecare om se afl n tranziie prin via, alternative uses.
nregistrnd, n mod permanent, bucurii sau amrciuni. Every person is in transition through life, with
Economia, fiind form real a aciunii umane, este ea permanent joys or sorrows. Economy, the real form of

22 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

nsi n transformare sau tranziie continu. Viaa human action, is itself in transition or freedom
economic constituie o lupt nencetat a omului cu continuous transformation. Economic life is a constant
principiile realitii, imposibilului i incertitudinii, cu struggle of man with principles of reality, impossibility
limitele libertii, pentru a le transforma n elemente certe, and uncertainty, freedom limits in order to make them
posibile i cunoscute ale vieii de zi cu zi, pe care s le certain elements, possible and known for everyday life,
pun n serviciul nfptuirii scopurilor propuse. Adevrata to use them in achieving the goals. The real problem
problem const n aceea c, n viaa real, n mod normal, is that in real life, normally, we do not have to choose
nu avem de ales ntre situaii riscante i situaii certe, ci between risky situations and certain situations, but
ntre grade de risc i diferite rezultate posibile [16, p.56]. between different degrees of risk and possible
n aceast lupt cu limitele schimbrilor provocate outcomes [16, p.256].
de permanenta tranziie, omul i colectivitatea uman, n In this struggle with the limits caused by
general, nva s se adapteze la mediul natural n care constant changes the man and the human community
triete, formndu-i un mediu de via specific n care learn to adapt to the natural environment in which they
acioneaz, producndu-i cele necesare existenei. live, forming a specific living environment, acting and
n istoria omenirii, progresul libertii nu este un producing everything necessary for existence.
progres nregistrat doar n combaterea limitelor exterioare, In human history the progress of freedom is not
ci, n primul rnd, n cel al disputei cu limitele pe care ni just a progress in combating the outer limits, but first, a
le-a impus natura din noi i care le reprezint lupta de-o dispute with the limits imposed to us by our nature and
via a fiecruia cu el nsui [16, p.69]. is the life battle with ourselves [16, p.69].
Desigur, exist multiple criterii de apreciere a Of course, there are many assessment criteria for
genurilor de activiti umane. n condiiile unor resurse the types of human activities. In terms of relatively
relativ limitate, activitile umane, prin care se urmrete limited resources, human activities seeking to answer
s se rspund la ntrebrile ce, ct, cum i pentru cine s the questions, what, how much and for whom to
se produc, sunt cunoscute ca activiti economice. n produce are known as economic activities. Within this
cadrul acestora, se rezolv problemele fundamentale legate questions are the fundamental problems related to
de volumul, structura i calitatea bunurilor ce trebuie volume, structure and quality of goods to be produced,
produse, posibilitile prezente i viitoare de a produce present and future possibilities of production who,
de cine, unde, cnd i cu ce costuri precum i de modul where, when and at what cost as well as how the
n care va avea loc distribuia i utilizarea final a bunurilor distribution and the final use of goods will take place
produse, de asigurarea compatibilitii mediului de ensuring compatibility with the natural production
producie cu cel natural. environment.
Prin intermediul activitii economice, se produc Economic activity produces utilities that people
acele utiliti de care oamenii au nevoie pentru satisfacerea need to satisfy their vital needs. Since satisfaction of
necesitilor vitale. Deoarece satisfacerea necesitilor de human needs is a continuous process, production,
via ale oamenilor este un proces continuu, producia care aimed to meet these requirements, shall be always
rspunde acestor exigene se perfecioneaz permanent. improving.
Bazndu-se pe conceptul actualizat tiinific al Based on the new scientific concept of
dezvoltrii continue a factorului uman, ca rezultat al continuous human factor development as a result of
proceselor economice i importana lui deosebit n economic processes and its particular importance in
relaiile de producie, CV este recunoscut de noi drept production relations, QOL is recognized by us as a
categorie socioeconomic. socio-economic category.
Autorul cercetrii definete CV ca fiind o categorie The author of the research defines QOL as a
socioeconomic ce oglindete gradul de satisfacie de socio-economic category, which reflects the
via a individului, n funcie de satisfacerea nevoilor individual's satisfaction with life, according to human
umane prin realizarea rolului su social, dezvoltarea needs satisfaction by creating its social role,
relaiilor interpersonale i de familie, precum i de nivelul development of interpersonal and family relationships,
bunstrii, acordat de societatea uman n care activeaz as well as the level of welfare of human society.
i se dezvolt acesta.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Danii T. Calitatea Vieii populaiei Republicii Moldova n perioada de tranziie: probleme i tendine
sociale (analiz i evaluare sociologic). Teza de dr. hab. n sociologie. Chiinu: AM, 2004. 292 p.
2. Galbraith J. Societatea perfect. Bucureti: Politic, 1997.128 p.
3. Giarini O., Stahel W. Limitele certitudinii. Bucureti: Edimpress Comro, 1996, p.256.
4. Gorobievschi S., Cojuhari A. Conceptul managementului Calitii Vieii/Development of the concept
of quality of life management. Revista Economica, nr.2, 2011, p.26-39.
5. Mrginean I.,Blaa A.(coord.).Calitatea vieii n Romnia. Bucureti: Expert, 2005. 393 p.
6. Liiceanu G. Despre limit. Bucureti: Humanitas, 1997, p.69.(4)

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 23


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

7. Marshall A. Principiile economiei. Un volum introductiv. Ediia VII. Londra: Macmillan. 1898. 280p.
8. Rojco A., Hristiuc L., Levichi O., Stremenovskaia O., Vinogradova Z. Prestaiile sociale i impactul
lor asupra reducerii srciei n R.Moldova. Ch.: Comp. Ed. Inei, AM i IEFS, 2011. 156 p.
9. Timu A. Interesele, binele omului problema-cheie a reformelor sinteze sociologice. Ch.: Paragon,
2006. 273 p.
10. Zamfir C., Stnescu S. (coord.). Enciclopedia dezvoltrii sociale. Iai: Polirom, 2007.
11. Cenzo D., Robbins A., Stephen P. Human Resourse Management: Concepts and Practice. New-
York: 2001. 330 p.
12. Hansen Bruno. Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources. Fifth Framework. Bucureti:
Economic, 2002. 340 p.
13. Jouvenal Bertrand. Essais sur le mieux vivre. Paris: Futurilles, by SEDEIS, 1968.180 p.
14. Lepage H. La nouvell economie industrielle. Paris: Hachette, 1989, coll. Pluriel. p.75
15. Maslow A. A Theory of Numan Motivation. New-Iork: Psyhological Review, 1943, vol.50, p.370-
396.
16. Schein E. Organizational Psychology-3.Ed.Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Halll, Inc., 2008.
17. Schumpeter J. Business Cycles. New York and London: McGraw Hill. 1939. 380p.
18. Zapf W. Social Reporting in the 1970s and in the 1990s, Social Indicators Research, vol. 51,
No.1, 2000, p.22-35.
19. . . .
20. , Nr.1, 1998, .16-22. vol. 51, No.1, 2000, p.22-35
21. http//en.wikipedia.org/

24 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

NIVELUL DE VIA I STANDARD OF LIVING AND THE


FACTORII DE INFLUEN FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE IT
ASUPRA LUI
PhD in Economics Vladimir POLEARUS,
Dr. n economie Vladimir POLEARU, Targu Mures, Romania
Trgu Mure, Romnia
The article gives an analysis of the Standard of
Articolul reprezint o analiz a conceptului de living concept and also some suggestions for its
Nivel de via i unele propuneri pentru mbuntirea improvement. We refer to the problem in terms of
lui. Se face referire la viziunea problemei prin prisma lui Enghel, Lorenz and Gini index.
Enghel, a lui Lorenz i indicele Gini. In addition to the theories, the author proposes a
Pe lng aceste teorii, autorul propune o diagram called the Economic guillotine and an
diagram denumit Ghilotina economic i o formul auxiliary mathematical formula in order to accurately
matematic auxiliar destinat determinrii exacte a determinate the economic status of the individual, of
strii economice a individului, a nivelului real de via. the real-life standard.
Este important de menionat c, de regul, la It is important to note that, as a rule, in
determinarea Coului minim de consum nu se iau n determining the Minimum consumption basket there
calcul astfel de componente n structura cheltuielilor lunare, is a number of components that are not taken into
cum ar fi ntreinerea i rata la banc, n timp ce aceste account in the structure of monthly expenses such as
componente constituie o parte important din bugetul maintenance and bank rate, while these components is
multor familii. A ignora aceste cheltuieli nseamn a an important part of the budgets of many families.
distorsiona realitatea, ceea ce duce la alte erori. Ignoring these costs causes distortions of the reality,
Diagrama Ghilotina economic include aceste which leads to other errors.
componente. The diagram Economic guillotine includes
Se propune utilizarea acestei diagrame pentru these components.
optimizarea unor calcule la determinarea anumitor We also propose to use this diagram to optimize
indicatori economici, dar i politici. some calculations in determining certain economic
n concluzie, se evideniaz unii factori ce indicators and policies.
influeneaz scderea nivelului de via al populaiei i In conclusion, we highlight some factors that
soluii pentru nlturarea lor. influence the decrease of the living standards and
propose solutions for their removal.
INTRODUCERE
Noiunea de nivel de via a fost i rmne un INTRODUCTION
obiect actual de studiu. Deoarece vizeaz n mod direct The concept of standard of living has been and
fiecare individ, importana politic a problemei este greu still remains a topical research, since it concerns
de subestimat. directly each individual and the political importance of
Mai mult, nivelul de via dintr-o ar determin the problem is difficult to underestimate.
stabilitatea social i, n consecin, trebuie s in de Furthermore, the life standard in a country
securitatea naional. Lumea devine tot mai instabil, iar determines the social stability and, therefore, is related
unul din principalele motive ale acestei instabiliti to national security. The world is becoming more
vizeaz n mod direct nivelul de trai. unstable and one of the main reasons for this instability
Este evident c, pentru a rezolva orice problem, concerns the standards of living.
mai nti, aceasta trebuie bine studiat. Consecinele It is obvious that in order to solve any problem,
nelegerii greite a fenomenelor i proceselor sunt it must be first carefully studied. Consequences of
reaciile i deciziile inadecvate. Astfel, problema rmne misunderstanding the phenomena and processes are
nerezolvat, iar n cazul nostru consecinele unor decizii undesirable and inappropriate decisions. So, the
greite pot fi, fr exagerare, devastatoare. problem remains unresolved and, in our case, the
Veridicitatea acestei afirmaii e dovedit de realitile consequences of wrong decisions might be devastating,
situaiei economice existente, i anume erodarea continu without exaggeration.
a nivelului de trai al majoritii populaiei. The veracity of this statement is proven with the
realities of the economic situation, namely continuous
1.CONCEPT I PERCEPTE TEORETICE erosion of living standards of the population.
nc n secolul al XIX-lea, economistul prusac
Enghel a descoperit o legitate, conform creia, odat cu 1. CONCEPT AND THEORETICAL PERCEPTS
creterea venitului individului, se schimb i structura In the XIX century Prussian economist Enghel
cheltuielilor lui, n primul rnd, se reduce ponderea found a legitimacy, according to which the increase of
individual income changes the structure of his

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 25


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

cheltuielilor cu hrana. Ponderea cheltuielilor cu plata expenses, primarily is reduced the share of expenditure
serviciilor pentru ntreinere, haine se schimb on food. The share of maintenance and clothing
nesemnificativ, dar crete considerabil cota cheltuielilor expenses changes insignificantly, while the costs to
pentru satisfacerea necesitilor culturale ct i a altora. [1]. meet cultural needs, as well as others are considerably
Criticii acestei teorii susin c ea i-a pierdut din increased. [1].
actualitate, deoarece progresul tehnic, care a produs Critics of this theory argue that it has lost its
schimbri majore n tipurile de produse alimentare, care pot actuality with technical progress, which produced
fi de diferite caliti i care difer considerabil i la pre, major changes in the types of food that can be of
reclama agresiv, tacticile de marketing, ce influeneaz different qualities and prices, aggressive advertising,
comportamentul cumprtorilor prin subcontient, pentru a marketing tactics that influence buyers behaviour
fi determinai s cumpere produse de care, de fapt, nu au subconsciously to be motivated to buy products that
nevoie, i-au pus amprenta asupra realitii de azi. they do not really need, all these have left their mark
Alt teorie, ce vizeaz problema veniturilor on todays reality.
diferitelor grupuri ale populaiei, reprezint Curba lui Another theory, aiming the income problem of
Lorenz, care exprim gradul de difereniere a repartizrii different groups of population is represented by the
veniturilor populaiei, raportat la inegalitatea i, respectiv, Lorenz curve, which expresses the degree of
egalitatea absolut. Dup cum se observ (figura 1), differentiation of household income distribution against
egalitatea absolut, grafic, ar reprezenta o dreapt, i din inequality and absolute equality. As can be seen,
contra, odat cu discrepana, se accentueaz curba. absolute equality is represented by a straight line, and
Curba lui Lorenz este o form grafic de a arta on the contrary, the gap is increasing its curvature.
distribuia venitului unui popor. n cadrul ei, se face Lorenz curve is a graphical form of showing the
legtura dintre procentele acumulate ale populaiei i cele distribution of peoples income. In this framework it
ale venitului su. Pe axa orizontal este reprezentat made the connection between the percentage of
populaia ordonat de forma c la stnga se gsesc population and its income. Horizontal axis is
ratele cele mai sczute ale venitului, iar la dreapta cele represented by the ordered population to the left are
mai nalte. Axa vertical reprezint veniturile rii. lowest income rates and the highest to the right. The
n figura 1, sunt exemplificate dou ri imaginare, vertical axis represents the countrys income.
una indicat cu nr. 1 i alta cu nr. 2. Distribuia venitului Figure 1 represents two imaginary countries, one
rii nr.1 este mai inegal dect a rii nr.2. n cazul rii nr.1, presented by nr.1 and one by nr.2. Income distribution
40% din populaia cea mai srac primete un venit mai mic is more unequal in nr.1 country than in nr.2. In nr.1
de 20% din totalul venitului ntregii ri. n schimb, n ara country, 40% of poorest population receive an income
nr.2, 40% din populaia cea mai srac primete un venit below 20% of the total per country. Instead, in the nr.2
mai mare de 20% din totalul venitului ntregii ri. Linia country, 40% of the poorest population receive an
diagonal, neagr, arat situaia unei ri n care toi i fiecare income higher than 20% to the entire country. The
individ n parte ar fi obinut exact acelai venit; ar nsemna black diagonal line shows the situation of a country
echitate absolut. Cu ct Curba lui Lorenz este mai where each and every individual would have received
apropiat de diagonal, cu att este mai echitabil distribuia exactly the same income, would mean absolute
venitului n acea ar. fairness. The closer the Lorenz curve is to the
O alt form de a observa Curba lui Lorenz este diagonal, the more equitable the distribution of income
estimarea ariei suprafeei dintre curb i diagonal. Se is in that country.
poate observa, n zona nr.1 a graficului din dreapta, c cu Another form of observing the Lorenz curve is
ct aceast parte este mai mic, cu att mai echitabil este estimating the surface between the curve and the
distribuia venitului rii reprezentate (figura 2). diagonal. It can be seen in zone nr.1 of the graph on the
Indicele Gini este un indice de concentrare a left. The smaller the part, the more equitable income
bogiei i echivaleaz cu dublul ariei de concentrare. distribution of the country is represented (figure 2).
Valoarea sa se afl ntre 0 i 1. Cu ct indicele Gini este Gini Index is an index of concentration of
mai apropiat de 1, cu att mai mare va fi bogia; cu ct wealth and equals twice the area of concentration. Its
este mai apropiat de 0, cu att este mai echitabil value is between 0 and 1. When Gini index is closer to
distribuia venitului n acea ar [2]. 1, the wealth is greater, the closer it is to 0, the more
Este larg rspndit metoda determinrii equal is the income distribution in the country [2].
nivelului de via, ca un cumul de produse i servicii, This method of determining the standard of
consumate de un individ, familie, sau un grup social. living is widespread as a sum of products and services
ntr-un sens mai larg, noiunea de nivel de via consumed by an individual, family, or social group. In
include, pe lng consum, condiii de trai, sntate, a broader sense, the term standard of living includes,
educaie, valori moral-spirituale, folosirea timpului besides consumption living conditions, health,
liber. Condiiile de via includ, la rndul lor, starea education, moral and spiritual values, and leisure.
mediului nconjurtor, condiiile de munc. Living conditions, in turn, include the state of the
environment, working conditions.

26 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

nr. 2

nr. 1

Figura 1. Curba lui Lorenz / Figura 2. Curba lui Lorenz /


Figure 1. Lorenz Curve Figure 2. Lorenz Curve

Sursa / Source: http://www.eumed.net/ecorom/VII.%20Pieele%20de%20factori/6%20distributia_venitului.htm

n procesul determinrii nivelului de via, unul In the process of determining the standard of
dintre indicatorii principali, pe lng nivelul de venit al living, one of the main indicators, in addition to the
populaiei, este nivelul de asigurare social. income level of the population, is the level of social
Astzi exist o multitudine de abordri i security.
concepte ale noiunii ce constituie obiectul nostru de Today there is a variety of approaches and
studiu, toate aceste informaii fiind accesibile oricui n concepts of the notion that is our object of study, all
Internet i biblioteci, motiv pentru care ne vom rezuma this information being accessible to anyone on the
la cele expuse i vom trece la: Internet and libraries.
For this reason we will summarize the exposed
information and will move to:
2. PROBLEMATICA STUDIULUI
Problema diferenei dintre nivelul de via al 2. RESEARCH PROBLEM
diferitelor grupuri de populaie, ri, rmne una de The problem of the difference between the
actualitate, chiar fierbinte. Chiar de la nceput trebuie living standard of different groups of people and
menionat: Este absolut evident c teoriile ce cheam countries is very actual, even hot. From the very
la egalitarism nu le considerm constructive, deoarece beginning it should be noted: It is obvious that we
descurajeaz iniiativa privat, concurena i munca do not consider constructive the theories that call to
productiv. Totui, chiar dac facem abstracie de equality because it discourages private initiative,
latura moral a problemei, nu doar economitii, dar i competition and productive work. However, even if
orice persoan raional recunoate c discrepanele we ignore the moral aspect of the problem, not just
exagerat de mari ntre nivelurile de via pot duce spre economists, but any rational person recognizes that an
cataclisme sociale, reprezentnd i un sol fertil pentru overly large gap between standards of living can lead
micrile extremiste. Practica arat c lupta direct cu to social cataclysms, and represents a fertile ground
aceste fenomene este ineficient i consumatoare de for extremist movements. Practice shows that direct
resurse imense, motiv pentru care considerm necesar combat with these phenomena is inefficient and
lichidarea rdcinilor, motivelor instabilitii sociale, resource consuming which is a huge reason for what
care, n opinia noastr, este anume concentrarea we consider necessary liquidation of the roots - the
marilor bogii. Bineneles, factorul religios nu poate reason of social instability, which in our opinion, is
fi ignorat, dar a crede c el este unicul reprezint o the specific focus of great wealth. Of course, the
eroare. religious factor can not be ignored, but believing that
ntrebarea ns e urmtoarea: care este, totui, it is the only one, is wrong.
motivul revoltei, marile averi, sau diferena dintre But the question is: what is still the reason for
nivelul de trai? riots great wealth or the difference in the standard of
living?

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 27


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

Din perspectiva omului de rnd, atitudinea From an ordinary man a negative attitude
negativ fa de un multimilionar nu este univoc i towards a multimillionaire is not unambiguous and
poate avea reacii de ordin emotiv sau raional. can lead to emotional or rational reactions.
Aici a dori s nuanez: prima reacie, fiind Here is what I would like to emphasize: the first
manifestarea invidiei, pe cnd a doua are total o alt reaction is the manifestation of envy, while the second
conotaie. has a totally different connotation.
Lsnd la o parte emoiile, ne vom concentra pe Leaving aside the first emotion, we focus on the
a doua reacie, ce pare a avea un fundament mult mai second reaction, which seems to have a more solid
solid. foundation.
Conform unor surse, cca 45% din populaia de According to some sources, about 45% of the
pe glob are venituri mai mici de 2 dolari pe zi, 25% nu world population has incomes of less than 2 dollar per
are acces la ap potabil, trind ntr-o srcie crunt. day, 25% do not have access to drinking water, living
Alte surse indic aproximativ aceleai date, ce nu in poverty. Other sources indicate approximately the
schimb esena problemei. same data that do not change the essence of the
Un nelept a spus: Nu este bogat cel care are problem.
multe, dar cel crui i ajunge att ct are. De aici A wise man said: It is not the rich that has
putem deduce c sunt multimilionari i chiar miliardari money, but the one who is satisfied with what he has.
sraci, deoarece ei nu se opresc din a aduna bani, From this we can deduce that they are poor multi-
dovedind c nu le ajunge ceea ce au. millionaires and billionaires because they do not stop
S nu uitm c banii sunt o noiune material, to raise money, proving that they do not get what they
adic reprezint o resurs limitat, iar marile acumulri need.
duc inevitabil la epuizarea banilor majoritii populaiei We should not forget that money is a material
i, n consecin, la pauperizarea ei masiv. Nu e concept, is limited and large accumulations of it
neaprat necesar s fii economist, ca s contientizezi inevitably lead to depletion of the majority of
acest adevr. population and therefore, the massive
Multiplicarea banilor, adic procedeul la care impoverishment. It is not necessarily to be an
recurg guvernele pentru a satisface cerinele pieelor de economist to realize this truth.
capital, nu este tocmai cea mai bun soluie, fiindc Multiplication of money, the process that
genereaz inflaie. Aici cuvintele-cheie sunt dobnda governments use to meet the requirements of the
i aa-numitele derivate toxice. n acest context, capital markets is not exactly the best solution because
criza financiar este pe deplin explicabil. it creates inflation. Here the keywords are interest
Unul dintre principiile de baz ale democraiei and so-called toxic derivatives. In this context, the
spune: Eti liber s faci ce vrei, atta timp ct nu financial crisis is fully explained.
lezezi libertatea altuia, or, pornind de la postulatul c One of the basic principles of democracy says:
banii te fac liber, logic, se poate deduce c bogtaii le- You are free to do whatever you want as long as it
au limitat libertatea celor sraci. does not offend the freedom of others, or starting
Tendina de acumulare este o manifestare a from the assumption that money make you free,
instinctului primar de autoconservare, ns, trecnd de logically can be deduced that rich people have limited
o anumit limit, ea devine vicioas i chiar the freedom of the poor.
periculoas, depind, deseori, nu numai bunul sim, Accumulation trend is a manifestation of
dar i raiunea. primary instinct of self-preservation, but overcoming a
Noi numim acest fenomen sindromul certain limit it becomes vicious and even dangerous,
helminilor. Viermele intestinal poate conveui cu often surpassing not only common sense, and reason
omul, parazitnd mult timp, dar, totui, la nivel also.
instinctiv, nu consum toate resursele organismului We call this phenomenon helminths
uman, deoarece aceasta ar duce i la pieirea lui. Pe syndrome. Intestinal worm can live with a man,
cnd unii indivizi din specia uman acumuleaz bogii infecting for long, but still, instinctively not
fr limit, uitnd de pericolul izbucnirii revoltelor consuming all the recourses that the organism has to
provocate de srcia extrem, care i poate pune n offer as this would lead to ruin. But some individuals
pericol real. Drept exemplu poate servi tragedia accumulate unlimited wealth and forget the danger of
produs recent pe o plantaie din India [3]. the out breaking of riots caused by extreme poverty,
n fapt, este absolut evident: n pofida teoriilor which can put them in real danger. As an example can
libertariste, superconcentrarea resurselor limitate nu serve the tragedy that recently happened on a
poate servi dezvoltrii economice, ci dimpotriv plantation in India [3].
provoac crize, dup cum ne arat realitatea. In fact, it is absolutely obvious despite
Criza pe care o parcurge omenirea are toate libertarian theories, that overconcentration of limited
indiciile unui fenomen sistemic, producnd tot mai resources can not contribute to economic
multe daune, una dintre care este selecia involuntar a development, but on the contrary, as reality shows

28 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

unui ir de factori negativi o consecin a sacrificrii causes seizures.


valorilor morale i umane n numele goanei dup profit The crisis that the mankind is currently facing
nelimitat. has the clues of a systemic phenomenon, causing more
Ca economist, am fost nvat c profitul este and more damages, one of which is inadvertent
scopul principal, iar acest scop poate fi atins doar prin selection of a number of negative factors a
mrirea eficienei, fr a fi informai i asupra consequence of moral values and human slaughter on
consecinelor goanei doar dup profit i eficien. behalf of rush for unlimited profit.
Acum, dup mai muli ani, am neles c As an economist, I was taught that profit is the
reducerea personalului i impunerea celor rmai s main goal, and this goal can be achieved only by
munceasc pn la epuizare este considerat eficien. increasing efficiency without being informed about
Reducerea salariilor i economisirea pe seama calitii the consequences of running after profit and
locurilor de munc, formarea monopolurilor i a efficiency.
pactelor cartelare pentru creterea continu a preurilor Now, many years after, I understand that
este, de asemenea, eficien. Dar i scderea reducing the staff and requiring the rest of to work till
speranei de via, din punct de vedere al gestionarului exhaustion is considered efficiency. Reducing wages
fondului de pensii, de asemenea, este eficien. and saving on the expense of the employment quality,
n aceast ordine de idei, putem ajunge la forming monopolies and cartel pacts for price increase
concluzia c cea mai eficient form de a obine profit is also efficiency. But lower life expectancy, in terms
(cheltuieli minime profit maximal) este jaful banal. of pension fund manager, is also efficiency.
Toate aceste forme maligne de concept, ce au In this context, we conclude that the most
devenit norma vieii noastre, sunt consecinele effective form of profit (minimal cost maximum
selecionrii, n mod cvasi-automat, a tuturor factorilor profit) is trivial robbery.
negativi. Fapt ce se realizeaz prin accederea la putere All these malignant forms of concept, which
a celor lipsii de principii morale, n paralel cu became the norm of our life, are the consequences of
marginalizarea purttorilor adevratelor valori. the selection, almost automatically, of all the negative
Un instrument eficient de meninere i factors. This is caused by the accession to power of
perpetuare a situaiei actuale rmn mijloacele de people who lack moral principles, while marginalizing
informare n mas, care, de asemenea, au drept obiectiv those who have true values.
principal profitul, i care contribuie masiv la An effective instrument in maintaining and
rspndirea non-valorilor prin propagarea modelelor perpetuating the current situation remains the mass
dubioase. Aceast selecie negativ ajunge la un anumit media, which also aim mainly the profit, and
nivel critic, dup care ncepe degradarea societii. massively contribute to the spread of non-values by
Creterea preurilor i nivelul de via propagating dubious models. This negative selection
De la nceputul secolului trecut, valoarea reaches a certain critical level, and then begins the
dolarului american, dar i a altor valute a sczut extrem degradation of society.
de mult. Aceasta se datoreaz, n mare parte, creterii Prices and living standards rising
continue a preurilor. Since the beginning of last century the value of
Dar, pe lng efectul benefic pentru exporturi, the US dollar and of other currencies has decreased
inflaia poate servi drept prghie de impulsionare a sharply. This is largely due to the continuous increase
economiei, doar cu o condiie ca veniturile populaiei in prices.
s creasc proporional, sau mai accelerat dect In addition to the beneficial effect on exports,
inflaia. n caz contrar, efectul este invers. inflation can serve as a lever to boost the economy,
Scderea puterii de cumprare a populaiei only on a condition that the household incomes grow
reduce consumul, care, la rndul su, duce la scderea proportionately, or faster than inflation. Otherwise,
produciei i diminuarea numrului locurilor de munc, the effect is vice versa.
adic la reducerea i mai drastic a veniturilor The decrease of the purchasing power of the
populaiei, nchiznd cercul vicios. Nu trebuie s ne population reduces consumption, which in turn leads
ngrijoreze faptul c vor fi mai muli bani, dect to lower production and reduces the number of jobs or
mrfuri i servicii, deoarece acest fenomen are deja loc. even drastically reduces income, closing the vicious
Practica a artat c este imposibil s rezolvi circle. There is no need worry that there will be more
problema crizei financiar-economice globale n cadrul money than goods and services, since this
modelului libertarist existent, deoarece, n acest sistem, phenomenon has already occurred.
crizele se perpetueaz ciclic, i care, de fiecare dat, se Practice has shown that it is impossible to solve
amplific. the problem of global economic and financial crisis
Este evident c aceasta nu poate continua la within the existing libertarian model because in this
nesfrit, or nu ne putem atepta la o schimbare fr a system the cyclical crises is perpetuated and every
schimba ceva. Conform teoriei lui Maslow, tendina time is increasing.
spre autoafirmare face parte din natura uman, dar i It is obvious that this can not go on forever, or

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 29


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

din cea a animalelor. n principiu, aceast tendin nu we can not expect changes without changing anything.
este un viciu, atta timp ct ea se manifest neutral, According to Maslow's theory, the tendency to self-
fr a se raporta la alii (ex. eu sunt bun, eu sunt actualization is part of human nature bat also animal.
detept, bogat etc.), dar cnd autoafirmarea se face pe In principle, this path is not a vice, as long as it
contul altora, sau raportat la alii, aceasta devine manifests itself neutrally, not relating to others (e.g.
agresiv (ex. eu sunt mai bun, mai detept, mai bogat Im good, Im smart, rich, etc. ), but when self-
etc. dect el/ei). assertion is made on behalf of others, or related to
Conform teoriei de baz a economiei de pia, others, it becomes aggressive (i.e. Im better,
preul este determinat de cerere i ofert. n condiiile smarter, richer etc. than he/she is).
liberei concurene despre care vorbea Adam Smith, According to the basic theory of the market
aceast definiie rmne valabil i funcioneaz. Or, n economy, price is determined by supply and demand.
condiiile economiei libertariste moderne, lucrurile nu Under the conditions of Adam Smiths free
stau astfel, deoarece, deseori, cererea este creat competition, this definition remains valid and is still
artificial de ctre monopoluri. working. Or, under the modern libertarian economy,
Aici survine diferena dintre piaa liber i things are different, because often demand is
libertarismul economic. Adam Smith vedea libera artificially created by monopolies.
concuren ca pe un garant al scderii preurilor odat This is the difference between the free market
cu creterea calitii. and economic libertarianism. Adam Smith was seeing
Este remarcabil faptul c, pn n prezent, free competition as a guarantor of price decrease with
studenii de la facultile economice nva c anume n increasing quality.
aceasta const avantajul principal al economiei de It is remarkable that, until now, students of
pia, menit s asigure prosperitatea majoritii economic faculties learn that this is the main
populaiei: preurile scad, capacitatea de cumprare advantage of the market economy, aiming to ensure
crete, crescnd i consumul, care, la rndul su, the prosperity of most of the population: lower prices,
creeaz cerere. increased purchasing power, increasing consumption,
Dar, n realitate, ce observm? Preurile la which in turn creates demand.
produsele de prim necesitate cresc mereu, atrgnd dup But in reality, what we see? Prices for basic
sine scderea cererii cu toate consecinele aferente necessities are in constant increase, entailing lower
(scderea consumului, reducerea locurilor de munc i a demand all related consequences (reduced
nivelului de trai). Instabilitatea preurilor, n mod firesc, consumption, reduced employment and standard of
duce la instabilitate economic. Politica impulsionrii living). Price instability leads to economic instability.
consumului prin credite, adic cumperi azi, plteti The policy of consumption boost through credit
mine, s-a dovedit a fi o soluie temporar de policy, i.e. buy now, pay tomorrow proved to be a
impulsionare artificial a economiei, dar care, inevitabil, temporary solution to artificially boost the economy,
duce la ruinarea economiei i, implicit, la crize. but which inevitably leads to ruining the economy and
Aceasta se explic prin semnalul fals trimis n hence the crisis.
pia, prin cererea format artificial, care las n urm This is explained by false signals sent to the
firme falimentare implicate direct sau indirect n market by artificially formed request, leaving behind
domeniile unde s-a creat cerere artificial. Scderea bankrupt companies, directly or indirectly involved in
dramatic a numrului de locuri de munc i, drept areas where they created artificial demand. Dramatic
consecin, a nivelului de trai este o dovad a direciei decrease in the number of jobs and as a result the
greite pe care mergem. standard of living is a proof that we go in the wrong
Ce ne ngrijoreaz n mod deosebit este direction.
reducerea numrului micilor ntreprinztori, n fapt a What is particularly worrying us is the reduction
clasei de mijloc, care constituie adevratul garant al of the number of small businesses, in fact of the
stabilitii n sensul larg al cuvntului. n opinia middle class, which is the true guarantee of stability in
noastr, cu ct acest strat social este mai solid, cu att e the broad sense of the word. In our opinion, the more
mai stabil i prosper ara, i invers. stable is this social layer, the more stable and
Ceva nu merge n acest sistem. n ciuda prosperous is the country, and vice versa.
multiplelor ncercri de a redresa situaia, obiectiv, ea Something goes wrong in this system. Despite
devine tot mai precar. De ce oare? Adam Smith a the attempts to improve the situation objectively, it
greit? Eu nu cred. Cred c a disprut piaa liber i cea becomes increasingly precarious. Why? Was Adam
mai important component a ei concurena. Mna Smith wrong? I do not think so. I think the free market
invizibil, la care se referea clasicul economiei, has disappeared and with it the most important part of
practic, a disprut. it competition. Invisible hand referred by the
Noiunea de cretere economic fluturat de classic of economy practically disappeared.
ctre guverne n faa populaiei, n realitate, nu reflect The notion of economic growth promised by
nivelul de trai al majoritii, sau l reflect ntr-o governments to the population really does not reflect

30 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

msur foarte mic, deoarece respectivul indicator nu the standard of living of the majority, or it does reflect
arat dect valoarea mrfurilor i serviciilor vndute to a very limited extent because that indicator shows
ntr-o anumit perioad. only the value of goods and services sold in a
De exemplu, dac cresc preurile la serviciile de particular period.
baz, carburani, medicamente, alimente etc., vom For example, if prices increase for basic
observa o cretere economic, dar poate aceasta services, fuel, medicine, food, etc. we see growth, but
nsemna o cretere a nivelului de trai? Cu siguran can this mean an increase in living standards?
nu. Din contra, aceste scumpiri muc din venitul net Certainly not. On the contrary, these increases bite
al familiei, reducnd nivelul ei de trai. net family income, reducing the living standards.
Astfel, n diagrama ce urmeaz (figura 3), Thus, in the diagram given in figure 3, the term
noiunea de cretere economic nu se regsete dintr- economic growth is not found simply because it has
un simplu motiv: ea nu are nicio relevan vis--vis de no relevance vis--vis the standard of living of the
nivelul de trai al majoritii. n schimb, principiile majority. Instead, the fundamental principles of
fundamentale ale economiei i societii sntoase, economic and social health such as net income, job
cum ar fi venitul net, calitatea locurilor de munc, quality, prices of basic goods and services, as in the
nivelul preurilor la produsele i serviciile de baz, freedom of competition, which is manifested in the
adic nivelul libertii concurenei, ce se manifest prin price level, are integrated.
nivelul preurilor, sunt integrate. Another term commonly circulated that claims
Alt noiune des vehiculat, care se pretinde a to serve as an indicator of economic health is
servi drept indicator al sntii economice este locul employment.
de munc. At first glance there seems to be no objections,
La prima vedere, pare c nu ar exista obiecii, dar o however, a critical analysis shows that this notion is
analiz critic arat c noiunea aceasta este departe de a fi far from relevant. Did the slaves not have jobs?
relevant. Oare, sclavii nu au avut locuri de munc? According to modern logics, they should have been
Conform logicii moderne, ei ar trebui s fie fericii happy...
Concluzia este urmtoarea: un loc de munc i The conclusion is: a job and a well paid job, or
un loc de munc bine pltit, sau altfel spus calitativ, in other words qualitative, are not similar notions, in
nu sunt noiuni similare, ba chiar total diferite. Putem fact they are totally different. We can see that in the
observa c, n primul caz, numrul locurilor de munc first case the number of jobs is not necessarily an
nu constituie neaprat un indicator al gradului de indicator of economic development and, particularly,
dezvoltare economic i, n special, al gradului de the level of democratization of the state unlike the
democratizare a statului, spre deosebire de cellalt caz. other case. The rupture of these concepts, precepts,
Anume ruptura dintre aceste noiuni, percepte i esena and their essence served as the impetus for the current
lor a servit drept impuls pentru actualul studiu. study.

Lama /
Blade

Venit net /
Net income

Venit critic /
Critical income

Poarta libertii / Freedom Gate


Co minim de consum /
Minimum consumption basket

Hrana i apa / Acces la studii Acumulare, obiecte


Water & food ntreinere casa chirie, R8, servicii medicale / cultura, sport / i servicii de lux /
Punctul morii / Home maintenance, rent, BR, medical services Acces to education, Accumulation, lixury
Point of death culture & sport items & services

Figura 3. Diagrama Ghilotina economic/ Figure 3. Diagram Economic guillotine


Sursa: Elaborat de autor / Sourse: Elaborated by the author

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 31


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

3. PROPUNERI, CONCLUZII 3. SUGGESTIONS, CONCLUSIONS


Ce se poate face n aceast situaie? Cum putem What can be done in this situation? How can we
ridica nivelul de trai pn la unul decent, fr a se raise up to a decent level of life, without leading to
ajunge la violen? violence?
Pentru a analiza problema n vederea gsirii In order to analyze the problem in finding a
soluiei, n primul rnd, se impune necesitatea de a solution, first of all it is necessary to properly define
defini adecvat noiunea nivel de trai, dei aceasta a the term standard of living, in spite of the fact that it
fost deja definit de mai muli economiti. has already been defined by many economists.
Totui, n linii mari, putem numi nivel de trai However, we can call the standard of living
gradul de acces la bunuri i servicii, iar n exprimare the degree of access to goods and services, or
matematic diferena dintre cheltuielile pentru expressed mathematically the difference between
necesitile de baz i venitul real. spending on basic needs and real income.
Figura 3 reprezint o imagine grafic a relaiei Figure 3 is a graphic expression of the
dintre venit si cheltuieli. relationship between income and expenses.
Explicaii: Explanations:
n figura 3, este prezentat mecanismul funcionrii Figure 3 shows mechanisms of the relationship
relaiei dintre venit i Coul minim de consum. Este between income and Minimum consumer basket. It is
important de menionat faptul c, n situaia economic important to note that in the current economic situation, the
actual, noiunea Co minim de supravieuire reprezint concept of Minimum survival basket represents more
mai fidel realitatea. Pe msur ce scade venitul lama taie accurately the reality. As income decreases blade
din consum de la dreapta spre stnga. consumer cuts from right to left.
unghi corelat direct proporional cu angle correlated directly proportional to
valoarea Coului minim de consum. Putem the amount of the Minimum consumer
observa c, odat cu mrirea acestui unghi basket. We can see that increasing the angle
(1), scderea venitului diminueaz nivelul de (1) reduces the income and the standard of
via ntr-o msur mai mic i invers. living in a lesser degree and vice versa.
Aceast relaie poate fi exprimat prin This relationship can be expressed by the
urmtoarea formul: following formula:

Unde: Where:
NV exprim nivelul de via NV standard of living
Vn venitul net Vn net income
CS valoarea Coului de Supravieuire (Consum) CS value of survival basket (consumption)
RB rata lunar la creditul bancar RB monthly bank credit
Cnd valoarea venitului net este egal cu When the amount of net income is equal to
cheltuielile, observm c indicele NV=1. expenditure, we can see that NV = 1. The
Triunghiul haurat cu ipotenuza lam, hatched triangle with hypotenuse blade
nivelul creia este cobort la Venitul Critic i is down the income level that is critical and
constituie triunghiul captivitii, reprezint is triangle captivity, which represents a
situaia cnd individul triete de la salariu la situation where the individual lives from
salariu, gsindu-se ntr-o real stare captiv. salary to salary finding himself in a real
Poarta libertii reprezint posibilitatea captive situation.
ieirii din cadrul necesitilor stringente i Freedom gate is the possibility to exit
ncepe s se deschid odat cu depirea from the pressing needs and begin to open
valorii 1 a indiciului NV, oferind i with one value of the index exceeded NV,
posibilitatea de acumulare. Totodat, offering the possibility of accumulation.
deschiderea porii libertii arat gradul real Also, the Freedom gate shows the real
de libertate a individului. freedom of the individual.
Punctul morii se activeaz cnd lama l Point of death is enabled when the
atinge, adic atunci cnd valoarea NV scade la blade reaches it, i.e. when the NV drops
zero (ghilotina se nchide). to zero (guillotine closes).
Este important de menionat faptul c, de regul, la It is important to note that usually when the
stabilirea Coului minim de consum nu se ia n calcul chiria minimum consumption basket is established, the
i nici rata lunar pe care o are de achitat majoritatea monthly rent and the bank credit, the fact that most of
populaiei la bnci. Or, aceste componente sunt o parte the individuals owe to the bank is not taken in to
important n bugetul majoritii familiilor, constituind pli consideration. But these components are an important

32 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

obligatorii n structura consumului lunar. Ignorarea acestor part of the budget of most families, representing
componente distorsioneaz considerabil realitatea. mandatory payments on monthly basis. If we ignore
Diagrama propus include aceste componente these components, the reality is considerably distorted.
importante. The above given diagram includes these
De asemenea, putem observa c, dac odat cu important components.
creterea preurilor, se micoreaz unghiul care We can also see that if the price decreases with
determin nclinarea lamei: Ea devine mai abrupt, increasing angle which determines inclination of
adic mai periculoas, i invers. blade: It becomes steeper, or more dangerous, and
Dorim s atragem atenia asupra acestui unghi, vice versa.
care scoate la lumin o alternativ evident, la We want to point out the importance of this
creterea salariului i a venitului lunar. Drept soluie ne angle that reveals the obvious alternative to increased
servete nsi consecina acestui fapt, care constituie salary and monthly income. The consequence of this
creterea nivelului de via. Dar despre aceasta aproape fact, which contributes to the increasing of the level of
c nu se discut. Aici ne referim la scderea life, serves us as solution. But this fact is almost not
preurilor la produsele i serviciile de baz. being discussed. Here we refer to the decrease of
n opinia noastr, anume creterea preurilor constituie prices for basic commodities and services.
factorul generator de instabilitate i tensiuni sociale. De In our opinion, the prices rising is a fact that
asemenea, creterea constant a preurilor genereaz inflaie, contributes to instability and social tensions. Also, the
chiar dac cursul de referin al monedei rmne relativ constant prices increase generates inflation, even if the
stabil, se diminueaz acumulrile, tinznd spre dispariie, reference rate remains relatively stable currency,
dup care se nchide poarta libertii. accumulation decreases, tending to disappear, then
La fel, ca i n cazul diminurii venitului net prin closes the freedom gate.
inflaie, scade puterea de cumprare i efectul este Similarly, as in the case of reducing net income
similar: restrngerea ariei triunghiului captivitii, through inflation, decreases the purchasing power, the
tinznd spre punctul morii. effect is similar: restriction area triangle captivity,
Tot de creterea preurilor este condiionat seeking point of death.
majoritatea manifestrilor sociale, ct i a micrilor Price increases are also linked to most social
sindicale. O relativ stabilizare a preurilor ar lichida o events and trade union movements. Certain price
multitudine de probleme. stability would solve many problems.
Nu ne referim la cazurile n care preurile cresc We do not refer to cases when the price
justificat. Dar de cele mai multe ori, creterea preurilor increases are justified. But most of the times, rising
nu este justificat economic i ar exista suficiente prices is not economically justified and there are no
rezerve i posibiliti de a tempera supraprofiturile prin sufficient reserves and possibilities to mitigate over
prghii legislativ-fiscale. profits by legislative fiscal levers.
Vom delimita dou categorii de mrfuri, We will define two categories of goods, where
creterea preurilor crora are consecine diferite, cum price increases have different consequences, such as
ar fi mbrcmintea i produsele energetice. Este clothing and energy products. It is obvious that the
evident c scumpirea produselor energetice, spre more expensive are the energy products, unlike the
deosebire de scumpirea hainelor, atrag dup sine high prices for clothing; they attract a chain of
scumpiri n lan, deoarece energia constituie o increases, because energy is an important component
component important a costului produselor i chiar al of cost of products and services.
multor servicii. Here the state has the duty to interfere and
Aici, statul are datoria de a interveni i regulate, since the states economic and political
reglementa situaia, deoarece sunt puse n joc stability is in stake, which is the state security. Given
stabilitatea economic i politic, adic securitatea the current reality, some developed European
statului. innd cont de realitatea actual, unele state countries have already made the necessary fiscal
europene dezvoltate i-au format deja prghiile fiscale levers to effective control, acknowledging reality.
necesare unui control eficient, contientiznd realitatea. The financial crisis does not necessarily mean
Criza financiar nu nseamn lipsa banilor, lack of money, because as it has been said, the money
deoarece dup cum s-a mai spus, banii nu au disprut, did not disappear, they just gathered in large numbers
ei doar s-au adunat n numr mare la un procent mic in a small percentage of the total population. The
din totalul populaiei. Efectul acestei suprapolarizri effect of this is over polarization sharply decreases in
const n scderea drastic a consumului cu toate consumption of all consequences related to the
consecinele aferente fenomenului. phenomenon.
Ce e mai periculos n evoluia situaiei un What is even more dangerous in this situation is
procent tot mai mare de populaie se plaseaz n the growing percentage of the population that is
triunghiul captivitii, n care individul devine placed in the triangle of captivity, where the
depresiv i apatic, n unele cazuri violent. individual becomes depressed and apathetic, in some

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 33


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

n orice caz, este greu ca o ar s se pretind a fi cases violent.


democratic, avnd majoritatea populaiei cu indicele However, it is hard for a country to claim to be
NV 1, adic captiv, fie i economic. democratic, with the majority of population with a
n astfel de condiii, este dificil de vorbit despre NV 1, indicator that is captive, even economically.
prosperitate, ct i despre o perspectiv de mbuntire In such circumstances it is hard to talk about
a situaiei, cci nsui mecanismul ce s-a activat nu prosperity and prospects for improvement of the
permite ca lucrurile s evolueze, situaia degradnd de situation, because the very mechanism that was
la an, la an. enabled does not allow things to evolve, the situation
Ruperea cercului vicios poate fi realizat doar cu deteriorating from year to year.
voin politic, n caz contrar, situaia risc s scape de Breaking the vicious circle can only be achieved
sub control. with political will; otherwise the situation may get out
Efortul conjugat al unor organizaii i structuri of control.
supranaionale, precum UE, ndreptat spre adoptarea The efforts of organizations and supranational
unor msuri contra speculaiilor bursiere, controlul bodies such as the EU toward measures against stock-
ratei de profitabilitate n anumite domenii, cum ar fi cel exchange speculation, control rate of profitability in
bancar, energetic, farmaceutic i altele, ar putea some areas such as banking, energy, pharmaceutical
constitui unica ans de ieire din criza profund n and others, could be the only chance to get out of the
care se afl economia global. deep crisis which the global economy is currently
Banii trebuie s lucreze pentru economie facing.
acesta este motivul pentru care marile acumulri Money must work for the economy that is
trebuie identificate i redirecionate spre sectorul real, why large accumulations should be identified and
productiv al economiei. diverted to the real, productive economy.
n acest sens, noua politic fiscal adoptat, spre Regarding this issue, the new tax policy adopted
exemplu, de guvernul francez, care, n cele din urm, by the French government, for example, which
este preluat parial de la rile scandinave, rmne pe ultimately is partly taken from Scandinavian countries,
deplin explicabil, dar este insuficient. remains fully explained, but it is insufficient.
Cum s-a menionat mai sus, fr o susinere As mentioned above, in order to achieve this
internaional realizarea acestui deziderat pare a fi goal without international support, it appears to be
problematic, dar nu imposibil. problematic, but not impossible.
S vedem, care a fost i rmne unul dintre Let us see, which are the employment
mecanismele distrugerii locurilor de munc? destroying mechanisms?
Micile ntreprinderi, care absorbeau majoritatea Small businesses, which absorbed most of the
populaiei apte de munc, treptat, au fost nghiite de working age population, have been gradually
ctre corporaii. swallowed by corporations.
S-ar putea spune c aceasta s-a produs datorit We might say that this was due to increased
productivitii muncii sporite la transnaionale, dar labour productivity in transnational companies, but it
nelegem, prea bine, c acesta nu e unicul i nici is obvious that this is not the only or the main reason.
principalul motiv. Aceasta nu ar fi o problem, dac This would not be a problem if the entire workforce in
toat fora de munc din ntreprinderile falimentare ar the bankrupt enterprises would be reinstated with
fi reangajat cu retribuie cel puin similar la retribution at least similar to the winning companies.
companiile ctigtoare. If we take as an example the case of suppression
Dac vom lua drept exemplu cazul suprimrii by small neighbouring stores and hypermarkets super
micilor magazine de proximitate de ctre lanurile de chains, we find that as a result we ended up with an
super- i hipermarkete, vom constata c, n consecin, army of unemployed and fewer employees with a
ne-am ales cu o armat de omeri i mai puini angajai minimum wage payment.
pltii cu salariu minim. As a result, at a similar annual turnover of
Ca urmare, la un rulaj anual similar de mrfuri, goods, the profits that were distributed to retailers and
profitul, care se distribuia la micii comerciani i their employees now go to hypermarket owners and
angajaii lor, acum pleac ctre proprietarii only a very limited number to the system employees.
hipermarketurilor i doar ntr-un cuantum extrem de Overall, the budget hasnt increased the revenue but
redus spre angajaii din sistem. Per total, venitul la even decreased due to the decrease in the number of
buget nu s-a mrit, ba chiar s-a micorat din cauza employees; instead have increased budgetary
scderii numrului de salariai, n schimb, s-au mrit expenditures due to payments of unemployment and
cheltuielile bugetare datorit plilor alocaiilor de social benefits. The veracity of these affirmations can
omaj, dar i a ajutoarelor sociale. Veridicitatea acestor be proved by statistics.
afirmaii poate fi probat prin date statistice. We have the right to mention here, that labour
Suntem n drept s vorbim aici i de cazul n care productivity achieved by intensive exploitation is not
productivitatea muncii, obinut prin exploatare good for the economy, but on the contrary; then

34 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

intens, nu este tocmai benefic pentru economie, ci maybe we should rethink some concepts that we
din contra. Poate ar trebui s reconsiderm unele thought adamant.
concepte ce le-am crezut de neclintit? Let us not forget that trade is considered the
S nu uitm c anume comerul constituie o branch with the greatest potential to absorb labour
ramur cu cel mai mare potenial de absorbie a forei force, but of course there are others, such as services,
de munc, dar, bineneles, c sunt i altele, cum ar fi which would require fragmentation in order to involve
serviciile care ar necesita o fragmentare cu scopul a large number of human resources. Otherwise, it
implicrii unui numr ct mai mare de resurse umane. should not surprise us the alarming increase in
n caz contrar, n-ar trebui s ne surprind creterea unemployment.
alarmant a ratei omajului. Finally, we highlight several important
n concluzie, putem evidenia civa factori mai factors that lead to lower standards of living:
importani ce determin scderea nivelului de via: 1. Rising prices in correlation to income.
1. Creterea preurilor n raport cu veniturile. 2. Flat tax, which allows excessively
2. Cota unic de impozitare, care permite disproportionate appropriation of surplus
nsuirea exagerat disproporionat a value by the owners and the transnational
plusvalorii de ctre patroni i, n special, de companies and banks in particular. This
transnaionale i bnci. Aceast form de form of tax is effective only at the
impozitare este eficient doar la nceputul beginning of the transition period, until
perioadei de tranziie, pn la apariia accumulation, then it becomes destructive,
acumulrilor, dup care ea devine distructiv, serving in the deepening of the social gap.
servind aprofundrii discrepanelor sociale. 3. Consumer lending and mortgage banking
3. mprumuturile bancare ipotecare i de are unproductive.
consum, adic neproductive. 4. Excessive concentration of capital.
4. Concentrarea exagerat a capitalului. 5. Reducing the number of small businesses,
5. Reducerea numrului micilor ntreprinderi, n especially in trade and services.
special al celor de comer i servicii. 6. Useless activities for the society and toxic
6. Activitile economice inutile pentru societate for the economy are speculative.
i toxice pentru economie, adic speculative. The Diagram Economic guillotine is an
Diagrama Ghilotina economic reprezint un instrument that reflects the real situation of the
instrument ce reflect situaia real a nivelului de trai, standard of living, as well as the degree of the society
precum i a gradului de libertate a societii. Un freedom. An instrument that can be efficiently used in
instrument ce poate fi folosit eficient n luarea decision making, both in politics and taxation. Which
deciziilor, att de ordin politic, ct i fiscal. Ceea ce n is eventually desired the situation recovery.
final se i dorete ca rezultant redresarea situaiei.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Engel
2. http://www.eumed.net/ecorom/VII.%20Pietele%20de%20factori/6%20distributia_venitului.htm
3.http://www.digi24.ro/stire/Rascoala-sangeroasa-in-nordul-Indiei-Proprietarii-unei-plantatii-de-ceai-arsi-de-vii-
de-catre_68145

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 35


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

PERFORMANA SOCIAL O SOCIAL PERFORMANCE A


NOU DIMENSIUNE A NEW DIMENSION OF THE
PERFORMANEI ENTITII ENTITYS PERFORMANCE
Conf. univ. dr. Ada TAHOVSCHI, ASEM Assoc. Prof., PhD Ada TAHOVSCHI, ASEM
Drd. Vasiliana MIRCEA-DAFINESCU, ULIM PhD candidate Vasiliana MIRCEA-
DAFINESCU, ULIM
Dezvoltarea durabil este un concept bazat pe
trei piloni: dezvoltarea economic, dezvoltarea Sustainable development is a concept based on
social i protecia mediului. Acestui concept three pillars: economic development, social development
macroeconomic i se pot asocia diverse concepte la and environmental protection. To this concept can be
nivel microeconomic dintre care amintim performana assigned various concepts at the micro level among which
global (Marcel Lepetit), sustenabilitatea (Comitetul we can name overall performance (Marcel Lepetit),
Bruntland al Naiunilor Unite) i responsabilitatea sustainability (UN Brundtland Committee) and social
social (Cramer et al., 2003). responsibility (Cramer et al., 2003).
Cuvinte-cheie: Responsabilitate social, Key Words: Corporate Social Responsability,
dezvoltare durabil, performan social. Sustainability, Social Performance

Conceptul de responsabilitate social a The concept of social responsibility of the


ntreprinderii (Corporate Social Responsability) a company (Corporate Social Responsibility) appeared in
aprut n SUA n anii 1980, n timp ce, n Europa, the U.S. in the 1980s, while in Europe, its use is more
utilizarea sa este mai recent. n context american, recent. In the American context, the concept of CSR
paternitatea conceptului de CSR este atribuit lui authorship is attributed to Howard Bowen in 1953, in
Howard Bowen, n 1953, care a publicat lucrarea Social responsibilities of the Businessman [1, p.44].
Social Responsabilities of the Businessman [1, He defines this notion through a series of obligations
p.44]. El definete noiunea printr-o serie de obligaii that lead to policies, decisions and guidelines
ce conduc la politici, decizii i linii de conduit consistent with the goals and values of the society. The
compatibile cu obiectivele i valorile societii. definition of the social responsibility involves the
Definiia responsabilitii sociale presupune decizii i leaders decisions and actions for economic or
aciuni efectuate de conductori pentru raiuni technical reasons. The Committee for Economic
economice sau tehnice. Comitetul pentru Dezvoltarea Development (CED) deepens the CSR concept that
Economic (CED) aprofundeaz conceptul de CSR, refers to three aspects:
fcnd referin la trei aspecte: first includes the responsibilities based on
primul cuprinde responsabilitile bazate the performance of essential functions of
pe ndeplinirea funciilor eseniale ale the company, with reference to production,
ntreprinderii, cu referire la producie, employment and economic growth;
locuri de munc i cretere economic; second comprises the first, includes the
al doilea l nglobeaz pe primul, include expanded notion of responsibility, with
noiunea extins de responsabilitate, cu o sensitivity to social developments and
sensibilitate la evoluiile i ateptrile expectations, taking into consideration the
societii cu luarea n consideraie a environmental issues, social relations or
problemelor de protecie a mediului, consumer information;
relaiilor sociale sau a informaiilor privind finally, the third takes into account the
consumatorii; exercise of the responsibilities which arise
n fine, al treilea aspect se refer la and lead to environmental improvements,
exercitarea responsabilitilor care apar i such as targets for employment for
conduc la ameliorarea mediului, cum ar fi disadvantaged populations.
identificarea locurilor de munc n The evolution of CSR concept leads to a new
favoarea populaiei defavorizate. concept: the social responsiveness (corporate social
Evoluia conceptului CSR duce la apariia unei responsiveness). This term is defined by the ability
noi noiuni: cea de receptivitate societal (corporate of firms to respond to social pressures. This means
social responsivness). Noiunea se definete prin the applying of relationships that correlate with
capacitatea unei firme de a rspunde la presiunile various stakeholders. Responsiveness brings to
sociale. Ea nseamn aplicarea unei gestiuni a management an operational guidance of the societal
relaiilor care coreleaz firma cu diferitele pri responsibility. Responsiveness to societal demands
interesate (stakeholders). Receptivitatea aduce o expresses the attention of the leaders to the society.

36 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

orientare de gestiune i operaional a responsabilitii Unlike the American vision of social


sociale. Receptivitatea societal exprim atenia responsibility, which is limited to philanthropy, foreign
conductorilor fa de solicitrile societii, to the economic activities of the company, the
rspunznd astfel la fluxul responsabilitii societale. European approach tends to believe that such actions
Spre deosebire de viziunea american a are not carried out within CSR and they must be
responsabilitii sociale, care se rezum la aciuni assessed in the usual terms of business. In order to
filantropice, strine activitilor economice ale define the European approach to CSR, we start from
ntreprinderii, abordarea european are tendina de a the definition of the European Commission, according
considera c aciunile de acest gen nu se desfoar n to which CSR means the voluntary integration by
sfera CSR i c ele se apreciaz n condiiile obinuite companies of social and environmental concerns in
ale ntreprinderii. Pentru a defini abordarea european their business activities and relationships with
a CSR, pornim de la definiia Comisiei Europene, stakeholders. This allows the companies, whatever
conform creia CSR desemneaz integrarea voluntar their size is, to help to reconcile their economic social
de ctre ntreprinderi a preocuprilor sociale i de and environmental ambitions, in cooperation with their
mediu la activitile comerciale i relaiile lor cu partners.
prile interesate. Ea permite ntreprinderilor, oricare European CSR approach allows the
ar fi dimensiunea lor, s contribuie la concilierea operationalization of the concept of sustainable
ambiiilor economice, sociale i de mediu n cooperare development for the enterprise. In the practical sense
cu partenerii lor. of the term, the social responsibility is embodied in
Demersul european al CSR permite the concept of triple-bottom-line: economic
operaionalizarea noiunii de dezvoltare durabil prosperity, environmental compliance, compliance
pentru ntreprinderi. n sensul practic al termenului de and improving of the social cohesion. This concept
responsabilitate social, este concretizat prin takes into consideration, at the enterprise scale, the
conceptul triple-bottom-line: prosperitatea economic, three dimensions of the sustainable development.
respectarea mediului, respectarea i ameliorarea The development is represented by highlighting the
coeziunii sociale. Acest concept exprim luarea n following objectives: economic one (creating wealth
consideraie, la scara ntreprinderii, a celor trei for all, based on production and sustainable
dimensiuni ale dezvoltrii durabile. Dezvoltarea este consumption), environmental (the conservation and
reprezentat prin punerea n eviden a urmtoarelor resource management) and social (equity and
obiective: unul economic (crearea de bogie pentru participation of all the social groups). In the last
toi, pe baza modalitilor de producie i de consum years, the research and business field have been
durabil), altul ecologic (conservarea i gestiunea increasingly concerned with the implications of
resurselor) i al treilea social (echitatea i social responsibility on the economic benefits.
participarea tuturor grupurilor sociale). n ultimii ani, Social responsibility can be defined by the
mediul de cercetare i cel de afaceri au fost tot mai actions of an enterprise undertaking in promoting
interesate i au studiat implicaiile responsabilitii social interests ahead of purely economic highlights
sociale asupra beneficiilor economice. and outside legislative requests. Thus, social
Responsabilitatea social poate fi definit de responsibility actions are those that go beyond the
aciunile unei ntreprinderi n privina promovrii unor obligations that the enterprise has, according to the law
interese sociale naintea unor elemente de interes strict (social or environmental) in order to create a
economic i n afara solicitrilor legislative. Astfel, perception or a reality that it promotes the public
aciunile de responsabilitate social sunt cele care trec interest. These organizations choose to be responsible
dincolo de obligaiile pe care le are ntreprinderea, in a social term.
conform legii (sociale sau de mediu), cu scopul de a Generally speaking, when financial
crea o percepie sau o realitate conform creia ea performance is brought into question in the studies
promoveaz interesul public. Aceste organizaii aleg on CSR, we discuss about the value of the shares or
s fie responsabile din punct de vedere social. about the accounting performance (benefit per share,
n general, cnd se aduce n discuie profit and so on). These studies tend to focus their
performana financiar n studiile asupra CSR, se research on business and not on industrial sectors,
discut despre valoarea aciunilor sau despre especially due to the ease with which one can
performana contabil (beneficiul pe aciune, profit analyze the situation of a firm (financial-statement,
etc.). Aceste studii tind s i axeze cercetarea asupra Standard and Poors Compustat, or stock exchange
ntreprinderilor, i nu asupra sectoarelor industriale, information), compared with the difficulties met in
mai ales pentru uurina cu care se poate analiza the standardization of the information between
situaia unei firme (situaiile financiar-contabile, businesses that have the same field of activity.
Standard and Poors Compustat, sau informaiile Although the CSR activity analysis is made
bursiere), comparativ cu dificultile ntlnite n mostly from economic point of view (financial
standardizarea informaiilor ntre ntreprinderi ce au performance measures), this is not always the best

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 37


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

acelai obiect de activitate. considered. A greater impact would have the


Dei analiza activitii de CSR se face, de cele correlation of the economic performance with CSR
mai multe ori, din punct de vedere economic (msurile activities, which involve economic efficiency
de performan financiar), acest lucru nu este de technologies and relationships related to production
fiecare dat cel mai potrivit. Un mai mare impact l-ar and consumer demand (material and energy),
avea corelarea performanei economice cu activitile identifying opportunity costs of inputs and capital
CSR, unde eficiena economic implic tehnologii i accumulation.
relaii n legtur cu producia i cu cererea de consum Due to the fact that such measures are based on
(materiale i energie), cu identificarea costurilor de assessing outputs and inputs (input/output analysis), in
oportunitate a intrrilor i a acumulrilor de capital. certain market conditions, the question is whether the
Din cauza faptului c astfel de msuri sunt estimations of productivity/performance take into
bazate pe evaluarea ieirilor i intrrilor (analiza account the social and environmental externalities and
input/output), n anumite condiii de pia, problema how performance in question may be affected by the
se pune dac estimrile productivitii/performanei au reduction of such externalities. For the authorities, the
inut cont de externalitile sociale i de mediu, i de clear picture of these relationships helps to identify the
modul n care performana n discuie poate fi afectat CSR resource cost or market failures on CSR. Such
de reducerea unor astfel de externaliti. Pentru information provides the guidelines for optimal levels
autoritile decidente, clarificarea acestor relaii ajut of CSR regulations. Instead, for the managers, this king
la identificarea costului resurselor de CSR sau a of information is useful for correct decisions on CSR
eecurilor pieei n privina CSR. Astfel de informaii activities.
furnizeaz liniile directoare pentru nivelele optime ale The literature survey revealed that there is not a
regulamentelor privind CSR. n schimb, pentru clear and specific definition of the social performance
manageri, informaiile respective sunt utile n scopul of an economic entity. The social performance of an
lurii deciziilor corecte privind activitile de CSR. economic entity can be identified with its own
Studiul literaturii de specialitate a relevat faptul concerns about various social issues such as
c nu exist o definiie clar i specific a contribution to the development of the community, the
performanei sociale a unei entiti economice. requirements of sustainable development, etc. Since the
Performana social a unei entiti economice se poate economic entities are social institutions they must
identifica cu preocuprile acesteia legate de diverse satisfy the interests of all social partners with which are
aspecte sociale cum ar fi: contribuia la dezvoltarea interacting.
comunitii unde i desfoar activitatea, respectarea The evaluation and the monitoring of the social
cerinelor dezvoltrii durabile etc. Deoarece entitile performance are important if the three dimensions of
economice sunt instituii sociale, acestea trebuie s the overall performance are interacting. Thus,
satisfac interesele tuturor partenerilor sociali cu care according to empirical research performed in the U.S.
interacioneaz. market as those of Berman et al. (1999) and Hillman
Evaluarea i urmrirea performanei sociale and Keim (2001), it was demonstrated the existence of
prezint importan n msura n care cele trei a positive relationship between financial performance
dimensiuni ale performanei globale interacioneaz. and various aspects of social performance, especially
Astfel c, potrivit unor cercetri empirice realizate pe related to employees, customers and civil society. The
piaa american, ca cele ale lui Berman (1999) i same results were obtained in other markets according
Hillman i Keim (2001), s-a demonstrat existena unei to Orlitzky et al. (2003), Orlitzky (2006, 2008),
relaii pozitive ntre performana financiar i diferite Orlitzky and Swanson (2008) and Vogel (2005).
aspecte ale performanei sociale, legate n special de According to McWilliams and Siegel (2001) the
salariai, clieni i societatea civil. Aceleai rezultate increase of the social responsibility of a business entity
au fost obinute i pe alte piee, potrivit lui Orlitzky in connection with the products offered or with their
(2003), Orlitzky (2006, 2008), Orlitzky i Swanson manufacturing process may lead to an increase of the
(2008) i Vogel (2005). Potrivit lui McWilliams i attractiveness of the products offered and,
Siegel (2001), creterea responsabilitii sociale a unei consequently, to an increase in the turn over.
entiti economice, n legtur cu produsele pe care le Therefore, the economic entities which are
ofer sau cu procesul lor de fabricaie, poate duce la o distinguished by a better social performance can be
cretere a atractivitii produselor oferite de aceasta i, expected to achieve a sustainable financial
n consecin, la o cretere a cifrei de afaceri. Prin performance.
urmare, entitile economice care se difereniaz The social performance evaluation provides to
printr-o mai bun performan social pot avea the economic entities at least the following benefits:
ateptri de a obine o performan financiar encourage the entities to improve their social
sustenabil. performance management;
Evaluarea performanei sociale ofer entitilor promote transparency in social performance
economice cel puin urmtoarele beneficii: and in social risks related to the activities

38 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

ncurajeaz entitile s i mbunteasc carried out;


managementul performanei sociale; provide a basis for comparisons with other
promoveaz transparena performanei economic entities in the sector or international
sociale i a riscurilor sociale aferente standards, or legal regulations (where
activitilor derulate; applicable);
ofer o baz pentru realizarea de provide relevant information through social
comparaii cu alte entiti economice din reporting to various categories of
sector sau cu standarde internaionale sau stakeholders;
reglementri legale (acolo unde este cazul); promote investment in economic entities with
ofer informaii relevante prin raportarea a social performance
social diverselor categorii de pri interesate;
atrage i promoveaz investiiile n entiti
economice cu o performan social.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Avasilci, S. Managementul performanei organizaionale. Iai. Tehnopres, 2001.
2. Basaraba A., Stan L.M. Responsabilitatea social corporatist n contextul crizei economice globale.
Bucureti. TOP FORM, 2005.
3. Mohr, Lois A. Corporate Social Responsibility: Competitive Disadvantage or Advantage? In
Proceedings of the 1996 Marketing and Public Policy Conference, edited by Ronald Paul Hill and
Charles Ray Taylor, Chicago. American Marketing Association.1996.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 39


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

STRATEGII I TEHNICI DE PROMOTION SRATEGIES AND


PROMOVARE A TURISMULUI TECHNIQUES OF SUSTENABLE
RURAL SUSTENABIL RURAL TOURISM
Drd. Angela BOTEZATU, UASM PhD candidate Angela BOTEZATU, SAUM
Unul dintre obiectivele principale pe care le One of the main objectives pursued by any
urmrete orice firm, valabil i pentru afacerile de turism company, available for rural tourism business is to
rural, este acela de a ti cum s-i conving pe clieni s-i know how to convince customers to buy your product
cumpere produsul sau serviciul. ntr-un mediu de or service. In an environment of intense competition,
concuren acerb, strategiile de promovare vin s faciliteze promotion strategies come to facilitate the
procesul de comunicare cu clienii actuali i poteniali prin communication with current and prospective customers
informare, convingere sau reamintire. n articol, sunt tratate through information, persuasion or reminder. The
unele dintre strategiile i tehnicile de promovare ale article deals with some of the strategies and techniques
activitii de turism, tehnici care, utilizate separat sau ntr- to promote the tourism activity, techniques which used
un mix bine gndit, pot contribui la formarea de ansamblu separately or in a thoughtful mix can contribute to the
i mbuntirea imaginii rii sau firmelor de turism prin formation and improvement of the overall image of the
dezvoltarea turismului rural sustenabil. country or travel companies by sustainable rural
Cuvinte-cheie: turism rural, sustenabilitate, strategii tourism development.
de promovare, politic de promovare, relaii cu publicul, Keywords: rural tourism, sustainability,
marketing direct. promotion strategies, promotion policy, public
relations, direct marketing
Noua filozofie a existenei n turism se axeaz
prioritar pe conceptul dezvoltrii durabile. Turismul The new philosophy of existence in tourism is
sustenabil, axat pe dezvoltarea durabil, este inta focused prior on the concept of sustainable
preocuprilor mai multor savani, precum i a multor development. Sustainable tourism, focusing on
organisme internaionale, dar i autohtone. Abordarea se sustainable development is the target of several
extinde i spre turismul rural, deoarece aici poate fi scientists and many local and international
conservat mediul natural cu toate ecosistemele sale. n organizations. The approach is also extending to rural
acelai timp, s vorbim i despre valorificarea potenialului tourism, because there may be preserved natural
natural i antropic din mediul rural, cu beneficii pentru environment with all its ecosystems. At the same time
comunitile locale. ntrebarea este, dac putem promova we are talking about the potential of natural and
obiectivele turistice rurale n condiii de sustenabilitate? anthropogenic rural tourism with benefits for local
Evident c rspunsul este unul afirmativ, iar actorii communities. The question is whether we can promote
economici din industria turismului rural pot elabora diverse rural sights in terms of sustainability? Obviously the
mixuri de promovare a destinaiilor turistice rurale protejnd answer is affirmative, and economic actors from rural
biodiversitatea i patrimoniul uman. tourism industry can elaborate different mixes of
Politica de promovare a turismului rural, dei, la promoting rural tourism destinations protecting
prima vedere, pare relativ simpl, n practic elaborarea biodiversity and human heritage.
mixului promoional necesit abiliti deosebite pentru Promotion policy of rural tourism, although, at
transformarea turismului rural ntr-o ans real oferit first sight seems relatively simple, in practice
comunitilor locale din zonele n care patrimoniul turistic developing a promotional mix requires special skills
este slab valorificat. for transforming rural tourism in a real opportunity for
Dup cum menioneaz O. Snak activitatea de local communities and areas where sightseeing is
promovare a produsului turistic este o form specific de poorly exploited.
comunicare, care const n transmiterea pe diferite ci de As O. Snake mentions the promotion of tourism
mesaje i informaii menite s-i informeze pe operatorii de activity is a specific form of communication, which is
turism i pe turitii poteniali asupra caracteristicilor the transmission of messages and information in many
produsului turistic i asupra elementelor componente ale ways, designed to inform the tour operators and
serviciilor turistice oferite,.., s le dezvolte o atitudine potential tourists on product characteristics and the
pozitiv fa de firmele prestatoare de servicii turistice. De components of tourism services, .., to develop a
asemenea, promovarea turistic presupune aciuni de positive attitude towards tourism service companies.
sprijinire i influenare a procesului de cumprare n scopul Also, tourist promotion involves actions to support and
provocrii unor modificri favorabile n mentalitatea i influence the buying process to challenge some
obiceiurile clienilor actuali i poteniali. favorable changes in mentality and customs of current
Dintre caracteristicile promovrii turistice le putem and potential customers.
meniona pe cele ce urmeaz:

40 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

- este o activitate permanent, cu manifestri de Among the features of the tourism promotion we
intensitate diferit n funcie de obiectivele vizate can mention:
sau bugetul promoional disponibil; - it is a permanent an ongoing activity, with
- se adreseaz agenilor economici poteniali, dar i events of different intensity depending on the
celor actuali; objectives sought or held promotional budget;
- promovarea unei destinaii turistice are i alte - it addresses to the potential and current
scopuri, pe lng cel de cretere a numrului de economic agents;
turiti pentru o perioad limitat, astfel, aceasta - promotion of tourist destinations has other
vizeaz obiective precum: informarea asupra purposes besides the increase of the number of
resurselor naturale i antropice ale zonei, tourists for a limited time, so it seeks
valorificarea lor la un nivel superior; atragerea information objectives about the natural and
clienilor-int; mbuntirea imaginii firmei; human resources of the area, turning them to a
crearea unei imagini unice; dezvoltarea higher level to attract target customers,
armonioas a activitii economice locale. improving company image, creating a single
n cadrul strategiei de dezvoltare a unei firme de image, the harmonious development of local
turism, strategia de pia, prin urmare, i cea de promovare economic activity.
sunt eseniale. Astfel, se stabilete raportul dintre firma Within the development strategy of a tourism
prestatoare de servicii turistice i mediu, poziia pe care firms, market and promotion strategies are essential. In
aceasta vrea s i-o aleag pentru realizarea misiunii n this way is settled the relationship between tourism
condiii de eficien. Elaborarea strategiilor promoionale i firm and the environment, the position it wants to
integrarea lor n strategia global a firmei (pensiunii turistice, choose in order to achieve the task in terms of
agroturistice) constituie premise pentru aciuni concrete efficiency. Promotional strategies and their integration
necesare acesteia. into the overall strategy of the firm (tourist guesthouse,
Unele firme turistice apeleaz empiric la anumite agro) are necessary prerequisites for its specific
instrumente promoionale. n asemenea caz, eforturile de actions.
promovare nu sunt fundamentate tiinific; instrumentele Some travel agencies empirical ey use
promoionale sunt combinate aleatoriu, fr a studia, n certain promotional tools. In this case the promotion
prealabil, piaa turistic i a identifica clienii-int i efforts are not scientifically fundamented
comportamentul lor. Prin urmare, i rezultatele las de dorit. promotional tools are combined randomly without
n vederea atingerii obiectivelor promovrii, studying in advance the tourism market and
productorii i distribuitorii din turism au la dispoziie dou identifying target customers and their behavior.
alternative strategice: pull strategy (strategia atragerii); push Therefore the results are poor.
strategy (strategia mpingerii), realizabile simultan sau In order to achieve the promotion, objectives
separat. tourism producers and distributors have two strategic
Pull strategy este orientat spre cerere. Printr-o alternatives: pull and push strategies, which are
publicitate susinut sau prin promovarea vnzrilor, se feasible simultaneously or separately.
ncearc crearea cererii sau sporirii ei. Obiectivul este de a Pull strategy is oriented to demand. Supported
furniza suficiente informaii sau mijloace de promovare a through advertising or sales promotion they try to
vnzrilor pentru a declana interesul turitilor poteniali; create demand or increase it. The objective is to
dorina de cumprare i, respectiv, achiziia propriu-zis a provide enough information or sales promotion
produselor i serviciilor turistice promovate. means to trigger the interest of potential tourists;
Dimpotriv, push strategy, plaseaz pe prim-plan wish to purchase and, respectively, the actual
promovarea prin vnzri personale. Personalul implicat n purchase of tourism products and services
actul promovrii trateaz direct cu cumprtorii actuali i advertised.
poteniali. Ei ncearc s susin vnzrile prin mpingerea In contrast, push strategy, places on the first plan
cumprtorilor spre produse. promotion by personal selling. The staff involved in the
ntr-o alt abordare, menionm alte dou alternative act of promoting deals directly with current and
strategice: fie o strategie defensiv, fie una ofensiv. potential buyers. They enhance selling by pushing
Strategia defensiv este o strategie orientat spre cererea de buyers towards products.
servicii turistice rurale, n care firma ncearc s-i apere i In another approach we mention two other
s-i menin poziia pe pia folosind n acest scop reclama strategic alternatives: either a defensive strategy or an
sau promovarea vnzrilor. Strategia ofensiv presupune offensive one. Defensive strategy is that strategy-
utilizarea masiv a tuturor mijloacelor promoionale care oriented towards rural tourism service request through
stau la dispoziia firmei i folosirea unui buget considerabil. the company tries to defend and to maintain market
position using for this purpose advertising or sales
Publicitatea n promovarea serviciilor turistice promotion. Offensive strategy, involves massive use of
Publicitatea reprezint o tehnic foarte important n promotional means which are at the disposal of
mixul promoional. Prin intermediul acesteia, se urmrete company and using a large budget.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 41


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

atingerea mai multor scopuri dintre care: Advertising in promoting tourism services
Promovarea att a produselor, serviciilor turistice Advertising is a very important technique in the
rurale, ct i a organizaiilor; promotional mix. It aims the achievement of several
Stimularea cererilor primare i selective; goals including:
Creterea eficienei firmelor turistice. Promotion of products, rural tourism services
n literatura de specialitate, se utilizeaz att noiunea and organizations;
de publicitate, ct i cea de reclam, aceasta din urm Stimulation of primary and selective demands;
reflectnd comunicarea pltit i impersonal cu piaa. n Increase the efficiency of tourism firms.
ceea ce privete Republica Moldova, legislaia propune In specialty literature is used the term
termenul de publicitate pentru a desemna comunicarea publicity and advertising, the latter reflecting paid
pltit cu piaa, iar n uzul curent se utilizeaz i noiunea de and impersonal communication with the market.
reclam. Regarding Moldova, advertising legislation proposes
Mijloacele sau mediile preferate pentru transmiterea the term publicity to refer to paid market
mesajului n turism sunt: media scris: cotidiene, jurnale communication and in common use the term is also
sptmnale, reviste; tipriturile: fluturai, pliante, brouri, used for advertising.
ghiduri, cataloage; afiajul exterior (outdoor media): Preferred means or media for transmiting a
postere, bannere, panouri luminoase (statice i dinamice), message in tourism are: print media: newspapers,
panouri interactive de informare i promovare; afiaj weekly newspapers, magazines; printed means:
interior (indoor media); mijloace audio-video: filme, leaflets, flyers, brochures, guides, catalogues; outdoor
CD/DVD-uri, diapozitive; televiziunea; telefonia mobil; media: posters, banners, signage (static and dynamic),
obiecte diferite: erveele, calendare, produse de information and promotion interactive panels; indoor
vestimentaie, articole de birotic (mouse, pixuri, pahare media; audio-visual: movies, CD/DVD, slides; TV;
etc.); internetul: pagini web, portaluri de informare i mobile phones; different objects: towels, calendars,
promovare a turismului, hri electronice. clothing items, office items (mouses, pens, glasses etc.)
Mijloacele de susinere a turismului rural pot fi Internet: websites, information and promotion of
utilizate att n scopuri de promovare la scar naional tourism portals, electronic maps.
(turismul rural al rii), ct i n promovarea ageniilor de Means of promoting rural tourism can be used
turism specializate, pensiunilor turistice i agroturistice. for nationwide promotion (countrys rural tourism) and
Ca exemplu, putem meniona ghidurile Moldova for specialized promotion of travel agencies, tourism
turistic, Drumul vinului i Drumul mnstirilor. Bine and agro tourism.
structurate, realizate n trei limbi (romn, englez i rus), As an example we can mention the guides
mbogite cu suficiente imagini color, care s ndemne la Touristic Moldova, Wine Route and Route of
drum, dotate cu suficiente adrese utile, aceste materiale Monasteries. They are well structured, designed in 3
promoionale vin s atrag atenia consumatorilor asupra languages (English, Romanian and Russian), enriched
bogatului potenial turistic de care dispune ara noastr. with enough color images to urge on the way,
Ghidul Moldova turistic a fost lansat n luna providing useful addresses, are meant to attract
septembrie 2010, n cadrul manifestrilor prilejuite de consumers attention on the rich tourism potential of
marcarea Zilei Mondiale a Turismului, ca un ndemn adresat the our country.
celor care doresc s ne viziteze i s ne descopere ara. The guide Touristic Moldova was released in
Cel de-al doilea ghid Drumul vinului, lansat cu September 2010, an the events of celebrating the World
ocazia Zilei Naionale a Vinului, i propune s pun n Tourism Day as a call to those, who want to visit us
valoare tradiiile viti-vinicole ale Republicii Moldova i and discover our country.
potenialul turistic al acestui segment. The second guide Wine Route, launched on
Ghidul Drumul mnstirilor continu frumoasa the occasion of the National Wine Day aims to
tradiie de punere n valoare a potenialului turistic valoros highlight the wine traditions of Moldova and tourism
de care dispune ara noastr. Lansat cu ocazia srbtoririi potential of this segment.
Hramului municipiului Chiinu, acest material promoional The guide Route of Monasteries continues the
prezint arhipelagul mnstiresc al Republicii Moldova, beautiful tradition of enhancing the tourism potential of
invitnd la cunoaterea istoriei, credinei, culturii, tradiiilor our country. Released to celebrate Chisinau Day this
i modernitii rii noastre prin turismul de pelerinaj i cel promotional material presents monastery archipelago
religios. of Moldova, which invites us to find out history,
Tehnologiile informaionale moderne creeaz noi religion, culture, traditions and modernity of our
oportuniti de promovare a turismului naional i, country through tourism and religious pilgrimage.
ndeosebi, promovarea on-line a atraciilor turistice i a Modern information technologies create new
imaginii de ansamblu a rii noastre vizitatorilor strini. opportunities to promote national tourism and especially
Internetul este unul din mijloacele de difuzare a mesajelor online promotion of sights and overall image of our
care a explodat n preferinele i opiunile turitilor actuali. country to foreign visitors. Internet is one of the means of
Astfel, Internetul este un mijloc facil de promovare, disseminating messages which exploded in the

42 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

implicnd costuri acceptabile i obinnd un impact deosebit preferences and choices of present tourists. Thus, the
n rndul tinerilor, dar i al adulilor de vrst mijlocie. Internet is an easy way to promote, involving acceptable
Internetul reprezint o oportunitate pentru turism, deoarece costs and getting a great impact among young people and
ofer: posibilitatea lansrii de noi servicii, extinderii pe noi middle-aged adults. Internet is an opportunity for tourism,
piee, interaciunii permanente cu clientela, atragerii unor noi as it offers: the possibility of launching new services,
categorii de clientel. expansion into new markets, ongoing interaction with
Pentru moment, considerm mai mult dect necesar, customers, attracting new types of customers.
pentru fiecare agenie turistic, pensiune sau agropensiune att For the moment we consider more than required for
crearea i dezvoltarea site-ului, ct i completarea acestuia cu each travel agency, pension or agro-pension, to create and
diverse informaii, precum: obiective turistice din zon, develop a website and supplement it with various
posibiliti de agrement, manifestri cultural-artistice, srbtori information such as tourist attractions in the area,
tradiionale. Site-ul trebuie realizat n cel puin dou limbi de recreational opportunities, cultural arts, traditional
circulaie internaional i s permit interaciunea cu celebrations. The site must be done in at least two foreign
vizitatorii. De asemenea, site-ul nou-creat, pentru a fi eficient, languages and allow interaction with visitors. Also newly
trebuie nscris n motoare de cutare dup o serie de cuvinte- created website, in order to be effective, must be included
cheie: sat turistic, turism rural, pensiune turistic, in search sites after a series of keywords: village tourism,
agropensiune etc. La nivel de ar, despre turismul rural rural tourism, tourist board, agro pensions etc. At the
putem afla accesnd site-ul Asociaiei Naionale de Turism country level we find about rural tourism accessing the
Rural, Ecologic i Cultural din Moldova (www.tur.md), aici site of the National Association of Rural, Ecological and
gsind trimiteri la paginile web ale celor mai cunoscute Cultural Tourism of Moldova (www.tur.md), here we find
pensiuni turistice i agroturistice din RM: pensiunea rural links to web pages of the most popular tourist hostels and
Hanul lui Hanganu (www.hanulhanganu.md); Satul agro tourism in the Republic of Moldova: rural pension
Moldovenesc (www.satulmoldovenesc.md); Casa din Lunc Hanul lui Hanganu (www.hanulhanganu.md),
(www.casaorhei.com) etc. Despre turismul rural i turismul la Moldovan Village (www.satulmoldovenesc.md), of
ferme din spaiul european, ne putem informa accesnd site-ul Meadow House (www.casaorhei.com), etc. About rural
Federaiei Europene pentru Turismul Rural i la Ferm tourism and farm tourism in Europe we can be informed
(EuroGtes: http://www.eurogites.org). by visiting the website of the European Federation for
Una dintre prioritile site-urilor este posibilitatea Farm and Rural Tourism (EuroGtes:
rezervrilor on-line, ceea ce i avantajeaz att pe ofertanii http://www.eurogites.org).
pachetelor turistice rurale, ct i pe beneficiari. One of the priorities of websites is the possibility
Studiile efectuate n acest sens de ctre compania of online reservation, which favors both bidders and
austriac Seekda demonstreaz c circa 85% dintre cltori consumers of rural tourism packages.
se informeaz on-line, numrul on-line room bookings Studies in this regard by the Austrian company
poate atinge circa 48%, n 2015, iar cile tradiionale de Seekda show that about 85% of travelers get informed
rezervare a pachetelor turistice i pierd din influen. online, the on-line room bookings can reach about
Sursele Internet pot fi utilizate individual sau 48% in 2015, and traditional ways of booking of travel
integrate cu alte medii de promovare. De exemplu, din packages lose their influence.
cauza costurilor ridicate de promovare la TV, poate fi Internet sources can be used individually or
elaborat un spot publicitar de durat mic, fcndu-se integrated with other media promotion. For example,
trimitere la site-ul firmei turistice, organizaiei sau due to the high costs of promotion on TV can be
evenimentului turistic ce urmeaz a avea loc. Informaiile prepared an advertisement of a short duration, with
din diverse medii de promovare se pot completa reciproc, reference to the site of tourist business, organization or
astfel sporind eficiena activitii promoionale. event tour that will take place. Information in various
media promotion can complement each other, thus,
Manifestri promoionale n turism increasing the efficiency of promotional activity.
Dintre tehnicile promoionale ale marketingului
modern, care condiioneaz i favorizeaz formarea i Tourism promotional events
meninerea imaginii pe pia, menionm promovarea prin Among the promotional techniques of modern
intermediul manifestrilor promoionale. Participarea la marketing which conditions and promotes the formation
trguri interne i internaionale, saloane i expoziii and maintenance of image on the market we note
reprezint un instrument eficient de marketing datorit promotion through promotional events. Participation at
avantajelor pe care le ofer posibilitatea de a veni n contact national and international fairs, shows and exhibitions
cu purttorii cererii de servicii turistice i de a le studia are an effective marketing tool thanks to the advantages
comportamentul, studierea ofertelor concurente, contactarea they offer, the opportunity to come into contact with
diferiilor furnizori sau prestatori de servicii turistice i chiar demand carriers of tourism services and study their
vnzarea de servicii turistice n timpul manifestrii. behavior by studying competing bids, contacting different
Astfel, anual, Centrul Internaional de Expoziii suppliers or tourism service providers and even sell travel
MoldExpo organizeaz i desfoar expoziii internaionale services during the event.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 43


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

specializate de turism, agrement, industrie hotelier, care, n Thus, the annual International Exhibition Centre
aprilie 2012, a ajuns la ediia a XVII-a. Evenimentul este MoldExpo, organizes and unfolds specialized international
unul de importan major pentru industria de turism: exhibition of tourism, leisure and hotel industry, which in
anume aici juctorii pieei de profil aduc la cunotina April 2012 became the seventeenth edition. This is a major
publicului noutile elaborate special pentru noul sezon event for the travel industry: here tourism market players
turistic: programe, preuri i direcii noi. Aceasta este o make public news specially designed for the new tourist
oportunitate de promovare a turismului, n special a season: programs, prices and new directions. This is an
turismului rural. opportunity to promote tourism, especially rural tourism.
Participarea la un trg de turism necesit o pregtire Participation at a tourism fair requires prior
prealabil i poate fi costisitoare, cci aici sunt incluse preparation and can be expensive, because this includes
cheltuieli pentru stand, numrul i calitatea tipriturilor puse costs for stand, number and quality of prints available
la dispoziie vizitatorilor, studii de pia, participare la mese to visitors, market research, participation at workshop
rotunde, conferine. and conferences.

Tabelul 1/Table 1
Materiale promoionale n cadrul manifestrilor expoziionale /
Promotional materials for the exhibition events
Tip / Type Scop / Aim Prioritate / Priority
Comunic imaginea ctre consumator / Mare /Big
Brour/ Brochure
Communicate image to consumer
Ghid de preuri / Informeaz fr interaciune personal / Informs Moderat / Moderate
Price list without personal interaction
Fluturai / Flyers Informeaz succint/ Informs briefly Sczut / Low
Imagine profesional pentru turiti / Professional Mare /Big
Cri de vizit / Cards
image for tourists
Scrisori / Letters Imagine profesionist / Professional image Mare /Big
Sursa/Source: P. Nistoreanu, Turism rural, Tratat, 2010, pag. 221

Eficiena materialelor tiprite trebuie monitorizat Effectiveness of printed materials must be


permanent, n cadrul studiilor de pia, pentru aciunile continuously monitored, in market studies, for the
ulterioare din cadrul trgurilor sau expoziiilor: elaborarea following actions of fairs or exhibitions, a their excess
acestora n exces conduce la cheltuieli suplimentare. Acestea preparation leads to additional costs. These could be
ar putea fi utilizate i n alte ocazii. used for other occasions.
Alte evenimente de promovare-manifestri interne i Other promotional events, internal and external
externe, turistice i culturale pot fi considerate: Trgul de events, tourist and cultural bents can be considered:
Turism Descoper Moldova Turistic (august 2011), Tourism Fair Discover Tourism Moldova (august
Trgul Concurs Internaional al Meterilor Olari (ediiile 2011), International Fair- Contest of craftsmen potters
2011-2012), Festivalul Ethno Music Gustar (a treia ediie n (2011-2012 editions), Ethno Music Festival Gustar
2012), Festivalul Turistic Naional Duminica Mare, (the third edition in 2012), the National Tourism
Concursul Internaional al Clopotarilor Bisericeti Festival Duminica mare, International Contest of
Clopotarul Terrei. Church Bells Earth Ringer.
Formarea i promovarea imaginii Republicii Moldova Training and promotion of Moldova's image as
ca destinaie turistic este realizat i la nivel de Guvern, prin a tourist destination is realized also at Government
acordurile ncheiate de ctre ara noastr cu alte ri n ceea ce level through agreements concluded between
privete colaborarea n domeniul turismului. Astfel, Guvernul Moldova and other countries regarding cooperation in
Republicii Moldova a ncheiat acorduri de colaborare n tourism. Thus, the Government has concluded
domeniul turismului cu Guvernul Republicii Cipru (2007), agreements on cooperation in tourism with the
Guvernul Republicii Italiene (2006), Guvernul Republicii Government of Cyprus (2007), the Government of
Elene (2006), Guvernul Romniei (2005) etc. Italy (2006), the Government of the Hellenic Republic
Tururile informaionale pentru reprezentanii mass- (2006), Government of Romania (2005), etc.
media din strintate constituie una dintre tehnicile viabile de Informational tours for foreign media
promovare a imaginii Republicii Moldova pentru turitii representatives represent one viable technique to
strini. Acestea pot fi organizate n cadrul diferitelor proiecte promote Moldova's image for foreign tourists. These
comune cu alte state (Turul informaional organizat n cadrul can be organized in various joint projects with other
cooperrii Ageniei Turismului i Organizaiei pentru countries (Informational Tour organized in
Democraie i Dezvoltare Economic GUAM Japonia, cooperation with Tourism Agency and the
proiect de promovare pentru turitii niponi). Organization for Democracy and Economic

44 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

Promovarea vnzrilor Development GUAM Japan promotion project for


Promovarea vnzrilor presupune folosirea tehnicilor Japanese tourists).
i mijloacelor de stimulare, impulsionare i cretere a Sales promotion
vnzrilor de bunuri i servicii turistice. Promovarea Sales promotion involves the use of techniques
vnzrilor constituie grupul de tehnici pe care marketerii l and methods of stimulation, incentive and sales
folosesc pentru a stimula cumprarea imediat a produsului. growth of tourism goods and services. Sales
n majoritatea cazurilor, promovarea vnzrilor nu este promotion is the group of techniques that marketers
utilizat izolat, ci n combinaie cu alte forme de promovare, use to stimulate immediate purchase.
cu reclama sau cu vnzarea direct. In most cases, sales promotion is not used in
Promovarea vnzrilor pentru motivarea isolation, but in combination with other forms of
consumatorilor vizeaz: reduceri de pre, cupoane, oferte promotion with advertising or direct sales.
combinate (combinarea serviciilor de cazare cu diferite Consumers motivation thorough sales
servicii de servire a mesei, agrement), tombole. n acelai promotion concerns: discounts, coupons, combined
context, trebuie s menionm, ns, c reducerile dese de offers (combination of accommodation with various
preuri modific preul de referin n mintea turistului, iar cu catering services, entertainment), raffles. In this
ct sunt utilizate mai frecvent preurile promoionale vnzrile context it should be mentioned, however, that
tind s scad. frequent discounts change the reference price in mind
Relaiile publice of tourists, and more frequent promotional prices tend
Relaiile publice (public relations) implic din partea to fall sales.
firmei de turism stabilirea unor contacte directe, consecvente Public relations
i sistematice, cu diferite categorii de public, n scopul Public relations involve the travel company to
dezvoltrii intereselor sale. establish direct contacts, consistent and systematic,
Obiectul principal al acestui element al mixului with different audiences in order to develop its own
promoional l constituie stabilirea unui climat de ncredere n interests.
firma respectiv, atragerea clienilor prin ctigarea simpatiei The main objective of this element of the
i ataamentului lor. promotional mix is to establish confidence in the firm,
Mijloacele utilizate n activitatea de relaii publice attracting clients by gaining their sympathy and
sunt: fidelity.
- acordarea de interviuri de ctre conducerea firmei Means used in the public relations:
turistice; - interviews of company management;
- congrese i seminare; - conferences and seminars;
- editarea unor brouri i jurnale ale firmei turistice; - editing of brochures and travel company
- tururi informaionale pentru jurnaliti; journals;
- articole de pres i comunicate; - informational tours for journalists;
- participarea la diverse aciuni sociale i de interes - articles and press releases;
public. - participation at various social activities
Pentru garantarea succesului promoional, relaiile cu and public interest.
publicul trebuie s fie corelate cu celelalte variabile In order to ensure a promotional success, public
promoionale, ncadrate ntr-un program unic. relations must be correlated with other promotional
Relaiile publice, prin multitudinea de componente, nu variables involved in a single program.
au ca scop elemente cantitative, acestea revenind n sarcina Public relations through many components, do
publicitii, ci elemente calitative: Caut s obin reputaie not emphasize quantitative elements, which are in
cu scopul de a ctiga suport i de a influena opinia i charge of publicity, but qualitative elements. Seeks
comportamentul publicului, conform British Institut of for reputation in order to gain support and influence
Public Relations. public opinion and behavior, according to British
Marketingul direct Institute of Public Relations.
Marketingul direct este o tehnic de promovare care Direct marketing
const n trimiterea de mesaje cu caracter promoional Direct marketing is a promotional technique
orientate ctre clienii actuali i poteniali prin intermediul that consists in sending promotional messages aimed
potei clasice (mailing) sau potei electronice (e-mailing). at current and potential customers by mail (mailing) or
Firma de turism poate deine o baz de date a clienilor care electronic mail (e-mailing). Travel company may
cuprinde att adresele lor potale, ct i cele e-mail. Este have a database of customers that includes both their
considerat o tehnic agresiv de promovare care ncearc s postal address and the e-mail. It is considered an
ajung la clieni prin mijloace ce nu necesit comunicare aggressive promotional technique that tries to reach
direct. Cele trei tipuri de marketing direct vizeaz: customers through means that do not require direct
telemarketingul (contactarea clienilor la telefon pentru oferte, communication. The three types of direct marketing
informaii sau opinii referitoare la pachete turistice sau noi regard: telemarketing (contacting customers by phone
destinaii turistice); e-mail direct marketing (intete clienii to offer information and opinions on packages or new

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 45


MANAGEMENT I MARKETING / MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING

prin conturile de pot electronic: unele companii cer tourist destinations); direct e-mail marketing
adresele e-mail pentru vizitarea site-ului lor); direct mail (targeting customers through e-mail accounts: some
marketing (materialele promoionale sunt furnizate prin pot companies require the e-mail to visit their site); direct
la domiciliu sau pe adresele firmei). Aceast tehnic de mail marketing (marketing materials provided by mail
promovare este tot mai frecvent utilizat n ultimul timp de to firm or home addresses). This promotion technique
ctre firmele ce practic turismul. Clienii pot rspunde is increasingly used in recent years by practicing
imediat sau i pot stoca informaiile fie n telefon sau n tourism companies. Customers can respond
contul de e-mail. immediately or may store information either
n concluzie, putem meniona c firmele care telephone or e-mail account.
realizeaz produse i servicii turistice trebuie s stabileasc In conclusion, we can mention that the
legturi de durat cu clienii pentru a-i putea informa companies that ell realize tourist products and
permanent despre noile oferte, despre pachetele de servicii services should establish lasting ties with customers to
elaborate, despre serviciile de agrement oferite etc. n opinia inform them about the new offers', packages on
noastr, turismul rural (destinaiile turistice rurale i recreational services, etc. In our opinion rural tourism
obiectivele turistice rurale) din Republica Moldova au rezerve (rural tourism destinations and sightseeing areas) in
la capitolul promovare att la nivel naional, ct i Moldova have reserves at national and international
internaional. Turismul rural fiind practicat ca afaceri mici de promotion chapter. Rural tourism is practiced as a
familie, nu ntotdeauna dispune de mijloace financiare pentru small family business and does not always have funds
promovare, promovarea fiind sporadic sau limitndu-se la for promotion; it is sporadic or limited to 1-2
una-dou tehnici. Nu putem vorbi despre un brand naional n techniques. We cannot talk about a national brand in
domeniul turismului rural (de exemplu, n Austria, exist rural tourism (for example in Austria there is a brand
brandul Vacana la ar), fiindc destinaiile turistice rurale Holiday in the country) as rural tourist destinations
sunt vizitate de ctre turitii strini de cele mai multe ori n are visited by foreign tourists often in other forms of
cadrul altor forme de turism, n special n cadrul turismului de tourism, especially in the tourism business. For
afaceri. Pentru promovarea extern, Republica Moldova ar external promotion the Republic of Moldova should
trebui s adere la programe de cooperare european sau la join European cooperation programs or European
asociaii europene n domeniul turismului rural. associations in rural tourism.

Bibliografie/ Bibliography:
1. Bran Florina. Turism rural: model european. Bucureti: Economic. 1997
2. Bucur-Sabo Mariana. Marketing turistic. Bucureti: Irecson. 2006
3. Nistoreanu Puiu, Ghere Marinela, coordonatori. Turism rural. Tratat. Bucureti: C. H. Beck. 2010
4. Olaru Adriana. Marketing. Galai: EUROPLUS. 2004
5. Pruteanu tefan, Munteanu C., Caluschi C. Inteligena marketing plus. Iai: Polirom 2004
6. Stone Bob, Jacobs Ron. Metode de succes n marketingul direct. Chiinu: ARC. Ediia a VII-a. 2004
7. Talab I., Haller A. P., Talpas J., coordonatori. Turismul rural romnesc, Actualitate i perspective, vol.
III. Iai: Perfomantica. 2008

46 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

DATORIA EXTERN EXTERNAL DEBT FEATURES


PARTICULARITI I LIMITRI AND LIMITATIONS FOR AN
PENTRU O ECONOMIE DESCHIS OPEN ECONOMY
Dr. Eugeniu URSACHI, ASEM PhD Eugeniu URSACHI, ASEM
Republica Moldova, aflndu-se pe calea de tranziie The Republic of Moldova is on the path of
de la sistemul de planificare centralizat la economia de transition from a centrally planned system to a
pia i manifestnd tendina de aderare la Uniunea market economy, having the aspiration to adhere the
European, are ca prioritate, n activitatea sa, gestionarea European Union and its priority activity is the
i monitorizarea datoriei externe, ntruct aceasta management and monitoring g the external debt,
constituie o problem major care se refer direct la since it is the major problem that is directly related
folosirea eficient a resurselor statului, iar creterea to the effective use of State resources and the
datoriei externe reduce considerabil stabilitatea sistemului increase of external debt greatly reduces the
economico-social. Cile ieirii din acest impas sunt economic and social system stability. The ways out of
implementarea a patru factori-cheie: resurse umane, from the impasse are the implementation of the four
resurse naturale, capital, tehnologii. key-factors: human resources, natural resources,
capital, and technologies.
Noiunea datorie extern este deja definit, n
fond, n literatura de specialitate, drept valoare a The term external debt is already defined in
angajamentelor contractuale i obligaie a uneia dintre the economic literature as the amount of contractual
pri de a restitui bunurile sau de a plti suma de bani commitments and obligation of a party to return
mprumutat altei pri. goods or pay a sum of money that was landed to the
Conform normelor metodologice referitoare la other party.
datoria extern a Republicii Moldova, elaborate conform According to the methodological standards on
standardelor recomandate de Fondul Monetar external debt of the Republic of Moldova, developed
Internaional, aceasta se stabilete la o anumit dat i according to the standards recommended by the
este egal cu suma tuturor angajamentelor curente International Monetary Fund, it is set at a given date
efective, necondiionate ale rezidenilor fa de and is equal to the sum of all current and not
nerezideni, ce implic debitorului realizarea unei sau a contingent, actual liabilities of residents to
mai multor pli i/sau de dobnda la unul sau mai multe nonresidents, that involve payment(s) of principal
momente n viitor. Const din urmtoarele componente: and / or interest by the debtor at some point(s) in the
Titluri de angajamente (valori mobiliare de future. It consists of the following components:
tipul obligaiuni); Debt securities (debt securities like bonds);
mprumuturi; Loans;
Alocri de DST (Drepturi Speciale de Tragere); SDR allocations (Special Drawing Rights);
Credite comerciale; Trade credits;
Valut i depozite; Currency and deposits;
Alte angajamente aferente datoriei; Other debt liabilities;
Investiii directe: creditare intragrup. Direct investment: intercompany lending.
Datoria extern a rii se calific dup scadena The countrys external debt is presented by
iniial a instrumentului: termen scurt i termen lung, i the original maturity of the instrument: short and
dup tipul debitorului: public i privat. long term, and by debtor: public and private.
Datoria public extern este parte integrant a External public debt is a component of the
datoriei publice (Legea cu privire la datoria public, public debt (Law on public debt, state guarantees,
garaniile de stat i recreditarea de stat nr. 419 din and on-lending from state borrowing no. 419 of
22.12.2006) i reprezint angajamentele fa de 22.12.2006) and represents liabilities to nonresidents.
nerezideni. Ea include datoria de stat, datoria Bncii It includes the governmental debt, the debt to the
Naionale a Moldovei, datoria corporaiilor publice National Bank of Moldova, the debt of public
(ntreprinderi de stat i societi comerciale n al cror corporations (state enterprises and business entities
capital social statul deine mai mult de 50 la sut). where the government holds more than 50 percent of
Deci, datoria extern este constituit din: the equity capital).
1. Datoria public efectuat de debitori publici So external debt is composed of:
(din persoane fizice, bnci, guverne, 1. Public debt of public borrowers
ntreprinderi publice, mediul de afaceri); (individuals, banks, governments, public
2. Datoria privat: debitori privai (bnci enterprises, business environment);

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 47


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

comerciale, companii mari). 2. Private debt of private borrowers


La rndul lor, exist datorii publice multilaterale: (commercial banks, large companies).
mprumuturi de la instituii financiare internaionale, precum In turn, there are multilateral public debts:
Banca Mondial, Fondul Monetar Internaional (FMI), loans from international financial institutions like the
bncile i fondurile de dezvoltare regional, i datorii publice World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF),
bilaterale: mprumutate de la un stat pentru un alt stat, iar regional development banks and funds, and bilateral
reealonarea i anularea datoriilor bilaterale este negociat n public debts: borrowed from a state for another state,
cadrul Clubului de la Paris; de exemplu, sunt datoriile and rescheduling and cancellation of bilateral debts
publice ale bncilor comerciale private, ce reprezint is negotiated within the Paris Club; or public debts of
mprumuturi contractuale de la bncile comerciale private, iar private commercial banks, which are contractual
reealonarea i anularea datoriilor bilaterale este negociat n loans from private banks, and the rescheduling and
cadrul Clubului de la Londra. cancellation of bilateral debt is negotiated within the
La nivel guvernamental, necesitatea de a London Club.
mprumuta mijloace bneti este cauzat de necesitatea At government level, the need to borrow
finanrii unui deficit bugetar, ceea ce condiioneaz money is due to the need to finance a budget deficit,
dezvoltarea diferitor forme de datorie public, chiar i which leads to the development of various forms of
situaia de faliment. public debt, even in bankruptcy situations.
Suma total acumulat de un anumit guvern n The total amount accumulated by a
vederea achitrii datoriei externe se regsete n suma government for the payment of external debt is found
emisiei certificatelor respective n form de finanare in the form of financing through bonds, treasury
prin obligaiuni, bonuri de trezorerie. bills.
n aceast situaie, de aciuni guvernamentale In this situation, in order to attract additional
pentru atragerea unor mijloace financiare suplimentare, financial means, the government makes use of a
se recurge, evident, la un mprumut public, fapt ce public lending, which causes a certain inflationary
cauzeaz un anumit efect inflaionist. effect.
mprumuturile publice sunt folosite pentru Public loans are used to finance the budget
finanarea deficitului bugetar, mai cu seam n perioada deficit, especially during recession, to stimulate
de recesiune, pentru a stimula consumul, investiiile, consumption, investment, employment.
ocuparea forei de munc. External debt, capital flows create many
Datoria extern, fluxurile de capitaluri creeaz o problems, but also solve them. For example,
multitudine de probleme, dar i le rezolv. Spre reducing external debt by some financial leverage
exemplu, reducerea datoriei externe prin anumite prghii simultaneously increases the risks that the national
financiare, concomitent, duce la creterea riscurilor cu economy is facing, increases disturbances in
care se confrunt economia naional, la majorarea international capital.
perturbaiilor internaionale de capitaluri.
Viziunile savanilor, care au cercetat problematica Scientists who studied the problem of multiple
formelor multiple ale datoriei externe, sunt diverse, dar, forms of external debt have different opinions, but
n fond, se pune accentul pe concluzia c ...criza ultimately the main focus is on the conclusion that
provocat de datoria extern a rilor n curs de ... foreign debt crisis of developing countries in the
dezvoltare, din anii 1980, a fost semnificativ diferit fa 1980s was significantly different from that emerging
de cea a Asiei emergente, din 1997. Prima a abordat o in Asia since 1997. The first crisis had a public debt
problem de ndatorare public, a crei soluie trebuia problem, and the solution was to be sought, first of
cutat, mai nti de toate, ntr-un program de ajustare all, in a macroeconomic and budget adjustment
macroeconomic i bugetar. A doua ns a vizat program. The second crisis concerned the private
ndatorarea sectorului privat, ntr-un mediu sector indebtedness in an essentially healthy
macroeconomic, n esen sntos.1 macroeconomic environment.1
Datoriile publice se formeaz n baza contractelor Public debts are formed from contracts
dintre trei categorii de creanieri: a) creditori privai, b) between three categories of creditors: a) private
agenii guvernamentale, c) instituii financiare creditors, b) government agencies, c) international
internaionale. financial institutions.
Problema principal din sistemul economic const The main problem in the economic system is
n evitarea situaiei de criz a ndatoririlor externe a unei to avoid the crisis of the countrys external duties
ri i poate fi clasificat, n opinia noastr, n trei grupe and, in our opinion, can be classified into three
de situaii, care au existat i au fost confirmate de istoria groups of cases, according to those existed and
economiei mondiale: confirmed by the history of the world economy:

1
Berthelemy J.-C., Datorie extern, Dicionar de tiine economice. Sub redacia: Claude Jessua, Christian
Labrousse, Daniel Vitry. Editura ARC, tiina, 2006, pag.251.

48 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

1. Anii 1980 criza instituiilor bancare ale 1. The 1980s the crisis of banking
guvernelor rilor n curs de dezvoltare, cauzat de institutions of developing countries
creterea excesiv a ofertei de credite de ctre governments caused by excessive growth of
bncile comerciale n anii 1970. credit supply by commercial banks during
2. Anul 1982, America Latin. Datoria extern 1970s.
este generatoare de obligaii de plat n 2. 1982, Latin America. External debt
devize, ceea ce face ca rata de cretere a generates payment liabilities in installments
ncasrilor din exporturi s depeasc rata and this requires that the growth rate of
dobnzii din importuri, dar n aceste state export receipts exceed the interest rate on
situaia real a avut un caracter invers. imports, but in these countries the real
3. Anul 1987, crize de ndatorare privat n Asia situation had just the opposite effect.
de Sud-Est. Datoriile au fost sporite de 3. 1987, private debt crises in South East Asia.
investitorii privai regionali, care activau pe The debts were increased by regional
lng investitorii privai strini, existnd o private investors, who worked next to the
concuren neloial n cutarea de foreign private investors, under conditions
randamente crescute: de incapacitatea de a of unfair competition in search of high
gestiona eficient banii mprumutai; de intrri returns: inability to effectively use
de capitaluri cu un specific speculativ. borrowed money; speculative capital inputs.
Msuri de implementare eficient a contractelor privind International effective implementation of
datoria extern pe plan internaional pot fi considerate: contracts regarding the external debt can be
a) aciunile de implementare a unor decizii optime considered:
economice privind reducerea riscurilor financiare; a) actions providing optimal economic
b) utilizarea eficient a resurselor de capitaluri decisions to reduce financial risks;
suplimentare; b) efficient use of additional capital
c) minimizarea riscului macroeconomic la care pot fi resources;
expui creditorii internaionali, inclusiv, aprecierile c) minimizing the macroeconomic risk to
situaiei economice de ctre ageniile de evaluare which the international creditors are
i marii investitori mondiali. exposed, including the economic
Analiza contractelor de pli din anii 90 situation assessments by rating
demonstreaz c dezechilibrul economic extern a existat agencies and international investors.
permanent, iar, n aceast perioad, a fost la o etap The analysis of payment contracts in the 90s
iniial, caracteristic unui stat cu cererea intern shows that there has been a permanent external
dependent de resursele externe. economic imbalance, and in that period it was at the
Pe parcursul ntregii perioade de tranziie la starting stage, characteristic to a state in which the
economia de pia, datoria extern brut a fost ntr-o domestic demand is dependent on external resources.
cretere continu. Dac, la finele anului 1995, era de 850 During the whole transition period to market
milioane de dolari, pe parcursul anului 2011, aceasta s-a economy, the gross external debt was in a permanent
majorat cu 666 milioane dolari (+13.9 la sut), increase. If at the end of 1995 it was US$ 850
constituind 5 miliarde 452 milioane 33 mii de dolari, iar millions, then, in 2011 it was increased by 666
la 30 septembrie 2012 5 miliarde 776 milioane 12 mii millions (+13.9%), representing US$ 5 billion 452
de dolari (vezi tabelul 1). million 33 thousand, towards 30 September 2012
US$ 5 billion 776 million 12 thousand

Tabelul 1/ Table 1
Evoluia datoriei externe brute a Republicii Moldova n perioada 1995 2011 /
Gross external debt developments the Republic of Moldova during 1995 2011

(milioane USD)/( million US$)


1995 2000 2005 2010 2011
Datoria extern (cu datoria pentru
resurse energetice) / External debt
(the debt for energy resources) 850,03 1.723,0 2.078,01 4.786,3 5.452,33
Sursa: Conform datelor din Raporturile Bncii Naionale a Moldovei pentru anii 1995-2011/
Source: According to data from the National Bank Reports for the years 1995-2011

n tabelul 2, este expus structura actual a datoriei Table 2 shows the current structure of external
externe pe sectoare instituionale, conform Raportului debt by institutional sector, according to the NBM
BNM pentru 9 luni ale anului 2012, precum urmeaz: report for 9 months of 2012, as follows:

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 49


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

Tabelul 2/Table 2
Structura datoriei externe a Republicii Moldova n anul 2012 /
Structure of external debt of the Republic Moldova for 2012
(milioane USD)/ million US$)
Suma datoriei, a.2011 % de la suma din PIB
milioane USD / Amount of (9 luni 2012) / % of the
Tipul datoriei / Type of debt
debt. a.2011 (million amount of GDP
USD) (9 months 2012)
Datoria extern brut total /
Gross external debt total 5.776,12 107,5
Inclusiv: / Including:
sectorul guvernamental / government sector 1.169,081 21,8
autoritile monetare / monetary authorities 396,52 7,4
sectorul bancar / banking sector 576,6 10,7
alte sectoare / other sectors 2.693,73 50,1
angajamente fa de investitorii strini direci /
commitments to foreign direct investors 598,74 11,1
Sursa: Conform datelor din Raporturile Bncii Naionale a Moldovei n anul 2011
Source: According to data from the National Bank Relations in 2011

Datoria extern brut, la 30 septembrie 2012, conform According to the data of the National Bank of
datelor Bncii Naionale a Moldovei, a constituit 5 776,12 Moldova at 30 September 2012, the gross external
milioane de dolari, majorndu-se cu 3,02 la sut pe parcursul debt was US $ 5776.12 million, increasing by 3.2%
trimestrului III al anului 2012. percent during the third quarter of 2012.
Dispersarea structurii datoriei externe brute pe Gross external debt structure by institutional
sectoare instituionale se prezint astfel: sectorului sectors is presented as follows: general government
guvernamental i revin 20,2 la sut, autoritilor monetare 20.2%, monetary authorities (NBM) 6.9%,
(BNM) 6,9 la sut, bncilor liceniate 10,0 la sut, altor authorized banks 10.0%, other sectors 46.6%,
sectoare 46,6 la sut, angajamentele fa de investitorii debt liabilities to direct foreign investors 16.3%.
strini direci reprezentnd 16,3 la sut. Public and publicly guaranteed external debt
Datoria extern public i public garantat se cifreaz amounts US $ 1,613.82 million, increased by 2.4%,
la 1613,82 milioane de dolari, n cretere cu 2,4 la sut, iar and private non-guaranteed US $ 4162.30 million.
cea privat negarantat 4,162 milioane de dolari. The greatest part of Moldovas external debt
Partea major din datoria extern a Republicii is represented by loans and SDR allocations,
Moldova o reprezint mprumuturile i alocrile de DST, which amounted to 30 September 2012, US $
care au nsumat, la 30 septembrie 2012, cifra de 3973,01 3,973.01 million, of which 39.6% are public sector
milioane de dolari, din care 39,6 la sut le constituie liabilities (including the debt of NBM, general
angajamentele sectorului public (inclusiv datoria BNM, government debt and private debt, guaranteed by
datoria de stat direct i datoria privat, asumat de stat n state assumed after execution of guarantees and
urma executrii garaniilor, precum i datoria corporaiilor public corporations debt), and the rest is private
publice), iar restul sunt ale agenilor economici din sectorul businesses liabilities, including the intercompany
privat, inclusiv din cadrul creditrii intragrup. loans.
Datoria extern, pe termen scurt, a nsumat 2 129,93 Short-term external debt amounted US $
milioane de dolari, fiind constituit din: credite comerciale 2129.93 million, made up of: commercial loans
(n majoritate, avansuri i facturi neachitate la termen) 52,3 (mostly advances and unpaid bills on time)
la sut, alte angajamente (n majoritate, datorii istorice pentru 52.%, other liabilities (mostly historical debts for
importul de resurse energetice) 20,6 la sut, arierate import of energy resources) 20.6%, arrears
(serviciul neonorat al mprumuturilor externe att pe termen (overdue of long and short term external loans)
lung, ct i pe termen scurt) 16,1 la sut, depozite bancare 16.1%, fixed and demand bank deposits of
la termen i la vedere ale nerezidenilor n bncile liceniate nonresidents in authorized banks 7.1 percent,
7,1 la sut, mprumuturi pe termen scurt 3,9 la sut. short-term loans 3.9%.
Conform proiectului bugetului de stat pentru anul According to the state budget draft for 2013,
2013, datoria de stat extern, la finele acestui an, va constitui external public debt, at the end of 2013, will be
circa 1 251,4 milioane de dolari SUA (echivalentul a 15 approximately US $ 1,251.4 million (equivalent to
miliarde 154 milioane 7 mii de lei) cu o majorare de 62,1 MDL 15 billion 154.7 million) an increase of US $
milioane de dolari SUA (echivalentul a 882,6 milioane de 62.1 million (equivalent to MDL 882.6 million)
lei), fa de ceea ce este estimat pentru finele anului 2012 (n compared to that estimated for end of 2012 (in GDP:

50 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

PIB: 15,3%/15,8%). 15.3%/15.8%).


n acelai timp, trebuie concretizat faptul c At the same time, it is necessary to mention
respectivele datorii externe sunt rezultatul motenirii acestora that the external debts are also the result of their
de la guvernele precedente (vezi: tabelul 3). inheritance from previous governments (see table 3)

Tabelul 3 / Table 3
Creditele financiare acordate Guvernelor Republicii Moldova n anii 1991 2001 /
Financial loans to governments of Moldova in the years 1991 2001
(milioane dolari) / (million US$)

Creditele financiare acordate Guvernului V.Muravschi (iunie 1991 iulie 1992) /


Financial loans given to V.Muravschi Government (June 1991 July 1992)
Sumele acordate Condiiile de Datoria
Creditori / Scopul creditului / din contul creditului / creditare (%) / de stat extern /
Creditors Purpose of loan Amounts granted from Credit conditions External state
credit account (%) debt
1 2 3 4 5
SUA (Programa 2% primii 7 ani /
PL-480) 1992 / Importul de cereale / 2% first 7 years
U.S.A (Program Imports of grains 3% dup 7 ani /
PL-480) 1992 9,032 3% after 7 years 9,032
China 1992 / Importul mrfurilor pentru copii /
China 1992 Import of goods for children 3,758 4% 2,033
Total / Total 12,790 11,065
Creditele financiare acordate Guvernului A.Sangheli I (iunie 1992 aprilie 1994 /
Financial loans given to A. Sangheli Government I (June 1992 April 1994)
Romnia 1993 / Importul de carne i combustibil / Fr procente /
Romania 1993 Import of meat and fuel 12,327 Without percent 12,327
Uniunea European
Balana de pli / Libor + 0,1% /
1994 / European
Balance of payments Libor + 0,1%
Union 1994 54,0 36,082
SUA (Programa 2% primii 7ani /
PL-480) 1993 / Importul de cereale / 2% the first 7 years
USA (Program PL- Import of grains 3% dup 7 ani /
480) 1993 9,491 3% after 7 years 9,491
SUA (Programa
PL-480) 1994 / Importul de cereale / 2% primii 7ani /
USA (Program PL- Import of grains 2% first 7 years
480) 1994 19,869 19,869
Reorganizarea datoriilor pentru 88,9 Libor + 1% /
Rusia / Russia
credite/Debt reorganization loan 22,955 Libor + 1% 91,676
BIRD 1993 / Restabilirea economiei /
BIRD 1993 Economy redevelopment 60,0 7,1 55,565
BIRD 1993 / Lichidarea consecinelor secetei /
BIRD 1993 Liquidation of drought
consequences 25,823 7,1 19,765
Total / Total 293,365 244,775
Creditele financiare acordate Guvernului A. Sangheli II (aprilie 1994 februarie 1997) /
Financial loans to A. Sangheli Government II (April 1994 February 1997)
Susinerea reformelor
BIRD (SAL) 1994 /
structurale/Supporting structural
BIRD (SAL) 1994
reforms 60,0 7,1% 57,98
Japonia 1994 / Restabilirea economiei / Economy 4,5 LTPLR /
Japan 1994 redevelopment 39,932 4,5 LTPLR 26,069
Uniunea European
Deficitul bugetar / Libor + 0,125% /
1996 / European
Budget deficit Libor +0,125 %
Union 1996 19,0 13,531

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 51


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

1 2 3 4 5
SUA. (Programa 2% primii 7 ani/
PL-480) 1995 / Importul de cereale / 2% first 7 years
U.S. (Curriculum Imports of grains 3% dup 7 ani /
PL-480) 1995 9,599 3% after 7 years 9,599
2% primii 7 ani/
SUA. (Programa
2% Grain Imports
PL-480) 1996 / Importul de cereale /
first 7 years
U.S. (Program Imports of grains
3% dup 7 ani /
PL-480) 1996
12,472 3% after 7 years 12,472
BIRD primul proiect agricol 1996 / Dezvoltarea sectorului agricol / Libor + 0,5% /
BIRD the first agrarian project 1996 Development of agriculture 9,769 Libor + 0,5% 9,769
BIRD (DSP I) 1996 /BIRD (DSP I) Susinerea sectorului privat / Support of Libor + 0,5% /
1996 private sector 30,334 Libor + 0,5% 30,334
Banca german Krediitanstalt 1995 / Utilaj medical / Libor + 0,875% /
German Bank Krediitanstalt 1995 Medical equipment 6,483 Libor + 0,875% 2,805
Banca german Krediitanstalt 1995 / Utilaj medical / Libor + 0,875% /
German Bank Krediitanstalt 1995 Medical equipment 6,151 Libor + 0,875% 3,208
Banca german Krediitanstalt 1995 / Utilaj medical / Libor + 0,875% / 5,306
German Bank Krediitanstalt 1995 Medical equipment 6,103 Libor + 0,875%
BERD 1996 / BERD 1996 Reconstruirea drumurilor / Roads Libor + 1% / 9,749
renovation 11,240 Libor + 1%
BIRD (Proiectul Energetic) 1996 / BIRD Reforma sectorului energetic / Energy
(Energy Project) 1996 sector reform 9,111 7,1% 9,111
Total / Total 220,194 189,933
Creditele financiare acordate Guvernului I.Cebuc I (februarie 1997 mai 1998) /
Financial loans given to I.Cebuc Government I (February 1997 May 1998)
IDA (SAL-II) 1997 / IDA (SAL-II) Susinerea reformelor structurale/
1997 Supporting structural reforms 41,994 0,75% 41,994
BIRD (SAL-II) 1997 / BIRD (SAL-II) Susinerea reformelor structurale / Libor + 0,5% /
1997 Supporting structural reforms 25,0 Libor + 0,5% 25,0
EUROBOND 1997 / EUROBOND Finanarea deficitului bugetar /
1997 Budget deficit financing 75,0 9,875% 75,0
Asigurarea cu ap potabil / Provision of Libor + 2,25% /
Tureximbank / Tureximbank
drinking water 14,945 Libor +2,25% 14,945
Utilaj electronic pentru coli /
Hewlett Packard / Hewlett Packard
Electronic equipment for schools 18,426 13,853
Total / Total 175,365 170,792
Creditele financiare acordate Guvernului I.Cebuc II (mai 1998 martie 1999) /
Financial loans given to I.Cebuc Government II (May 1998 March 1999)
BIRD (Proiectul n sfera educaie) 1998 / Dezvoltarea educaiei/ Libor + 0,75%
BIRD (Project in the field of education) Development of education avans/
1998 0,815 Libor + 0,75% 0,815
0,196 advance 0,196
BIRD (Proiectul n sfera educaie) 1998 / Dezvoltarea educaiei / Development of
BIRD (Project in the field of education) education
1998 4,454 0,75% 4,454
Dezvoltarea capacitilor de
IDA (DSP-II) 1998 /
management / Development of
IDA (DSP-II) 1998
management abilities 3,411 0,75% 3,411
IDA (Cadastr) 1998 / Elaborarea cadastrului / Development of
IDA (Cadastr) 1998 cadastre 5,708 0,75% 5,708
IDA (Cadastr) 1998 / Formarea cadastrului / Formation of
Avans / Advance
IDA (Cadastr) 1998 cadastre 1,208 1,208
Dezvoltarea sectorului rural / Rural area 4,708 0,75% 4,708
IDA (Satul) 1998 / IDA (Satul) 1998
development 0,554 Avans / Advance 0,554
Total 21,054 21,054

52 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

Creditele financiare acordate Guvernului I.Sturza (martie 1999 decembrie 1999)/


Financial loans given to I.Sturza Government (March 1999 December 1999)
1 2 3 4 5
IDA (Proiectul dezvoltarea
serviciilor sociale) 1999 / Pregtirea proiectului FIS /
IDA (Project on social services FIS Project preparation 4,81 4,81
development) 1999 0,256 0,75% 0,256
Dezvoltarea capacitilor de management n domeniul
IDA 1999 /
proteciei sociale / Development of management abilities in
IDA 1999
social protection 0,623 0,75% 0,623
IDA (SAC I) 1999 / Susinerea reformelor structurale /
IDA (SAC I) 1999 Supporting structural reforms 37,667 0,75% 37,667
Total 43,356 43,356
Creditele financiare acordate Guvernului D.Braghi (decembrie 1999 martie 2001) /
Financial loans given to D.Braghis Government (December 1999 March 2001)
Gazprom 2000 / Achitrile cu datoriile Gazpromului / 63,0 0,75% 63,0
Gazprom 2000 Gazprom debts payments 27,0 0,75% 27,0
IFAD 2001 / Finanarea satului i dezvoltarea ntreprinderilor mici / 0,75%
IFAD 2001 Village financing and small business development 0,391 0,391
IDA (investiii i servicii la sate)
0,75%
2001/
Dezvoltarea sectorului rural / Rural area development Avans /
IDA (vilage investments and
Advance
services) 2001 0,30 0,30
IDA (proiectul energetic II) 2001 Dezvoltarea sectorului energetic /Energy sector Avans /
/ IDA (Energy project II) 2001 development 0,15 Advance 0,15
Total 90,841 90,841
Sursa: Conform datelor BNM, preluate din www.bnm.md, 132; 139, 2002 /
Source: According to data of the NBM, www.bnm.md, 132; 139, 2002

n anii 1991-1992, Guvernelor Republicii Moldova le- During 1991 1992 Governments of the Republic
au fost acordate credite financiare n suma de circa 857 de of Moldova were granted financial credits in the amount of
milioane de dolari. n perioada 1992-1998, n baza deciziilor approximately US $ 857 million. During 1992 1998,
respective ale Guvernului i Parlamentului, agenilor following the decisions of the Government and Parliament,
economici le-au fost acordate garanii de stat pentru creditarea economic agents were granted state guarantees for foreign
extern pe suma de 202,2 milioane de dolari SUA. Aceast loans in the amount of US $ 202.2 million. However, in
practic ns a demonstrat, n mai multe cazuri, ineficiena many cases, this proved to be an inefficient use of these
folosirii acestor mijloace, iar unele credite au fost rambursate resources, and some loans have been paid from the state
din bugetul de stat. budget.
n concluzie, se poate meniona c Republica Moldova, In conclusion we can mention that Moldova is a
fiind o ar relativ tnr, cu dezvoltarea unei economii relatively young country, develops an open economy,
deschise, duce o lips acut de investiii importante, iar lacks significant investment, and financial indebtedness is
ndatorarea financiar este unicul mijloc de acoperire a lor, n the only possible way to cove all these shortages, under the
cazul unor posibiliti extrem de limitate ale populaiei circumstances of limited possibilities of the population.
autohtone. Situaia este foarte alarmant, deoarece, dac lum The situation is very alarming, as, if we consider that our
n consideraie faptul c ara noastr, cu o populaie de 3,5 country, with a population of 3.5 million people, has a
milioane, are o datorie extern per locuitor de circa 1650 de foreign debt of about US $ 1,650 of per capita, and the
dolari, iar populaia economic activ este de 1,1 milioane i, economically active population is 1,1 million people and
conform prognozelor, numrul pensionarilor fiind ntr-o the predicted number of pensioners is permanently
permanent cretere, ctre anul 2020, fiecrui angajat i vor increasing, by 2020 for every employee there will be 2
reveni doi pensionari. pensioners.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Legea Republicii Moldova Cu privire la datoria publica, garaniile de stat i recreditarea de stat
nr.419-XYI din 22.12.2006.
2. Biroul Naional de Statistic. Moldova n cifre. Breviar statistic. 2011. Ch.: Statistica, 2011.
3. Rapoartele Bncii Naionale a Moldovei pentru anii 1995 2012.
4. Ziarul Nezavisimaia Moldova nr. 132 i 139 din a. 2002.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 53


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

IMPLICAII ALE MIGRAIEI LABOUR FORCE


FOREI DE MUNC ASUPRA MIGRATION EFFECTS ON
SECURITII NAIONALE NATIONAL SECURITY
Drd. Natalia BRANACO, ASEM PhD candidate Natalia BRANASCO, ASEM
Migraia internaional a forei de munc a luat o International labour migration has
amploare deosebit la nceputul secolului XXI, din care particularly grown in the early XXI century, so as we
motiv considerm c este necesar evidenierea consider it necessary to emphasize the correlation
corelaiei dintre acest fenomen i securitatea naional a between this phenomenon and the national security
rilor donatoare i receptoare de for de munc. n of the donor and recipient countries of labour force.
acest articol, ne propunem s analizm succint diverse In this article we propose to analyse briefly various
efecte ale migraiei forei de munc asupra effects of labour migration on national security
dimensiunilor securitii naionale. dimensions.

Evenimentele acestui nceput de secol au Events at the beginning of this century


declanat un proces de transformare profund a mediului triggered a process of profound transformation of the
de securitate, au adus transformri eseniale att pentru security environment, brought essential changes both
economia mondial, ct i pentru Republica Moldova. n the world economy and for the Republic of Moldova.
acelai timp, n contextul globalizrii, s-au acutizat At the same time, in the framework of globalization,
vechile ameninri de securitate i au aprut noi pericole the old security threats worsened and new political,
i riscuri de ordin politic, social-economic, cultural, att socio-economic and cultural dangers and risks
pe plan intern, ct i extern. Acest fapt a dus la appeared, both internally and externally. This fact
perceperea securitii naionale ca o valoare decisiv a has led to the perception of national security as a
umanitii, dar i ca o problem major a critical value of humanity, but also as a major
contemporaneitii. problem of the present days.
Securitatea naional este determinat, ntr-o mare National security, to a great extent, is
msur, de stabilitatea politic din ar, situaia social, determined by the country's political stability, the
relaiile socioculturale i potenialul economic. Aceti social environment, socio-cultural relations and
factori, la rndul lor, conduc la declanarea proceselor economic potential. These factors, in turn, emerge
migraioniste ale forei de munc, ce pot s devin labour migration processes, which can become direct
ameninri directe pentru securitatea rilor participante threats to the security of the countries participating in
la aceste fluxuri internaionale. these international flows.
Conceptul de securitate naional a fost expus, The concept of national security for the
pentru prima dat, la nceputul secolului al XX-lea, de first time was mentioned in the early XXI century,
preedintele SUA, Theodore Roosevelt. Esena by the U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The
securitii naionale const n asigurarea unui sistem, ce essence of national security is to ensure a system that
ar garanta crearea condiiilor necesare pentru would guarantee the necessary conditions for the
ndeplinirea cu succes a funciilor statului. Elementele successful fulfilment of the state functions. The
structurale ale securitii naionale constituie securitatea structural elements of the national security are the
statului, securitatea societii i securitatea individului, state security, society security and individual
deoarece statul, societatea i individul sunt, totodat, i security, as the state, society and the individual are
subiectul, i obiectul ei. Securitatea naional este simultaneously its subject and its object. National
alctuit din urmtoarele dimensiuni: security consists of the following dimensions:
- securitatea economic; - economic security;
- securitatea social; - social security;
- securitatea demografic; - demographic security;
- securitatea informaional; - information security;
- securitatea politic; - political security;
- securitatea militar; - military security;
- securitatea ecologic etc. - environmental security etc.
Este evident faptul c securitatea naional It is obvious that national security is one of
reprezint unul din obiectivele prioritare ale Republicii the priorities for the Republic of Moldova.
Moldova. Conform Concepiei securitii naionale, According to the National Security Concept,
aprobat prin Legea Republicii Moldova nr. 112 din approved by Law of the Republic of Moldova no.
22.05.2008, obiectivele principale ale securitii 112 of 22.05.2008, the main objectives of national
naionale a Republicii Moldova sunt: asigurarea i security of the Republic of Moldova are to ensure

54 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

aprarea independenei, suveranitii, integritii and defence the countrys independence, sovereignty
teritoriale; consolidarea statalitii Republicii Moldova, and territorial integrity, strengthen Moldova's
aprarea valorilor naionale, securitii societii i a statehood, protect the national values, society and
cetenilor Republicii Moldova att pe teritoriul rii, ct citizens security, both within the country and abroad
i peste hotarele ei [1]. n opinia noastr, dezvoltarea [1]. In our view, the development of the security
sistemului de securitate al Republicii Moldova, ca system of the Republic of Moldova, as a strategy to
strategie de asigurare a intereselor naionale, este, ntr-o ensure the national interests, to a great extent, is
mare msur, condiionat de problemele induse de subject to the problems caused by the globalization
globalizarea proceselor migraioniste mondiale, ceea ce of the world migration processes, resulting in the
determin elaborarea i realizarea unei noi politici development and implementation of a new migration
migraioniste. policy.
n prezent, muli cercettori, printre care i Currently, many researchers, including the
savantul german S. Stetter, i manifest interesul German scientist S. Stetter, show their scientific
tiinific pentru problemele de corelare ntre asiguarea interest related to the correlation problems between
securitii i funcionalitatea relaiilor sociale, evaluarea ensuring security and functionality of social
securitii naionale, ca factor specific, ce determin relations, national security assessment as a specific
dezvoltarea societii [7]. Cercettorii rui, M. Garanin factor that determines the societys development [7].
i V. Cuzneov, au analizat problemele privind formarea Russian scientists M. Garanin, V. Kuznetsov
culturii securitii i atingerea securitii naionale prin analysed issues related to safety culture and
concordana intereselor individului, societii i statului achieving national security correlating the individual,
[9, 11]. G. Vitcovscaia i S. Panarin au analizat migraia, society and state interests [9, 11]. G. Vitcovscaia and
n contextul securitii, abordnd problemele privind S. Panarin analyzed migration in the context of
elaborarea strategiei de securitate n domeniul migraiei security, addressing to issues related to the
[8, 12]. Savanii T. Flockhart i H. Pilkington au cercetat development of migration security strategy [8, 12].
corelaia dintre migraie i securitate, n contextul Scientists T. Flockhart and H. Pilkington
cataclismelor sociale i creterii numrului migranilor investigated the correlation between migration and
[5, 6]. Un loc important l dein i aspectele privind security in the context of social cataclysms and
conflictul din domeniul relaiilor migraionale, cercetate increasing number of migrants [5, 6]. Of great
de A. Dmitriev i G. Peaduhov [10]. importance are also the aspects concerning the
n viziunea noastr, corelaia migraiei cu conflicts within the migration relations, studied by A.
securitatea este bilateral, pentru c aceast problem Dmitriev and G. Peaduhov [10].
conine dou aspecte importante: securitatea In our view, the correlation between
comunitilor i statelor, ce sunt incluse n circuitul migration and security is bilateral, because this
migraional, i securitatea persoanelor, ce formeaz problem has two important aspects: security of
fluxurile migraionale. Migraia poate crea pericole communities and states, which are included in the
reale, practic, fiecrui aspect al securitii. Societatea se migration cycle, and security of individuals, forming
poate confrunta cu problemele exodului de inteligen, the migration flows. Migration can create real
deformrii structurii demografice, teritoriale i social- dangers, practically, to every aspect of security.
profesionale. Analiznd fenomenul migraiei Society may face brain drain problems,
internaionale, factorii declanatori ai si, efectele asupra deformation of demographic, territorial and socio-
rilor donatoare i receptoare, conchidem c migraia professional structures. Analyzing the phenomenon
internaional a forei de munc este un factor al of international migration, its emerging factors, the
securitii la nivel global i o consecin a ei, migraia effects on donor and recipient countries, we conclude
contribuind att pozitiv, ct i negativ la asigurarea that international labour migration is both a global
securitii naionale. Pentru a evalua impactul migraiei security factor and also a consequence of this
forei de munc asupra securitii naionale, este phenomenon, having, both a positive and a negative
necesar analiza influenei migraiei asupra fiecrei contribution on national security. In order to assess
dimensiuni a securitii. the impact of labour migration on national security, it
Securitatea demografic a unei ri poate fi is necessary to analyze the influence of migration on
evaluat n conformitate cu procesele demografice each dimension of security.
principale: natalitatea, mortalitatea, migraia. n Demographic security of a country can be
contextul reducerii natalitii, n rile dezvoltate, assessed in accordance with the main demographic
anume, o rat de imigraie nalt devine un factor de processes: natality, mortality, migration. In the context
stabilizare demografic. Pentru rile receptoare de of reduced natality, especially in developed countries, a
migrani, efectele demografice sunt preponderent de high immigration rate is a factor of demographic
natur pozitiv. Imigranii contribuie la creterea stabilization. For migrant receiving countries,
numrului populaiei acestor ri. De exemplu, n demographic effects are mostly positive. Immigrants
Australia, datorit migranilor, populaia s-a mrit cu contribute to population growth in these countries, for

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 55


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

38%, n Canada cu 19% [2]. De asemenea, imigranii example in Australia, due to migrants, population
contribuie la scderea vrstei medii a populaiei, increased by 38%, in Canada by 19% [2]. Likewise,
deoarece marea majoritate a lor sunt tineri, dat fiind immigrants contribute to lowering the average age of
faptul c, de obicei, persoanele tinere au tendina s the population, since the vast majority of them are
migreze. Acest lucru este benefic pentru rile young, as usually young people tend to migrate. This is
receptoare, deoarece rile industrializate sunt alarmate beneficial for receiving countries, as industrialized
de mbtrnirea populaiei lor, implicnd probleme countries are alarmed by population aging, involving
sociale, culturale i, n special, economice. Pentru rile social, cultural and especially economic problems. For
donatoare, impactul migraiei asupra securitii naionale donor countries, the impact of migration on national
se concretizeaz n pierderi reale i poteniale de resurse security is reflected in real and potential loss of young
umane tinere, ceea ce implic, i n aceste ri, apariia human resources, which causes in these countries, the
problemei de mbtrnire a populaiei. problem of population aging.
Migraia internaional a forei de munc este International labour migration is influenced
influenat i poate influena dimensiunea politic a and can influence the political dimension of
securitii naionale prin politicile promovate de national security through policies promoted by the
guvern, fapt care, deseori, conduce la generarea government, which often lead to generation of forced
migraiei forate. Un exemplu recent l constituie migration. A recent example is the migration flow
declanarea fluxului migraioniste n urma revoluiilor i following the revolutions and civil wars in some
rzboaielor civile izbucnite n unele ri arabe. n urma Arab countries. Following these conflicts, tens of
acestor conflicte, zeci de mii de refugiai s-au deplasat thousands of refugees have moved to Southern
spre rile din sudul Europei, n special Italia. La rndul European countries, especially Italy. In turn, these
lor, aceti refugiai pot organiza n rile de destinaie refugees can organize in these countries various
diverse micri politice de opozie sau chiar teroriste, ce opposing political or even terrorist movements that
ar duce la nrutirea relaiilor cu ara lor de origine, cu would lead to worsening relations with their country
implicaii negative asupra securitii militare a rii- of origin, with negative implications for military
gazd. security of the host country.
Securitatea ecologic este influenat de Ecologic security is influenced by
migraie, deoarece diverse calamiti naturale duc la migration, because various natural disasters lead to
declanarea fluxurilor migraioniste. De asemenea, este migration flows. The negative impact of international
valabil i influena negativ a migraiei internaionale migration is also valid on the environment quality
asupra calitii mediului (de exemplu, n 1994, refugiaii (for example, in 1994, refugees from Rwanda have
din Ruanda au cauzat pierderea a circa 3750 ha de caused the loss of about 3750 ha of forest in D.R.
pdure din R.D. Congo) [3, p. 25]. Congo) [3, p. 25].
Migraia internaional a forei de munc prezint International labour migration has a
un impact deosebit asupra dimensiunii sociale a significant impact on the social dimension of
securitii naionale. Rezultatul amplificrii migraiei national security. The result of extended
internaionale const n creterea diversitii international migration is increasing ethno-cultural
etnoculturale i religioase a grupurilor sociale, ceea ce and religious diversity of social groups, which causes
determin apariia situaiilor tensionate ntre populaia tensed situations between indigenous people and
autohton i migrani o ameninare direct a securitii migrants a direct threat to national security. This
naionale. Acest fenomen este caracteristic multor state, phenomenon is specific to many countries, including
inclusiv Germaniei, Franei, Marii Britanii, Rusiei, iar Germany, France, Great Britain, Russia, and
experiena demonstreaz c o creterea de numai 10% a experience shows that only 10% increase in the
populaiei de alt etnie duce la apariia fobiilor n rndul population of other ethnic groups leads to phobias
populaiei autohtone. Unele studii evideniaz among the local population. Some studies highlight
interdependena migraiei internaionale (preponderent the interdependence between international migration
cea ilegal) i criminalitii organizate. rile de (mainly illegal) and organized crime. Destination
destinaie acuz creterea criminalitii cauzat de countries accuse increased crime because of
imigrani. De exemplu, n Italia, n anul 2005, din totalul immigrants. For example, in Italy in 2005, 21.2% of
deinuilor 21,2 % erau originari din Maroc, 14,5% din all prisoners were from Morocco, 14.5% from
Romnia i 12,3% din Albania [3, p. 37]. Romania and 12.3% from Albania [3, p. 37].
Impactul migraiei internaionale asupra The impact of international migration on
dimensiunii psihosociale a securitii naionale poate psycho-social dimension of national security can
fi analizat prin prisma efectelor pozitive sau negative be analyzed in terms of positive or negative effects
asupra identitii naionale, moralitii, normelor de on national identity, morality, rules of conduct etc.
comportament etc. Deseori, imigranii sunt prezentai ca Very often immigrants are shown as a potential risk
un risc potenial pentru cultura rii de destinaie i for the culture of the destination country and its basic
valorile de baz ale ei. Iar pentru rile de origine, o values. And for the countries of origin, a major threat

56 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

ameninare major o constituie destrmarea familiei i is the psychological trauma of family breakdown and
traumatizarea psihic a copiilor, rmai n ngrijirea unui children left in the care of one parent or other person.
singur printe sau a altor persoane. An important component of the national
O component important a securitii naionale security is economic security, extremely important in
este securitatea economic, fr meninerea creia nu pot order to accomplish the other types of security.
fi realizate celelalte tipuri de securitate. Securitatea Economic security is a multidimensional concept, it
economic este un concept multidimensional, ce poate fi can be considered as a certain state of the economy
definit drept o asemenea stare a economiei i a and government institutions, when the protection of
instituiilor guvernamentale, cnd este garantat national interests is guaranteed, as well as social
protecia intereselor naionale, dezvoltarea social development of the country as a whole, providing a
orientat a rii n ansamblu, fiind asigurat un potenial sufficient defence potential even under the heaviest
de aprare suficient, pn i n condiiile cele mai grele internal and external processes of evolution [4, p. 7].
ale evoluiei proceselor interne i externe [4, p. 7]. The influence of migration on economic
Influena migraiei asupra securitii economice security can be assessed by analyzing the effects of
poate fi evaluat prin analiza efectelor produse de acest this phenomenon in both, the receiving and the donor
fenomen att n rile receptoare, ct i n cele donatoare countries of labour force.
de for de munc. For receiving countries, the positive impact
Pentru rile receptoare, impactul pozitiv al of migration on economic security is shown in the
migraiei asupra securitii economice se manifest prin following effects:
urmtoarele efecte: - labour market satisfaction with unskilled
- satisfacerea necesitilor pieei muncii cu and skilled workers;
lucrtori necalificai i calificai; - increase of goods competitiveness
- creterea competitivitii mrfurilor produse produced by reduced costs due to the use
prin reducerea costurilor, datorit utilizrii of cheap labour force of immigrants;
muncii ieftine a imigranilor; - multiplier effect due to the rise in demand
- efectul multiplicator din contul creterii cererii coming from immigrants;
din partea imigranilor; - savings from education and professional
- economii privind instruirea i pregtirea training of qualified workers;
profesional a lucrtorilor calificai; - creating conditions for attracting foreign
- crearea premiselor pentru atragerea investiiilor investment and implementing new
strine i implementarea noilor tehnologii. technologies.
Influena negativ a migraiei internaionale a The negative influence of international
forei de munc se exprim prin urmtoarele aspecte: labour migration is expressed by the following:
- ritmuri lente de implementare a noilor - slow pace of implementing new
tehnologii, din cauza utilizrii forei de munc technologies, caused by use of cheap
ieftine; labour force;
- amplificarea concurenei pe piaa muncii, - increasing competition on the labour
marginalizarea lucrtorilor necalificai market, marginalization of local unskilled
autohtoni; workers;
- ieirea din ar a veniturilor imigranilor; - immigrants income outbound;
- dependena de fora de munc strin n unele - dependence on foreign labour force in
sectoare; some sectors;
- apariia noilor condiii pentru economia - emergence of new conditions for shadow
subteran i corupie; economy and corruption;
- cheltuieli publice privind programele de - public expenditure on programs for
adaptare a imigranilor. immigrants adaptation.
Analiznd relaiile complexe dintre migraia forei Analyzing the complex relationships
de munc i securitatea economic, este important s between labour migration and economic security, it
cercetm i impactul migraiei asupra rilor donatoare, is important to study the impact of migration on
mai ales c Republica Moldova face parte din acest donor countries especially that the Republic of
grup. Moldova is part of this group.
Aceste influene, ca i n cazul rilor receptoare, These influences, like in receiving
pot fi att pozitive, ct i negative. Un efect pozitiv este countries, can be both positive and negative. A
c emigraia reduce tensiunea de pe piaa muncii din positive effect is that migration reduces tension on
rile cu o rat nalt a omajului, deoarece emigreaz, the labour market in countries with high rate of
de obicei, persoanele ce nu i-au gsit un loc de munc unemployment, because usually people who have
n ara lor sau nu sunt satisfcute de locul de munc. not found a job in their country or are not satisfied
Dar, n acelai context, evideniem i partea negativ a with their work emigrate. In the same context, we

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 57


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

acestui fenomen prin emigraia specialitilor de nalt also emphasize the negative side of this
calificare. Pierderi masive, de circa 30-40% din fora de phenomenon, namely, the emigration of highly
munc nalt calificat, au fost nregistrate n rile din qualified specialists. Massive losses of about 30-
Africa, Asia i America Central. De exemplu, SUA a 40% of highly qualified labour force were
recepionat un numr record (145000 de persoane) de recorded in countries like Africa, Asia and Central
specialiti de nalt calificare provenii din rile asiatice America. For example, the USA has received a
exportatoare de inteligen China, India, Coreea de record number (145 000 persons) of highly
Sud i Filipine [2, 181]. Este evident faptul c pierderile qualified specialists from Asian countries
de miliarde de dolari, ce au fost investite n formarea intelligence export- China, India, South Korea
acestor specialiti, au influene negative asupra and the Philippines [2, 181]. It is obvious that the
securitii acestor economii naionale. losses of billions of dollars, invested in training of
O consecin a procesului de emigraie const n these specialists, have negative influences on the
pierderile temporare sau chiar definitive ale populaiei, national economies security.
ce, implicit, duc la frnarea ritmului creterii economice. A consequence of the migration process is,
innd cont de faptul c majoritatea emigranilor sunt temporary or even permanent, loss of population,
tineri, se explic i mbtrnirea populaiei rilor which, certainly slowdowns the economic growth.
donatoare de for de munc. Deoarece emigreaz Given the fact that most migrants are young, this
persoane active din punct de vedere economic, putem leads to population aging of donor countries. Since
constata c din aceste ri pleac tocmai potenialii economically active people emigrate, we can
contribuabili. De aceea, putem afirma c emigraia duce emphasize that potential contributors leave the
la distrugerea treptat a sistemului de asigurri sociale, country. Therefore, we can state that migration leads
inclusiv a fondului de pensii. to gradual destruction of the social security system,
Totui, nu putem neglija cel mai mare avantaj al including the pension fund.
emigraiei forei de munc remitenele (fluxurile However, we can not overlook the
financiare provenite de la migrani). Dac, n 1990, greatest advantage of labour migration
Banca Mondial estima fluxurile de remitene la nivel remittances (financial flows from migrants). If, in
global la circa 65 mlrd USD, atunci, n anul 2009, aceste 1990, the World Bank estimated global remittance
fluxuri au atins un volum de 307 mlrd USD. Desigur c flows to about US$ 65 billion, then, in 2009, these
remitenele au un impact pozitiv asupra rilor de origine flows reached a volume of US$ 307 billion. Of
ale emigranilor, prin efectele lor benefice directe i course, remittances have a positive impact on
indirecte asupra economiei naionale. Pentru Republica migrants countries, through direct and indirect
Moldova, remitenele devin una dintre cele mai effects on the national economy. For Moldova,
importante i stabile surse financiare. Influenele remittances are one of the most important and
pozitive s-au manifestat att prin sporirea veniturilor stable financial sources. Positive influences were
gospodriilor casnice, ct i prin majorarea veniturilor n seen both in the increase of household income and
bugetul public de pe urma impozitrii indirecte a in the increase of public budget revenues from
mrfurilor cerute pe pia. Astfel, remitenele au indirect taxation of the goods with increased
contribuit la ridicarea nivelului de trai al unei pri demand. Thus, remittances have contributed to the
considerabile a populaiei. raise of the living standard of a considerable part
Pornind de la analiza efectuat, conchidem faptul of the population.
c relaia dintre securitate i migraie este evident i Based on the performed analysis, we can
foarte complex, cci migraia poate constitui un factor conclude that the relationship between security and
determinant al securitii naionale, dar, n acelai timp, migration is evident and very complex, since
migraia este i un efect al mediului de securitate. n migration can be an important factor of national
viziunea noastr, migraia internaional a forei de security, but at the same time, migration is a result of
munc, n contextul securitii naionale, devine una the security environment. In our view, international
dintre cele mai actuale probleme ale politicii de stat din labour migration, in the context of national security,
majoritatea rilor lumii, cauzele fiind diferite, de la is one of the most current issues of state policy in
excedentul de migrani, pn la necesitatea rezolvrii most countries, the causes being different, starting
dezechilibrului demografic prin intermediul fluxurilor with excess of migrants to the need of solving the
migraionale. Asigurarea securitii este posibil prin demographic imbalance through migration flows.
elaborarea unor politici eficiente, inclusiv politica Security is possible by effective policies, including
migraional, realizarea lor bazndu-se pe consolidarea migration policy, their implementation being based
social, susinerea scopurilor i aciunilor on social consolidation, social support of government
guvernamentale de ctre societate, deoarece securitatea goals and actions, security can not exist in isolation,
nu poate exista izolat, ea fiind interdependent cu viaa being interdependent with the life of the individual,
individului, societii i statului. society and state.

58 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RELAII ECONOMICE INTERNAIONALE / INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS

Bibliografie/Bibliogrphy:
1. Legea Republicii Moldova nr. 112 din 22.05.2008, http://lex.justice.md/ru/328010
2. Grigore L. Piaa muncii pe plan mondial. Bucureti, 2000, 192 p.
3. Sarcinschi, A. Migraie i securitate, Bucureti: Editura Universitii Naionale de Aprare Carol I,
2008, 44 p.
4. Toma A. Problemele securitii economice a statelor mici n condiiile globalizrii. Autoreferat al tezei
de doctor n economie. Chiinu, 2009. 24 p.
5. Flockhart . Rees G.W. A Core Europe? The EU and WEU / / Rethink-ing Security in Post-Cold War
Europe. London; New York, 1998. P.71-74.
6. Pilkington H. Migration. Displacement and Identity in Post-Soviet Russia. London; New York, 1998.
P.50-60.
7. Stetter S. Regulation Migration: Authority Delegation in justice and Home Affairs // Journal of
European Public Policy. 2000. Vol.7.
8. ..
/ / . .: . ,
1998. . 25. .30-69.
9. .. . .: ; ,
2008. 141 .
10. ., .. , , :
/ / : . . 2009. 6.
.95-104.
11. .. . .: - , 2007. 423 .
12. .. : / /
. .: + , 2000. .7-35.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 59


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

COMPORTAMENTUL ORGANISATIONAL
ORGANIZAIONAL: BEHAVIOUR: MODELLING
MODELARE PRIN PRISMA IN THE LIGHT OF ITS
DIMENSIUNILOR ACESTUIA DIMENSIONS
Conf. univ. dr. Maria MANCA, ASEM Assoc. Prof.,PhD., Maria MANCAS, ASEM
Lect. sup. univ. master Elvira JOROVLEA, Senior Lecturer, MA, Elvira JOROVLEA,
ASEM ASEM
Comportamentul organizaional reprezint Organizational behaviour is the study of the
studiul comportamentului indivizilor n organizaii, individuals behaviour within organizations, which
ceea ce implic nelegerea, previziunea i controlul involves understanding, predicting and controlling
comportamentului uman, al modelelor i structurilor, human behaviour, patterns and structures, in order
cu scopul de a mbunti mediul, performana i to improve the environment, the performance and the
eficiena organizaiei. De aici reiese c, pentru a efficiency of the organization. This suggests that, its
examina comportamentul organizaional, trebuie dimensions should be analyzed in order to examine
supuse analizei dimensiunile acestuia. Astfel, e necesar organizational behaviour. Thus, it is necessary to
s se stabileasc rolul individului n organizaie, establish the role of the individual in the
gradul de influen a comportamentului de grup organization, the degree of influence of the group
asupra celui organizaional, impactul structurii i behaviour on the organizational one, the
culturii organizaionale asupra comportamentului, organizational structure and culture impact on
asupra mediului organizaional. behaviour and organizational environment.

O organizaie presupune un ansamblu de indivizi An organization involves a group of individuals


care interacioneaz, i, totodat, se confrunt cu who interact with one another and who face different
diferite fenomene organizatorice. n acest context, organizational phenomena. In this context, individual
comportamentul individual apare ca urmare a behaviour arises as a result of the interaction of the
interaciunii dintre persoan i diveri factori de mediu, individual and the various environmental factors that
pe care aceasta i ntlnete. Cu ct mai divers este he encounters. The more diverse the individuals
personalitatea individului i cu ct mai muli sunt personality is and the more factors he interacts with,
factorii cu care interacioneaz, cu att mai variate sunt the more various are the behaviours of the employees
comportamentele angajailor organizaiei. Din aceast of the organization. This statement shows the link
afirmaie, devine vizibil legtura dintre between personality and behaviour:
personalitate i comportament: personality determines the coherence of a
personalitatea condiioneaz coerena persons behaviour in various situations [1,
comportamentului unei persoane aflate n p.91];
diverse situaii [1, p.91]; behaviour, at a certain time, is a unique
comportamentul, la un moment dat, este o combination of personality traits and
combinaie unic ntre trsturi de requirements of the environment.
personalitate i cerine ale mediului. Thus, the managers have to study and
Managerii trebuie, deci, s studieze i s understand an individual's personality, as this will
neleag personalitatea unui individ, fapt care va enable the understanding of the whole process of
nlesni nelegerea ntregului proces de comportament organizational behaviour.
organizaional. So arises the question: In which way does a
Se impune ntrebarea: n ce mod personalitatea personality determine the diversity of an individuals
determin diversitatea comportamentelor unui behaviour? The answer is that this is conditioned by a
individ? Rspunsul este c aceasta reiese dintr-un ir number of factors such as dimensions, features, raw
de factori precum dimensiunile, caracteristicile, materials etc.
materiile prime etc. Regardless of the culture that the individual
Indiferent de cultura de apartenen a indivizilor, belongs to, we can list the following personality
printre dimensiunile personalitii, se enumer: dimensions:
a. Extraversiunea sau gradul n care cineva are a. Extraversion or the degree to which someone has
un comportament sociabil n opoziie cu a sociable behaviour as opposed to someone who
altcineva care denot un comportament timid; shows a shy behaviour;
b. Gradul de agreare sau msura n care o b. Degree of approval or the extent to which an
persoan demonstreaz un comportament individual shows a friendly and approachable

60 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

prietenos i abordabil; behaviour;


c. Contiinciozitatea sau gradul n care o c. Conscientiousness or the degree to which a
persoan se comport responsabil, orientndu- person behaves responsibly, focusing on
se spre realizri; achievements;
d. Stabilitatea emoional sau msura n care o d. Emotional stability or the extent to which a
persoan i menine comportamentul la person maintains his behaviour at an appropriate
nivelul corespunztor de control emoional; level of emotional control;
e. Deschiderea la nou sau msura n care o e. Open-mindedness or the extent to which a person
persoan are un comportament ghidat de gndire has a behaviour guided by flexible thinking and
flexibil i de receptivitate la idei noi (diferite openness to new ideas (different degrees of a
grade ale dimensiunilor personalitii prezic personalitys dimensions predict the employees
comportamentul i performanele n munc ale behaviour and work performances, for example,
angajatului. De exemplu, contiinciozitatea i the conscientiousness and the emotional stability
stabilitatea emoional prognozeaz criteriile predict the criteria of a behaviour oriented
unui comportament orientat spre obinerea towards obtaining employment performance at
performanei n munc pentru toate categoriile all the professional categories; the extraversion is
profesionale; extraversiunea este un predictor al a predictor of the administrative staffs
unui comportament de succes al cadrelor successful behaviour and the open-mindedness
manageriale, iar deschiderea la nou prezice predicts success in a variety of training programs
succesul ntr-o varietate de programe de formare for employee behaviour) [2, p. 130].
a comportamentelor angajailor) [2, p. 130]. Specific personality characteristics such as
Caracteristicile specifice personalitii (precum (control localisation, self-efficacy and creativity)
localizarea controlului, autoeficacitatea i creativitatea), directly influence the behaviour. Lets address them in
influeneaz n mod direct comportamentul. S le a more detailed way:
abordm detaliat: Control localisation: determines the degree
Localizarea controlului: determin gradul to which individuals consider that their
n care indivizii consider comportamentul behaviour influences what happens to
lor ca fiind cel ce influeneaz ceea ce se them.
ntmpl cu ei. From this point of view, we can distinguish:
Din acest punct de vedere, se disting: indivizi cu individuals with an internal control localisation
localizare intern a controlului (interniti), care cred (internists), who believe that their behaviour is under
c modul n care ei se comport se afl sub controlul their control and the success that lies in this behaviour
lor, iar succesul ce rezid n acest comportament este is only their merit; the individuals with an external
numai meritul lor; indivizi cu localizarea extern a control localisation (externists) are those who believe
controlului (externiti) acei care au sigurana c that their behaviour is influenced by the situations they
comportamentul lor este influenat de situaiile n care face, as well as that it is influenced by external forces,
nimeresc, c acesta este influenat de forele exterioare, which they cannot control.
ce nu depind de ei. Self-efficacy: refers to the personal beliefs
Autoeficacitatea: se refer la convingerile regarding somebodys own skills and
personale privind competenele i abilitile abilities, a persons belief in his ability to
proprii, la credina unei persoane n adopt such a behaviour that will help him
capacitatea sa de a adopta un aa successfully complete a task. The
comportament, care l va ajuta s finalizeze cu managerial implications regarding the self-
succes o sarcin. Implicaiile manageriale n efficacy refer to its link with the
autoeficacitate se refer la legtura acesteia cu assessment of performances, establishing
evaluarea performanelor, cu stabilirea goals and the use of incentives.
obiectivelor, cu utilizarea stimulentelor. In this way, the managers can use this
n aa fel, managerii pot folosi aceast trstur personality feature to change their employees
a personalitii n modificarea comportamentelor behaviours through training and education processes,
angajailor prin procese de formare i pregtire, mai especially when appointments to administrative
ales, cnd sunt planificate numiri n posturi positions are planned;
administrative. Creativity: is a personality trait that
Creativitatea: este o trstur de personalitate involves the ability to produce new and
care implic abilitatea de a produce idei noi, useful ideas, thus produce innovation. The
utile, adic produce inovare. Implicaiile managerial implications in their
manageriale n creativitatea subalternilor subordinates creativity lie in the fact that
constau n faptul c angajailor li se d the employees are given the opportunity
posibilitatea i libertatea de a gndi n moduri and freedom to think in unconventional

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 61


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

neconvenionale. ways.
n acest sens, exist tehnica de ncurajare a In this regard, there is the technique to
comportamentului, de asumare a riscurilor, n caz de behaviour encouragement, which implies taking risks
eec sau de greeli (dup principiul nva din in the event of failure or mistakes (after the principle
greeli!). Learn from your mistakes!).
La modificarea comportamentului, particip i The raw materials also participate in
materiile prime ale personalitii: temperamentul, behaviour modification, such as: temperament,
inteligena, aptitudinile i abilitile. intelligence, skills and abilities.
Temperamentul reprezint latura dinamic a The temperament is the dynamic aspect of
comportamentului, fiind o caracteristic nnscut. Se behaviour, being an innate characteristic. We know
cunosc urmtoarele tipuri de temperamente: sangvinic, the following types of temperaments: sanguine,
flegmatic, coleric, melancolic. Managerii trebuie s phlegmatic, choleric, and melancholic. The managers
nvee s recunoasc temperamentul angajailor n have to learn to recognize their employees
cazul numirii n funcie sau n post, sau n atribuirea temperament in the case of their appointment to a
unor sarcini adecvate persoanelor cu tip de function or post, or in the case of assigning
temperament potrivit. appropriate tasks according to peoples type of
Inteligena reprezint o aptitudine general de temperament.
rezolvare a problemelor teoretice i practice, o Intelligence is a general ability to solve
capacitate (form i atribut al organizrii mentale i theoretical and practical problems, a capacity (the
comportamentale). Inteligena influeneaz direct shape and attribute of the mental and behavioural
performanele n munc. De aceea, managerii ar trebui organization). The intelligence directly influences the
s aplice tehnici de sporire a inteligenei, pentru a work performance. Therefore, the managers should
obine de la angajai modelul de comportament necesar apply the techniques to increase the intelligence in
n obinerea performanelor. order to obtain the necessary behavioural model of
Aptitudinile sunt capacitatea unei persoane de a their employees to help them achieve performance.
nva ceva, iar abilitile reflect capacitatea existent The skills are a person's ability to learn
la acea persoan de a realiza diferite sarcini cerute de something, and the abilities reflect a persons existing
un post i a include cunotine relevante i deprinderi. capacity to perform various tasks required for a
i de vreme ce aptitudinea reprezint abilitatea, iar position and include relevant knowledge and skills.
abilitatea reprezint aptitudinea, putem afirma c And since skill is ability and ability is skill, we can
aptitudinile sunt abiliti poteniale, iar abilitile sunt affirm that the skills are potential abilities and the
cunotine i deprinderi, pe care individul deja le abilities are knowledge and skills that the individual
posed. Cunoaterea (identificarea) aptitudinilor i already possesses. The knowledge (identification) of
abilitilor unui angajat este important pentru the employees skills and abilities is important for the
nelegerea i previziunea comportamentului (mai ales understanding and predicting of the behaviour
n situaii de soluionare a problemelor ce in de (especially in problem-solving situations related to
obinere a performanei) [1, p.92-94]. obtaining performance) [1, p.92-94].
Pentru a explica legtura dintre grup i To explain the link between the group and the
comportamentul grupului este nevoie a alege o groups behaviour we need to choose a definition of a
definiie a grupului care s cuprind att dimensiunea group containing both the objective dimension
obiectiv (referitoare la atributele reale ale grupului, (relating to real group attributes such as: its
cum ar fi caracteristicile acestuia, procesele characteristics and processes (phenomena)) as well as
(fenomenele) din cadrul lui), ct i dimensiunea the subjective dimension (which comprises group
subiectiv (care cuprinde contiina de grup) [5]. consciousness) [5]. It is through these two dimensions
Anume, prin aceste dou dimensiuni, acioneaz that the managers act, in order to influence the groups
managerii, n vederea influenrii comportamentului behaviour to achieve performance.
grupului spre atingerea performanelor. A group is said to possess consciousness when
Despre un grup se spune c posed contiin its individuals interact, are psychologically aware of
atunci cnd persoanele din care acesta este alctuit their mutual relationship and perceive themselves to
interacioneaz, sunt contiente psihologic de legtura be a group [1, p. 122]. However, when the groups
lor reciproc i percep ele nsei c reprezint un grup consciousness is uniform, then its behavior is uniform
[1, p. 122]. Or, cnd contiina grupului este uniform, (all its members acting under the principle of "One for
atunci i comportamentul acestuia este uniform (toi all and all for one").
membrii acionnd conform principiului Unul pentru Therefore, the existence of a group is based on
toi i toi pentru unul). the relationships that link its members and keep them
Aadar, existena grupului se bazeaz pe relaii care together. The relationships can be: physical, mental
leag membrii, i in mpreun. Relaiile pot fi de ordin: social and cultural. The social and cultural relations
fizic, psihic, social, cultural. Relaiile de ordin social i make up the socio-cultural and educational

62 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

cultural alctuiesc mediul socio-cultural i educaional environment for the individuals development within
pentru dezvoltarea indivizilor grupului, pentru dezvoltarea the group, as well as for the development of the
proceselor de normalizare i uniformizare, contribuind, normalization and standardization processes, thus
astfel, la distribuirea puterii, a statutelor i rolurilor. Altfel contributing to the distribution of power, statutes and
spus, determin comportamentul membrilor grupului. roles. In other words, it determines the group
Drept rezultat, acetia nu se conformeaz n urma unui members behaviour. As a result, they do not conform
raionament logic, ci acioneaz n virtutea dorinei de a se to following a logical argument, but act under the
identifica drept membri ai grupului pe care vor s-l apere, desire to identify themselves as the members of a
obinnd, la rndul lor, protecie din partea acestuia. group that they want to protect, thus getting its
Grupurile sunt clasificate din mai multe puncte protection in turn.
de vedere, dar cele mai sensibile la schimbrile The groups are classified in several ways, but
comportamentale, sunt cele formate n funcie de the most sensitive to behavioural changes are formed
statutul acordat oficial grupului i anume: depending on the groups officially granted status, and
a. Formale, unde exist o organigram, reguli de namely:
funcionare precise, scrise (comportamentul a. Formal, where there is an organization,
acestui grup este, de asemenea, formal, specific written operating rules (the
conform constrngerilor organizaionale); behaviour of this group is also formal
b. Informale, unde legile sunt nescrise according to organizational constraints);
(comportamentul acestui grup este influenat b. Informal, where laws are unwritten (this
de valorile i credinele ce i unete pe groups behaviour is influenced by the
membrii acestuia). values and beliefs that unite its members).
Evoluia grupului este asemntoare cu viaa The groups evolution is similar to human life.
unei fiine umane. Deci, modurile de influen a So, the ways to influence the group behaviour
comportamentului de grup se aseamn cu cele de resemble the ways to influence individual behaviour,
influen ale comportamentului individului, i anume: namely:
1. Stadiul de formare: este caracterizat prin 1. The training stage is characterized by the
dependena fa de alte entiti: membrii dependence on other entities: the group
grupului se comport formal, rezervat. La members behave formally and reserved. At
acest stadiu e important aplicarea tehnicilor this stage it is important to implement the
ce stimuleaz coeziunea grupului, pentru a techniques that foster group cohesion in order
forma i consolida un anumit comportament. to form and strengthen certain behaviour.
2. Stadiul furtunii: se desfoar n perioada 2. The storm stage takes place during
adolescenei i demonstreaz rebeliune: adolescence and it shows rebellion: the
membrii ajung s se cunoasc, dup care members get to know each other and then start
ncepe lupta pentru ocuparea poziiilor n fighting for the position in the group. It is often
grup. Adesea, este un stadiu n care apar a stage where interpersonal conflicts appear
conflicte interpersonale i competitivitate and which is marked by a high
ridicat. Dac este bine gestionat, grupul se competitiveness. If it is well managed, the
transform ntr-o echip eficient. n caz group turns into an efficient team, otherwise
contrar, grupul se fragmenteaz i tensiunile the group gets fractured and the tensions
subzist. n aceast etap, sunt necesare persist. At this stage, techniques and methods
tehnici i metode de consolidare a are needed in order to train behaviour by
comportamentului n formare prin reglarea regulating conflict and management of stress.
conflictelor i managementul stresului. 3. The stage of establishing rules coincides with
3. Stadiul stabilirii normelor: coincide cu cel al the youth stage and is determined by increased
tinereii i este determinat de accentuarea self-confidence. The group members
ncrederii n forele proprii. Comportamentul behaviour is increasingly focused on the tasks,
membrilor grupului este orientat din ce n ce mai there are signs of cooperation behaviour and of
mult pe realizarea sarcinilor, apar semnele attention towards others, and the rules of social
comportamentelor de cooperare i de atenie fa interaction behaviour are established. During
de ceilali, se stabilesc reguli ale this period, the methods and techniques that
comportamentului de interaciune social. n encourage and maintain behaviour have an
perioada respectiv, un rol important l au important role, as they lead to performance, as
metodele i tehnicile de ncurajare i meninere a for example: planning and career development.
comportamentului ce conduce la performane, ca 4. The performance and maturity stage is
de exemplu, planificarea i dezvoltarea carierei. dedicated to creative work and performance
4. Stadiul performanei, al maturitii: este achievement. If the previous stages have been
dedicat muncii creative i obinerii completed successfully, in this stage the

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 63


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

performanelor. Dac stadiile anterioare au fost structures and procedures are clearly defined,
parcurse cu succes, n acesta structurile i and the social aspects as well as those related
procedurile sunt clar stabilite, aspectele sociale to the task are clarified. Group members show
i cele legate de sarcin sunt clarificate. Membrii behaviours that indicate trust and mutual
grupului demonstreaz comportamente ce support. This stage involves choosing factors
denot ncredere i susinere reciproc. Stadiul to support the existing behaviour through
presupune alegerea factorilor de susinere a appropriate incentives and reward programs.
comportamentului deja existent, prin motivaii 5. The decline stage is associated with
adecvate i programe de recompensare pe pathologies related to growth failure, loss of
msur. task or group disintegration with the aim of
5. Stadiul declinului este asociat cu patologii reforming it under new circumstances. During
legate de imposibilitatea creterii, de dispariia this period of development of the group, the
sarcinii sau de dezagregarea formaiei n behaviour reorganization and recovery is
vederea reformrii ei n noi circumstane. n necessary, in order to get the one required by
aceast perioad de evoluie a grupului, este new circumstances (e.g., through employee
necesar reorganizarea i redresarea training and reforming programs or through
comportamentului, pentru a-l obine pe cel social assistance and support programs) [4,
cerut de noile circumstane (de exemplu, prin p.129].
programe de formare i reformare a The structural group approaches stem from the
angajailor sau prin programe de asisten i fact that it is characterized by stability, duration,
susinere social) [4, p.129]. history, system of rules, i.e. through an integrative
Abordrile structurale ale grupurilor reies din internal organization, and namely by:
faptul c acesta este caracterizat prin stabilitate, durat, the configuration of formal and informal
istorie, sistem de reguli, adic printr-o organizare functions and positions of the group members
interioar integrativ, i anume prin: which form the role structure of the group
configuraia poziiilor i funciilor formale i (the group role provides a behaviour
informale ale membrilor grupului, care according to the situation and leads to
formeaz structura de rol a grupului (rolul de achievement of group and organizational
grup prevede un comportament adecvat objectives);
situaiilor i realizrii obiectivelor de grup i the interpersonal communication lines that
organizaionale); form its communication structure (the
liniile de comunicare interpersonal care communication structure helps to build,
formeaz structura lui de comunicare maintain and modify, if necessary, the
(structura de comunicare ajut la formarea, behaviour of each member separately and the
meninerea i modificarea, n caz de group one);
necesitate, a comportamentului fiecrui the configuration of interpersonal perceptions
membru aparte i a celui de grup); that forms the cognitive structure of the
configuraia percepiilor interpersonale, care group (the cognitive structure participates in
formeaz structura cognitiv a grupului directing the group behaviour as a whole,
(structura cognitiv particip la direcionarea depending on organizational changes);
comportamentului de grup, n ansamblu, n the specialisation of tasks, which forms the
dependen de modificrile organizaionale); occupational structure of the group (the
specializarea sarcinilor, care formeaz occupational structure reinforces behaviour,
structura ocupaional a grupului (structura sometimes developing it);
ocupaional consolideaz comportamentul, the arrangement of the way the decisions are
uneori, dezvoltndu-l); taken, thus forming the power structure of
aranjamentul modului n care se adopt the group (the group power affects its
deciziile, formnd, astfel structura de putere a behaviour in making individual, group and
grupului (puterea grupului influeneaz organizational decisions);
comportamentul acestuia n luare a deciziilor the sympathetic relations distribution,
individuale, de grup i organizaionale); representing the structure of affinities or the
distribuia relaiilor simpatetice, constituind sociometric structure of the group (the
structura de afiniti sau structura sociometric techniques of the group are based
sociometric a grupului (tehnicile on the observation of preferential choices that
sociometrice ale grupurilor au la baz individuals make with each other; the
observarea alegerilor prefereniale pe care behaviour of a group is more uniform as there
indivizii le fac ntre ei; comportamentul unui are more mutual choices between its
grup este cu att mai uniform cu ct exist individuals);

64 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

mai multe alegeri reciproce ntre indivizii care the system of means by which the individuals
l compun); can move from one position to another within
sistemul de mijloace prin care indivizii se pot the group, which constitutes the locomotor
deplasa de la o poziie la alta n grup, fapt ce structure of the group (the locomotor
constituie structura locomotorie a grupului structure must demonstrate a flexible and
(structura locomotorie trebuie s demonstreze, easy to modify behaviour of particular
comportament flexibil, uor de modificat al individuals and of the group in general) [3,
indivizilor aparte i al grupului, n general) [3, pp.171-204].
pp.171-204]. As a coherent social entity, the organisation
Ca entitate social coerent, organizaia reproduces recurrent behaviours at the groups level.
reproduce comportamentele recurente la nivelul This envisages the groups cohesion, which is a factor
grupurilor. Se are n vedere coeziunea grupului, care that depends on the compatibility between the
este un factor ce depinde de compatibilitatea existent objectives of the group and of each participant
dintre obiectivele grupului i obiectivele fiecrui individually. In a cohesive group, the interaction
participant, n parte. ntr-un grup coeziv, interaciunea between members will be greater as they will engage
dintre membri va fi mai mare: acetia vor adopta un in mutual aid behaviour. Thus, the level of
comportament de ajutor reciproc. Astfel, nivelul de achievement of group objectives will be the best: the
realizare a obiectivelor grupului va fi cel superior: members will reach the highest level of satisfaction,
membrii vor cpta o mai mare satisfacie i mai mult energy and morale, and respectively, the behaviour
energie, la un nivel moral ridicat i, respectiv, se vor problems will be reduced.
reduce problemele de comportament. The group dynamics is supposed to determine
Dinamica grupului presupune determinarea (through observation and experimentation) the forces
(prin observare i experimentare) a forelor care participating in the operation of the system, the way
particip la funcionarea sistemului, a modului n care they are conjugated, and the laws that govern their
ele se conjug, a legilor care le guverneaz expression.
manifestarea. The "group dynamics" is a generic term that
Termenul dinamica grupului este un termen includes activities that deeply vary from one another,
generic, care nglobeaz activiti profund deosebite such as conducting meetings, teamwork, group
unele de altele, precum: dirijarea reuniunilor, munca creative expression, personal development within and
n echip, exprimarea creativ n grup, dezvoltarea through the group, training towards communication,
personal n i prin grup, antrenamentul n direcia awareness of interpersonal relationship etc.
comunicrii, sensibilizarea fa de relaia In terms of dynamics, the group is seen as a
interpersonal etc. body, a set of interdependent people, which acts as a
Din perspectiva dinamicii, grupul este privit ca system of positive and negative tensions.
un organism, un ansamblu de persoane A good manager should be aware of these
interdependente, care se comport ca un sistem de issues, meaning that he has to adopt and impose an
tensiuni pozitive i negative. appropriate behaviour on others, adjust the tensions
Un manager bun trebuie s contientizeze aceste that occur within the groups and restore some form of
aspecte, ceea ce presupune adoptarea i impunerea unui balance.
comportament adecvat celorlali, pentru reglarea Thus, the individuals influence the behaviour of
strilor de tensiune aprute n grup i pentru the group they belong to, and the behaviour of a
restabilirea unei forme de echilibru. particular individual is influenced by the attitudes,
Aadar, indivizii influeneaz comportamentul values and behaviours of other group members.
grupului din care fac parte, iar comportamentul unui Meanwhile, the group affects not only the behaviour
individ aparte este influenat de atitudinile, valorile i of the individuals who compose it, but also that of
comportamentele celorlali membri ai grupului. other existing groups and even of the organization as a
Totodat, grupul influeneaz nu numai whole. That is why the study of groups and group
comportamentul indivizilor care l alctuiesc, ci i behaviour helps in understanding organizational
comportamentul altor grupuri existente pn i cel al behaviour.
organizaiei n ntregime. Iat de ce studiul grupurilor The size of the organization includes the
i al comportamentelor de grup ajut la nelegerea studying of the organization-environment
comportamentului organizaional. relationship and of some of its dimensions, such as
Dimensiunea organizaie nglobeaz studierea organizational structure, organizational culture and
relaiei organizaie-mediu i a unor dimensiuni ale ei, the link between them and the behaviour of
ca structura organizaiei, cultura organizaional i individuals in the organization.
legtura dintre acestea i comportamentul indivizilor The structure of the organization contains all
din organizaie. its formal and tangible characteristics. The link
between the organizational structures and the

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 65


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Structura organizaiei conine toate behaviours found in it arises from the classification of
caracteristicile formale i tangibile ale acesteia. organizations according to their structures:
Legtura dintre structurile organizaionale i 1. Mechanistic (structures with a large number of
comportamentele depistate n ea reiese din clasificarea hierarchical levels, a relatively low number of
organizaiilor conform structurilor: direct subordinates to a manager, narrow
1. Mecaniciste (structuri cu un numr mare de specialization of operators, formalization and a
nivele ierarhice, numr relativ mic de high degree of centralization in decision-
subordonai direci unui manager, specializare making): the communication is mostly top-
ngust a operatorilor, formalizare i grad down and the authority is based on the official
mare de centralizare n luarea deciziilor): position. All this leads to a rigid organization.
comunicarea se face, de obicei, de sus n jos, The sense of belonging to the organization is
iar autoritatea este bazat pe poziia formal. not affectively founded, and because the
Toate acestea conduc la o organizaie rigid. technological leadership is based on the
Sentimentul de apartenen la organizaie nu execution process in accordance with the rules
este fondat afectiv i, deoarece conducerea (the use of control means largely practicing
procesului tehnologic se ntemeiaz pe penalties), the employees behaviour is
execuie n conformitate cu normele (folosirea imposed, stereotyped and rigid, required by the
controlului practicnd, n mare msur, legislation code, ignoring the employees
penalitile), comportamentul angajailor este personality. As a result, such behaviour,
unul impus, stereotip i rigid, stipulat de although disciplined, involves the danger of
codul normativ, fcnd abstracie de automatism and personality alienation.
personalitatea angajatului. Ca rezultat, un 2. Organic (characterized by a small number of
astfel de comportament, dei pare disciplinat, hierarchical levels and a large number of a
antreneaz pericolul automatismului i mangers direct subordinates; through low
alienrii, izolrii personalitii. specialization and formalization,
2. Organice (se caracterizeaz printr-un numr decentralization, and the authority is largely
mic de nivele ierarhice i un numr mare de based on the managers competence): the
subordonai direci pentru un manager; prin multiplication of the interaction between the
specializare i formalizare reduse, members of the organization takes place
descentralizate, iar autoritatea este bazat, n horizontally and vertically top-down and
mare msur, pe competena cadrelor de bottom-up. The communication in these
conducere): multiplicarea interaciunilor structures is of an informal type, and the
membrilor organizaiei se face att pe decentralization of the decision leads to a
orizontal, ct i pe vertical de sus n jos i more flexible organization. The sense of
de jos n sus. Comunicarea n aceste structuri belonging to the organization is affectively
este de tip informal, iar descentralizarea founded, as the employees are required in
deciziei conduce la o organizaie mai terms of some personal parameters (such as
flexibil. Sentimentul de apartenen la ability, sociability, temperament etc.). As a
organizaie este fondat afectiv, deoarece result, the constraints are weakened so that
angajaii sunt solicitai sub aspectul unor the behaviour becomes very flexible because
parametri personali (abilitate, sociabilitate, it is motivated, taking into account the
temperament etc.). Drept urmare, employees needs, beliefs and aspirations.
constrngerile sunt atenuate, astfel nct Culture as an organizational dimension
comportamentul devine flexibil, cci este incorporates the traditions, values, beliefs and a
motivat, inndu-se cont de nevoile, credinele routine established by the organization and integrates
i aspiraiile angajatului. its aspects into a body of symbolic meanings. The
Cultura, ca dimensiune organizaional, culture exerts a considerable influence on the
nglobeaz tradiiile, valorile, credinele i rutinele behaviour of managers and staff through their degree
consacrate, proprii unei organizaii, i reunete of adherence to the values and objectives of the
aspectele acesteia ntr-un sistem colectiv de organization and explains the differences in
semnificaii simbolice. Cultura exercit o influen productivity. The stronger is the staff adhesion, the
considerabil asupra comportamentelor managerilor i more uniform is their behaviour and thus the
personalului prin gradul de adeziune a acestora la organization's objectives are more ambitious. Thus, it
valorile i obiectivele organizaiei i explic diferenele outlines the essential function of the culture, which
de productivitate. Cu ct adeziunea angajailor este mai consists in the modelling of behaviour.
accentuat, cu att comportamentul lor este mai The environment knowledge and analysis of
uniform i cu att obiectivele organizaiei sunt mai any organization is the starting point to identify the
ambiioase. Astfel, se schieaz funcia esenial a opportunities and threats that can determine its

66 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

culturii, care const n modelarea comportamentului. development or bankruptcy. So, it is necessary to


Cunoaterea i analiza mediului, pentru orice acknowledge the environmental contents and
organizaie, reprezint punctul de unde ncepe requirements, the quantitative and qualitative changes
identificarea oportunitilor i ameninrilor ce-i pot occurring within its sphere and even anticipating the
determina dezvoltarea sau falimentul. Deci, se impune environment development so that the organization as a
cunoaterea coninutului i cerinelor mediului, a whole, its groups and individuals are able to adapt
modificrilor cantitative i calitative care apar n sfera their behaviour to any of its changes.
lui i chiar anticiparea evoluiei mediului astfel, nct The adaptation of the individuals, groups and
organizaia n ntregime, grupurile i indivizii ce organizational behaviour is influenced by the external
activeaz n ea s aib posibilitatea de a-i adapta and internal environment of the company:
comportamentul la eventualele schimbri ale acestuia. The external environment of the organization
Adaptarea comportamentului indivizilor i grupurilor, is determined by the fact that it is competitive
precum i a celui organizaional este influenat de mediul and dynamic in nature. The external
extern i mediul intern ale ntreprinderii: environment consists of all the factors outside
Mediul extern al organizaiei este determinat de the organization that affect the course of the
faptul c are caracter concurenial i dinamic. events within it, including the modelling of
Mediul exterior este compus din totalitatea the behaviour of individuals and groups. The
factorilor din afara organizaiei, care influeneaz impact of this environment on behaviour
derularea evenimentelor din cadrul ei, inclusiv, takes place by issuing / disposing of some
modelarea comportamentului indivizilor i al laws, by changing / modifying some
grupurilor. Impactul acestui mediu asupra strategies, by increasing / reducing the
comportamentului are loc prin emiterea/abrogarea customer interest in the products and services
unor legi, prin schimbarea/modificarea unor of the organization.
strategii, prin creterea/diminuarea interesului The internal environment affects the
clienilor fa de produsele i serviciile organizaiei. behaviour through all the activities that take
Mediul intern acioneaz asupra comportamentului place in the organization, through the
prin totalitatea activitilor ce au loc n organizaie, relationship between its departments, in other
prin raporturile dintre departamentele acesteia, words through all the situation factors within
altfel spus, prin toi factorii de situaie din interiorul the organization (goals, structure, tasks,
organizaiei (obiective, structur, sarcini, technology, personnel).
tehnologie, personal). In conclusion, the administrative staff should
n concluzie, cadrele administrative trebuie s shape the employees behaviour in order to successfully
modeleze comportamentul personalului, pentru a atinge achieve the organization's objectives. In this context, the
cu succes obiectivele organizaiei. n acest context, se involvement of people with the necessary skills and
impune implicarea oamenilor cu abiliti i aptitudini abilities is required, assembled in cohesive groups, in
necesare, ntrunii n grupuri coezive, cu scopul de a order to perform concrete tasks of the organization and to
realiza sarcini concrete ale organizaiei i de a crea un create a favourable working environment.
mediu favorabil de lucru.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Boboc, I., Comportament organizaional i managerial: fundamente psihosociologice i politologice,
vol.I, Comportament organizaional, Bucureti: Editura Economic, 2003;
2. Popescu, Doina I. Comportament organizaional, Bucureti: Editura ASE, 2010;
3. Golu, P., Fenomene i procese psihosociale: cercetare, cunoatere, aciune, Bucureti, Editura
tiinific i Enciclopedic, 1989;
4. Ionescu T. (Tudor), Mihaela Al., Cultur organizaional. Comportamentul n instituiile economice
moderne, tez de doctorat, Bucureti, 2007;
5. http://psihologiesociala.uv.ro/psihologie-sociala/grupul-in-psihologia-sociala.php, Termenul de grup
n psihologia social.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 67


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

METODOLOGIA EVALURII METHODOLOGY OF ECONOMIC


STABILITII ECONOMICE A SUSTAINABILITY EVALUATION
NTREPRINDERILOR AGRICOLE IN AGRICULTURAL
PE BAZA CALCULULUI ENTERPRISES BASED ON
INDICATORULUI INTEGRAL INTEGRAL INDEX
CALCULATION
Drd. Ludmila TODORICI,
Universitatea de Stat din Comrat PhD candidate Ludmila TODORICI,
Comrat State University
n condiiile economiei de pia, ntreprinderile
agricole au de rezolvat importanta problem a In the conditions of a market economy,
autoestimrii i analizei propriei activiti. De gradul de enterprises must undertake important tasks of self-
eficien a evalurii stabilitii lor economice depinde assessment and analysis of their activities. The content
coninutul i calitatea deciziilor manageriale, care, and quality of management decisions depend on the
ulterior, determin nivelul de dezvoltare al companiei. efficiency of evaluation of economic sustainability.
These decisions determine the development of the
ntr-o economie de pia, rentabilitatea activitii company in the future.
ntreprinderii depinde nemijlocit de calitatea i
caracterul fondat al deciziilor manageriale adoptate. In a market economy, the effectiveness of a
Totodat, temeiul adoptrii deciziilor respective l company is directly related to the validity and quality
constituie aprecierea obiectiv a stabilitii economice a of management decisions. The basis for such
ntreprinderii, deci, evaluarea complex a activitii decisions is the assessment of the economic
acesteia, care reflect n mod adecvat situaia real a sustainability of the enterprise. Economic
ntreprinderii pe pia. sustainability is defined as the complex evaluation of
Pentru a evalua corect stabilitatea economic a the businesses activities that adequately reflects the
ntreprinderii, e nevoie de o analiz plurivalent a real state of the enterprise in the market.
activitii sale economice. In order to assess the sustainability of the
Metodologia evalurii complexe a potenialului enterprise, it is necessary to conduct a complex
stabilitii economice const din patru etape principale. analysis of its activities.
Prima etap. Alegerea sistemului de indicatori Methodology of the complex assessment of the
bazat pe valoarea economic a coeficientului. economic sustainability potential consists of four
Cu ct va fi mai precis alegerea setului de main stages.
criterii i indicatori pentru evaluarea stabilitii The first stage. The choice of the system of
economice a ntreprinderii, cu att mai uor i simplu va indicators, based on the economic significance of the
putea fi elaborat o serie de msuri adecvate n vederea coefficient.
atingerii gradului necesar de stabilitate a agentului cu The more accurate is the set of criteria and
activitate gospodreasc. indicators for evaluation of the economic sustainability
Etapa a doua. Analiza comparativ a indicatorilor. of an enterprise, the easier it will be to develop a series
Drept baz pentru diagnostic, se recomand of adequate measures to achieve the necessary level of
utilizarea relaiei dintre nivelul atins al indicatorilor i sustainability of an economic entity.
mrimile normative (de prag). Tocmai n aceasta const The second stage. Comparative analysis of the
diferena dintre noua abordare i cea tradiional, ce results.
presupune c la baza diagnosticului st mrimea As a basis for diagnostics it is recommended to
absolut a indicatorului, care nu indic nici nivelul use the ratio of the achieved level of the results to the
calitativ al potenialului stabilitii, nici valoarea lui, threshold (normative) values. This is in contrast to
comparativ cu ntreprinderile concurente. the traditional approach, assuming that the absolute
Se propune ca, n calitate de valori normative ale value of the index is taken as the basis for the
indicatorilor, s fie utilizate cele mai mari rezultate diagnostics, which does not characterize either the
atinse de ntreprinderile ramurii ntr-o anumit perioad, quality of sustainability potential or its importance in
n cazul n care normativul nu este stabilit din punct de comparison to the competing companies.
vedere teoretic. The author offers to use the highest results
A treia etap. Calcularea indicatorilor integrali achieved by the enterprises for a number of years as
n baza criteriilor cercetrii (criteriile individuale normative values of the indexes, in case the standard
(speciale) ale stabilitii economice): is not theoretically defined.
stabilitatea financiar; The third stage. Calculation of integrated
indexes using the study criteria (private criteria of

68 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

stabilitatea comercial i lichiditatea; economic sustainability):


stabilitatea social (a cadrelor); financial stability;
intensitatea folosirii resurselor; commercial stability and liquidity;
stabilitatea tehnico-industrial (de producie). social (personnel) stability;
Acest calcul se efectueaz prin metoda evalurii the intensity of resources use;
medii geometrice. production and technical stability.
Etapa a patra. Calcularea indicatorului integral This calculation is performed through the
de stabilitate economic a ntreprinderii. average compound evaluation.
Indicatorul generalizator (integral) de stabilitate The fourth stage. Calculation of the
economic se calculeaz n baza mrimii medii integrated index of economic sustainability of an
geometrice, ce reflect proporionalitatea dintre enterprise.
indicatori i reacioneaz mai sensibil la modificarea Generalized (integral) index of economic
coeficienilor care capt valori mai mici (de la 0 la 1), sustainability is based on the average compound
dect valorile medii aritmetice. value, which reflects the proportionality between the
Indicatorul integral al stabilitii economice se indexes and responds more subtly to the changes in
calculeaz astfel: the indexes taking small values from 0 to 1, rather
than the arithmetic means.
Ise = 5 Ksf * Kscl * Kir * Ksti * Kes, unde: The integral index of economic stability is
calculated as follows:
Ise reprezint indicatorul integral al stabilitii
economice; Ksf coeficientul integral al stabilitii Ise = 5 Ksf * Kscl * Kir * Ksti * Kes, Where:
financiare; Kscl coeficientul integral al stabilitii
comerciale i lichiditii; Kir coeficientul integral al Ies integral index of economic sustainability;
intensitii folosirii resurselor; Ksti coeficientul Kfs integral index of financial stability; Kcsl
integral al stabilitii tehnico-industriale; Kes integral indicator of commercial stability and
coeficientul integral al echilibrului social. liquidity; Kru integral index of resource use
Totodat, calcularea criteriilor individuale ale intensity; Kits integral index of industrial and
stabilitii economice este efectuat conform formulei: technical stability; Kss integral index of social
sustainability.
n In turn, the calculation of individual criteria of
Ki = n Pgi , unde: economic sustainability is determined according to
the following formula:
i =1
n
Ki exprim criteriul individual al devierii tipului i
de activitate economic de producie a ntreprinderii de Ki = n Pgi , where:
la valoarea (mrimea) normativ; Pgi valorile i =1
(mrimile) relative obinute prin raportarea valorilor
reale (efective) ale indicatorilor activitii ntreprinderii Ki private criterion of deviation of i type of
la valorile lor normative; n numrul coeficienilor production and economic activity at the enterprise from
calculai, ce caracterizeaz activitatea economic de the standard value; Pgi relative values obtained from
producie a ntreprinderii (I = 1, n). the comparison of actual indexes of the companys
Comoditatea aplicrii indicatorului integral se activity with their standards, n number of calculated
explic prin faptul c, dac apare necesitatea includerii indexes characterising the production and economic
n procesul de cercetare a vreunui indicator nou, este activity of the company (I = 1, n).
suficient, pur i simplu, integrarea acestuia n structura Convenience of using the integral index is that
existent a indicatorului integral. De asemenea, tot aa, if there is a need for the introduction of any new
oricare alt indicator poate fi eliminat din analiza index to the study, it is sufficient just to build in the
efectuat. Deci, metodologia propus este adaptabil. existing structure of the integral index, just as any of
Stabilitatea economic reprezint un sistem the indexes can be excluded from the analysis. That
complex, de aceea evaluarea acesteia prevede efectuarea is, the proposed method is adaptive.
analizei principalelor lui elemente (criterii). Economic sustainability is a complex system,
Criteriul de stabilitate financiar determin for this reason its evaluation involves an analysis of
starea resurselor financiare ale companiei. Activitatea sa its main elements (criteria).
financiar reuit presupune o asemenea combinare a Financial stability criterion determines the
resurselor financiare, ce ar corespunde cerinelor pieei state of the financial resources of the company.
i ar satisface nevoile de dezvoltare a ntreprinderii. Successful financial activity involves such a
De regul, prin stabilitatea financiar a combination of financial resources, which
ntreprinderii se subnelege asigurarea rezervelor din corresponds to the requirements of the market and
sursele de finanare proprii i de mprumut. meets the needs of the enterprise.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 69


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

n sensul restrns al cuvntului, prin stabilitatea As a rule, the financial stability of an enterprise is
financiar a ntreprinderii se subnelege o cerere meant to ensure a supply of its own and borrowed
solvabil, capacitatea de a asigura din surse proprii (n sources of funding.
cazul atragerii echilibrate a creditului) investirea activ In a narrow sense, under the financial stability of an
i sporirea propriilor mijloace circulante, capacitatea de enterprise we understand an effective demand and the
a crea noi rezerve financiare (1). ability to provide active investment and growth of working
tiina economic ne indic peste douzeci de capital through its own sources (at a balanced attraction of
coeficieni de stabilitate economic. Cu toate acestea, a loan) in order to create financial reserves (1).
recomand pentru utilizare doar cinci coeficieni de In Economics, there are more than two dozens
baz, cci ntre aceti indicatori poate fi stabilit o of coefficients of financial stability. However, it is
strns legtur de corelaie, fiind relevai aceia dintre ei more expedient to use the five basic ones due to the
care influeneaz dinamica tuturor celorlali. Indicatorii fact that a close correlation can be set between
respectivi sunt: coeficientul de autonomie (Ka); indexes and those that affect the dynamics of the rest
coeficientul de manevrabilitate (Km); coeficientul can be emphasized. These indexes are: autonomy
levierului financiar (Klf); coeficientul asigurrii cu coefficient (Ka), mobility coefficient (Km), and the
mijloace circulante proprii (Kmcp); coeficientul de coefficient of financial leverage (Klf), the coefficient
acoperire a datoriilor din propriul capital (Kp). of own working capital (Kmcp), and debt coverage
Fiecare dintre coeficienii sus-menionai coefficient from own capital (Kp).
caracterizeaz clar cte un aspect al stabilitii Each of the above listed factors certainly
financiare. characterizes one of the aspects of financial stability.
Indicatorul integral (Ksf) al stabilitii financiare Here we calculate the integral index of
se calculeaz astfel: financial stability (Ksf)
Ksf = 5 Ka * Kp * Klf * Km * Kmcp Ksf = 5 Ka * Kp * Klf * Km * Kmcp
nc un criteriu al asigurrii stabilitii economice Another criterion of ensuring economic
l constituie lichiditatea suficient i solvabilitatea sustainability is sufficient liquidity and financial
ntreprinderii. responsibility of the company.
Prin noiunea de solvabilitate, se subnelege Under solvency we understand the ability of
capacitatea ntreprinderii, n funcie de starea lichiditii the company, depending on the state of its liquidity,
sale, de a-i achita toate datoriile i obligaiile fa de to timely pay its obligations out to the creditors.
creditori. Prin lichiditate, se subnelege capacitatea Liquidity refers to the ability to turn assets into cash.
activelor de a se transforma n bani. De aici rezult strnsa This involves a close relationship between solvency
legtur corelativ dintre solvabilitate i lichiditate. and liquidity.
n practic, sunt utilizai aceti coeficieni ai In practice, the following liquidity coefficients
lichiditii: coeficientul lichiditii absolute (Kla); are used: absolute liquidity coefficient (Kla), interim
coeficientul lichiditii intermediare (Kli); coeficientul liquidity coefficient (Kli), the current liquidity
lichiditii curente (Klc); coeficientul pierderii i coefficient (Klc), the coefficient of loss and
restabilirii solvabilitii (Kprs). restoration of financial responsibility (Kprs).
n opinia noastr, din sistemul de indicatori ai We consider that the most significant indexes,
stabilitii economice a ntreprinderii, fac parte, de the of commercial sustainability are part of the
asemenea, cei mai importani indicatori ai stabilitii system of indexes of economic stability of an
comerciale. E vorba de coeficientul creterii volumului enterprise. These are: the coefficient of sales growth
de vnzri (Kcvv) i de coeficientul mbuntirii (Kcn) and the growth of product quality coefficient
calitii produciei (Kicp). (Kicp).
Stabilitatea comercial (de pia) a ntreprinderii este Commercial (market) stability of an enterprise
determinat, n primul rnd, de competitivitatea produciei is determined, above all, by the competitiveness of
sale, corespunderea acesteia cerinelor consumatorilor n ce its products, its correspondence to the consumer
privete calitatea, preul, nivelul serviciilor de garanie demands for quality characteristics, price, level of
postvnzare, sistemul de calcule etc. Stabilitatea comercial after sales service, billing system and other variables.
a companiei este reflectat de stabilitatea cererii de mrfuri Commercial sustainability of a company appears in
producie proprie, de volumul suficient al vnzrilor i de the stability of demand for its products, a sufficient
dinamica pozitiv a acestuia. volume of sales and positive dynamics.
Toi coeficienii sus-enumerai pot fi generalizai All of the above factors can be generalized in
prin formula: the formula:
Kscl = 6 Klc * Kli * Kprs * Kcvv * Kicpr , Kscl = 6 Klc * Kli * Kprs * Kcvv * Kicpr ,
unde:

70 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Kscl exprim indicatorul integral al stabilitii Kscl integral index of commercial


comerciale i lichiditii. sustainability and liquidity.
Un important criteriu al stabilitii economice l An important criterion of economic
constituie intensitatea utilizrii resurselor companiei. Cei sustainability is the intensity of the use of company
mai semnificativi indicatori ai acestui criteriu sunt: resources. The most important indicators of this
coeficientul eficienei exploatrii pmntului (Kep); criterion are: land use efficiency coefficient (Kep),
coeficientul bonitii solului (Kbs); coeficientul the coefficient of land quality (Kbs), enterprise
rentabilitii produciei (Krp); coeficientul rentabilitii effectiveness coefficient (Krp), the coefficient of
vnzrilor (Krv); coeficientul rentabilitii fondurilor de sales effectiveness (Krv), and the coefficient of
producie (Krfp). productive assets effectiveness (Krfp).
Indicatorii sus-numii demonstreaz eficiena The presented indicators reveal the efficiency
folosirii resurselor ntreprinderii. of the enterprise resources.
Indicatorul integral al intensitii folosirii Here the integral index of the intensity of
resurselor ntreprinderii agricole (Kifr) se calculeaz resources use in an agricultural enterprise (Kifr) is
dup formula: calculated:

Kifr = 5 Kep * Krp * Krv * Krfp * Kcs * Kb

Un alt criteriu al stabilitii economice l Another criterion of the economic


constituie stabilitatea cadrelor (social). Stabilitatea sustainability is social (personnel) stability.
cadrelor const n asigurarea companiei cu numrul Personnel stability is when a company has a
necesar de angajai de calificare optim, precum i sufficient number of employees with the highest and
promovarea unei politici eficiente n domeniile most appropriate skills, as well as ensuring effective
selectrii, instruirii i repartizrii cadrelor. policies in the field of selection, training and
S relevm, n urma analizei stabilitii placement of employees.
economice, cei mai importani indicatori ai tendinei Here we specify the most significant, in terms of
sociale: coeficientul de calificare a salariailor (Kcs); analysis of economic stability, socially orientated
coeficientul de stabilitate a cadrelor (Ksc); coeficientul parameters: the coefficient of personnel qualification
de salarizare (Ks); coeficientul demisionrilor (Kcs), the coefficient of personnel stability (Ksc), the
colaboratorilor din proprie dorin (Kddp); coeficientul coefficient of wages (Ks), the coefficient of employees
de bunstare a membrilor personalului (Kbp). resignations (Kddp) ratio of staff welfare (Kbp).
Indicatorul integral al stabilitii sociale a We define the integral index of social
ntreprinderii agricole (Kss) se calculeaz conform sustainability at agricultural enterprises (Kss) as
formulei: follows:
Kss = 5 Kcs * Ksc * Ks * Kddp * Kbp Kss = 5 Kcs * Ksc * Ks * Kddp * Kbp
Stabilitatea tehnic de producie influeneaz Production and technical stability affect the
rentabilitatea economic a ntregii sfere productive i economic effectiveness of the whole production and
indic gradul de eficien al mijloacelor i obiectelor de represent the effectiveness of resources and tools of
munc, utilizate n procesul de producere a produselor labour used in the production of agricultural products,
agricole, ntr-un volum necesar reproduciei lrgite, in the quantity needed for expanded reproduction,
innd cont, totodat, de gradul de uzur al acestora. considering the degree of their deterioration.
Metodologia evalurii complexe a stabilitii The methodology of integrated assessment of
economice include o serie de indicatori ai activitii economic sustainability includes the following indexes
tehnico-industriale a ntreprinderii: asigurarea cu fonduri of production and technical activity: funds provision
(Af); nzestrarea cu fonduri (If); coeficientul de nnoire a (Af), funds per employee (If), the coefficient of renewal
fondurilor fixe (Kif); coeficientul de utilitate a of basic funds (Kif), the coefficient of suitability of
fondurilor fixe (Kuf); coeficientul capacitii de basic funds (Kuf), the coefficient of production capacity
producie (Kcp); coeficientul de randament al fondurilor (Kcp), the coefficient of funds productivity (Krf), the
(Krf); coeficientul de eficien al materialelor (Kem); coefficient of material productivity (Kem), the
coeficientul de ritmicitate (Kr). coefficient of rhythmicity (Kr).
Indicatorul integral al stabilitii tehnico- Here is the definition of the integral index of
industriale (Ksti) va fi determinat astfel: industrial and technical stability (Kits):

Ksti = 8 Af * If * Kif * Kuf * Kcp * Krf * Kem * Kr

Toate ntreprinderile pot fi clasificate n dou All companies can be conditionally divided
categorii: stabile i instabile. Dei exist i ntreprinderi al into stable and unstable, but there are also those

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 71


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

cror indicator integral de stabilitate economic se afl la whose integral index of economic stability is at a
un nivel ceva mai nalt dect pragul de jos al normativului, level slightly above the lower boundary of the
asemenea companii sunt relativ stabile (sau insuficient de standard. These companies are relatively stable (or
stabile). Aadar, exist trei zone de stabilitate: low stable). Thus, there are three sectors of stability:
- zona de instabilitate (indicatorul integral al - zone of instability (integral index of
stabilitii economice nu depete pragul de economic stability does not cross the lower
jos al normativului); level of standard);
- zona stabilitii relative (indicatorul integral de - zone of low stability (integral index of
stabilitate economic depete nesemnificativ economic stability slightly crosses the lower
pragul de jos al normativului); level of standard);
- zona stabilitii nalte (indicatorul integral de - zone of high stability (integral index of
stabilitate economic depete mult cota economic stability is higher than the
normativ). standard with a reserve).
Astfel, valoarea calculat a indicatorului integral Thus, the value of the integral index identifies
indic zona de stabilitate n care se afl ntreprinderea i, the zone in which the enterprise is and based on these
pornind de la acest rezultat, sunt determinate strategia i data the strategy and tactics of further development is
tactica dezvoltrii viitoare a companiei. determined.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. .. . ., 1998
. .14.

72 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

CADRUL NORMATIV-JURIDIC THE NORMATIVE AND


DE FUNCIONARE A REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
SISTEMULUI EDUCAIONAL DIN OF MOLDOVAN EDUCATION
REPUBLICA MOLDOVA, SYSTEM UNDER THE
ABORDAT PRIN PRISMA ECONOMIC POTENTIAL
POTENIALULUI ECONOMIC APPROACH
Drd., lector superior universitar, PhD candidate, Senior lecturer,
Tatiana BUCOS, ASEM Tatiana BUCOS, ASEM
Pornind de la impactul fenomenului educaional Starting from the educational phenomenon
asupra potenialului economic al unei ri, statul se impact on the economic potential of a country, the
implic n funcionarea sistemului educaional, n state is involved in the functioning of the education
vederea racordrii finalitilor educaiei la necesitile system in order to align the education outcomes to
social-economice ale rii. Una dintre direciile de the socio-economic needs of the country. One of the
implicare ale statului n sfera educaiei const n directions of state involvement in education is the
constituirea cadrului normativ-juridic de funcionare a establishment of a regulatory and legal framework
sistemului educaional. Articolul dat este axat pe analiza for the education system operation. The present
abordrilor oficiale ale impactului educaiei asupra article is focused on formal approaches of analyzing
potenialului economic al Republicii Moldova, n the impact of education on Moldovas economic
conformitate cu actele legislative ce vizeaz sistemul potential, in accordance with legislation on
educaional, i reliefarea locului educaiei n strategiile education; highlights the role of education and
de dezvoltare, pe termen mediu i lung, ale rii. determines the role of education in the medium and
Cuvinte-cheie: potenial economic, educaie, sistem long-term development strategies of Moldova.
educaional, cadrul normativ-juridic, capital uman.
Keywords: economic potential, education,
Caracterul dinamic al economiei n epoca cunoaterii education system, regulatory and legal framework,
scoate n eviden necesitatea concentrrii cercetrilor human capital.
teoretice pe reliefarea factorilor determinani ai
potenialului economic, dimensiunile cruia determin att The dynamic nature of economy in the
gradul de competitivitate al economiilor naionale, ct i knowledge era, highlights the need to focus the
capacitatea acestora de a atinge o cretere economic theoretical research towards determining the main
sustenabil. Tendinele nregistrate astzi la nivel mondial factors of the economic potential, as its size determines
demonstreaz extinderea cotei componentei umane n both, the degree of competitiveness of national
structura potenialului economic, performanele factorului economies and their ability to achieve sustainable
uman fiind subordonate calitilor imprimate resurselor economic growth. Current global trends show an
umane n cadrul sistemului educaional. n aceste condiii, increase in the share of the human component in the
apare necesitatea implicrii statului n mecanismul de structure of economic potential, human factor
funcionare a sistemului educaional, n vederea racordrii performances are subordinated to the features of human
finalitilor sistemului educaional la obiectivele de resources within the education system. Under these
dezvoltare social-economic a rii. O prim direcie de conditions, there arises the need of the state
implicare a administraiilor publice, pe aceast direcie, se involvement in the functioning mechanism of the
realizeaz prin prisma constituirii cadrului normativ-juridic education system, in order to align the aims of the
de funcionare a sistemului educaional. education system to socio-economic development
Cadrul normativ-juridic de funcionare a objectives of the country. The first action of public
sistemului educaional din R. Moldova are menirea de a administration involvement in this regard is achieved
forma principiile conceptuale i metodologice de through developing a regulatory and legal framework
dezvoltare ale educaiei, n conformitate cu poziia for the education system operation.
oficial a statului vizavi de locul educaiei, att n Regulatory and legal framework for the
formarea i meninerea statalitii, ct i n dezvoltarea education system operation in Moldova is intended
social-economic a rii. Constituirea cadrului legislativ to form the conceptual and methodological
are loc n baza dreptului fundamental la nvtur i foundations of the education development in
stabilirii nvmntului general drept nivel educaional accordance with the official position of the state
obligatoriu pentru cetenii Republicii Moldova, towards the place of education, both in building and
prevzut de Constituie (articolul 35). maintaining statehood and countrys social and

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 73


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Importana educaiei pentru dezvoltarea social- economic development. Elaboration of the legal
economic a Republicii Moldova a determinat framework is performed under the fundamental right
catalogarea educaiei drept prioritate naional, legislativ to education and sets the general education as a
declarat, poziia statului n raport cu impactul social- compulsory for the citizens of Moldova, under the
economic al educaiei fiind regsit n diverse acte cu Constitution (article 35).
caracter normativ-juridic: The importance of education in the social and
Concepia dezvoltrii nvmntului n economic development of Moldova sets education as
Republica Moldova Modernizarea a national priority, legally declared; the States
coninutului nvmntului devine factorul position regarding the socio-economic impact of
primordial al progresului social-economic, education is found in various regulatory legal acts:
contribuind, n acest fel, la dezvoltarea Concept of Education Development in the
societii i consolidarea statului de drept; [5] Republic of Moldova Modernization of
Legea nvmntului nvmntul n educational content becomes the main
Republica Moldova constituie o prioritate factor of social and economic progress,
naional (articolul 3). Obiectivul educaional thereby contributing to society development
major al colii const n dezvoltarea liber, and consolidating the rule of law; [5]
armonioas a omului i formarea personalitii Law on Education Education in the
creative, care se poate adapta la condiiile n Republic of Moldova is a national priority
schimbare ale vieii (articolul 5); [6] (article 3). The major educational goal of
Strategia consolidat de dezvoltare a schools is free and harmonious development
nvmntului pentru anii 20112015 of individuals and forming a creative
Sistemul de nvmnt are un rol primordial personality that can adapt to changing
n crearea premiselor pentru dezvoltarea conditions of life. (article 5); [6]
uman durabil i edificarea unei societi 2011-2015 Consolidated Strategy for
bazate pe cunoatere. educaia reprezint Education Development The education
o prioritate naional, devenind factorul de system plays a crucial role in creating
baz n reproducerea i dezvoltarea conditions for sustainable human
capitalului uman; [11] development and building a knowledge-
Codul Educaiei al Republicii Moldova based society. education is a national
(proiect 2010) Educaia reprezint prima priority, becoming the main factor in
prioritate naional i factorul primordial al reproducing and developing the human
dezvoltrii durabile a societii, bazat pe capital; [11]
cunoatere. Prin politica sa n domeniul Education Code of the Republic of Moldova
educaiei, statul asigur mecanismul (Draft 2010) Education is the first national
principal al reproducerii i dezvoltrii priority and the basic factor for a sustainable
capitalului uman (articolul 4); [1] development of the society based on the
Concepia modernizrii sistemului de knowledge. Through its education policy the
nvmnt din Republica Moldova (proiect state ensures ... the basic mechanism of
2010) nvmntul ar putea juca un reproduction and development of human
important rol de sprijin n facilitarea capital (article 4); [1]
soluionrii problemelor social-economice, Concept of Modernization of the
generate de nivelul sporit al inflaiei, de Education System in the Republic of
migraie, omaj i situaia demografic Moldova (Draft 2010) Education could
nefavorabil. nvmntul este un parametru play an important supportive role in helping
important al calitii vieii, societii, factor solve social and economic problems caused
de baz al dezvoltrii ei durabile. [2] by the high level of inflation, migration,
Educaia-2020. Strategia sectorial de unemployment and unfavorable
dezvoltare pentru anii 2012-2020 (proiect demographic situation. Education is an
2012) Educaia, reprezentnd o prioritate important parameter of quality of life,
naional, constituie factorul de baz n society, the basic factor of its sustainable
transmiterea i crearea de noi valori culturale development. [2]
i general-umane, de reproducere i de Education 2020 Sector development
dezvoltare a capitalului uman . i are un rol strategy for 2012-2020 (Draft 2012)
primordial n crearea premiselor pentru Education, representing a national priority,
dezvoltarea uman durabil i edificarea unei is the basic factor in the transmission and
societi bazate pe cunoatere. creation of new cultural and general human
n conformitate cu cadrul normativ-juridic al values, in reproducing and developing the
Republicii Moldova, educaia are menirea de a asigura att human capital.... and plays a crucial role in

74 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

integrarea eficient a individului n sistemele sociale, ct i creating conditions for sustainable human
de a contribui la promovarea intereselor naionale. development and building a knowledge-
Declarat prioritate naional, educaia s-a aflat permanent based society.
n centrul ateniei statului, n acelai timp, autorii studiului In accordance with the normative legal
Educaia i dezvoltarea uman: provocri curente i de framework of Moldova, education is meant to ensure
perspectiv evalueaz cadrul normativ-juridic n care i the effective integration of the individual in social
desfoar activitatea sistemul de nvmnt din Republica systems and to contribute to the promotion of
Moldova, ca fiind instabil i incoerent [4]. O astfel de national interests. Being declared a national priority,
calificare este fundamentat de un ir de caracteristici education has always been in the spotlight of the
aferente mediului normativ-juridic, pe fundalul cruia i state, while the authors of Human Education and
desfoar activitatea sistemul educaional din R. Moldova. Development: Current and Future Challenges
Astfel, dei reformele din nvmnt au fost iniiate appreciate the normative legal framework of the
imediat dup obinerea Independenei n anul 1991, education system in Moldova as unstable and
viziunea oficial a statului asupra viitorului sistemului incoherent [4]. Such an assessment is based on a
educaional a fost expus abia la sfritul anului 1994 prin number of features of normative legal environment
adoptarea de ctre Parlament a Concepiei dezvoltrii of the education background in Moldova. Thus, even
nvmntului. n baza concepiei, Parlamentul Republicii though education reforms were initiated soon after
Moldova a adoptat, n 1995, Legea nvmntului, care a independence in 1991, the official vision of the state
stabilit principiile i obiectivele educaiei, structura on the future education system was exposed only at
sistemului i modul de organizare a nvmntului, legea the end of 1994 with the adoption by Parliament of
fiind modificat pn n prezent de 41 de ori. n acelai Concept for Educational Development. Based on this
timp, dei Legea nvmntului, din 1995, prevzuse concept, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova
elaborarea Programului de stat de dezvoltare a has adopted the Law on Education in 1995, which
nvmntului, adoptat abia n anul 1999, a fost substituit established the principles and objectives of
n 2005 prin Programul de modernizare a sistemului education, the structure and organization of
educaional. Dup expirarea termenelor de implementare, education, the law was amended so far 41 times.
la nici unul din programele elaborate nu au fost analizate Meanwhile, although the Law on Education, adopted
rezultatele implementrii. in 1995, provided the elaboration of a State Program
Calificativele de incoerent i instabil atribuite of Education Development, which was adopted only
cadrului normativ-juridic sunt fundamentate i pe in 1999 and replaced in 2005 by the Modernization
neimplementarea, pn n prezent, a unor prevederi Program of Educational System. After the
fundamentale ale Concepiei dezvoltrii nvmntului implementation deadlines for neither of the programs
i Legii nvmntului, precum elaborarea i were analyzed implementation outcomes.
implementarea, n volum deplin, a standardelor The appreciations as incoherent and unstable,
educaionale de stat, asigurarea autonomiei instituiilor given to normative and regulatory framework, are
de nvmnt, crearea unui sistem de evaluare based on non-implementation until now of some
independent a performanelor nvmntului. fundamental provisions of the Concept for
Implementarea autonomiei instituiilor de nvmnt Educational Development and Law on Education, as
superior ncepe abia n anul 2013, n urma aprobrii de well as the complete elaboration and implementation
ctre Parlamentul Republicii Moldova a modificrilor la of the state educational standards, ensuring the
Legea nvmntului n data de 11.07.2012 [7], odat autonomy of educational institutions, creating a
cu care se intenioneaz i iniierea sistemului de system of independent education evaluation. The
evaluare independent a performanelor respectivelor implementation of higher education institutions
instituii, aceasta fiind una din precondiiile autonomiei. autonomy started only in 2013, following the
n vederea constituirii unui cadru legislativ approval by the Parliament of Moldova of
capabil s asigure o bun i eficient funcionare a amendments to the Law on Education of 11.07.2012
sistemului educaional din R. Moldova, s-a ncercat de [7], simultaneously being intended and initiated the
cteva ori, ncepnd cu anul 2005, elaborarea unui Cod system of independent performance evaluation of
al Educaiei, menit s substituie Legea nvmntului, these institutions, these being one of the
dar care nu a fost adoptat nici pn n prezent (proiectul preconditions of autonomy.
propus n 2005 dup discuiile publice nu a fost In order to form a legal framework, capable of
examinat de ctre Guvern; proiectul propus n anul ensuring proper and efficient functioning of the
2008, dup aprobarea n Parlament, nu a fost promulgat education system in Moldova, there were several
de ctre preedintele Republicii Moldova, ulterior fiind attempts since 2005, developing a Code of
retras; proiectul propus n 2010 a fost discutat de ctre Education, meant to substitute the Law on Education,
Guvern i ntors pentru a fi perfecionat, fr ca s but it was not adopted yet (the project proposed in
ajung pn n prezent pentru discuii n Parlament). Ca 2005 following public discussions was not examined
rezultat, Legea nvmntului, adoptat n 1995, cu by the Government; the project proposed in 2008

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 75


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

modificrile ulterioare, reglementeaz, n continuare, after the Parliament approval was not promulgated
funcionarea sistemului educaional, fr ca aceast lege by the President of the Republic of Moldova and was
s creeze o viziune clar asupra misiunii, obiectivelor i subsequently withdrawn; the project proposed in
modului de funcionare a sistemului educaional, n 2010 was discussed by the Government and returned
pofida faptului c educaia este declarat prioritatea for improvements has not reaching to be discussed in
naional numrul unu a Republicii Moldova. the Parliament so far). Consequently, the Law on
Chiar dac, n Concepia dezvoltrii nvmntului, Education, adopted in 1995, further amended, is still
aprobat n 1994, coninutul nvmntului este apreciat in force, regulating the education system without
drept factor primordial al progresului social-economic, having a clear vision of the mission, objectives and
Legea nvmntului nu face nicio referin la implicarea how the education system should operate, despite the
nvmntului n mecanismul de asigurare a acestui fact that education is declared the number one
progres. Conform articolului 5 al Legii nvmntului, national priority of Moldova.
obiectivul educaional major al colii const n dezvoltarea Even though the in the Concept of education
liber, armonioas a omului i formarea personalitii development, approved in 1994, the content of
creative, care se poate adapta la condiiile n continu education is considered as the primary factor of
schimbare ale vieii [6], legea nefcnd unele referine att social and economic progress, the Law on Education
la idealul educaional, ct i la finalitile educaionale care makes no reference to education involvement in the
ar fi corelate cu obiectivul de dezvoltare social-economic a mechanism of ensuring this progress. According to
Republicii Moldova. n aceste condiii, putem concluziona Article 5 of the Law on Education, the major
c Legea nvmntului, care formeaz fundamentul de educational goal of the school is free and harmonious
funcionare i dezvoltare al ntregului sistem educaional development of individuals and forming a creative
din R. Moldova, ncepnd cu anul 1995, nu face nicio personality, able to adapt to changing life conditions
conexiune cu economia real. n acelai timp, sistemul [6]. However, the law does not refer to educational
educaional fiind implicat nemijlocit n formarea ideal or educational aims, which should be linked to
potenialului uman al rii, este considerat component- the countrys socio-economic development objective.
cheie n valorificarea ntregului potenial economic, n Under these circumstances, we can conclude that the
condiiile economiei cunoaterii. Lipsa acestor conexiuni n Law on Education, which is the basis of operation
baza normativ-juridic determin, n cele din urm, and development of the whole education system in
neconcordana finalitilor sistemului educaional cu Moldova since 1995, makes no connection with the
exigenele economiei reale i, respectiv, incapacitatea real economy, while education is directly involved in
integrrii eficiente a absolvenilor instituiilor de nvmnt the formation of the countrys human potential,
n procesele social-economice. considered a key component in realizing the full
Chiar i n condiiile inexistenei, n R. Moldova, a economic potential in a knowledge economy. The
mediului normativ-juridic adecvat dezvoltrii unui sistem lack of these basic connections in the normative and
educaional, care ar corespunde exigenelor economiei regulatory basis, ultimately determines the
cunoaterii, contientizarea, la nivel guvernamental, a noncompliance of outcomes of the education system
unor efecte pe care le are educaia asupra dezvoltrii with the real economy requirements and therefore the
social-economice a rii, a impus corelarea oportunitilor graduates of educational institutions can not
de dezvoltare ale Republicii Moldova cu eficientizarea efficiently integrate in the socio-economic processes.
sistemului educaional, ceea ce a determinat integrarea Even though Moldova lacks an adequate
unor eventuale reforme ale sistemului educaional n normative and regulatory environment for the
strategiile naionale de dezvoltare. education system development, that would meet the
Strategia naional de dezvoltare pe anii 2008- requirements of the knowledge economy, awareness,
2011 [8] at government level, of the influence of education on
Strategia urmrete obiectivul fundamental de the countrys socio-economic development, imposed
creare a condiiilor de mbuntire a calitii vieii correlation of Moldovas development opportunities
populaiei prin consolidarea fundamentului necesar to streamline the education system, which resulted in
creterii economice robuste, durabile i incluzive. the integration of some eventual reforms of the
Conform Strategiei, consolidarea fundamentelor creterii education system in national development strategies.
economice presupune implementarea unui ir de National Development Strategy for 2008-
programe i msuri axate pe 7 prioriti strategice, 2011 [8]
printre care dezvoltarea resurselor umane, creterea The main objective of the Strategy aims to
gradului de ocupare i promovare a incluziunii sociale, create conditions for improving the quality of life by
care prevede, printre altele, mbuntirea calitii i strengthening the necessary foundation for the
sporirea accesului echitabil la serviciile educaionale. robust, sustainable and inclusive economic growth.
Conform textului Strategiei, educaia joac un rol According to the Strategy, strengthening the
esenial n combaterea srciei i asigurarea creterii foundations of economic growth involves
economice durabile, iar pentru a valorifica aceast implementation of a number of programs and

76 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

oportunitate, este necesar asigurarea unui acces measures focused on seven strategic priorities,
echitabil la serviciile de educaie i calitatea adecvat a including Human resources development,
acestora. Integrarea obiectivului de asigurare a calitii increasing employment and social inclusion, which
serviciilor educaionale n Strategie este argumentat provides, among others, Quality improvement and
prin aportul calitii serviciilor educaionale la creterea enhancing equitable access to educational services.
competitivitii capitalului uman i a gradului de The Strategy states that education plays an essential
coeziune social. role in reducing poverty and ensuring sustainable
n Planul de aciuni privind implementarea economic growth, but in order to make use of this
Strategiei naionale de dezvoltare pe anii 2008-2011, opportunity it is necessary to ensure equitable access
zece din cele patruzeci i trei de aciuni orientate ctre to quality education services. The objective of
atingerea prioritii Dezvoltarea resurselor umane, ensuring quality educational services is justified by
creterea gradului de ocupare i promovare a incluziunii the contribution of educational services to human
sociale presupun modificri n cadrul sistemului de capital competitive growth and social cohesion.
nvmnt. n acelai timp, aciunile preconizate nu 10 of the 43 priority actions of the Action plan
prevd schimbri de esen ale acestuia. n Planul de on the implementation of the National Development
aciuni, sunt absente aciunile orientate ctre Strategy for 2008-2011, aimed at achieving Human
reconceptualizarea finalitilor procesului educaional n resources development, increasing employment and
intenia de corelare a acestor finaliti cu obiectivul de promoting social inclusion, involve changes in the
stimulare a competitivitii capitalului uman i education system; however, the proposed actions do
aprofundare a gradului de coeziune social, aa cum este not require essential changes. However, the Action
abordat, n textul Strategiei, aportul educaiei la plan lacks actions oriented towards revision of
consolidarea fundamentului pentru o cretere economic education outcomes, regarding the intention to
robust, durabil i incluziv. correlate them with the objective to stimulate the
Relansm Moldova. Prioritile de dezvoltare human capital competitiveness and enhancing the
pe termen mediu (Raport pentru edina Grupului degree of social cohesion; as stated in the Strategy
Consultativ de la Bruxelles din 24 martie 2010) [10]. for strengthening the foundation of a robust,
n textul Raportului, politicile educaionale ale sustainable and inclusive economic growth.
statului, precum i cele din domeniul sntii publice, a Rethink Moldova. Priorities for Medium
proteciei sociale sunt subordonate performanelor Term Development (Report of the Consultative
economice ale rii, fr a fi abordat corelaia acestora Group Meeting in Brussels, 24 March 2010) [10].
n direcia opus. O astfel de viziune asupra educaiei The state educational policies, along with
determin abordarea sistemului educaional doar din those of public health, social protection are
perspectiva statutului de domeniu al cheltuielilor subordinated to the countrys economic
publice, fr a specifica locul sistemului educaional n performances, though their correlation in the
relansarea economic a rii. Conform Raportului, n opposite direction is not considered. Such a vision of
Republica Moldova alocaiile bugetare pentru educaie education determines addressing education system
sunt destul de mari, potrivit standardelor regionale, just in terms of public spending, without specifying
depind 8% din PIB. Cu toate acestea, sistemul the role of education system in the countrys
nvmntului nu reuete s asigure calitatea pentru economic recovery. According to the report, in the
toate etapele educaiei, fiind nregistrate rezultate Republic of Moldova budgetary allocations for
deosebit de modeste, n special, n nvmntul primar education are quite high by regional standards,
i n nvmntul profesional. exceeding 8% of GDP, however the education
Moldova 2020. Strategia naional de system fails to produce quality at all stages of
dezvoltare: 7 soluii pentru creterea economic i education, with particularly poor outcomes in
reducerea srciei [9] primary education and vocational education.
Strategia Naional de Dezvoltare Moldova Moldova 2020. National Development
2020 reflect viziunea guvernului privind dezvoltarea Strategy: 7 solutions for economic growth and
economic susinut pe termen lung, pornind de la poverty reduction [9]
constrngerile de dezvoltare, caracteristice economiei The National Development Strategy
naionale. Sub aspectul obiectivelor strategice pe termen Moldova 2020 reflects the Moldovan
lung, Strategia este focalizat pe apte prioriti de Governments vision for long-term sustainable
dezvoltare, pe poziia unu fiind plasat Racordarea economic development based on development
sistemului educaional la cerinele pieei forei de constraints characteristic to the national economy. In
munc, n scopul sporirii productivitii forei de terms of long-term strategic objectives, the Strategy
munc i majorrii ratei de ocupare n economie. Una is focused on seven development priorities, the first
dintre cele apte soluii orientate spre creterea of which is: Aligning the education system to labor
economic i reducerea srciei din R. Moldova, market needs in order to enhance labor productivity
prevzute de ctre Strategie, vizeaz sistemul and increase the employment in the economy. One

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 77


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

educaional, educaia fiind considerat una dintre of the 7 solutions oriented towards economic growth
problemele critice ale dezvoltrii Republicii Moldova, and poverty reduction in Moldova, aim the education
dificultatea constnd n neconcordana rezultatelor system, since education is considered one of the
sistemului educaional cu cerinele economiei reale. critical issues of Moldovas development, the
Spre deosebire de strategiile elaborate anterior, n problem is the non-compliance of education system
strategia Moldova 2020, se ncearc abordarea results with real economy needs.
sistemului educaional prin prisma impactului asupra Unlike previously developed strategies, the
capacitilor de dezvoltare ale economiei naionale, strategy of Moldova 2020 attempts to approach the
printre problemele ce frneaz aceast dezvoltare fiind education system through the impact on national
enumerate divergenele aprute ntre cerere i ofert pe economy development capacities, among the
piaa muncii, att n raport cu structura, ct i cu problems that hinder this development is the
calitatea forei de munc. n textul strategiei, se ncearc correlation between labor market supply and
evidenierea caracterului multidimensional de influen a demand, both regarding the structure and quality of
educaiei asupra oportunitilor de dezvoltare economic labor force. The text of the strategy seeks to highlight
a rii, n acelai timp, canalele de influen fiind the multidimensional character of education
prezentate ntr-o manier, dup aprecierea noastr, influence on the countrys economic development
confuz i parial: opportunities, while channels of influence are, as we
1) creterea volumului fizic al forei de munc, ca consider, confuse and partial:
factor direct al funciei de producie; 1) the volume of physical labor, as a direct
2) sporirea eficienei utilizrii unei uniti a forei factor of production, increases,
de munc (productivitatea factorului de 2) the efficiency of using a unit of labor
producie); (productivity factor productivity) increases,
3) stimularea investiiilor interne la nivel naional 3) encouraging domestic investments at the
i deschiderea de noi locuri de munc graie national level and new jobs creation due to
manifestrii abilitilor manageriale i manifested managerial skills and personal
iniiativei private a absolvenilor; initiative of the graduates;
4) atractivitatea mai mare pentru investitorii 4) greater attractiveness for foreign investors;
strini; 5) reduced employers costs to re-shape and
5) reducerea cheltuielilor angajatorilor pentru enhance the current workforce skills by
reprofilarea i creterea calificrii forei de developing new skills and competencies
munc existente prin dezvoltarea unor noi generated by an economy based on
abiliti i competene, generate de o knowledge;
economie bazat pe cunotine; 6) innovation and modern technologies [5].
6) nregistrarea unor inovaii i tehnologii Confused and incomplete approach of
moderne.[5] education channels of influence on economic
Abordarea confuz i incomplet a canalelor de performance has determined the development of a set
influen a rezultatelor fenomenului educaional asupra of measures that allow only partial effectiveness of
performanelor economice a determinat elaborarea unui educational process and its correlation to the
set de msuri, care ar permite doar parial eficientizarea objective of establishing the foundations for
procesului educaional i racordarea acestuia sustainable development. The strategic development
obiectivului de constituire a fundamentelor necesare objectives of the education system, this time also
dezvoltrii durabile. Din vizorul obiectivelor strategice lack the correlation of education in terms of skills,
de dezvoltare a sistemului educaional, dispare i de while the orientation of strategic development
aceast dat conceptualizarea educaiei prin prisma towards correlation of professional education
competenelor. Totodat, are loc orientarea obiectivelor (vocational, technical, higher) to the needs of the
strategice de dezvoltare ctre racordarea nvmntului national economy, general education are being
profesional (vocaional, mediu tehnic, superior) la ignored.
necesitile economiei naionale, nvmntul general The expected impact of the education system
fiind ignorat. reforms, provided by the strategy Moldova 2020
Impactul pozitiv scontat al reformelor din sistemul is, in our opinion, very optimistic, while lacking
educaional prevzute de strategia Moldova 2020 ar fi, some logical justification. According to estimations,
n opinia noastr, foarte benefic. Cu toate acestea, este the measures envisaged in order to correlate the
lipsit de unele justificri logice. Conform estimrilor, educational offer to labor market demands would
msurile preconizate n vederea racordrii ofertei have an impact on the following parameters:
educaionale la exigenele pieei muncii ar exercita un
real impact asupra urmtorilor parametri:

78 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Tabelul 1 / Table 1
Obiectivele specifice privind racordarea ofertei forei de munc la cerinele pieei,
conform Strategiei Moldova 2020 /
Specific objectives related to labor supply correlated to the market demand,
according to Strategy Moldova 2020

Indicatori de monitorizare/ Monitoring indicators 2010 2015 2020


Rata omajului / Unemployment rate, % 7,4 6 4
Exodul tinerilor / Outflow of young labor force, % 17,7 15 10
Ponderea angajatorilor satisfcui de calitatea forei de munc / Share 15(2011) 40 60
of employers satisfied with labor force quality, %
Ponderea absolvenilor angajai care susin c au nevoie de instruire 40 20 10
suplimentar dup absolvire / Share of employed graduates that claim
to need additional training after graduation, %
Surs: Moldova 2020. Strategia naional de dezvoltare: 7 soluii pentru creterea economic i reducerea srciei, pag. 18./ Source:
Moldova 2020. National Development Strategy: 7 solutions for economic growth and poverty reduction, page 18.

Conform Strategiei, parametrii prezentai n tabel According to the strategy, the indicators
urmeaz a fi atini, graie sporirii calitii procesului presented in the table are to be achieved, by
educaional n urma aplicrii msurilor strategice increasing the quality of educational process
preconizate, capabile s asigure un climat investiional following the envisaged strategic measures able to
atractiv i benefic, datorit forei de munc calificate, create an attractive and beneficial investment
responsabile, flexibile, ce va contribui la sporirea climate, due to skilled, responsible and flexible labor
productivitii muncii i a competitivitii. Astfel, chiar force, which will help enhance productivity and
dac msurile pentru reformarea sistemului educaional, competitiveness. Thus, even though the measures
aa cum sunt vzute de ctre autorii Strategiei, nu sunt regarding the education system reform, as seen by
axate nemijlocit pe calitatea i caracteristicile output- the authors of the Strategy, are focused directly on
ului sistemului educaional, se prevede c acestea vor the quality and output characteristics of the education
reui s transforme fora de munc ntr-una calificat, system, we insist that they should be able to change
responsabil i flexibil. the labor force into skilled workforce, responsible
n concluzie, chiar dac n R. Moldova educaia and flexible.
este declarat prioritate naional ncepnd cu anul 1995, In conclusion, although in Moldova
prin adoptarea Legii nvmntului, baza normativ- education is declared a national priority, starting
juridic pe care se sprijin funcionarea sistemului with 1995 by the adoption of the Law on
educaional nu reprezint o viziune clar n raport cu Education, the normative and regulatory basis of
modul de implicare a educaiei n valorificarea the education system does not form a clear vision
potenialului uman i, respectiv, n dezvoltarea social- regarding the involvement of education in the best
economic a Republicii Moldova. La rndul su, analiza use of human potential and the socio-economic
strategiilor de dezvoltare, pe termen mediu i termen development of the country. In turn, the analysis
scurt, a R. Moldova scoate n eviden nelegerea of Moldovas medium and short-term development
parial de ctre factorii de decizie a impactului strategies highlights the fact that decision makers
economic al educaiei asupra performanelor economice, understand partially the economic impact of
respectiv, asupra eventualelor posibiliti de implicare a education on economic performance and thus, the
politicilor educaionale n dezvoltarea durabil a rii. n possibility of using the educational policies for the
aceste condiii, att cheltuielile curente ale statului countrys sustainable development. Under these
orientate ctre finanarea sistemului de nvmnt, ct i conditions, both, the current spending on
investiiile n reformele educaionale sunt caracterizate education system and the investment in
de un nivel sczut al impactului asupra output-ului educational reforms are characterized by a low
macroeconomic. Aceast situaie face necesar att impact on macroeconomic output. This makes it
revizuirea cadrului normativ-juridic din domeniul necessary to review the normative and regulatory
educaiei, cu implicarea reprezentanilor tuturor framework on education, involving all interested
subiecilor interesai (prini, studeni, cadre didactice, subjects: parents, students, teachers, businessmen,
oameni de afaceri, administraii locale, reprezentani ai local governments, civil society and increased
societii civile), ct i intensificarea cercetrilor de research in order to identify any implications of
identificare a eventualelor implicaii ale educaiei din R. education in Moldova on the countrys socio-
Moldova n dezvoltarea social-economic a rii. economic development.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 79


ECONOMIE GENERAL / ECONOMICS

Bibliografie/Bibliography:

1. Codul Educaiei al Republicii Moldova (proiect 2010). www.pro-science.asm.md


2. Concepia modernizrii sistemului de nvmnt din Republica Moldova (proiect 2010), www.edu.md
3. Educaia 2020. Strategia sectorial de dezvoltare pentru anii 2012-2020 (proiect 2012), www.edu.md
4. Educaia i dezvoltarea uman: provocri curente i de perspectiv. Document de politici. Otter, T.,
Barbroie, A., Gremalschi, A. PNUD Moldova, Chiinu, 2010, pag. 48.
5. Hotrrea Guvernului nr. 337-XIII din 15.12.94, cu privire la Concepia dezvoltrii nvmntului n
Republica Moldova i la formarea Consiliului coordonator pentru desfurarea reformei nvmntului,
Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova nr.17-18/172 din 24.03.1995.
6. Legea RM nvmntului, nr. 547 din 21.07.95, http://lex.justice.md
7. Legea RM pentru modificarea i completarea unor acte legislative, nr. 178 din 11.07.2012,
http://lex.justice.md
8. Legea RM pentru aprobarea Strategiei naionale de dezvoltare pe anii 2008-2011, nr. 295
din 21.12.2007.
9. Moldova 2020. Strategia naional de dezvoltare: 7 soluii pentru creterea economic i reducerea
srciei. http://www.cancelaria.gov.md
10. Relansm Moldova Prioritile de dezvoltare pe termen mediu. Raport pentru edina Grupului
Consultativ de la Bruxelles, 24 martie 2010. http://www.cancelaria.gov.md
11. Strategia consolidat de dezvoltare a nvmntului pentru anii 2011-2015. Aprobat prin ordinul
ministrului educaiei nr. 849 din 29. 11. 2010, www.edu.md

80 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

RELEVANA INDICATORILOR RELEVANCE OF INDICATORS


N MSURAREA IN MEASURING COMPANY
PERFORMANELOR PERFORMANCE
NTREPRINDERII
Professor, PhD Neculai TABARA,
Prof. univ. dr. Neculai TABR, PhD candidate Andreea VASILIU,
Drd. Andreea VASILIU, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University
Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, of Iasi, Romania
Iai, Romnia
The process of economic decision-making is
Procesul de fundamentare a deciziilor economice going through a change based on the value created for
trece printr-o schimbare dat, n principal, de renunare shareholders. A new model of financial management
la criteriile bazate pe venitul contabil i orientare ctre based on the value of shareholders is trying to provide
cele ce vizeaz valoarea creat pentru acionari. Un nou a theoretical structure of these new principles on the
model de management financiar, mai precis cel bazat pe fundamental idea that claims that a company's
valoare, ncearc s ofere o structur teoretic acestor management goal is maximizing the wealth of
noi principii plecnd de la ideea fundamental care shareholders. Value-based management becomes one
susine c scopul conducerii unei companii este of the philosophies promoted in larger companies and
maximizarea averii acionarilor. Managementul bazat pe international financial consulting companies. This new
valoare devine, astfel, una dintre filosofiile promovate, field is trying hard to remove the deficiencies stemming
din ce n ce mai mult, de marile firme internaionale de from traditional analysis and to create new tools to
consultan financiar-contabil. Acest nou domeniu analyse a company's performance, organizational
ncearc, pe ct posibil, s nlture deficienele generate culture, management efficiency. This article makes a
de analiza tradiional i s creeze noi instrumente de incursion the field of management by presenting its ties
analiz a performanei unei companii, culturii with accounting. It also gives a range of the main
organizaionale, eficienei manageriale. Prezentul articol performance indicators.
realizeaz o incursiune n domeniul managementului
prin valoare, prezentnd legturile acestuia cu domeniul Keywords: economic value added, profit per
contabilitii. n aceeai msur, sunt amintii principalii share, return on capital, return on investment,
indicatori de performan. performance.
Cuvinte-cheie: valoarea economic adugat, JEL classification: D46, G11, L25, L74, M41
profit pe aciune, rentabilitatea capitalului, rentabilitatea
investiiilor, performan. 1. INTRODUCTION
Clasificare JEL: D46, G11, L25, L74, M41 The beginning of the third Millennium and the
international financial crisis brought a number of
1. INTRODUCERE problems related to the analysis of the business
nceputul mileniului trei i, implicit, criza financiar environment and performance companies. Financial
internaional au adus spre analiz numeroase probleme analysis difficulties in previewing what problems
privind mediul de afaceri i performana companiilor. would appear lead to a reconsideration of the main
Dificultile analizei financiare n previzionarea problemelor concepts. If in the past the goal of a manger was
ce aveau s apar a dus la o reconsiderare a principalelor maximizing the profitability of the firm, currently these
concepte. Dac, n trecut, obiectivul fiecrui manager l entities are guided towards the concept of value
constituia maximizarea profitabilitii firmei, n prezent, creation (Helfert E. , 2001, p. 3).
aceste entiti se orienteaz spre conceptul de creare de The old tools in evaluating the companies
valoare (Helfert E., 2001, p. 3). performance are no longer sufficient in evaluating this
Vechile instrumente privind performana unei indicator. Now we have to make a clear distinction
companii nu mai sunt suficiente n determinarea trendului between accounting and economic profits. As we
acestui indicator. n prezent, trebuie realizat o distincie know, the first is based on the General principles
clar ntre profitul contabil i cel economic. Dup cum tim, contained in International Financial Reporting
primul se bazeaz pe principii generale cuprinse n Standards. By applying these standards we determine
Standardele Internaionale de Raportare Financiar, pe care the financial position and performance of the enterprise
trebuie s le respecte orice companie. Prin aplicarea acestor and the changes occurring within them. The evaluation
standarde, se ajunge la determinarea poziiei financiare i a of the companies was based on elements of
performanei ntreprinderii, precum i a modificrilor profitability, with a growing performance although all
survenite n cadrul acestora. n ultima perioad, evaluarea companies had large deficits and accumulated
companiilor s-a bazat pe elemente de profitabilitate, problems of liquidity. Problems have arisen regarding

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 81


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

estimndu-se astfel o performan crescnd, dei toate the reliability of the performance obtained through
companiile nregistrau mari deficite i probleme de traditional financial analysis (Sulger, 2008, p. 150).
lichiditate. Au aprut astfel probleme de credibilitate privind The financial health of enterprises was based only on
performanele redate prin intermediul analizei financiare the comparison between profitability ratio and
tradiionale (Sulger, 2008, p. 150). Starea de sntate weighted average cost of capital employed in the
financiar a ntreprinderilor s-a bazat mult vreme doar pe company.
depirea ratei profitabilitii de ctre costul mediu ponderat Value-based management is a management
al capitalurilor angajate n companie. concept where the main goal of the company is to
Managementul bazat pe valoare constituie un maximize shareholders value. The firms objective,
concept managerial prin care principalul scop al companiei strategy, organizational mechanisms, techniques of
l reprezint maximizarea valorii acionarilor. Obiectivul financial analysis, indicators of performance and
firmei, strategia, mecanismele organizaionale, tehnicile de culture are elements of value maximisation (Arnold,
analiz financiar, indicatorii de performan i cultura sunt 2008). Value-based management is an integrated
elemente de maximizare a acestei valori (Arnold, 2008). system which measures, encourages and supports the
Managementul bazat pe valoare este un sistem integrat care creation of value by direct comparison between the
msoar, ncurajeaz i susine crearea de valoare net prin net market value of the company and its accounting
comparaii directe ntre valoarea de pia a companiei i value (Ameels, 2002, p. 3).
valoarea ei contabil (Ameels, 2002, p. 3). Value-based management tools represents the
Instrumentele managementului prin valoare effort of more than four decades of theoretical and
reprezint efortul a peste patru decenii de cercetare empirical research (Ittner & Larcker, 2001, p. 351)
teoretic i empiric (Ittner & Larcker, 2001, p. 351), being structured in three directions:
fiind structurat pe trei direcii:

Climat organizaional orientat ctre valoare /


Value oriented organizational culture

Crearea de valoare / Msurarea valorii /


Value creation Measuring value

Managementul prin valoare /


Value-based management

Figura 1. Direciile managementului prin valoare /


Figure 1. Value-based management directions

Activitile orientate spre maximizarea Activities orientated toward maximizing


profitului pentru acionari par a fi mai performante i profits for shareholders seem to be more efficient,
implicit aduc beneficii i celorlalte categorii de and bring benefits also to other categories of
aportori de fonduri (Sulger, 2008, p. 150). Schimbrile investors (Sulger, 2008, p. 150). Changes in the
de gndire n managementul companiei aduc implicit companys management bring the changes of the
modificri la nivelul instrumentelor tradiionale de traditional instruments of measuring performance by
msurare a performanei, introducnd n analiz entering into the analysis the impact of inflation and
impactul dat de inflaie sau cost de oportunitate asupra opportunity cost performance. Value-based
performanei. Managementul bazat pe valoare aduce management enables the measurement of
un plus analizei economice permind msurarea performance at different levels of the organisation:
performanei la diferite niveluri ale organizaiei: firma the company as a whole or strategic units.
n ansamblul ei sau uniti strategice. The subject of the research is to define the
Obiectul cercetrii este acela de a defini indicators used in measuring the value and the presence
indicatorii folosii n msurarea valorii i a prezenta of the levers by which it can create value for
prghiile prin care se poate crea valoare pentru shareholders. Thus, we focus only on issues of
acionari. Astfel, vom pune accentul doar pe aspectele accounting and financial management by defining its
contabile i financiare ale managementului bazat pe framework:
valoare prin definirea cadrului contabil al acestuia:

82 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

Scop: Majorarea valorii pentru acionari /


Purpose: To increase shareholder value

Identificarea obiectivelor specifice i dezvoltarea strategiilor /


Identifying specific objectives and strategies development

Identificarea determinanilor valorii /


The identification of the value determinants

Selectarea indicatorilor i stabilirea targetelor /


Selection of indicators and estabilishment of target

Evaluarea performanei /
Performance evaluation

Figura 2. Cadrul contabil al managementului prin valoare /


Figure 2. The accounting framework of value-based management
Dup (Ittner & Larcker, 2001, p. 353) / After (Ittner & Larcker, 2001, p. 353)

2. TRSTURILE I PRINCIPIILE MANA- 2. FEATURES AND PRINCIPLES OF


GEMENTULUI BAZAT PE VALOARE VALUE-BASED MANAGEMENT
Noua gndire economic ncearc s se ndeprteze The new economic thinking is trying to move
de analiza tradiional i introduce o serie de noi principii away from the traditional analysis and introduces a
care conduc la maximizarea valorii pentru acionari. number of new principles that lead to maximizing
n primul rnd, menionm faptul c deciziile value for shareholders.
economice se fundamenteaz, din ce n ce mai puin, pe First we must note that economic decisions relie
bugete contabile care pot conine indicatori de performan increasingly less on the accounting budgets that may
uor de manipulat i se orienteaz pe strategii i mecanisme contain performance indicators that are easy to
de control i aciune menite a conduce la maximizarea averii manipulate and focus on strategies and mechanisms of
acionarilor (Arnold, 2008, p. 656). control and action designed to lead to maximization of
n al doilea rnd, subliniem orientarea pe termen lung shareholders wealth (Arnold, 2008, p. 656).
n analiza performanelor. n aceeai msur, avem n vedere Secondly, we emphasize long-term orientation in
crearea tehnicilor economice specifice analizei the performance analysis. Also, we consider creating
performanelor subdiviziunilor companiilor. specific economic performance analysis techniques for
Ideea de baz pe care se fundamenteaz aceast the branches of companies.
gndire este urmtoarea: valoarea pentru acionari se obine The basic idea that underlies this thinking is as
doar atunci cnd diferena dintre profitul rezidual obinut follows: the value for the shareholders is obtained only
minus costul capitalului investit este pozitiv. Cu toate when the difference between the residual profits minus
acestea, se ntlnesc diverse abordri privind modul de cost of invested capital is positive. However, the
construcie a elementelor componente, mai precis profitul various approaches present different construction
ajustat, rata de rentabilitate, costul capitalului. Diferenele components for these indicators, i.e. adjusted profit,
apar i datorit incluziunii sau excluderii valorii de pia din rate of return, the cost of capital. The differences
formul sau orientrii asupra trecutului sau viitorului. appear also due to inclusion or exclusion of the market
Utilizatorii interesai de managementul valorii sunt value from the formula and also because of the
urmtorii: managerii care au nevoie s cunoasc cum se guideline on the past or the future.
evalueaz diferitele alternative strategice i cum s creasc Users interested in the value-based management
valoarea prin restructurare; practicienii n finanele are: managers who need to know how to evaluate
ntreprinderii care au n vedere faptul c o nou component various strategic alternatives and how to increase the
a activitii directorului general este dat de stabilirea value by restructuring; practitioners in the enterprise's
legturii dintre valoarea firmei i strategia acesteia; finances which take into account the fact that a new
managerii de portofoliu i analitii pieei financiare; component of the work of the Director general is the
investitorii care au o gndire orientat ctre valoare. link between the company and its strategy; portfolio
Principalele situaii n care se utilizeaz managers and analysts on financial markets; investors
managementul valorii sunt: estimarea valorii alternativelor who are value-oriented.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 83


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

investiionale i a strategiilor posibile ale firmei; evaluarea The main situations in which we use the value
tranzaciilor majore realizate de firm: achiziii, fuziuni, based management are: estimation of investment
divizri; analiza i stabilirea intelor de performan ale alternatives and strategies of the company; evaluation
unitilor generatoare de lichiditi; comunicarea of major transactions made by the company:
managementului cu furnizorii de capital, ndeosebi cu acquisitions, mergers, divisions; analysis and
acionarii. establishment of performance targets; communication
Adoptarea managementului prin valoare with suppliers of capital, in particular with the
presupune o serie de modificri: orientarea ctre shareholders.
obinerea fluxului de trezorerie pe termen lung; stabilirea Adoption of value based management involves
activitilor prioritare pe baza superioritii rentabilitii a number of changes: the orientation towards obtaining
asupra costului capitalului; dezvoltarea abilitii de a cash flow over long term; establishing priority
vedea oportuniti de creare de valoare suplimentare; activities on the basis of superior profitability of the
includerea i dezvoltarea filosofiei valorii n cadrul cost of capital; developing the ability to see
procesului de management (Anghel, Oancea Negescu, opportunities that create additional value; inclusion and
Anica Popa, & Popescu, 2010, pg. 329-330). development of philosophy of value in the process of
Printre avantajele managementului prin valoare, management (Anghel, Oancea Negescu, Anica Popa, &
enumerm: maximizarea continu a crerii de valoare; Popescu, 2010, pg. 329-330).
mbuntirea transparenei companiilor; facilitarea Among the advantages of value-based
comunicrii cu investitorii, stakeholderii i analitii; management we have: continuous maximizing of value
armonizarea intereselor managerilor cu cele ale creation; improving the transparency of companies;
stakeholderilor i ale acionarilor; prevenirea subevalurii facilitating communication with investors, analysts and
aciunilor; stabilirea prioritii clare pentru management; stakeholders; harmonizing the interests of managers
mbuntirea procesului decizional, alocarea de resurse, with those of shareholders and stakeholders; preventing
planificarea; ncurajarea investiiilor care creeaz valoare; undercutting operations; establishing clear priorities for
ajutor la rezolvarea problemelor complexe i cu risc ridicat; management; improving decision-making, resource
stabilirea intelor pentru recompensare. allocation, planning; encouraging investments which
Printre dezavantajele managementului prin valoare create value; helping with complex and high-risk
amintim: necesit o perioad lung de implementare i o issues; set rocompensation ting targets.
schimbare a culturii organizaionale; costuri ridicate de Among the disadvantages of value-based
implementare; dificultatea calculelor. management we mention: long period of implementation
n situaia n care managementul companiei se and change in organizational culture; high cost of
orienteaz doar pe crearea de valoare pentru acionari i implementation; difficulty of the calculations.
implicit pe creterea preului aciunii, pot aprea o serie de In the event that the company's management
probleme. focuses on creating value for shareholders, and hence
n primul rnd, putem aminti lipsa de transparen. increasing the price action, a number of problems can
Conform acestui model, scopul fundamental este de a spori, arise.
ct mai mult posibil, valoarea aciunii. Pentru a ajunge la First of all we can mention the lack of
ndeplinirea acestui obiectiv, firmele pot manevra datele transparency. According to this model, the fundamental
contabile pentru a da impresia unui profit mult mai mare goal is to enhance, as much as possible, the price of
dect cel real. Atunci cnd situaiile financiare nu ofer o action. To reach this goal, companies can manipulate
imagine fidel apare lipsa de transparen. Att investitorii, accounting data to give the impression of a much larger
ct i angajaii nu vor cunoate valoarea real a companiei. profit than the real one. When the financial statements
O alt problem apare atunci cnd sporete riscul do not give a true and fair view, there appears the lack
financiar al companiei. Pentru a crete valoarea pentru of transparency. Both, investors and employees, will
acionari, cele mai multe companii se ndatoreaz pentru a not know the true value of the company.
dezvolta ct mai multe proiecte de investiii. Another problem occurs when increases the
Atunci cnd se folosete modelul de creare de financial risk of the company. In order to increase
valoare pentru acionari, conducerea companiei se value for shareholders, most companies take credits to
orienteaz ctre strategii pe termen scurt cu ctiguri develop as many investment projects as possible.
imediate, fr a lua n considerare dezvoltarea afacerii pe When the model to create value for shareholders
termen lung. is being used the company is oriented towards short-
term strategies with immediate gains, without taking
3. CONCEPTE SPECIFICE MANAGEMEN- into account the development of the business in the
TULUI BAZAT PE VALOARE long run.
Conceptul de valoare se utilizeaz n domeniile
economice, fiind unul dintre cele mai vechi concepte. 3. TERMS REGARDING VALUE-BASED
Valoarea reprezint nivelul monetar, pe care un anumit MANAGEMENT
participant la schimbul economic l atribuie unui bun sau The concept of value is used in the economic

84 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

serviciu (Robu, Anghel, & Tutui, 2002, p. 3). Valoarea este field being one of the oldest one. The value represents
o opinie care arat ct preuiesc bunurile i serviciile la un the money that is given by a participant in economic
moment dat, n concordan cu o anumit definiie a valorii exchange attributed to a good or service (Robu,
(Frsineanu, 2010). Valoarea constituie o calitate Anghel, & Tutui, 2002, p. 3). The value is an opinion
convenional a unui bun sau serviciu care-i este atribuit which shows how goods and services are appreciated at
acestuia, ca urmare a estimrilor i calculelor (Dumitrescu, any time (Frsineanu, 2010). The value represents a
Dragot, & Ciobanu, 2002, p. 21). conventional quality of a good or service attributed
Valoarea economic reprezint capacitatea unui after estimates and calculations (Dumitrescu, Dragot,
activ de a genera fluxuri de trezorerie nete n favoarea & Ciobanu, 2002, p. 21).
deintorului acestuia. Economic value of an asset is the ability to
Valoarea de pia. International Valuation generate net cash flows in favour of its shareholder.
Standards Committee i The European Group of Valuers Market value. International Valuation Standards
Associations definesc valoarea de pia drept: suma Committee and The European Group of Valuers
estimat pentru care un activ ar putea fi schimbat, la data Associations define market value as: "the estimated
evalurii, ntre un cumprtor hotrt s cumpere i un amount for which an asset could be exchanged, at the
vnztor hotrt s vnd, ntr-o tranzacie liber valuation date, between the buyer who decided to buy and
(neprtinitoare), dup un marketing adecvat, n care the seller who decided to sell in a free transaction
fiecare parte a acionat n cunotin de cauz i fr (unbiased), after a proper marketing, in which each party
constrngere (EVSB, 2009, p. 15). Aceast valoare se acted knowingly and without coercion" (EVSB, 2009, p.
folosete pentru realizarea de tranzacii cu proprieti- 15). This value is used for conducting transactions with
achiziii, fuziuni, privatizare i pentru nregistrrile n property-acquisition, mergers, privatization and financial
documentele financiar contabile. Metodele folosite de documents for accounting records. The methods used by
practicieni pentru estimarea valorii de pia sunt practitioners to estimate market value are as follows: the
urmtoarele: metoda comparaiei directe (se aplic pentru direct comparison method (applied for a company which
un exemplar identic sau asemntor cu cel evaluat, is identical or similar to the one evaluated, corrected with
corectat cu factori de impact asupra valorii, reflectai prin the factors of impact on value, reflecting the differences of
diferene de tip, model, vechime i condiii de type, model, age and conditions of operation), the
exploatare), metoda capitalizrii rezultatului (estimarea i capitalisation method (estimation of net earnings and
actualizarea ctigului net, pe care l va genera activul pe calculating net present value of them on a longer time-
un orizont mai lung de timp), metoda costurilor. horizon), the cost method.
Valoarea contabil constituie valoarea nregistrat Accounting value represents the value recorded
pe baza bilanului contabil. Ea reflect o performan trecut on the balance sheet. It reflects the past performance of
a companiei avnd la baz date contabile trecute. Este the company based on the accounting data. It is deeply
profund influenat de politici i principii contabile. influenced by accounting policies and principles.
Valoarea pentru acionari. Aceasta se creeaz atunci Value for shareholders. It is created when the
cnd ctigurile generate de investiiile existente i cele gains generated by existing and future investments are
viitoare sunt superioare costului capitalului ntreprinderii. higher than the cost of capital.
Teoriile referitoare la conceptul de creare de Theories relating to the concept of value creation
valoare pentru acionari au aprut, pentru prima dat, for shareholders have first appeared in the 1950s-
ntre anii 1950-1960. Dezvoltarea acestui concept s-a 1960s. The development of this concept was achieved
realizat abia dup apariia modelului de evaluare a only after the appearance of Capital Asset Pricing
activelor de capital (CAMP Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) through which is established a
Model), prin care se realizeaz o corelaie ntre correlation between profitability and risk associated
profitabilitatea sperat de investitori i riscul asociat with invested capital and also is defined the
capitalului investit i se definete costul de oportunitate al opportunity cost for the investment. The work that
investiiei. Lucrarea care aduce, n prim-plan, conceptul speaks for the first time about the concept of creation
de creare de valorare pentru acionari este cea a lui of value for shareholders is that of Alfred Rapport
Alfred Rapport, Creating Shareholder Value din 1986. Creating Shareholder Value, 1986. After the
Dup publicarea acestei lucrri, n urmtorii zece ani, publication of this work, over the next ten years,
crearea de valoare pentru acionari a devenit instrumentul creating value for shareholders has become the
standard de msurare a performanei companiilor la nivel standard tool for measuring the performance of
global (Rapport, 1998, p. 1). Interesul pentru acest companies globally (Rapport, 1998, p. 1). The interest
concept s-a amplificat n 1990, odat cu publicarea for this concept has been amplified in the 1990s with
lucrrii Valuation a lui Copeland i a altor publicaii ale the publication of the Valuation of Copeland and other
grupului McKinsey, prin intermediul crora se susinea publications of the McKinsey group through which it
faptul c noul concept privind evaluarea performanei nu was alleged that the new concept not only benefit
aduce beneficii doar acionarilor, ci i celorlalte pri shareholders but also other interested parties (Black &
interesate (Black & Wright, 2000, pg. 21-22). Elementele Wright, 2000, pg. 21-22). The factors which led to the

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 85


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

care au condus la popularizarea conceptului sunt: popularization of the concept are: expansion of private
extinderea capitalului privat, procesul de globalizare, capital, the process of globalization, the information
revoluia informaional (Black & Wright, 2000). revolution (Black & Wright , 2000).

4. ABORDRI I INDICATORI FOLOSII N 4. APPROACHES AND INDICATORS


MSURAREA PERFORMANEI USED IN MEASURING PERFORMANCE
Indicatorii utilizai n analiza economic clasic The indicators used in the classical economic
prezint informaii privind performana istoric a companiei, analysis provide information on the company's historical
bazndu-se, n principal, pe rezultate i fcnd abstracie de performance based primarily on results and ignoring the
costul capitalului investit. Prin urmare, poate rezulta o cost of invested capital. Therefore, there may be a
disociere ntre performana definit prin aceti indicatori i decoupling between the performance defined in terms of
conceptul de creare de valoare. Pe de alt parte, indicatorii these indicators and the concept of value creation. On the
afereni managementului bazat pe valoare pun n prim-plan other hand, by using value creation method, we can
acest concept, dei privit din mai multe puncte de vedere: analyse it from multiple points of view: creating value for
crearea de valoare pentru acionari, salariai, furnizori, shareholders, employees, suppliers, creditors, other
creditori, ali parteneri (Sulger, 2008, p. 152). Tema partners (Sulger, 2008, p. 152). Our research will aim only
studiului nostru se va orienta doar ctre acei indicatori to those indicators that analyse value created for
creatori de valoare pentru acionari. Unul dintre avantajele shareholders. One of the advantages of using these
folosirii acestor indicatori este c ei urmresc performana indicators is that they show present and future
prezent i viitoare a companiei spre deosebire de indicatorii performance of the company as opposed to the classical
clasici (Copeland, Koller, & Murrin, 2003, p. 71). indicators (Copeland, Koller, & Murrin, 2003, p. 71).
n acest sens, autori cu reputaie, precum i In this sense, the authors with reputation and
importante firme de consultan, au ntreprins eforturi important firms have undertaken considerable efforts to
considerabile pentru a defini indicatorii care s determine define indicators which would lead to the creation of
crearea de valoare pentru acionari. value for shareholders.
Astfel, putem defini patru orientri ale determinrii Thus we can define four guidelines to determine
valorii pentru acionari. the value for the shareholders.

Tabelul 1 / Table 1
Abordri privind crearea de valoare pentru acionari /
Approach on the creation of value for shareholders

Anul /
Abordarea / Aproach Fondatori / Founder
Year
London Business Scholl /
Valoarea adugat / Aded value
London Business Scholl 1990
Valoarea economic adugat / Stern Stewart & Co. /
Economic added value Stern Stewart & Co. 1991
Profitul economic / Economic profit Mckinsey & Co. / Mckinsey & Co. 1994
The Boston Consulting Group /
Fluxul de trezorerie adugat / Cash flow added
The Boston Consulting Group 1994

Msurarea performanei prin valoarea adugat a Performance measurement through value added
fost dezvoltat de universitari. Aceasta se limiteaz la was developed by academics. It is limited to past
msurarea performanei periodice istorice. Abordarea periodic performance measurement. The approach uses
folosete urmtoarele elemente de baz: profitul ajustat = the following basic elements: adjusted profit =
profitul operaional; capitalul = active curente nete + active operational profit; capital = current assets + net fixed
fixe la valoarea de nlocuire; rata de rentabilitate = rata de assets at replacement value; rate of return = rate of
rentabilitate a capitalului investit; costul capitalului = costul return of capital invested; the cost of capital = weighted
mediu ponderat al capitalului (CMPC). average cost of capital (CMPC).
Msurarea performanei prin valoarea economic Performance measurement through the economic
adugat este o metod dezvoltat de o companie de value added is a method developed by a consulting
consultan. Abordarea utilizeaz urmtoarele elemente de company. The approach uses the following basic
baz: profitul ajustat = profitul operaional net dup elements: adjusted profit = net operating profit after tax
impozitare (NOPAT); capitalul = active operaionale nete; (NOPAT); capital = net operating assets; rate of return
rata de rentabilitate = rata de rentabilitate a capitalului = rate of return of capital invested; the cost of capital =
investit; costul capitalului = costul mediu ponderat al weighted average cost of capital (CMPC).

86 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

capitalului (CMPC). Performance measurement by economic profit is


Msurarea performanei prin profitul economic este promoted by McKinsey & Co. and is deeply related to
promovat de McKinsey & Co. i este profund legat de discounted cash flow method. The approach uses the
metoda actualizrii fluxurilor de trezorerie. Abordarea following basic elements: adjusted profit = net
folosete urmtoarele elemente de baz: profitul ajustat = operating profit after tax adjusted to inflation
profitul operaional net dup impozitare ajustat la inflaie (NOPLAT). Equals cash plus investment flows; capital
(NOPLAT). Este egal cu fluxuri de trezorerie plus investiii; = capital invested; rate of return = expected return rate
capitalul = capital investit; rata de rentabilitate = rata de on capital invested (ROIC); the cost of capital =
rentabilitate ateptat a capitalului investit( ROIC); costul weighted average cost of capital (CMPC).
capitalului = costul mediu ponderat al capitalului (CMPC). Performance measurement through added cash
Msurarea performanei prin fluxurile de trezorerie flow is promoted by the Boston Consulting Group. The
adugate este promovat de Boston Consulting Group. approach uses the following basic elements: adjusted
Abordarea folosete urmtoarele elemente de baz: profitul profit = cash flow; capital =initial investment; rate of
ajustat = fluxurile de trezorerie; capitalul = investiia iniial; return = CFROI; the cost of capital = weighted average
rata de rentabilitate = CFROI; costul capitalului = costul cost of capital (CMPC).
mediu ponderat al capitalului (CMPC). According to financial theory indicators that
Conform teoriei financiare, mprim indicatorii care show the creation of value for shareholders can be
susin crearea de valoare pentru acionari n trei categorii i devided into three categories namely: profit indicators,
anume: indicatori de profit, indicatori pe baza fluxurilor de indicators on the basis of cash flows and value
trezorerie i indicatori ai valorii (Helfert A., 2006, p. 423). indicators (Helfert A., 2006, p. 423).
Indicatori de profit. Aceast categorie reprezint o The profit indicators. This class represents a
abordare tradiional, prin care se analizeaz profiturile, traditional approach that analyses the profits, based on
avnd la baz date contabile. n aria indicatorilor de profit, the accounting data. In the profit indicators we can
putem include (Helfert A., 2006, p. 423): include (Helfert A., 2006, p. 423):

EPS Earnings per Share Profitul pe aciune raport ntre profitul net contabil fr dividendele acordate
la aciunile prefereniale i numrul de aciuni emise. El arat profitabilitatea companiei. Deficienele
indicatorului constau n variaia numrului de aciuni n timp i n incapacitatea acestuia de a arta
performana n trezorerie. /
Earnings per Share Ratio between the net income without dividends given to preferential share
capital and number of shares issued. It shows the profitability of the company. The deficiencies of the
indicator consist of changes in number of shares at the time and in its inability to show the
performance of the Treasury.
ROI Return on Investment Rentabilitatea investiiilor raport ntre profitul contabil i valoarea contabil
a investiiei necesare operaiunilor. Deficiena indicatorului const n posibilitatea manipulrii datelor
contabile cu influen direct asupra valorii acestuia. /
Return on Investment Ratio between the profit and the book value of the investment. The deficiency
of the indicator is the possibility of handling accounting data with direct influence on its value.
ROE Return on Equity Rentabilitatea financiar. Raport ntre profitul net contabil i valoarea contabil a
capitalurilor proprii. Deficiena indicatorului const n posibilitatea manipulrii datelor contabile,
influena politicilor contabile asupra rezultatului i n levierul financiar, mai precis asupra structurii
capitalurilor. /
Return on Equity Ratio of net profits and book value of equity. The deficiency of the indicator is the
possibility of handling accounting data; influence the outcome of the accounting policies and financial
leverage, capital structure.

Indicatori pe baza fluxurilor de trezorerie. Indicators on the basis of cash flows. This
Aceast categorie nltur ajustrile contabile non- category removes non-cash accounting adjustment and
cash i se orienteaz ctre analiza trezoreriei generate orient to the Treasury analysis generated by operations
de operaiuni i investiie. and investment.

FCF Free Cash Flow Cash-flow-ul disponibil. Acesta reprezint fluxul de trezorerie operaional (profit
net dup impozitare plus amortizarea i provizioanele, ajustat pentru a nltura cheltuiala cu dobnda)
minus noile investiii (inclusiv necesarul de fond de rulment) plus valorificrile de active. Indicatorul
poate fi folosit drept instrument al planificrii strategice sau n evaluarea ntreprinderilor. /
Free Cash Flow Net profit after tax plus depreciation and provisions, adjusted to eliminate the
interest expense minus new investments (including its revolving fund) plus assets sold. The indicator
can be used as a tool of strategic planning or evaluating the enterprises.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 87


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

CFROI Cash Flow Return on Investment Rentabilitatea n numerar a investiiilor. Reprezint rata intern de
rentabilitate pe perioada de via a investiiei pe baza intrrilor, ieirilor i recuperrilor de trezorerie. /
Cash Flow Return on Investment Internal rate of return during the lifetime of the investment based
on entries, withdrawals and Treasury recoveries.
TSR Total Shareholder Return Rentabilitatea total pentru acionari. Reprezint rentabilitatea obinut de
un investitor pe baza aciunilor deinute de acesta pe o anumit perioad de timp. Ea se calculeaz
innd cont de dividendele obinute i de valoarea aciunilor deinute. /
Total Shareholder Return Return obtained by the investor on the basis of the shares held for a
certain period of time. It is calculated taking into account the dividends obtained and the value of the
shares held.

Indicatori ai valorii. Value indicators.

EVA Economic Value Added Valoarea economic adugat. Reprezint diferena dintre profitul
operaional net dup impozitare (NOPAT) i produsul dintre capital i costul capitalului. /
Economic Value Added Difference between the operational net profit after tax (NOPAT) and the
capital X cost of capital.
MVA Market Value Added Valoarea adugat de pia. Reprezint diferena dintre valoarea contabil a
capitalului investit i valoarea de pia a diferitelor forme de capital. /
Market Value Added Difference between the book value of the capital invested and the market value
of the various forms of capital.
SHV Shareholder Value Valoarea pentru acionari. Reprezint valoarea livrat acionarilor datorit
abilitii managementului de a crete ctigurile, dividendele i preul aciunii. Se calculeaz ca
valoarea prezent a fluxurilor de trezorerie viitoare estimate pe o perioad de previziune explicit,
actualizate n funcie de costul mediu ponderat al capitalurilor, la care se adaug valoarea rezidual a
afacerii, active non-operaionale i se deduce suma datoriilor pe termen mediu i lung. /
Shareholder Value Value delivered to shareholders due to the management's ability to increase
earnings, dividends and price action. Is calculated as the present value of estimated future cash flows,
an explicit forecast, updated according to the weighted average cost of capital plus the residual value
of a business, non-operational assets and liabilities shall be deducted the amount of medium and long
term.
SVA Shareholder Value Added Valoarea adugat pentru acionari. Reprezint modificarea valorii totale
pentru acionari, pe un interval de timp, utiliznd modul de calcul al SHV. Se calculeaz ca diferen
ntre NOPAT i costul capitalului. /
Shareholder Value Added Total shareholder value changes on a time interval using the SHV. It is
calculated as the difference between the cost of capital and NOPA.

Dup cum se observ, exist o arie larg dezvoltat As shown, there is a wide range of management
de managementul bazat pe valoare privind instrumentele developed value analysis tools and indicators used.
de analiz i indicatorii folosii. Cu toate acestea, o However, a company cannot be limited to determining
companie nu se poate limita doar la determinarea i analiza and analysing them, but on the basis of information
acestora, ci, pe baza informaiilor obinute, trebuie luate obtained coercive measures must be taken concerning
msuri coercitive privind strategia ntreprinderii, care s enterprise strategy that lead to accomplishing maximise
duc la ndeplinirea scopului maximizrii valorii pentru value for shareholders. To the same extent, changes
acionari. n aceeai msur, trebuie realizate modificri n need to be made to the company's organizational
cultura organizaional a companiei, care, astfel, s fie n culture that used to be under the new guidelines.
sensul noii orientri. There is a wide-ranging debate on the
Exist o ampl dezbatere cu privire la eficiena effectiveness of these indicators, some being treated
acestor indicatori, unii fiind considerai mai buni dect better than the others (Copeland, Koller, & Murrin,
ceilali (Copeland, Koller, & Murrin, 2003, p. 71). Cu toate 2003, p. 71). However, they are pursuing the same
acestea, ei urmresc acelai scop i anume crearea de objective, namely the creation of value for
valoare pentru acionari. n ultima perioad, dup cum am shareholders. Lately, as we have stressed throughout
punctat pe parcursul lucrrii, este preferat a treia categorie this work, is preferred over the third category of
de indicatori, aceasta ducnd cu uurin la identificarea indicators, this leading to the identification of the
factorilor care influeneaz valoarea ntreprinderii. factors that affect the value of the company.
n analiza performanei pentru utilizarea unei Stern, as well as Young and Byrne, define EVA
comparaii ntre EVA i MVA, Stern, precum i Young i as the most important indicator. In L.E.K. Consulting
OByrne, definesc EVA drept cel mai important indicator. approach, SVA (Shareholder Value Added) is
n abordarea L.E.K. Consulting, SVA (Shareholder Value considered to be the most effective, both, at decision-

88 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

Added) este considerat ca fiind indicatorul cel mai eficient making level and on the task force. To show the
att la nivel decizional, ct i operativ. Pentru a exprima performance of the enterprise as a whole, Marakon opts
performana ntreprinderii n ansamblul ei, Marakon for economical profit. For McKinsey &Co. the
opteaz pentru profitul economic. McKinsey & Co economic profit and discounted cash flows are the most
consider c utilizarea profitului economic i modelul suitable approaches in measuring performance. Price
fluxurilor de trezorerie actualizate sunt cele mai potrivite Waterhouse Coopers recommends using the pattern of
abordri n msurarea performanei. Price Waterhouse cash flows available (Ciolac, 2006, p. 176).
Coopers recomand utilizarea modelului fluxurilor de
trezorerie disponibile (Ciolac, 2006, p. 176). 5. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON BUCHAREST
STOCK EXCHANGE MARKET
5. STUDIU EMPIRIC LA NIVELUL BVB The importance of a study on the sector of
Importana unui studiu asupra sectorului de activitate activity stems from the fact that the evolution of an
decurge din faptul c evoluia general a unei ntreprinderi enterprise is similar with the evolution of the sector.
este dat, n cea mai mare parte, de evoluia sectorului din Construction represents the totality of the activities
care face parte. Lucrrile de construcii reprezint ansamblul undertaken for the purpose of real estate materialized
de activiti desfurate n scopul producerii de bunuri in new buildings and civil engineering, as well as
imobiliare concretizate n cldiri i construcii civile noi, restoration, repair and maintenance of existing ones, by
precum i restaurarea, repararea i ntreinerea celor all enterprises, respective of their main activity. The
existente, de ctre toate ntreprinderile, indiferent de construction sector recorded, after 1989, one of the
activitatea principal. Sectorul de construcii a nregistrat, most rapid privatization of the national economy, and
dup anul 1989, una din cele mai rapide privatizri din this has now grown in 2003 at a weight of 99,51%
economia naional, ajungndu-se, n anul 2003, la o number of major private capital company, and in 2007
pondere de 99,51% a numrului de societi cu capital at a rate of 99,87%.
majoritar privat, iar n anul 2007, la o pondere de 99,87%. For analysis we selected companies listed on the
Pentru analiz, am selectat societile listate la Bucharest Stock Exchange Market in the field of
Bursa de Valori Bucureti n domeniul construciilor. Din construction. Of the total of 66 companies traded on
totalul de 66 de companii ce tranzacioneaz la BVB, the BSE, we have 6 entities in the field of construction.
avem 6 entiti din domeniul construciilor. Folosind datele Using data from the Profit and loss account and
din Contul de profit i pierdere i bilan, precum i cele balance sheet, as well as specific ones available on
specifice disponibile pe pagina BVB, avem urmtoarele BSE, we have the following values for the performance
valori pentru indicatorii de performan luai n analiz: indicators considered in the analysis:

Tabelul 2 / Table 2
Valorile indicatorilor de performan pentru eantionul selectat /
Performance indicators values for selected companies

Sim / An / EPSt / ROIt / ROEt / EVAt / Ra /


Company Year EPSt ROIt ROEt EVAt Ra
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
COFI 2011 -8,24% -50,11% -85,05% 1728472 -80,13%
COFI 2010 0,62% 1,96% 3,30% -3661478 153,06%
COFI 2009 2,36% 3,18% 6,64% -315048 78,66%
COFI 2008 1,57% 2,09% 4,77% -1604223 -82,07%
COFI 2007 8,87% 9,91% 18,00% -888926 6364,34%
COFI 2006 11,03% 3,17% 6,79% -1080593 382,76%
COFI 2005 11,32% 4,43% 7,05% -514095 33,33%
COFI 2004 15,61% 7,60% 11,38% -560912 200,00%
COFI 2003 12,12% 7,44% 10,71% 95476 16,67%
IMP 2011 -11,25% -6,16% -7,50% -9128025 -96,17%
IMP 2010 -0,88% -4,23% -5,55% -8147821 -33,32%
IMP 2009 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% -8071978 240,58%
IMP 2008 0,41% 1,96% 2,47% -1,7E+07 -93,72%
IMP 2007 0,37% 1,68% 2,27% -1,9E+07 218,56%

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 89


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
IMP 2006 1,83% 5,74% 11,19% -1,4E+07 103,96%
IMP 2005 1,35% 4,76% 7,51% -8567251 707,95%
IMP 2004 1,83% 5,74% 11,19% -1440321 116,40%
IMP 2003 1,35% 4,76% 7,51% -856725 129,45%
CMCM 2011 0,48% 0,42% 0,43% -764529 -55,92%
CMCM 2010 -1,37% -1,14% -1,18% 205504 4,01%
CMCM 2009 0,09% 0,07% 0,07% -2234818 29,26%
CMCM 2008 4,33% 3,51% 3,63% -2403388 3085,92%
CMCM 2007 941,84% 2,76% 2,87% -1500563 9150,18%
CMCM 2006 600,58% 3,91% 4,01% -349245 27,23%
CMCM 2005 153,03% 12,59% 15,15% -131081 20,34%
CMCM 2004 119,15% 11,50% 13,05% 62577 98,88%
CMCM 2003 94,85% 10,67% 11,29% 36530 -16,04%
ENP 2011 2,80% 0,42% 0,57% -266592 15,56%
ENP 2010 2,65% 0,31% 0,54% -340265 -42,31%
ENP 2009 2,70% 0,30% 0,55% -224019 -2,50%
ENP 2008 5,12% 1,01% 1,07% -103406 -69,81%
ENP 2007 13,76% 2,75% 2,89% -45977 72,08%
ENP 2006 11,76% 2,31% 2,48% 3400 43,93%
ENP 2005 8,72% 1,84% 1,88% 8291 -47,82%
ENP 2004 9,74% 2,13% 2,13% 16340 21,54%
ENP 2003 0,18% 0,04% 0,04% 213670 4,84%
COMI 2011 0,22% 0,58% 0,64% -3289342 -41,20%
COMI 2010 5,13% 8,86% 10,06% -3768198 50,59%
COMI 2009 8,00% 14,62% 17,44% -2286833 441,01%
COMI 2008 5,14% 8,73% 11,37% -848672 -83,72%
COMI 2007 2,70% 5,36% 6,73% -544495
COMI 2006 2,08% 10,79% 11,08% -885858
COMI 2005 4,66% 21,54% 23,09% -640364
COMI 2004 2,75% 13,99% 15,51% 76765
COMI 2003 3,66% 19,77% 20,99% 453711
COTR 2011 114,82% 0,68% 0,84% -379640 -21,45%
COTR 2010 35,44% 0,26% 0,27% -445051 75,20%
COTR 2009 42,70% 0,22% 0,25% -17224 23,33%
COTR 2008 779,78% 3,88% 4,50% -990130 -85,98%
COTR 2007 1593,73% 15,03% 25,67% -1299912 1351,43%
COTR 2006 620,42% 6,11% 11,94% -1744820 392,96%
COTR 2005 520,23% 5,74% 10,68% -950193 2,90%
COTR 2004 98,53% 1,88% 2,90% -479492 188,76%
COTR 2003 -117% -3,35% -3,39% -237448 149,99%

Dorim s observm n ce msur indicatorii de We want to note the extent to which


performan reflect progresul sau regresul performance indicators reflect progress or regress of

90 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

societilor, mai precis, n ce msur indicatorii ofer the companies, namely to what extent indicators offers
aceeai imagine asupra performanei. Astfel, avem: the same picture performance. Thus, we have:

Valoarea indicatorului /
EPS ROI ROE EVA
Indicator value
I<0 4 5 5 43
I>0 50 49 49 11
Total 54 54 54 54

Conform tabelului de mai sus, putem observa o According to the above table, we can notice
discrepan n capacitatea indicatorilor selectai de a analiza a discrepancy in the ability of the selected
performana ntreprinderii. Astfel, dac, conform indicatorilor indicators to analyze the performance of the
tradiionali, avem un numr de 49 de companii care company. So, if according to traditional indicators
nregistreaz performan, valoarea indicatorului I>0, n cazul we have a number of 49 companies, that recorded
EVA, avem doar 11 astfel de companii, ceea ce ridic performance, value indicator I > 0, for EVA we
ntrebarea care indicator reflect cel mai bine performana sau have only 11 such companies, which raises the
non-performana ntreprinderii. question which indicator best reflects the
Din totalul de 54 de observaii, n 9 cazuri, cei patru performance or non-performance of the enterprise.
indicatori reflect o performan i doar n 2 cazuri non- Of the total of 54 observations, in 9 cases
performan. Astfel, n doar 11, din 54 de cazuri, exist o the four indicators reflect a performance and only
corelaie ntre cei patru indicatori privind performana reflectat. in 2 cases non-performance. Thus, in just 11 of the
54 cases there is a correlation between the four
6. REZULTATE I CONCLUZII performance indicators.
La nivel de companie, ct i n literatur
financiar, exist o orientare n msurarea 6. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
performanelor pe baza EPS, ROI i ROE. De multe ori, At the company level and also in the
se consider c o cretere a EPS nseamn n mod direct finance literature there is a signpost in
i o cretere a valorii pentru acionari. Aceast concepie measuring performance based on EPS, ROI and
este greit, deoarece valoarea de pia a aciunii este ROE. It is often considered that an increase of
profund influenat de statisticile din raportul anual i EPS means directly an increase of value for
implicit de date contabile. n prezent, numeroase shareholders. This conception is wrong because
companii consider c o cretere a EPS-ului nu the market value of the action is deeply
semnific neaprat i o cretere a valorii de pia a influenced by the statistics from the annual
portofoliului de aciuni (Rapport, 1998, p. 13). Exist o report and the accounting data. Currently many
serie de motive, pentru care aceti indicatori nu reuesc companies consider that an increase in EPS does
s msoare modificrile valorii pentru acionari. n not necessarily mean an increase in the market
primul rnd, putem vorbi despre influena politicilor value of the portfolio of shares (Rapport, 1998,
contabile asupra elementelor componente. Rezultatele p. 13). There is a number of reasons why these
contabile pot fi profund influenate de elemente, precum: indicators fail to measure the changes in value
metode de evaluare a cantitii de stocuri ieite sau for shareholders. First of all we can talk about
consumate (LIFO, FIFO,CMP), amortizare i depreciere, the influence of the accounting policies on the
fuziune i achiziie. O modificare a politicii companiei components. The accounting results can be
privind aceste componente are efect asupra rezultatelor, deeply influenced by factors such as:
dar nu i asupra fluxurilor de trezorerie, astfel, nu ar depreciation and impairment, merger and
trebui s aib efect nici asupra valorii pentru acionari. acquisition. A change in company policy
De cele mai multe ori, o astfel de modificare va regarding these components has an effect on the
conduce, ns, i la modificri ale valorii de pia a results but not on the cash flow so, it shouldnt
companiei. Trebuie reinut faptul c trezoreria reprezint have any effect on the value for shareholders.
un fapt, pe cnd profitul doar o opiune (Rapport, 1998, Most of the times, such a change will lead to
p. 15). O alt problem ce ridic semne de ntrebare cu changes in the market value of the company. It
privire la eficiena acestor indicatori se refer la should be noted that the Treasury is a fact when
neintegrarea proiectelor de investiii n calculul lor. profit is only one option (Rapport, 1998, p. 15).
Orice investiie, ce are loc pe parcursul unui exerciiu Another issue that raises questions about the
financiar, are impact direct asupra trezoreriei effectiveness of these indicators relate to the
ntreprinderii, dar nu se regsete ca i cheltuial non integration of investment projects in their
aferent exerciiului. Astfel, compania poate prezenta calculation. Any investment that takes place
profituri mari, n timp ce ea poate avea reale probleme

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 91


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

cu trezoreria. Atunci, cnd analizm performan prin over the course of a financial year has a direct
intermediul indicatorilor de profit, nu inem seama de impact on the Treasury but is not undertaking as
valoarea n timp a banilor sau, mai bine spus, impactul associated expense for the year. The company
trecerii timpului asupra banilor. may have big profits while it can have real
Asemenea oricrui indicator sau oricrei tehnici problems with the cash flow. When we look at
de analiz economic, msurarea performanelor performance through profit indicators we do not
ntreprinderii prin intermediul EVA prezint att talk of the time value of money, or better said,
avantaje, ct i dezavantaje. the impact of the passage of time over money.
Printre avantajele folosirii acestei metode, se Like any indicator or technical economic
numr, n primul rnd, simplitatea i faptul c nu analysis, performance measurement of enterprise
necesit realizarea de previziuni privind rezultatele via EVA has both advantages and disadvantages.
viitoare. n aceeai msur, acest indicator se orienteaz, Among the advantages of using this
n mod direct, ctre crearea de valoare pentru acionari i method we include primarily the simplicity and
evoluia acesteia pe termen lung, reprezentnd, n acelai the fact that it does not require making
timp, un instrument de ameliorare a gestiunii globale a predictions about future results. To the same
ntreprinderii sau a unei subdiviziuni a acesteia. O extent, this indicator is oriented directly towards
cretere a EVA va nsemna, ntotdeauna, o cretere a creating value for shareholders and is long-term
valorii pentru acionari, spre deosebire de creterea orientated, representing at the same time a tool
profitului net, a ratelor de rentabilitate, care, uneori, pot for improving the overall management of the
fi concomitente cu o scdere a averii acionarilor. Pe enterprise or any of its subdivisions. A farming
lng statutul de msur a performanelor, EVA EVA will always mean an increase in value for
reprezint i un instrument al managementului financiar shareholders, as opposed to the increase in net
cu ajutorul cruia se iau msuri coercitive privind profit, return rates that can sometimes be
strategia ntreprinderii sau chiar se traseaz liniile concomitant with a decline of shareholders
directoare ale acesteia. Indicatorul msoar performana wealth. In addition to measuring performance
intern a companiei n mrimea absolut a valorii create status, EVA is also an instrument of financial
sau distruse tinznd spre maximizare (Tabr & Dicu, management, as this indicator measures the
2007, p. 373). EVA determin o creare de bogie n performance of the companys sheer size of
trezorerie, i nu n procente. Indicatorul permite value created or destroyed purporting to
calcularea performanei ntreprinderii pe perioade mai maximize (Tabr & Dicu, 2007, p. 373).
scurte de un an, deoarece se exprim n funcie de As we can see, the four indicators present
rezultatul contabil din exploatare (Shil, 2009, p. 174). both advantages and disadvantages. This study
Dup cum putem observa, cei patru indicatori prezint aims to be a stepping stone to answering the
att avantaje, ct i dezavantaje. Acest studiu se dorete a fi fundamental question of the thesis of doctorate,
unul preliminar pentru a rspunde la ntrebarea fundamental namely: Which economic indicator most closely
a lucrrii de doctorat i anume: Care indicator economic reflects the performance of the enterprise? Future
reflect cel mai bine performana ntreprinderii? Eforturile efforts will be in the direction of seeking an
viitoare vor fi n direcia gsirii unui rspuns la aceast answer to this question and will orient towards
ntrebare i se vor orienta spre analiza statistic a datelor la statistical analysis of data.
nivelul ntregii Burse de Valori.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Companies Directory: BVB. (2011). Retrieved January-February 2011, from Bucharest Stock Exchange
Market Web Site: http://bvb.ro/
2. Abrams, J. B. (2005). How to Value Your Business and Increase Its Potential. New York: McGraw-Hill.
3. Albouy, M. (2003). Dcision Financires et Cration de Valeur (2 eme ed.). Economica.
4. Ameels, A. (2002). Value Based Management. Control Processes to Create Value Through Integration.
Vlerick keuven Gent Management School.
5. Anghel, I., Oancea, M., Anica, A., & Popescu, A. (2010). Evaluarea ntreprinderii. Bucureti: Editura
Economic.
6. Black, A., & Wright, P. (2000). In Search of Shareholder Value: Managing the Drivers of Performance.
USA: Financial Times/Prentice Hall; 2nd edition.
7. Brealey, R. A., & Myers, S. C. (2003). Principles of Corporate Finance (7th ed.). New York: The
McGraw-Hill Companies.
8. Buctaru, D. (2012). Evaluri n economia de pia. Iai: Junimea.
9. Buglea, A. (2011). Analiza economic financiar (II ed.). Timioara: Mirton.
10. Cruntu, C., & Lpdui, M. L. (2009). Rata rentabilitii financiare. Impactul ratei rentabilitii
financiare asupra dezvoltrii ntreprinderii. Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui, 95-108.

92 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

11. Chen, S., & Dodd, J. L. (1997). Economic Value Added (EVATM): An empirical examination of a new
corporate Performance Measure. Journal of Managerial Issus, 9(3), 318.
12. Ciolac, C. (2006). Managementul bazat pe valoare noua filozofie managerial. Galai: Oeconomica.
13. Colasse, B. (2010). Introduction a la comptabilite. Paris: Economica.
14. Copeland, T., Koller, T., & Murrin, J. (2003). Valuation:Measuring and managing the Value of
Companies (3rd ed.). New York: John Wilez and Sons, INC.
15. EVSB. (2009). European Valuation Standards. Bruxelles: Gills.
16. Frsineanu, C. (2010). Perfecionarea metodelor de evaluare a patrimoniului. Bucureti: ASE.
17. Helfert, A. (2006). Tehnici de analiz financiar. Ghid pentru crearea valorii. Bucureti: BMT
Publishing House.
18. Helfert, E. (2001). Financial Analysis Tools and Techniques- A Guide for Managers. USA: McGraw Hill.
19. Ittner, D., & Larcker, F. (2001). Assessing empirical research in managerial accounting: a value-based
management perspective. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 349-410.
20. Rapport, A. (1998). Creating Shareholder Value. New York: The Free Press.
21. Robu, V., Anghel, I., & Tutui, D. (2002). Evaluarea ntreprinderii. Bucureti: ASE.
22. Sulger, R.-M. (2008). Valoarea economic adugat. O cercetare empiric. Revista Oeconomica (1),
149-188.
23. Tabr, N., Horomnea, E., & Mircea, M. C. (2010). Contabilitate internaional (2 ed.). Iai:
TipoMoldova.
24. Tabr, N., & Dicu, R. (2007). Indicatori de performan n contextul reglementrilor. Conferina
internaional Integrarea European realiti i perspective (pp. 367-374). Galai: Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic.
25. Tabr, N., Horomnea, E., & Dicu, R. (2008). Consideraii asupra metodelor de estimare a valorii
adugate. Revista Finane Publice i Contabilitate (4), 35-42.
26. Tabr, N., Horomnea, E., & Ptracu, R. (2005). Costul capitalurilor i valoarea ntreprinderii. Revista
Finane Publice i Contabilitate (11), 13-23.
27. Tache, I. (2007). Msurarea valorii create pentru acionari. Oeconomica, 153-189.
28. Zimmerman, J. L. (1997). EVA and Divisional Performance Measurement: Capturing Synergies and
Other Issues. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 10 (2), 98-109.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 93


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

ANALIZA INSTRUMENTELOR I ANALYSIS OF TOOLS AND


METODELOR DE EVALUARE A METHODS FOR ASSESSING THE
SITUAIEI FINANCIARE I FINANCIAL SITUATION AND THE
DEZVOLTAREA ENTITILOR MUNICIPAL ENTITIES
MUNICIPALE DEVELOPMENT
Lect. sup. Rodica CERNIT, ASEM Senior Lect. Rodica CERNIT, ASEM
n practica Republicii Moldova, anterior, nu se In the practice of the Republic of Moldova there has
efectua analiza solvabilitii entitilor municipale. n acest not previously been carried out the analysis of municipal
sens, lipsesc indicaiile metodice autohtone n domeniu, cu entities solvency. In this respect there are no local
excepia proiectelor individuale finanate de instituiile methodical guidelines in the field, apart from individual
financiare internaionale. Practica internaional pentru projects funded by international financial institutions.
aprecierea calitii gestiunii finanelor utilizeaz indicatorii International practice for financial management quality
privind evaluarea situaiei bazei normative legale assessment uses the indicators regarding the evaluation of
municipale i, de asemenea, indicatorii socioeconomici the municipal legal framework situation as well as the social
privind situaia entitilor municipale. and economic indicators regarding the municipal entities
Cuvinte-cheie: sistem trezorerial, entitate public, situation.
municipalitate, solvabilitatea entitilor municipale, Keywords: treasury system, public entity,
obligaii fiscale, deficit bugetar, resurse creditare. municipality, municipal entitiessolvency, tax liabilities,
budget deficit, lending resources.
Sistemul trezorerial de executare a bugetului are o
influen semnificativ asupra indicatorilor macroeconomici The treasury system of budget execution has a
de baz i asupra dinamicii acestora. n scopul mbuntirii significant impact on basic macroeconomic indicators and on
proceselor de gestionare a resurselor financiare, propunem their dynamics. In order to improve the processes of financial
un mecanism eficient de evaluare a gestiunii finanelor i a resources management, we suggest a mechanism for efficient
solvabilitii Consiliilor Raionale i Primriilor, care, n evaluation of financial management and the solvency of
opinia noastr, se poate realiza prin sistemul trezorerial. n District and Town Councils, which, in our opinion, can be
primul rnd, trebuie menionat c gestiunea se poate efectua done through the treasury system. First, it should be noted,
n baza datelor coninute n raportul privind executarea that management may be implemented on the basis of data
bugetelor locale pentru perioada de gestiune, adic n baza contained in the report on local budgets execution for the
datelor puse la dispoziia trezoreriilor teritoriale i, de accounting period, i.e. on the basis of data provided to
asemenea, datelor privind executarea bugetelor pentru territorial treasuries and also on the basis of data on budgets
perioada de gestiune (cu evidena modificrilor la data de execution for the accounting period (with the accounting of
raportare) i, n final, pe baza informaiei prezentate de modifications on the date of reporting), and, finally, relying
organele fiscale. n practica internaional, evaluarea on the information presented by tax authorities. In
eficient a gestionrii resurselor financiare i solvabilitii international practice, the efficient assessment of financial
entitilor municipale n prezent se realizeaz pe urmtoarele resources management and municipal entities solvency is
direcii: currently being conducted in the following directions:
Respectarea cerinelor fundamentale ale legii Compliance with the essential requirements of the
privind finanele publice locale de ctre entitile law on local public finances by municipal entities;
municipale; Financial situation of public entities;
Situaia financiar a entitilor publice; Management of municipal public finances.
Gestionarea finanelor publice municipale. Initially, as the database for efficiency assessment,
Iniial, ca baz de date pentru evaluarea eficienei, pe besides the data indicated above, there can be used the
lng datele indicate mai sus, poate fi utilizat informaia information presented directly by municipal entities on legal
prezentat nemijlocit de entitile municipale privind actele normative acts and statistical data on the social and economic
normative legale i datele statistice privind situaia situation of municipalities.
socioeconomic a municipalitilor. Based on the data presented, there can be assessed the
n baza datelor prezentate, pot fi evaluai urmtorii following parameters, such as: the state municipal legal
parametri, cum ar fi, baza normativ legal municipal de framework, the compliance with the essential requirements
stat, respectarea cerinelor fundamentale privind legea of the budgetary law by municipalities, the social and
bugetar de ctre municipaliti, situaia socioeconomic a economic situation of municipal districts, the dynamics of the
raioanelor municipale, dinamica indicatorilor financiari specific financial indicators. International practice for
specifici. Practica internaional pentru aprecierea calitii financial management quality assessment uses the indicators
gestiunii finanelor utilizeaz indicatorii de evaluare a regarding the evaluation of the municipal legal framework

94 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

situaiei bazei normative legale municipale i, de asemenea, situation, as well as the social and economic indicators
indicatorii socioeconomici privind situaia entitilor regarding the municipal entities situation. Since the statistical
municipale. Deoarece birourile de statistic nu estimeaz offices do not estimate the social and economic indicators for
indicatorii socioeconomici pentru fiecare raion, n opinia each district, in our opinion, these indicators can be
noastr, aceti indicatori pot fi nlocuii cu indicatorii de substituted with the indicators for assessing the financial
apreciere a situaiei financiare. situation.
Spre exemplu, indicatorii privind obligaiunile de For example, the indicators for payment obligations,
pli, respectarea de ctre entitile municipale a obligaiilor the municipal entities compliance with the obligations
privind finanarea programelor (proiectelor) investiionale regarding the funding of investment programs (projects)
din bugetele locale n cadrul adreselor programelor from local budgets within the investment programs
investiionale. Pentru mbuntirea calitii planificrii, n addresses. In order to improve the planning quality, the list
municipaliti, lista indicatorilor poate fi completat cu of indicators in municipalities may be supplemented with
abaterea veniturilor proprii totale specificate n buget, the deviation of proper total revenues specified in the
ncepnd cu aprobarea iniial a acestuia, i lista budget, starting with its initial approval and the list of
modificrilor efectuate n procesul de executare bugetar. n modifications made in the budgetary execution process. In
scopul stimulrii entitilor municipale n construcia de noi order to stimulate the municipal entities to construct new
edificii, poate fi inclus indicatorul Ponderea cheltuielilor buildings, there can be included the indicator regarding the
bugetare n construcia de noi edificii. share of budget expenditures in the construction of new
n procesul de evaluare a gestiunii eficiente a finanelor buildings.
i solvabilitii entitilor municipale, este necesar estimarea In the process of assessing the efficient financial
fiecrui indicator pentru fiecare Primrie i Consiliul Raional. management and the municipal entities solvency, it is
Pentru indicatori, trebuie s fie stabilit valoarea relativ. necessary to estimate each indicator for each Town and
Diferenierea necesitii acestora se datoreaz indicatorilor ce District Council. There should be established the relative
reflect gradul de influen a factorilor asupra nivelului importance of the indicators. The differentiation of their
general de control al calitii gestionrii finanelor i necessity is due to the indicators that reflect the degree of
solvabilitii entitilor municipale. Rezultatul final al impact of factors on the general level of control of the
eficienei se determin prin suma estimrilor a tuturor financial management quality and the municipal entities
indicatorilor raportat la valoarea relativ corespunztoare solvency. The final result of the efficiency is determined by
acestora. De asemenea, este important de a stabili nivelul the sum of estimations of all indicators on their
maxim al evalurii calitii gestiunii finanelor i solvabilitii corresponding relative importance. It is also important to
entitilor municipale corespunztoare gradului nalt de establish the maximum level of assessing the quality of
gestiune a finanelor i riscului minim al insolvabilitii financial management and the municipal entities solvency
(preliminar, nivelul fie 25 puncte). corresponding to the high level of financial management and
Metodologiile aplicate n practica internaional the minimum risk of insolvency (preliminary level to be 25
prevd evaluarea calitativ a gestiunii finanelor i points).
solvabilitii localitilor, primriilor, respectarea legii The methodologies applied in international practice
privind sistemul bugetar i procesul bugetar de ctre provide the qualitative assessment of the financial
municipaliti (pentru Republica Moldova se poate aduga management and the solvency of communities and town
i legea privind finanele publice locale). Evaluarea se councils, require the compliance with the law on the
efectueaz dup urmtorii patru indicatori: budgetary system and process of the municipalities (for the
Limitarea deficitului bugetului local (nu poate Republic of Moldova there can be added the law on local
depi 10% din totalul veniturilor bugetului local, public finances). The assessment is carried out according to
fr evidena ncasrilor gratuite i (sau) ncasarea the following four indicators:
veniturilor fiscale dup deducerile standard Local budget deficit limitation (it cannot exceed
suplimentare); 10% from the total of local budget revenues
Limitarea volumului datoriei municipale (nu poate without the accounting of free collections and (or)
depi 10% din totalul veniturilor bugetului local, collections of tax revenues after additional standard
fr evidena ncasrilor gratuite i (sau) ncasarea deductions);
veniturilor fiscale dup deducerile standard Limitation of municipal debt amount (it cannot
suplimentare); exceed 10% from the total of local budget revenues
Limitarea cheltuielilor privind rambursarea without the accounting of free collections and (or)
datoriei municipale (nu poate depi 15% din collections of tax revenues after additional standard
totalul cheltuielilor bugetului local, fr includerea deductions);
subveniilor); Limitation of expenditures on municipal debt
Limitarea structurii datoriei municipale. repayment (it cannot exceed 15% from the total of
n urmtoarea etap de evaluare, de regul, se local budget expenditures without including
efectueaz analiza indicatorilor financiari ai bugetelor locale, subsidies);
inclusiv: Limitation of municipal debt structure.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 95


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

executarea bugetului privind ncasarea veniturilor At the next stage of assessment, as a rule, is carried out
fiscale i nefiscale (realizarea indicatorilor the analysis of financial indicators of local budgets, among
planificai nu trebuie s fie mai mic dect 95%); which are the following:
nivelul de subvenionare a entitilor municipale the execution of the budget on tax and non-tax
(valoarea subveniilor n executarea bugetar revenue collection (implementation of indicators
echilibrat i (sau) ncasarea veniturilor fiscale planned should not be less than 95%);
dup deducerile standard suplimentare nu trebuie the level of the municipal entities subsidization
s depeasc 70% din volumul veniturilor (the value of subsidies in the balanced budget
entitilor municipale, cu excluderea subveniilor execution and (or) tax revenue collection after
din alte bugete); additional standard deductions should not exceed
creterea veniturilor proprii per locuitor din cadrul 70% from the amount of the municipal entities
entitilor municipale (raportul dintre veniturile revenues, excluding the subsidies from other
proprii per locuitor din perioada analizat i budgets);
veniturile proprii per locuitor din aceeai perioad the increase of proper income per capita within the
a anului precedent nu trebuie s fie mai mic dect municipal entities (the ratio of proper income per
95%); capita in the period under review to proper income
dinamica obligaiilor fiscale, nscrise n bugetul per capita in the same period of the last year should
entitilor municipale (totalul obligaiilor fiscale, la not be less than 95%);
sfritul perioadei de gestiune, trebuie s fie mai the dynamics of tax liabilities stipulated in the
mic cu cel puin 10% dect totalul acestora din municipal entities budget (the total of tax liabilities
aceeai perioad a anului precedent); at the end of the accounting period should be at
deficitul bugetar n urma oferirii nlesnirilor fiscale least 10% less than the total of these liabilities in
municipale (totalul nlesnirilor fiscale nu trebuie s the same period of the previous year);
depeasc 5% din totalul veniturilor fiscale); the budget deficit lo lowing the provision of
abaterea totalului de venituri proprii bugetare municipal tax exemptions (the total of tax
specificate n bugetul aprobat iniial (volumul exemptions should not exceed 5% from the total of
anual al veniturilor proprii nscrise n buget nu tax revenues);
trebuie s depeasc 125% din volumul anual al the deviation of the total proper budgetary revenues
veniturilor proprii din cadrul bugetului planificat); stipulated in the initially approved budget (the
acordarea mprumuturilor municipale conform annual amount of proper revenues stipulated in the
programului de creditare, aprobat prin legea budget should not exceed 125% from the annual
bugetului; amount of proper revenues within the budget
achitarea salariilor administraiei locale; planned);
cota-parte a cheltuielilor bugetului local pentru extending municipal credits according to the
achiziii (construcii, reconstrucii) de mijloace fixe lending program approved by the budget law;
(cota-parte a cheltuielilor entitilor municipale din payment of local administration salaries;
categoria dat n totalul cheltuielilor bugetului the share of the local budget expenditures for
local, cu excepia subveniilor acordate din bugetul procurement (constructions, reconstructions) of
local, nu trebuie s fie mai mic de 5%); fixed assets (the share of the municipal entities
surse de finanare a programelor (proiectelor) expenditures of this category in the total of the local
investiionale din bugetele locale n cadrul budget expenditures, excluding the subsidies from
programului investiional vizat i altor programe the local budget, should not be less than 5%);
principale; sources of financing investment programs
cheltuieli de capital sau privind construciile (projects) from the local budgets within the targeted
locative n cheltuielile bugetului local; investment program and other main programs;
datoria total a instituiilor bugetare (mrimea expenditures of capital or concerning housing in
acesteia nu poate depi 5% din totalul the local budget expenditures;
cheltuielilor bugetului local cu excepia the total debt of budgetary institutions (its size
subveniilor acordate din bugetul local aprobat); cannot exceed 5% from the total of the local budget
lipsa datoriei privind retribuirea muncii i expenditures excluding the subsidies from the
transferarea acesteia; approved local budget);
dinamica datoriei privind plata serviciilor the absence of the debt for labour remuneration of
comunale (valoarea datoriei privind achitarea and its transfer;
acestor servicii pentru perioada de gestiune nu the dynamics of the debt regarding the utilities
poate depi 5% din totalul cheltuielilor privind payment (the value of the debt regarding the
achitarea serviciilor comunale din cadrul bugetului payment of these services for the accounting period
local aprobat); cannot exceed 5% from the total of expenditures on

96 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

lipsa datoriilor restante privind obligaiunile i utilities payment within the approved local budget);
creditele restante bugetare. the absence of outstanding debts regarding the
n final, vom meniona c indicatorii de apreciere a budgetary outstanding loans and bonds.
calitii gestiunii finanelor i solvabilitii entitilor Finally, we would like to mention that the indicators,
municipale reflect principalii factori care determin situaia for assessing the quality of financial management and the
financiar actual i potenialul posibilitilor de finanare ale municipal entities solvency, reflect the main factors that
acestora. De asemenea, stabilitatea n situaii de influen a determine the current financial situation and the potential of
factorilor negativi din exterior. Rezultatul final corespunde the opportunities for their funding, and also the stability in the
celei mai bune sau celei mai rele caliti de gestiune a situations of influencing the external negative factors. The
finanelor i totodat riscului mai mare sau mai mic al end result corresponds to the best or the worst quality of
insolvabilitii entitilor municipale. financial management and, at the same time, to a higher or
Pe de o parte, aceast evaluare permite evidenierea lower risk of the municipal entities insolvency.
punctelor forte i punctelor slabe ale entitii municipale n On the one hand, this assessment highlights the
gestiunea finanelor privind luarea deciziilor. Pe de alt strengths and weaknesses of the municipal entities in
parte, aceast evaluare stimuleaz administraiile financial management regarding decision-making. On the
municipalitilor s respecte cerinele legii bugetare, other hand, this assessment stimulates municipal
mbuntirii indicatorilor financiari ai bugetelor locale, administrations to comply with the requirements of the
asigurarea publicitii de management financiar municipal. budgetary law, to improve financial indicators of local
Evaluarea resurselor creditare ale entitilor budgets, to ensure publicity of municipal financial
municipale este analizat n rile cu o pia dezvoltat a management.
capitalului de mprumut. n Republica Moldova au fost The assessment of the municipal entities lending
efectuate asemenea evaluri ntre unele consilii raionale i resources is analyzed in the countries with a developed debt
municipaliti, participante la proiecte finanate de instituii capital markets. In the Republic of Moldova such
financiare internaionale. n opinia noastr, o asemenea assessments have been conducted between some District
experien poate fi utilizat la elaborarea metodologiei Councils and municipalities, participating in the projects
evalurii situaiei financiare a bugetelor de nivelul nti i doi funded by international financial institutions. In our opinion,
ale Republicii Moldova. n continuare, axndu-ne pe such experience can be used in processing the methodology
practica internaional, vom propune instrumente de analiz of assessing the financial situation of the first- and the
i recomandri referitoare la utilizarea bazei informaionale a second-level budgets of the Republic of Moldova. Next,
trezoreriilor teritoriale privind analiza mprumuturilor relying on international practice we will propose analysis
consiliilor raionale i municipalitilor. tools and guidelines to use the information base of territorial
Analiza tendinelor privind mprumuturilor entitilor treasuries regarding the analysis of district councils and
municipale, deja de cteva decenii, este cunoscut n municipalities loans.
practica internaional. Asemenea analiz este necesar The analysis of tendencies regarding the municipal
pentru oferirea creditelor administraiei locale, emisiunea de entities loans has been well-known for decades in
obligaiuni, sau n situaii n care administraiile locale se international practice. Such analysis is necessary in order to
ofer n calitate de garant pentru datoriile entitilor extend credit to the local administration, bonds issue or in
comerciale i municipale. situations when the local administrations serve as guarantors
Elaborarea ratingurilor de credite ale municipalitilor for the municipal and commercial entities debts.
din rile strine este efectuat de ageniile Standard & The municipalities credit rating in foreign countries is
Poors, Moodys i Fitch. Ageniile evalueaz riscurile de issued by Standard & Poors, Moodys and Fitch agencies.
creditare n baza documentelor financiare ale The agencies assess credit risks on the basis of the
municipalitetelor. Ratingurile, mai trziu, sunt utilizate de municipalities financial documents. Later on, ratings are
investitorii poteniali la evaluarea solvabilitii oraului sau used by potential investors for assessing the solvency of a
regiunii. Cu ct ratingul este mai sczut, cu att mai mare town or region. The lower the rating, the higher the cost of
este costul mprumuturilor [3]. borrowing. [3].
Problemele investigate includ: Issues investigated include:
- sursele de venit ale municipalitilor; - income sources of municipalities;
- posibilitatea municipalitilor de a lichida datoria; - municipalities ability to retire debts;
- diverse proiecte, care, curnd, trebuie finanate de - various projects to be soon financed by
ctre municipaliti; municipalities;
- factorii politici care avantajeaz sau - political factors that favour or discourage the
dezavantajeaz realizarea proiectelor finanate; financial projects execution;
- dac pot fi realizate concomitent alte proiecte n - whether there can be simultaneously executed other
scopul reducerii cheltuielilor totale privind toate projects in order to reduce total expenditures
proiectele. regarding all the projects.
n practica Republicii Moldova, anterior, nu se In the practice of the Republic of Moldova there has
efectua analiza solvabilitii entitilor municipale. n acest not previously been carried out the analysis of municipal

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 97


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

sens, lipsesc indicaiile metodice autohtone n domeniu, cu entities solvency. In this respect there are no local
excepia proiectelor individuale, finanate de instituiile methodical guidelines in the field, apart from individual
financiare internaionale. projects funded by international financial institutions.
Autoritile executive ale unitilor administrativ- The executive authorities of the administrative and
teritoriale de nivelul nti, n baza deciziei autoritilor territorial units of the first level, on the basis of the decisions
reprezentative i deliberative respective, pot lua mprumuturi of corresponding deliberative and representative authorities,
pentru cheltuieli curente, cu scaden n acelai an bugetar, can take loans for current expenditures with the maturity in
de la bugetul unitilor administrativ-teritoriale de nivelul al the same budgetary year from the budget of the
doilea i de la bugetul municipal, precum i de la instituiile administrative and territorial units of the second level and of
financiare i de la ali creditori att din ar, ct i de peste Balti municipality, budget as well as from financial
hotare. institutions and other lenders, both in the country and from
Volumul total al mprumuturilor pentru cheltuieli abroad.
curente, cu scaden n acelai an bugetar, nu trebuie s The total amount of loans for current expenditures
depeasc 5% din totalul veniturilor aprobate (rectificate) with the maturity in the same budgetary year should not
ale bugetului unitii administrativ-teritoriale creia i se exceed 5% from the total of approved (adjusted) revenues of
atribuie mprumutul, aceasta fiind o condiie obligatorie the budget of the administrative and territorial unit to which
pentru acordarea mprumuturilor. the loan is granted, which is a prerequisite for taking loans.
Decizia luat de banc privind creditarea The banks decision on extending credit to applicants
solicitanilor se efectueaz conform informaiei despre is taken according to the information about the debtor, the
debitor, evaluarea obiectului creditului i posibilitile de evaluation of the credit object and repayment options. The
rambursare. Sigurana rambursrii poate fi garantat att de reimbursement can be guaranteed by the object pledged,
obiectul gajat, ipotec, ct i de asigurrile publice i private. mortgage, collateralor, insurance. The credit guarantor
n calitate de garant (fidejusor) al creditului poate fi nu doar (fidejussor) may be not only an entity, but also a natural
entitatea, dar i o persoan fizic, sau o alt banc, entitate person, another bank, a municipal entity. This generally
municipal. De regul, aceasta se ntmpl n cazul creditrii happens when the loan is granted to the municipal or state
entitilor municipale sau de stat, precum i entitilor ce entities, as well as to the entities that provide social and
asigur infrastructura social i comunal a oraului. communal infrastructure of the city.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Legea privind finanele publice locale: nr. 397 din 16.10.2003. n: Monitorul Oficial al Republicii
Moldova. 2003, nr. 248-253, art. 996.
2. , . .
. [Accesat 28.09.2012] Disponibil: www.luksha.ru/science/Opt_bud_scen.doc.
3. , . . . :
: . 2009, 23, .34-39.
4. , . . (
): . : ; . 2009, 6,
.50-55.
5. http://www.standardandpoors.com/ratings/govs-main/ru/ru/.
6. . 2011, 11
. [Accesat 28.09.2012] Disponibil: http://bujet.ru/article/156371.php.

98 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

PERFECIONAREA SISTEMULUI WORKING CAPITAL


DE GESTIUNE A CAPITALULUI IMPROVEMENT
CIRCULANT AL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
NTREPRINDERILOR DE OF WINERIES
VINIFICAIE
PhD candidate Ina ZLATOVCENA,
Drd. Ina ZLATOVCENA, Universitatea de Comrat State University
Stat din Comrat
The wine industry is a strategic sector of the
Industria de vinificaie reprezint o ramur national economy of the Republic of Moldova,
strategic a economiei naionale a Republicii Moldova, establishing relations with foreign market. One of the
care i asigur legtura cu piaa extern. Una din main problems that the countrys economy and every
principalele probleme ale economiei rii i fiecrei enterprise are facing is the financial health of the
ntreprinderi n parte const n ameliorarea strii industry. This task is impossible without improving
financiare a ramurii. Soluionarea acestei probleme va fi the efficiency of fixed and current assets of the market
imposibil, fr o sporire a eficienei folosirii mijloacelor economy subjects. Under the new market conditions,
fixe i circulante ale subiecilor economiei de pia. n companies were given almost complete management
noile condiii economice, ntreprinderile au obinut, autonomy, distribution and use of their financial
practic, independen total n gestiunea, repartizarea i resources. Much has changed during the transition
folosirea propriilor resurse financiare. n perioada de period in our small country. First of all, the legal
tranziie, multe s-au schimbat n mica noastr ar. n framework and the types of ownership have changed.
primul rnd, s-a modificat baza legislativ, formele de It is obvious that the path to market economy is thorny
proprietate. S-a dovedit c nu este simpl, e grea trecerea and difficult. Therefore, a lot of courage is needed to
la economia de pia. De aceea, se cere mai mult curaj step into the world of free enterprise,
pentru a pi cu ncredere n lumea liberei iniiative, a entrepreneurship and risks, and overcome the fear of
antreprenoriatului i riscurilor, pentru a nfrunta frica active market activities.
desfurrii unei activiti energice de pia. Keywords: circulating capital, circulating
Cuvinte-cheie: capital circulant, mijloace assets, liquidity, weighted average.
circulante, lichiditate, valoare medie ponderat.
In the context of the global economic crisis,
n condiiile crizei economice globale, ce se which is characterized primarily with liquidity
caracterizeaz n special printr-o acut insuficien de shortage, the problems of working capital
lichiditi, problemele generate de gestiunea mijloacelor management, as the most liquid part of the assets of
circulante, ce reprezint partea cea mai lichid a activelor the enterprise, acquired a special topicality. Unlike
ntreprinderii, au cptat o deosebit actualitate. Spre other sectors of the economy, winemaking industry
deosebire de alte sfere ale economiei, producia vinurilor has a long financial and sales cycle. Therefore, its
necesit un lung ciclu financiar-comercial. Din acest motiv, implementation is associated with a greater risk of
realizarea lui este ameninat de riscuri mari de pierderi economic loss due to lack or inefficient use of
economice, din cauza insuficienei mijloacelor circulante sau working capital at any stage of the cycle. In this
gestionrii lor neraionale n anumite etape ale ciclului. n regard, each industrial enterprise needs to solve a
aceast ordine de idei, fiecare ntreprindere industrial dual task: to exclude unnecessary costs for the
urmeaz s rezolve dou probleme: pe parcursul procesului purchase of current assets in the process of working
de formare a mijloacelor circulante, s exclud cheltuielile n capital and organize utilization that would ensure
plus pentru procurarea activelor circulante, organiznd the highest possible returns with minimum
utilizarea acestora n aa fel, ca s fie asigurat profitul maxim investment. The solution of this problem, first of
cu investiii minime. Soluionarea acestei probleme depinde, all, depends on the quality of internal analysis,
n primul rnd, de calitatea analizei intrafirm, al crei scop which is designed to determine the required amount
este determinarea volumului necesar de mijloace circulante of generated working capital, to evaluate the impact
acumulate; evaluarea gradului de influen a diferitor factori of various factors on the effectiveness of their use,
asupra modificrii nivelului de eficien al aplicrii lor; to identify reserves for efficiency increase and to
relevarea rezervelor pentru sporirea acestei eficiene i provide a rationale for management decisions on
fundamentarea deciziilor managerilor privind folosirea the use of working capital.
raional a mijloacelor circulante. The existing analysis methods of working
Actuala metodologie de analiz a mijloacelor capital are not without drawbacks. The study of the
circulante nu este lipsit de lacune. Studiind literatura economic literature on the issue states that the
economic referitoare la tema analizat, se poate trage development of techniques of working capital

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 99


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

concluzia c perfecionarea metodei de gestionare a management is, to a great extent, impeded by


capitalului circulant este blocat de o serie de probleme cu theoretical and practical problems. There is still no
caracter teoretic i practic. Deocamdat, opiniile savanilor i uniformity of views of scientists and experts on the
practicienilor asupra naturii mijloacelor circulante nu sunt nature of the working capital. Used in the analysis
unanime. Coeficienii folosii n procesul de analiz nu of the coefficients do not always reliably determine
asigur ntotdeauna determinarea veridic a rezultatelor the results of the use of current assets. Therefore,
utilizrii mijloacelor circulate. Din acest motiv, metodele methods, based on the use of such coefficients do
bazate pe utilizarea acestor coeficieni nu permit n deplin not fully allow making correct management
msur adoptarea unor decizii manageriale juste n vederea decisions aimed at creating and improving the
constituirii i creterii eficienei aplicrii lor. n plus, suportul efficiency of their use. Besides, the traditionally
informaional, utilizat tradiional n scopurile analizei, fiind used data base for the analysis, developed on the
constituit din datele rapoartelor financiare, conine o serie de financial statements, contains significant
restricii eseniale privind efectuarea unei asemenea analize. restrictions for this analysis.
Problemele sus-indicate necesit o studiere These problems require a thorough study aimed
serioas, pentru a gsi ci sigure de sporire a calitii to find ways to improve the quality of economic
analizei economice a capitalului circulant. analysis of working capital.
n scopul perfecionrii sistemului de administrare a In order to improve the management of working
capitalului circulant, trebuie: capital it is necessary to overcome a number of
analizat structura capitalului circulant; problems:
evaluat eficiena administrrii fiecrui study the structure of the working capital;
element al acestui capital. evaluate the management effectiveness of
Studierea insuficient a unor aspecte teoretice i each of its elements.
practice ale gestionrii sumelor debitoare i a rezervelor, Insufficient study of a number of theoretical
identificarea unor metode i instrumente eficiente de and practical aspects of the management of accounts
management n condiiile instabile ale funcionrii receivable and inventory, as well as the search for
ntreprinderilor motiveaz actualitatea cercetrilor n acest effective methods and tools to manage the ever-
domeniu i necesitatea elaborrii msurilor de rigoare. changing conditions of the enterprises functioning
Analiza capitalului circulant prevede cteva determines the need for further study and measures
etape: development.
- stabilirea volumului de mijloace circulante necesar Working capital analysis comprises the
ntreprinderii; following steps:
- identificarea surselor de finanare a mijloacelor - identify the companys needs for working
circulante; capital;
- analiza modului de influen a strii mijloacelor - identify sources of working capital financing;
circulante asupra lichiditii; - analyze the effects of the working capital on
- calcularea vitezei circulaiei mijloacelor circulante liquidity;
pentru a determina gradul de eficien al folosirii - calculate the current assets turnover rate to
acestora; determine the effectiveness of their use;
- analiza profitului obinut din folosirea mijloacelor - analyze the profit, obtained from the use of
circulante. working capital.
Metodele uzuale de analiz presupun, de regul, Common analysis methods, usually involve
realizarea etapelor sus-indicate prin utilizarea n calitate de the implementation of the above mentioned steps
baz de eviden analitic doar a datelor din darea de seam by using as accounting and analytical data only the
financiar a organizaiei. Darea de seam financiar, ns, este financial statements of the organization. However,
formulat, de obicei, conform regulilor stabilite de stat, i n financial statements are formed by the rules
aceasta nu se ia pe deplin n calcul necesarul de informaii ale established by the state, and it does not take into
managementului ntreprinderii. n aceast ordine de idei, se account the information needs of the enterprise
propune ca, pentru analiza situaiei mijloacelor circulante, s management. Therefore, we propose to use for the
fie folosite bugetele constituite pe baza datelor evidenei current assets analysis, based on the management
manageriale i drile de seam privind executarea acestora, ce accounting data, the budgets and reports on their
vor reflecta aceleai aspecte ale activitii economice, ca i performance, which should reflect the same aspects
formele evidenei financiare. Totui, coninutul informativ al of economic activity, and types of financial
primelor se va deosebi de cel al ultimelor. Primele sunt mai statements. However, the informative content of the
analitice, coninnd nu numai indicatori financiari, ci i first will differ from the latter. The former are more
nefinanciari, i permit ca evaluarea activelor ntreprinderii s analytic and contain not only financial but also
nu se fac pe baza celui mai mic dintre cei doi indicatori non-financial indicators and allow the assessment
preul de cost i preul de pia , ci pe baza fiecruia dintre of the companys assets based not on the lower of
acetia. Astfel, apare posibilitatea nu numai de a obine o the two indicators - the production costs and the

100 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

informaie mai complet, mai detaliat pentru ulterioara market price but on each of them. This will allow
analiz a mijloacelor circulante, dar i de a elabora noi us not only to get more information for further
metode, mult mai corecte, de calculare a indicatorilor analysis of working capital, but also to develop new
analitici. and better ways of calculating correct analytical
n condiiile economice de astzi, problema gestionrii indicators.
datoriilor debitorilor, pentru majoritatea ntreprinderilor de Under the current economic conditions, the
vinificaie (i nu numai pentru ele), care funcioneaz pe problem of accounts receivable management for the
teritoriul Republicii Moldova, continu s fie actual i de majority of enterprises, not only of wineries,
prim importan. Justeea acestei afirmaii este argumentat operating on the territory of the Republic of Moldova,
de o serie de date statistice. Ponderea datoriilor debitorilor is still relevant and paramount. This assertion is
este de peste 50% n suma total a datoriilor, dup cum o supported by the following statistical data. The share
demonstreaz datele din tabelul 1. of receivables is more than 50%, as seen from the data
in table 1.

Tabelul 1 / Table 1
Structura activelor curente ale ntreprinderilor de vinificaie din regiunea sudic a Republicii Moldova
n perioada 2010-2012 /
Structure of wineries current assets in the Southern region of the Republic of Moldova during 2010-2012

Ponderea sursei n pasiv (%) /


Post de bilan / Share of the sources in liabilities (%)
Balance sheet account SA Vinuri de Comrat SA Tomai-Vinex SA Burlacu Vin
2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012
Rezerve / Inventories 31,0 30,0 38,0 25,0 43,0 22,8 33,0 56,0 36,5
Datoriile debitorilor /
Receivables 63,0 57,5 61,0 47,4 53,4 51,0 52,0 40,1 57,0
Mijloace bneti / Cash 6,0 12,5 0,7 27,6 3,6 26,2 15,0 3,9 6,5
Investiii pe termen scurt /
Short-term investments - - 0,3 - - - - - -
n total Active curente /
Total, current assets 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

n baza analizei efectuate, merit s propunem o Based on the conducted analysis it is advisable
nou metod de constituire a bilanului agregat pentru to offer a new way to build an aggregated balance for
analiza lichiditii activelor ntreprinderii, metod liquidity analysis of a business, based on the
bazat pe lrgirea clasificrii n vigoare a mijloacelor expansion of the current classification of working
circulante ale ntreprinderii i modificarea procedurii de capital business and change the way of assets
evaluare a activelor. Structura grupurilor agregate valuation. The proposed structure of aggregated
bilaniere propus exclude denaturarea datelor iniiale, groups of balance eliminates distortion of input data
ce i este caracteristic evidenei financiare. specific to the financial statements.
n procesul analizei rentabilitii activitii While analyzing the companys effectiveness in
ntreprinderii, actualmente, n practica altor ri, the recent years, the foreign and Russian practice
inclusiv a Federaiei Ruse, se atribuie o importan tot focuses more on the indicator of economic value
mai mare indicatorului valorii economice adugate added - EVA (Economic value added).
EVA (Economic value added). Economic value added is the net profit of the
Valoarea economic adugat reprezint profitul net al company, reduced by the amount of payment for the
ntreprinderii minus mrimea plii pentru ntregul capital total invested capital in the organization, assuming
investit n organizaie. Totodat, se presupune c that the company should not only be profitable, but
ntreprinderea nu trebuie s fie doar rentabil, ci, n principiu, also make a profit, as much as possible out of the
s aib i un profit maximal din toate variantele alternative alternatives. This explains the fact that when
posibile. Prin aceasta se i explic faptul c, n procesul de calculating the EVA, from the profit is deducted both
calculare a EVA, din suma profitului se scoate plata pentru the commission for the borrowed capital and of the
folosirea nu numai a mijloacelor mprumutate, ci i a own capital. The EVA implementation is useful not
propriului capital. Aplicarea indicatorului EVA nu este only to the capital as a whole, but also to determine
raional doar n ce privete capitalul n ansamblu, dar i the efficiency of the working capital, which
pentru determinarea eficienei utilizrii mijloacelor circulante, contributes to the use of various analysis possibilities
fapt ce stimuleaz creterea posibilitilor de analiz prin not only of the relative performance indicators

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 101


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

folosirea att a indicatorilor relativi (ai rentabilitii), ct i a (profitability), but also of the absolute ones.
indicatorilor absolui. According to the structure of working capital
Cunoscnd structura capitalului destinat formrii formation, we can calculate the price. In the thesis we
mijloacelor circulante, poate fi calculat costul (valoarea) propose to use the weighted average cost of capital
acestuia. Propunem s fie folosit valoarea medie ponderat a (WACC), which can be calculated as follows:
capitalului (WACC), ce poate fi calculat astfel:
WACC = Ci * Di (1)
WACC = Ci Di, (1)
where: Ci the price of the source plus the tax
unde: Ci costul sursei plus efectul fiscal, %; effects,%.
Di ponderea sursei n suma total a Di share of the source in total
pasivelor destinate formrii liabilities, aimed at creating a
mijloacelor circulante. working capital.
Deci, indicatorul EVA pentru mijloacele Thus the EVA for the working capital can be
circulante va fi calculat conform formulei: calculated by the formula:
EVA = EBITDA WACC TC, (2) EVA = EBITDA - WACC * TC (2)
unde: TC (turn capital) indic suma mijloacelor where: TC (turn capital) - amount of working
circulante ale ntreprinderii. capital.
n funcie de valorile cptate ale EVA, pot fi Depending on the obtained EVA values we can
trase concluziile ce urmeaz: make the following conclusions:
EVA = O. Patronul ntreprinderii oricum ctig, EVA = 0. Owner of the company is having
continund operaiile n domeniul ales de el sau investind benefits, continuing his operations in the selected
mijloacele n depozite bancare. Decizia privind dezvoltarea direction or placing capital in bank deposits. The
domeniilor alese trebuie luat inndu-se cont de obiectivele decision to develop in certain areas should be made
de marketing (susinerea propriului segment de pia sau on the basis of marketing issues (maintaining the
abandonarea acestuia, meninerea imaginii pozitive i a market share or exiting from it, maintaining the image
misiunii ntreprinderii), precum i de gradul de risc al and mission of the company), and the extent of the
activitii desfurate; risk;
EVA > O. Investirea mijloacelor circulante n EVA> 0. The investments of working capital in
domeniul ales este rentabil, valoarea de pia a ntreprinderii the chosen direction are effective, the market value of
crete, acest domeniu de activitate trebuie dezvoltat; the company increases and the chosen area should be
EVA < O. Preul de pia al ntreprinderii scade, developed;
capitalul investit n mijloacele circulante se EVA <0. The market value of the company is
diminueaz, din cauza pierderii rentabilitii alternative. reduced. The investment made in the working capital
Deci, indicatorul EVA completeaz instrumentarul is reduced due to losses of alternative profitability.
actual al metodologiei de analiz a profitului obinut din Thus, the EVA complements the existing profit
gestiunea mijloacelor circulante nu numai prin utilizarea reuit analysis methods tools of the working capital
a valorilor relative (de rentabilitate), ci i a celor absolute. management using not only the relative values
n vederea sporirii eficienei gestiunii mijloacelor (profitability), but absolute ones also.
circulante ale ntreprinderilor de vinificaie, este oportun In order to improve the working capital
calcularea mrimii capitalului investit n aceste mijloace ca management it is advisable for wineries to calculate
element component al valorii economice adugate. the amount of the invested capital in the working
Pentru a efectua acest calcul, trebuie exclus, n capital of the company, as a component of economic
primul rnd, influena asupra profitului exercitat de value added.
investiiile n capitalul extracirculant. Deci, trebuie Such a calculation first of all needs to eliminate
determinat volumul capitalului investit n mijloacele the effect on investments profit in fixed capital. That
circulante ale ntreprinderii. is, it is necessary to determine the amount of invested
Analiza ce urmeaz prevede un ir de variante ipotetice: capital in working capital of the enterprise.
- propriul capital este folosit, n primul rnd, The following analysis suggests a number of
pentru formarea activelor extracirculante, assumptions:
mijloacele circulante constituindu-se pe seama - equity capital is primarily used to create
prii rmase din acest capital; non-current assets, current assets are
- creditele pe termen lung sunt cheltuite n totalitate formed by the remainder of it;
pentru procurarea activelor extracirculante. - term loans are entirely spent on the
n realitate, este posibil situaia cnd, din contul purchase of fixed assets.
creditelor atrase pe termen lung, ntreprinderea i-ar In practice, it is possible the situation when the
putea finana investiiile n active circulante, dei debts of the company are financed by investments in
aceast situaie e puin probabil. current assets, but it is rare.

102 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

ntr-un asemenea caz, devine veridic relaia: In this case we have the following relationship:

Capitalul Obligaiile Capitalul propriu / Obligaiile


repartizat pe termen Equity capital pe termen lung
formrii scurt / activele
mijloacelor = Short-term + + extracirculante / (3)
circulante / Capital liabilities Long term
aimed at forming liabilities non-current
the Working Capital assets

n baza datelor din evidena financiar a celor mai According to the financial statements of the
reprezentative ntreprinderi de vinificaie din Sudul Republicii most representative wineries in the Southern region of
Moldova, poate fi calculat efectiv indicatorul pentru evaluarea the Republic of Moldova we can calculate this index
rentabilitii utilizrii mijloacelor circulante. in order to estimate the efficiency of the working
Dac suma activelor extracirculante depete suma capital.
obligaiilor pe termen lung, devine clar c mijloacele If the amount of non-current assets exceeds the
circulante au fost finanate din contul obligaiilor pe sum of long-term liabilities, this means that the
termen scurt i al unei pri din propriul capital. current assets were financed from the short-term
Dac suma total a activelor extracirculante este liabilities and a part of the equity capital.
mai mic dect suma obligaiilor pe termen lung, If the amount of non-current assets is less than
nseamn c o parte din aceste obligaii constituie sursa de the sum of long-term liabilities, this means that a part
finanare a activelor circulante i nu este repartizat pentru of these liabilities represent the source of financing of
formarea activelor extracirculante ale ntreprinderii. current assets and is not aimed at the formation of the
Datele ce caracterizeaz structura surselor de non-current assets.
finanare a celor mai prestigioase ntreprinderi din The data characterizing the structure of the
Sudul Republicii Moldova au fost calculate n baza financing sources of most representative wineries in
datelor din pasivele bilanelor pe perioada 2010-2012 i the Southern region of the Republic of Moldova are
sunt prezentate n tabelul 2. generated from the liabilities in the balance for
2010-2012 and are presented in table 2.

Tabelul 2 / Tabelul 2
Structura surselor de finanare a ntreprinderilor de vinificaie din Sudul Republicii Moldova (anii 2010-2012)/
Structure of financing sources of wineries in the Southern region of the Republic of Moldova (2010-2012)

Sursa de finanare (potrivit Ponderea tuturor surselor n pasiv/ Share of sources in liabilities
datelor pasivului de bilan) / SA Vinuri de Comrat SA Tomai-Vinex SA Burlacu Vin
Source of funding (according
to the liabilities in the 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012
balance)
Capitalul propriu, inclusiv /
Equity capital, including: 0,40 0,48 0,53 0,43 0,42 0,51 0,53 0,46 0,49
Capitalul public (n aciuni) /
Share capital 0,15 0,13 0,16 0,13 0,13 0,17 0,16 0,16 0,15
Beneficiul nedistribuit/
Retained earnings 0,25 0,35 0,37 0,29 0,29 0,33 0,36 0,30 0,34
Capitalul mprumutat, inclusiv
credite / Borrowed capital,
including credits: 0,59 0,52 0,47 0,57 0,48 0,49 0,47 0,54 0,51
pe termen lung / long-term 0,42 0,40 0,36 0,42 0,42 0,42 0,35 0,42 0,43
pe termen scurt / short-term 0,8 0,4 0,6 0,9 0,5 0,3 0,1 0,08 0,08

Este evident faptul c, n structura finanrii It is obvious that the financing sources of
ntreprinderilor SA Vinuri de Comrat i SA Tomai-Vinex, companies Vinuri de Comrat SA and Tomai-
n anii 2010 i 2011, a precumpnit capitalul mprumutat, obinut Vinex SA, during 2010 2011 were dominated
cu precdere pe seama creterii ponderii creditelor pe termen by borrowings, mainly due to the high proportion
lung n pasiv. Totodat, raportul dintre propriul capital i of long-term loans in the liabilities. The ratio of
capitalul mprumutat se menine n limitele perioadei analizate. debt capital to equity capital is maintained within

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 103


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

n 2012, se observ o majorare a cotei capitalului propriu i celei the studied period. In 2012 we can see an increase
a capitalului de mprumutat. Astfel, cota capitalului propriu al in the proportion of equity and debt capital. Thus,
SA Vinuri de Comrat variaz de la 0,40, n 2010, la 0,53, n the share of Vinuri de Comrat SA equity capital
2012; iar a capitalului SA Tomai-Vinex de la 0,43 la 0,51, varies from 0.40 in 2010 to 0.53 in 2012; Tomai-
respectiv. Conform datelor evidenei financiare acest fenomen a Vinex SA from 0.43 to 0.51. According to the
fost o consecin a creterii beneficiului din perioada dat. n SA financial statements this phenomenon was the
Burlacu Vin, cota propriului capital a sczut de la 0,53, n result of profit growth over the considered period.
2010 la 0,49, 2012, datorit majorrii costului absolut al At Burlacu Vin the share of equity capital
creditelor pe termen lung. decreased from 0.53 in 2010 to 0.49 in 2012, due
n condiiile economiei de pia, toate resursele to the increase of the absolute value of long-term
financiare, care contribuie la formarea mijloacelor circulante, loans.
au valoarea lor. De aceea, analiza surselor mijloacelor In a market economy all financial resources,
circulante are mare importan, jucnd un rol esenial. which are used in the formation of the working
Dat fiind acest fapt, propunem ca, pe lng sursele capital, have a value, therefore, the analysis of the
proprii i de mprumut, s fie relevate sursele atrase pentru sources of the working capital is essential.
formarea mijloacelor circulante. Capitalul atras nglobeaz Thus, in addition to debt and equity sources,
toate tipurile de sume creditoare i se separ de capitalul we propose to allocate borrowed sources of working
mprumutat, deoarece capitalul de mprumut reprezint capital. The allocated capital includes all payables
mijloacele primite de ntreprindere pentru folosin temporar, and is separate from the debt, since debt capital is
n condiii de exigibilitate, rambursabilitate i plat, iar datoriei money received for temporary use under maturity
de creditor nu-i este caracteristic plata. Prin urmare, capitalul terms, repayment and payment, and for payment
atras este o surs total diferit de cel mprumutat pentru accounts payable is not typical. Consequently, the
formarea mijloacelor circulante. debt capital is fundamentally different from debt
Deoarece costul fiecreia din sursele sus-enumerate nu source of working capital.
reprezint altceva dect profitabilitate net a instrumentelor Since the price of the above mentioned sources
financiare adecvate, este absolut logic s se presupun c is nothing but a complete return of the underlying
valoarea cumulativ a tuturor surselor poate fi calculat dup instruments, it is logical to assume that the total price
formarea profitabilitii. Mrimea (valoarea) medie a spezelor of all sources is given by the average yield. Thus, the
pentru atragerea capitalului, obinut n acest mod, n practica obtained average cost of the used capital is denoted
occidental a managementului financiar, se indic prin in foreign practice of financial management
abreviaia WACC. WACC.
Cunoscnd structura capitalului repartizat pentru Knowing the structure of capital for the
formarea mijloacelor circulante, poate fi calculat valoarea formation of working capital, we can calculate the
(costul). n practica occidental, se recomand folosirea valorii price. The international practice proposes to use the
medii ponderate a capitalului (WACC), metod valabil i n weighted average cost of capital (WACC), which is
practica economiei noastre. WACC valoarea medie quite applicable in domestic practice. WACC -
ponderat a capitalului (Weighted Average Cost of Capital, (Weighted Average Cost of Capital) an indicator of
WACC) este un indicator ce caracterizeaz valoarea the cost of capital as well as bank interest rate,
capitalului, dup cum rata dobnzii bancare caracterizeaz characterizes the costs of obtaining the loan. In order
costul atragerii creditului. Pentru acoperirea propriilor to meet its financial and operational needs of the
necesiti financiare i de exploatare, ntreprinderea trebuie s enterprise attracts more capital.
atrag capital suplimentar. The annual downward tendency of the WACC
Se observ tendina anual de diminuare a indicatorului indicator is shown in figure l. The negative dynamics
WACC, fapt demonstrat cu ajutorul diagramei din figura 1. of the average cost of capital estimations are the
Dinamica negativ a evalurii valorii medii ponderate a result of changes in the structure of financing sources
capitalului este o consecin a devierilor din structura surselor of the equity capital, which is seen as positive in
de finanare ctre propriul capital, apreciate ca ceva pozitiv terms of financial autonomy and capital structure
att din punct de vedere a autonomiei financiare, ct i a management.
gestiunii structurii capitalului. The traditional method of analysis compares
Metoda tradiional de analiz a lichiditii const n the liquidity of the assets and liabilities of the
compararea activelor i pasivelor din bilanul contabil, agregate balance sheet, aggregated into four groups according
n patru grupe dup principiul: activele conform gradului de to the following principle: assets - the level of assets
pierdere a lichiditii patrimoniului, iar pasivele conform liquidity, liabilities - the degree of prolongation of
gradului de majorare a termenelor de stingere a obligaiilor. the outstanding liability. In this case, in order to
Totodat, pentru a stabili c bilanul este lichid, fiecare din conclude that the balance is liquid, each of the first
primele trei grupe de active se cere s nu fie mai mic dect three groups of assets should not be less than the
grupele de obligaii corespunztoare. corresponding groups of liabilities.

104 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

Figura 1. Dinamica valorii medii ponderate a capitalului ntreprinderilor de vinificaie n perioada 2010-2012 /
Figure 1. Dynamics of average cost of wineries capital during 2010-2012

Totui, fr a apela la surse suplimentare de However, if we do not use the traditional


informaii, este imposibil calcularea cotei riscante a sumelor sources of information it is impossible to determine
debitoare i determinarea consecinelor neachitrii datoriei de the share of doubtful receivables and payables.
creditor. innd seama de cele sus-menionate, propunem un Given the above, in the thesis is presented a
mod original de abordare a metodei gruprii activelor i technique for grouping assets and liabilities of the
pasivelor organizaiei, ce presupune folosirea datelor din organization that assume the use of data management
evidena managerial (tabelul 3). reporting (table 3).

Tabelul 3 / Table 3
Gruparea activelor n scopul analizei lichiditii pe baza datelor evidenei manageriale /
Assets grouping for liquidity analysis on the basis of activity accounts

Activul/Assets Pasivul/Liabilities
Denumirea Semnul Postul Denumirea Semnul Postul
grupei / Group convenional / de activ / Assets grupei / Group convenional / de pasiv / Liabilities
name Conventional name Conventional sign
sign
1 2 3 4 5 6
Activele cele mai Mijloace bneti, investiii Obligaii Datorii de creditor minus cele
lichide / Most A1 financiare pe termen scurt, ultrascadente / P1 structurale, avansurile primite,
liquid assets datoriile structurale, suma Most urgent obligaiile pe termen scurt /
debitoare, cambii spre primire / obligations Accounts receivable, net of
Cash, short-term investments, structural, advances from
structural receivables, notes customers, other current
receivable liabilities
Active realizabile Sume debitoare pe termen scurt Pasive pe Credite i mprumuturi pe
n termen scurt / A2 minus cele structurale, riscante termen P2 termen scurt, avansuri primite,
Quick assets i cambii spre primire / Short- scurt/Short-term obligaii fiscale amnate /
term receivables, net structure, liabilities Short-term borrowings and
questionable and notes advances received, deferred
receivable, regulatory remnants tax liabilities
of finished goods and other
assets
Active cu Rezerve minus stocul normativ Pasive pe Credite i mprumuturi pe
realizare lent / A3 de producie finit, TVA pe termen P3 termen lung / Equity,
Slow realizable valorile procurate / Inventories, lung/Long term structured payables
assets net of regulatory residues of liabilities
finished goods and non-liquid
assets, VAT on purchased
goods
Active greu Active extracirculante, suma Pasive stabile Capital propriu, datorii
realizabile / Slow A4 debitoare pe termen lung minus (permanente) / P4 structurale de creditor / Equity,
assets datoriile structurale, riscante i Permanent structured payables
stocurile greu vandabile / Non- liabilities
current assets, long-term
receivables deducting the
structural ones, doubtful
receivables and non-liquid

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013 105


CONTABILITATE I FINANE / ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

Deci, se propune ca datoriile debitorilor i So, we propose to classify the accounts


creditorilor s fie clasificate n dou grupe: receivable and payable into:
datorii constituite n cadrul relaiilor reciproce arrears, in relationships with independent
cu contraagenii independeni (datorii din surse contractors (third-party debt);
indirecte); arrears in relationships with partners
datorii constituite n cadrul relaiilor reciproce cu belonging to the same owner, belonging
contraagenii aceluiai proprietar, cruia i aparine also to the analyzed enterprise (structural
i ntreprinderea investigat (datorii structurale). debt).
Deoarece n perioada cu scaden scurt datoriile Since short-term structural payable can be
structurale de creditor pot fi trecute la capitolul surse attributed to their own sources, the structural
proprii, datoriile structurale de debitor vor trece la receivables will pass to the most liquid assets.
activele cele mai lichide. As we can be seen from table 3, the details of
Dup cum se vede din tabelul 3, detalierea articolelor assets and liabilities in the balance of the
(posturilor) din bilanul managerial ne va permite s grupm organization in analyzing the working capital is done
activele i pasivele organizaiei pentru a efectua ulterior in order to have a more accurate analysis of the
analiza mijloacelor circulante ct mai adecvat condiiilor current assets of an enterprise.
activitii economice a ntreprinderii. So, from the study of the theoretical aspects
Aadar, datorit studierii atente a aspectelor and practical possibilities of working capital
teoretice i posibilitilor practice, sistemul de gestiune a management system can be filled by the following
mijloacelor circulante poate fi completat cu trei tipuri de methodological approaches:
abordare metodologice: inventories of raw materials and finished
evaluarea rezervelor de materii prime i producie products should be valued at the price of
finit trebuie efectuat conform preului virtual de their realizable value, because it
realizare, ntruct anume acesta, nu preul lor de characterizes the potential revenue that
cost indic mrimea beneficiului potenial necesar allows to pay its creditors.
achitrilor cu creditorii; use the weighted average cost of capital
utilizarea valorii medii ponderate a capitalului (WACC) due to the fact that financial
(WACC), dat fiind faptul c managerii managers, while attracting capital from a
financiari, atrgnd capitaluri din diverse surse, variety of sources try to optimize the capital
tind s optimizeze structura capitalului, pentru a structure to reduce the weighted average cost
reduce valoarea medie ponderat a capitalului; of capital.
aplicarea indicatorului EVA la evaluarea EVA implementation in assessing the
eficienei folosirii capitalului circulant. efficiency of the working capital.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. iriulnicova N., Paladi V. Gavriliuc L. Analiza rapoartelor financiare: manual. Chiinu: [S. n.],
[2004], p. 38
2. .., ..
. // . . 2002. 35 (408)
3. : ( )/ [ .]: . , . ;
, 2005
4. : / . .; . . .. . .: ,
2088. . 13. . 220-247.
5. .. //
. 2008.

106 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr.1(83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

ERA INFORMATICII. SISTEME INFORMATION ERA.


INFORMATICE N SOCIETATEA INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN
INFORMAIONAL INFORMATION BASED SOCIETY
Prof. univ. dr. hab., Dumitru TODOROI, m.c. Professor, Dr. hab., ARA corr. member,
ARA, ASEM Dumitru TODOROI, ASEM
n aceast lucrare, se face o ncercare de a trata This research is an attempt to discuss subjects
subiectele legate de materializarea noiunilor de concerning the materialization the notions of
contiin, societate a contiinei, sisteme inteligente i a conscience, conscience society, intelligent systems and
caracteristicilor, funciilor i adaptabilitii lor n their characteristics, functions and adaptability with
perspectiva crerii sistemelor inteligente. Este analizat the perspective of intelligent systems creation. The
evoluia noiunii de informaie, n general, i, n contextul evolution of the notion of information is discussed and
evoluiei ei, la etapele de creare a sistemelor inteligente also the development stages of creating the intelligent
computerizate n societatea informaional. computer systems in information society.
Rezultatele acestor investigaii au fost discutate la The results of the research were discussed
Conferina anual din septembrie a ASEM [1]. during annual Conference of ASEM in September 2012
Cuvinte-cheie: Informaie, cunoatere, societate a [1].
contiinei, societate, sisteme informatice computerizate. Keywords: information, knowledge, conscience
society, society, computer based information systems.
1.Introducere
Dup concepia ontologic [2, 3], nu este posibil, 1.Introduction
pentru orice fel de Inteligen Artificial (IA: electronic Acceording to the ontological conception [2, 3],
i, n viitor, nano-electronic), s aib intuiie, creativitate it is not possible for any kind of Artificial Intelligence
i spiritualitate fr a recurge i la alte elemente ale (AI: electronic and nano-electronic in future) to have
naturii dect cele structurate i a cror realitate devine din intuition, creativity and spirituality without using and
ce n ce mai plauzibila. Egalitatea Inteligena Artificial other structured elements of nature, whose reality
= Inteligena Natural structurat (IA = (IN) structurat) becomes more and more lausible. The equality
se va petrece dup o serie de autori (Moravec, Kurzweil, Artificial Intelligence = Natural Intelligence structured
Buttuzzo, Broderick .a.) ntre 2019-2035. Unii din as (AI=(NI)structured) will occur, according to a
acetia cred c atunci cnd se va atinge IA=(IN) number of authors (Moravec, Kurzweil, Buttuzzo,
structurat, automat, un asemenea creier electronic va Broderick and others) between 2019-2035. Some of
avea i proprietile fenomenologice ale intuiiei, them believe that when this equality will be reached
creativitii i spiritualitii. AI=(NI) automatically structured, such an electronic
Din momentul n care IA>(IN) structurat, este brain will have the phenomenological properties of
evident c se va intra ntr-o nou etap, care va produce intuition, creativity and spirituality.
multe consecine pe plan social, datorit relaiilor omului Since AI>(NI)structured, it is evident that
cu asemenea inteligene, unele software, altele sub form humanity enters a new phase, which will produce many
de roboi inteligeni. Aceasta va fi a doua etap interioar social consequences, due to human relations with such
ntre Societatea cunoaterii i Societatea contiinei, pn smart intelligence, some software, others in the form of
n momentul n care va aprea o inteligen artificial cu intelligent robots. This will be the second inner stage
contiin veritabil, adic o contiin artificial (CA). between Knowledge Society and Conscience Society,
Din momentul n care CA>IN, se va intra n zona up to the moment when there will appear an artificial
societii contiinei, urmnd ca societatea s fie bazat intelligence with a genuine consciousness, namely an
pe relaiile dintre IN (care i ea este de presupus c va fi Artificial Conscience (AC). From the moment when
amplificat prin auto-transformri ale codului genetic i, AC>NI, there will be the in zone of Conscience
probabil, prin cuplaje cu sisteme informatice Society, in which society will be based on relationships
microelectronice i nano-electronice, chiar i cu reele between NI (which is also supposed to be amplified
Internet) i CA software sau robotice. through self- transformations of genetic code and
Cuvntul informaie ([4] probably by coupling with microelectronic and nano-
http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informa%C5%A3ie) electronic information systems, even with Internet
preluat din limba latin (informatio) prin intermediul networks) and AC software or robotics.
limbii franceze (information) este polisemantic, The word information ([4]
putnd cpta mai multe semnificaii (uneori, total http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informa%C5%A3ie)
diferite sau chiar contradictorii), ce sunt determinate de taken from the Latin (informatio) through the French
domeniile i contextele foarte variate n care este folosit. word (information) - is polysemantic, and can have

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 107


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

n afara nelesurilor din limbajul comun, el are i alte more meanings (sometimes totally different or even
sensuri, atribuite fie prin definirea sa ca termen contradictory), which are determined by the fields and
(tiinific sau tehnic), fie ca un concept n cadrul unor the various contexts of usage. Besides the common
ramuri ale filosofiei sau unor tiine i tehnologii al cror meanings, it also has other meanings, being defined as
obiect de studiu este. a term (scientific or technical) either as a concept
Termenul informaie este legat i de un proces within some branches of philosophy or other sciences
informaional (succesiunea aciunilor prin care se and technologies, in which it is the object of study.
informeaz), dar i de rezultatul acestui proces (volum, The term information is related to information
varietatea de informaii obinute), precum i de unele processing (sequence of information actions), to the
fenomene specifice (fenomenul informaional, explozia outcome of this process (volume, variety of obtained
informaional etc.). De asemenea, informaia a nceput information) and to some specific phenomena
s fie considerat factor ontologic primordial, ce st (information phenomenon, information explosion,
mpreun cu materia i energia la originea universului. etc.). Information began to be considered as an
Niciuna din definiiile sau conceptele existente pentru essential ontological factor that, together with
informaie nu sunt unanim acceptate, fapt ce produce substance and energy, stands at the origin of the
confuzii, ambiguiti i, uneori, chiar pierderi economice. universe. However, none of the existing definitions or
n ultimul timp, tot mai muli cercettori i oameni concepts of information are unanimously accepted,
de tiin i pun ntrebarea dac este posibil elaborarea which leads to confusions, ambiguities, and even
unei teorii unice, general valabile a informaiei. Pe de alt economic losses.
parte, datorit presiunii exercitate, n principal, de Lately, more and more researchers and scientists
impasul n care au ajuns cercetrile n unele domenii ask themselves if it is possible to formulate a unique and
(tiina cogniiei, biologie, psihologie, robotic, generally valid information theory. On the other hand,
inteligena artificial etc.), se remarc tot mai multe there is also the pressure of the impasse of the researches
ncercri de a mbina i de a suprapune diversele in some areas like (cognition science, biology,
semnificaii i interpretri ntr-un singur concept psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence, etc.) and
universal acceptat. there arise more and more attempts to combine and
overlap different meanings and interpretations in a
1.1. Ce este informaia? single, universally accepted concept.
ntr-o definire [5] pe ct de sumar tot pe att de
informal i, deci, de inexact se poate spune c 1.1 What is information?
informaia se constituie ntr-o reprezentare a realitii, According to the definition given in [5], which
dar i a refleciei i proieciei care sunt operaii tipice is both summary and informal and, therefore,
intelectului uman prin intermediul unui set bine imprecise, we can say that information is a
precizat i structurat de simboluri de regul, accesibile representation of reality, reflection and projection,
(a) simurilor i (b) raiunii umane, dar i (c) unora dintre which are typical operations of the human intellect,
dispozitive, precum cele de calcul automat. through a well-defined and structured set of symbols,
Informaia nu este (1) nici coninut (ci strile usually accessible to (a) senses and (b) human reason,
unui sistem pot fi asimilate cu acesta), (2) nici agent (ci and (c) some of the devices, such as the automatic
semnalele transmise printr-un canal pot fi asimilate cu calculation.
acesta), (3) nici proprietate, (4) nici instruciune, (5) Information is neither (1) a content (but states of
nici proces i (6) nici metod, ci informaia se a system can be assimilated with it), nor (2) an agent
constituie ntr-o categorie de sine stttoare, avnd o (but signals sent through a channel can be assimilated
existen abstract i subtil - adic nematerial with it), (3) property, (4) instruction, (5) process, or (6)
categorie care este reflectat de stri, semnale etc. i method, but information is an independent category,
constituie un element esenial n procesul cunoaterii. having an abstract and subtle existence, thus,
immaterial, a category that is reflected of emotions,
1.2. Diverse tipuri de informaie signals, etc. and is an essential element in the process
1.2.1. Informaie semnificaia n limbajul of knowledge.
cotidian. n limbajul popular, cotidian, ntr-un sens larg,
unanim acceptat de marea majoritate a vorbitorilor de 1.2 Various types of information
orice limb, prin informaie se nelege: (a) faptele i 1.2.1. Information common meaning. In
opiniile percepute sau obinute n cursul vieii de zi cu zi common, daily language, in a broad and widely
direct de la o alt fiin vie, din mass-media, din baze de accepted meaning by most speakers of any language,
date electronice i din toate tipurile de fenomene information means: (a) facts and opinions perceived
observabile din mediul nconjurtor; (b) lmurire asupra or obtained daily, directly from one person to the other,
unei persoane, lucru sau domeniu; (c) totalitatea from the media, electronic databases and all kinds of
materialului de informare i de documentare; (d) phenomena observable in the environment; (b)
izvoare, surse; (e) cunotine comunicate de alii sau explanation over a person, thing or domain; (c)

108 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

obinute prin investigaii personale; (f) cunotine information and documentation material; (d)
acumulate din lectur, rapoarte despre evenimente sources; (e) knowledge communicated by others or
recente sau necunoscute anterior, materiale din ziare, din obtained by personal investigations or researches; (f)
periodice sau din buletine de tiri; (g) cunotine knowledge obtained from readings, reports on recent
dobndite prin studiu sau instruire; (h) cunotine events or previously unknown, materials from
deduse din observaii directe i experiena proprie. newspapers, periodicals or news; (g) knowledge
acquired through study or training; (h) knowledge
1.2.2. Informaia shannonian. Claude Shannon, deducted from direct observation and experience.
n lucrarea sa, publicat n 1948, A Mathematical
Theory of Communications, a dat un sens nou 1.2.2. Shannons information. Claude
cuvntului informaie. Shannon a evideniat latura Shannon in his paper published in 1948 A
obiectiv, aspectul cantitativ al informaiei, considerat Mathematical Theory of Communications, gave a new
complet independent de emitor i receptor, ca o meaning to the word information. Shannon has
reflectare natural a structurii i ordonrii lumii reale. La emphasized the objective side and the quantitative
el, informaia este un termen matematic, abstract, ce aspect of information, which was considered
desemneaz o mrime ce poate fi msurat i tratat completely independent from the sender and the
matematic, la fel ca masa, energia sau alt mrime receiver, as a natural reflection of the real world
fizic. Termenul este asociat cu ideea intuitiv de structure and order. According to him, information is
previzibilitate i de alegere. n aceast teorie, aspectul a mathematical and abstract term, which is a
semantic al comunicaiei este irelevant, nu conteaz dimension that can be measured and treated
sensul mesajului, ci faptul c acesta a fost selectat dintr- mathematically as mass, energy or other physical
un set de mesaje posibile. Ceea ce este important de measure. The term is related to the idea of intuitive
evaluat este cantitatea de informaie emis i predictability and choice. In this theory, the semantic
recepionat. aspect of communication is irrelevant, the meaning of
the message is not important, but the fact that it was
1.2.3. Informaia genetic. Prin informaie selected from a set of possible messages. What is
genetic, se nelege informaia codificat n materialul important to be assessed is the amount of sent and
genetic, cu care este nzestrat orice organism viu received information.
(unicelular sau pluricelular) de pe planeta noastr.
Totalitatea informaiei genetice dintr-un organism se 1.2.3. Genetic information. By genetic
numete genotip. information is understood the information from the
Informaia genetic este stocat n structura genetic material of every living organism (unicellular
macromolecular complex a acidului dezoxiribonucleic or multicellular) from our planet. The totality of
(ADN), care este prezent att n nucleul fiecrei celule genetic information from an organism is called
(ADN nuclear care deine rolul principal n stocarea genotype.
informaiei genetice), dar i n afara acestuia (ADN Genetic information is stored in the complex
extranuclear). macromolecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid
ntreaga cantitate de material genetic dintr-un (DNA), which is present in the nucleus of every cell
organism se numete genom. Exist un genom nuclear (the role of the nuclear DNA is to store genetic
i un genom celular. Genomul nuclear este reprezentat information) or outside it (extranuclear DNA).
de una (la procariote) sau mai multe (la eucariote) The entire amount of genetic material from an
macromolecule de ADN bicatenar denumite cromozomi. organism is called the genome. There is a nuclear
Numrul acestora constituie o caracteristic de specie, genome and a cellular genome. The nuclear genome is
fiind acelai pentru toi indivizii unei specii i pentru formed of one (in prokaryotes) or more (in eukaryotes)
toate celulele somatice ale unui organism. ADN-ul macromolecules of bicatenary DNA called
reprezint motenirea biologic a unui organism i chromosomes. Their number is a characteristic of the
controleaz dezvoltarea, reproducerea i auto-repararea species, being the same for all individuals of a species
acestuia. Pentru realizarea acestor procese, este necesar and all somatic cells of an organism. DNA is the
transmiterea informaiei genetice, ce se realizeaz prin biological legacy of an organism and controls its
copierea ADN-ului n proteine i-n alte produse. development, reproduction and self-repair. In order to
Copierea se face n dou etape, transcripie i accomplish these processes is necessary the
translaie. transmission of genetic information which is achieved
Ansamblul nsuirilor morfologice, fiziologice i by copying the DNA in proteins and other products.
biochimice ale unui individ, rezultate din interaciunea The copying is done in two stages: transcription and
genotipului cu mediul, se numete fenotip. Diversele translation.
caractere individuale reprezint rezultatul interaciunii All morphological, physiological and
informaiei genetice din moleculele de ADN nuclear i biochemical characteristics of an individual, resulted
extranuclear cu condiiile de mediu. from the interaction of the genotype with the

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 109


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

Informaia genetic are legtur direct [14] cu environment is called phenotype. Different individual
contiina, subcontientul i incontientul n Societatea characters are the result of interaction between genetic
Contiinei. Cercetrile recente au scos n eviden faptul information of nuclear and extranuclear DNA
c aceste interaciuni nu sunt suficiente pentru a explica molecules with environmental conditions.
toate caracterele individuale, deci mai trebuie s existe The genetic information has a direct link [14]
undeva un stoc de informaie. Unii cercettori ncearc s with conscious, subconscious and unconscious in
identifice noi structuri informaionale biomoleculare, Conscience Society. Recent research has highlighted
n timp ce alii sunt de prere c aceast informaie ar the fact that these interactions are not sufficient to
putea avea un suport de o alt natur (de natur explain all individual characters, so there must be a
spiritual). Deocamdat, niciuna din aceste versiuni nu a stock of information. Some researchers try to identify
fost demonstrat, dar cercetrile continu. Spiritualitatea new biomolecular information structures, whereas
este domeniul principal de studiu i activitate n others believe that this information could have support
Societatea Contiinei. of a different nature (the spiritual one). For the time
being, none of these versions has been proved, but
1.2.4. Informaia factor ontologic researches still continue. Spirituality is main field of
Ontologie [6] ramur a filozofiei care studiaz study and activity in Conscience Society.
trsturile generale ale existenei; studiul fiinei n
general. 1.2.4. Information - ontological factor.
Sunt destui oameni de tiin care dau informaiei Ontology [6] branch of philosophy that
o accepiune fizic, admind c informaia, alturi de studies the general characteristics of existence; the
materie i energie, este una din componentele originale general study of beings.
ale Universului i, ca i acestea, are o realitate fizic a sa. There are a lot of scientists who give
n 1990, biologul i fizicianul Tom Stonier [7] susinea information a physical meaning, admitting that
ideea c informaia este o expresie a organizrii information, along with substance and energy is one of
energiei i materiei n evoluia Universului. Oamenii original components of the Universe, and, thus, have its
sunt expresia evoluiei naturale a organizrii materiei, own physical reality. In 1990, biologist and physicist
energiei i informaiei. Exist o cretere exponenial, Tom Stonier [7], supported the idea that information is
n spiral a informaiei: complexitatea utilizeaz an expression of energy and substance organization
complexitatea anterioar pentru a se nla din nou in the evolution of the Universe. Humans are the
pn la cel mai nalt nivel de complexitate, construind expression of the natural evolution of substance,
astfel informaia pn la infinit. energy and information. There is an exponential
Ierarhia este spirala informaional n sistemele increase, in spiral of the information: the complexity
adaptabile [8], iar complexitatea mecanismul nivelar de uses previous complexity to arise again to the highest
adaptare n sistemele informaionale ale Societii level of complexity, building thus information till
Contiinei [9]. infinity.
Mai trziu, n 1997, Tom Stonier [10] susine c: Hierarchy is information spiral of adaptable
descrierea oricrui sistem fizic nu cuprinde doar systems [8] and complexity the leveling adaptation
parametrii care definesc cantitatea de materie i de mechanism in information systems of Conscience
energie, ci i cantitatea de informaie, iar orice Society [9].
schimbare ntr-un sistem trebuie s in seama nu numai Later, in 1997, Tom Stonier [10], argued that
de schimbrile n energie sau mas, ci i de schimbrile ... the description of any physical system comprises
n informaia coninut de sistem. n plus, spune Stonier, not only the parameters which define the amount of
dac informaia este o component intrinsec a substance and energy, but also the amount of
tuturor sistemelor fizice, atunci toate legile fizicii trebuie information, and any change in a system must take into
reevaluate. account not only the changes in energy or substance,
n 1996, academicianul Mihai Drgnescu [11] but also the changes in the information contained in the
face o descriere original a structurii unui Univers system. Moreover, Stonier said that ... if information
complet (raional i iraional). Descrierea, nefiind dect is an intrinsic component of all physical systems, then
un ansamblu de ipoteze coerente, nu se bazeaz pe all the laws of physics must be reevaluated.
rezultate obiective ale astrofizicii, dar se remarc prin In 1996, acad. Mihai Draganescu [11] made
faptul c este coerent cu tiina modern i permite an original description of the structure of a complete
explicarea a numeroase contradicii cu care se confrunt Universe (rational and irrational). The description is
filosofia tiinei. nothing but an ensemble of coherent hypotheses, is not
based on objective results of astrophysics, but is
1.2.5. Informaia resurs economic i serviciu remarked by the fact that it is coherent with modern
de prim necesitate science and allows the explanation of numerous
n ultimele decenii ale secolului XX, creterea contradictions that the philosophy is facing.
gradului de informatizare a proceselor industriale,

110 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

precum i creterea gradului de folosire a informaiilor n 1.2.5. Information economic resource and
rezolvarea problemelor umane, a fcut ca informaia s essential service.
fie considerat ca o resurs economic [12. 13], In last decades of the XX century, increasing
ntructva egal cu alte resurse, cum ar fi munca, computerization of the industrial processes, as well as
materia prim i capitalul. Aceast perspectiv scoate the increase of the degree of using information in
n eviden faptul c posesia, manipularea i folosirea solving human problems made information to be
informaiei poate mbunti raportul cost-eficien n regarded as an economic resource [12, 13], somewhat
multe procese fizice sau cognitive. equal to other resources such as the work, raw
Ca resurs individual i social, informaia are materials and capital. This perspective highlights the
cteva caracteristici ce o deosebesc de noiunea fact that possession, manipulation and usage of
tradiional de resurs economic: information can improve the cost-effectiveness relation
(1) Spre deosebire de alte resurse economice, in many physical or cognitive processes.
informaia este, practic, nelimitat, avnd limite As an individual and social resource,
aparente impuse doar de timp i de capabilitatea information has several characteristics that make it
cognitiv uman. Aceast caracteristic provine din different from the traditional notion of economic
faptul c informaia, ca resurs economic, difuzeaz resource:
natural (se poate propaga singur), rata de reproducere a 1) Unlike other economic resources, information
informaiei este mai mare dect rata de consum i is practically unlimited, apparently having limits
informaia nu sufer schimbri n cadrul tranzaciilor imposed only by time and human cognitive capability.
(poate fi numai partajat, folosit n comun). This feature stems from the fact that the information, as
(2) n acelai timp, informaia este compresibil, an economic resource diffuses naturally (can propagate
att sintactic ct i semantic. itself), the reproduction rate is higher than the
(3) Calitatea ei de a (a) se substitui altor resurse consuming rate, and information does not suffer
economice, (b) transportabilitatea cu o vitez foarte changes during transactions (it can only be shared and
mare i (c) abilitatea ei de a da un avantaj celui ce o common used).
deine stau la baza remodelrii unor industrii sociale 2) At the same time, information is
(cum ar fi cercetarea, educaia, activitatea editorial, compressible, both syntactically and semantically.
comerul) i chiar a politicii. 3) Its quality to (a) substitute other economic
(4) Preocuparea social privind administrarea resources, (b) transportability at a high speed and (c) its
resurselor informaionale s-a extins n domeniul ability to give an advantage to the one who holds it,
tradiional al bibliotecilor i al arhivelor i a cuprins i underlie the remodeling of social industries (such as
informaia organizatoric, instituional i research, education, publishing activity, trade) and
guvernamental, n ceea ce a cptat numele de even politics.
managementul resurselor informaionale. 4) Social preoccupation on information resource
(5) A doua percepie a informaiei (ce dateaz din management has expanded in the traditional domain of
aceeai perioad) este aceea de serviciu de prim libraries and of archives and has encompassed
necesitate, care a determinat dezvoltarea, n ntreaga organizational, institutional and governmental
lume, a unui nou segment al economiilor naionale: information, what eventually was called information
sectorul de servicii informatice. Beneficiind de resources management.
avantajele proprietilor informaiei i construind o 5) The second perception of information (which
percepie a utilitii i valorii sale individuale i sociale, dates from the same period), is that of prime necessity
acest sector furnizeaz o larg gam de produse i service, which led to the worldwide development of a
servicii informatice. new segment in the national economies: information
services. Taking advantage of the information
1.2.6. Note i referine properties and forming a perception of individual and
1. Pentru ca sensul cuvntului informaie s poat social utility and value, this sector provides a wide
fi neles corect, trebuie cunoscute i avute n vedere alte range of information products and services.
cteva concepte: (1) semnificaie, (2) cunoatere, (3)
adevr, (4) reprezentare, (5) stimul mintal, (6) 1.2.6. Notes and references.
erudiie, (7) cultur, (8) comunicare, (9) redundan, 1. In order to understand correctly the meaning
(10) feedback, (11) entropie, (12) entropie negativ, of the word information, several concepts should be
precum i (13) regulile (sau seturile de reguli) asociate understood and considered: (1) significance, (2)
acestora. knowledge, (3) truth, (4) representation, (5) mental
2. Cuvntul Informaie este unul din cuvintele stimulus, (6) erudition, (7) culture, (8)
cel mai des folosite, de foarte multe ori abuziv. Diferite communication, (9) redundancy, (10) feedback, (11)
discipline tiinifice atribuie diferite nelesuri acestui entropy, (12) negative entropy, as well as (13) rules
termen, sau i asociaz omonime incoerente. ([6]: (or sets of rules) associated with them.
Omonim cuvnt care are aceeai form i aceeai 2. The word Information is one of the most

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 111


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

pronunare cu alt cuvnt sau cu alte cuvinte, de care commonly used words, very often abusively. Different
difer ca sens i ca origine). Cu toate c, de cteva scientific disciplines give different meanings of this
decenii, omenirea a pit n era informaional, iar term, or associate it with incoherent homonyms. ([6]:
societatea a trecut de la societatea informaional la Homonym - word which has the same spelling and
societatea cunoaterii [13] i, n perspectiv, va trece la pronunciation with another word or words, but differs
societatea contiinei [15], cuvntul informaie este in meaning and origin). Even though for several
folosit adesea fr a se acorda atenia cuvenit diferitelor decades now the humankind stepped in the
sensuri pe care le poate cpta. Dei nu sunt sinonime Information Era, and society has passed from
([6]: Sinonim cuvnt, afix, expresie etc. care are information society to knowledge society [13] and, in
(aproape) acelai sens cu alt cuvnt, alt afix, alt expresie perspective, to conscious society [15] the word
etc.), cuvintele cunotine, informaii i date sunt, information is used often without giving due attention
adesea, utilizate unul n locul altuia, producnd confuzii. to different meanings that it can have. Although not
3. Sensul special n care Shannon folosete acest synonymous ([6]: Synonym - word, affix, phrase, etc.
termen nu trebuie confundat cu sensul n care este folosit that has (almost) same meaning with another word,
n limbajul obinuit, comun, unde are o valoare affix or expression, etc.), the words knowledge,
cognitiv, ce nu se regsete n accepia conferit n information and data are often used in place of one
aceast teorie matematic, accepie preluat ulterior n another, causing confusion.
multe tiine i teorii. 3. The special meaning of the word used by
Shannon should not be confused with its common
2. Societatea informaional meaning, where it has a cognitive value and which is
Fenomenele Internet, comutarea pachetelor de not found in the mathematical theory conferred by the
dat, pot electronic i WWW sunt exponenii acceptation that is ultimately adopted in other sciences
societii informaionale a Erei informaticii. and theories.
2.1. n secolul XX, cel mai mare eveniment
tehnologic i social, n acelai timp, a fost apariia 2. Information Society.
Internetului [14]. n domeniul tiinei i Tehnologiei The Internet phenomena, data packet
Informaiei, mari evenimente tehnologice cu importante commutations, email and www are the exponents of the
consecine sociale au fost descoperirea tranzistorului, a information society within the Information Era.
circuitului integrat i a calculatorului electronic. 2.1. In the XX century, the greatest technologic
Internetul nu este numai un fenomen tehnologic, ci i and social event was the Internet [16, 17]. In the field
unul social, prin participarea utilizatorilor, din ce n ce of Information and Technology Science took place
mai numeroi, la structurarea lui actual. Dezvoltarea great technological events with important social
Internetului a depins evident de tehnologie, dar, n egal consequences like the invention of the transistor, the
msur, de factori sociali care s-au mbinat cu factorii integrated circuit and electronic computer. Internet is
tehnologici pentru ca Internetul s ajung ceea ce a not only a technological phenomenon, but also a social
devenit astzi. one, by the participation of more and more users to its
Odat instaurat n fibrele societii, Internetul a present structure. The Internet development obviously
produs i produce consecine noi pentru societate. n depended on technology but also on the social factors,
esen, societatea informaional este societatea care se that were combined with technological factors for the
bazeaz pe Internet. De asemenea, globalizarea este, o Internet to reach what has become today.
consecin, o prioritate a Internetului. Atunci, se poate Once being part of the society, Internet has
spune c globalizarea este un fenomen specific societii produced and still produces new consequences for the
informaionale. Datorit legturii dintre societatea society. Essentially, the information society is a society
informaional i globalizare, ceea ce ndreptete based on Internet. Globalization is also consequence of
afirmaia c globalizarea este o consecin fireasc a the Internet. And thus, we can say that globalization is a
societii informaionale, ntruct societatea phenomenon specific for information society. Due to the
informaional se dovedete a fi un proces, care nu mai connection between information society and globalization,
poate fi oprit, globalizarea este i ea un proces inevitabil. which justifies that globalization is a natural consequence
2.2. Protoistoria Internetului ncepe cu inventarea of the information society, information society proves to
transmiterii informaiei pe liniile de telecomunicaie, be a process that can not be stopped, and globalization is
radio, satelii, prin comutarea pachetelor de date also an inevitable process.
(packet switching). Comutarea pachetelor de date i tot 2.2. The prehistory of the Internet begins with the
ceea ce a urmat de aici nainte pn la Internet au fost invention of information transmission over
opera culturii tiinifice i tehnologice occidentale. telecommunication lines, radio, satellite, data packet
Tehnologia comutrii de pachete s-a dovedit a fi switching. Data packet switching and everything has
fundamental pentru apariia Internetului, fiind followed until the Internet was the work of the western
tehnologia de baz a lui, fiind perfecionat n anii 1980 scientific and technological culture. The packet switching
i 1990, n concordan cu cerinele impuse de technology proved to be fundamental for the invention of

112 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

dezvoltarea Internetului. Prima reea de amploare bazat the Internet, being its basic technology and was improved
pe comutarea de pachete a fost realizat de ARPA during 1980s and 1990s according to the requirements set
(Advanced Research Projects Agency) depinznd de by the development of the Internet. The first large-scale
Departamentul Aprrii din SUA. Programul ARPANET network based on packet switching was done by ARPA
(reea ARPA) a reuit s impun definitiv viabilitatea (Advanced Research Projects Agency) depending on the
reelelor bazate pe comutarea de pachete. Proiectul U.S. Defense Department. The ARPANET program
ARPANET a fost unul dintre cele mai complexe din managed to impose sustainability of networks based on
domeniul tiinei i tehnologiei informaiei. packet switching. It was one of the most complex science
2.3. Ideea e-mail-ului nu era nou, ea circulnd la and information technology projects.
MIT nc din 1965. Dar introducerea e-mailului n 2.3. The email idea was not new; it was being
sistemul ARPANET, n anul 1972, a produs, remarc discussed at MIT since 1965. But introducing the email in
analitii relaiei dintre tehnologie i societate, o the ARPANET system in 1972, according the analysts of
schimbare radical n identitatea i scopurile ARPANET. the relationship between technology and society, it
Pota electronic a ajuns s eclipseze, n volumul produced a radical change in the identity and the purposes
traficului pe reeaua ARPANET, toate celelalte aplicaii of the ARPANET. The electronic mail managed to
disponibile atunci prin reea. overshadow all the other available network applications in
Internetul este un sistem de reele interconectate. the total traffic volume of the ARPANET.
ARPANET-ul era un sistem de calculatoare i terminale The Internet is a system of interconnected
interconectate. n decurs de 10 ani, s-a produs networks. ARPANET was a system of interconnected
transformarea ARPANET n INTERNET. ncheierea computers and terminals. The transformation of the
activitii ARPANET a avut loc n 1990. ARPANET into Internet took 10 years. The
2.4. ncepnd cu anul 1990, Internetul avea s ARPANET activities ended in 1990.
cunoasc cea mai tulburtoare transformare i extindere 2.4. Beginning with 1990 the Internet knew
prin ceea ce avea s fie tehnologia World Wide Web the most spectacular transformation and extension to
(www). Tehnologia www este o aplicaie a Internetului, the World Wide Web (www) technology. The www
dar care a schimbat fundamental Internetul, fr a technology is an Internet application, but it has
schimba structura lui general sau sistemul de protocoale, fundamentally changed the Internet, without changing
prin introducerea unor aplicaii noi. its general structure or the system of protocols by
Web-ul a fost creat la Laboratorul de Fizic al introducing new applications.
CERN din Geneva, n anul 1990, de ctre Tim Berners- The web was created at the CERN physics
Lee, care, constatnd c dei calculatoarele personale au laboratory in Geneva in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee who
devenit orientate pe imagine, pe Internet predomina, noticed that even though personal computers became
totui, textul. El a folosit tot ceea ce Internetul adusese oriented on image, the text was predominant on the
pn atunci, plus un mod de organizarea informaiei Internet. He used all the Internet achievements by that
bazat pe hypertext, prin care se stabileau legturi time plus a way to organize the information based on
(links) ntre diferite informaii. n acest mod, se poate hypertext, to establish ties (links) between different
renuna, dup cum se tie, la prezentarea liniar a information. Thus, we can give up to the linear
informaiei. Berners-Lee, introducnd hypertextul la presentation of the information. When Berners-Lee
nivelul ntregii reele mondiale Internet i utilizrii introduced the hypertext in the world wide Internet
multimedia (audio i video), avea s dea natere a ceea ce network and the use of multimedia (audio and video),
a devenit a world wide web of information. Berners- he gave rise to of what is now the world wide web of
Lee i colaboratorii au creat limbajul HTML. Aceste information. Berners-Lee and his colleagues have
lucruri au schimbat Internetul, iar astzi nu se mai face, created the HTML. These things have changed the
de fapt, o deosebire ntre Web i Internet. Succesul Internet and today there is actually no difference
noului Internet www a fost imens. between the Web and the Internet. The success of the
ntr-adevr, pota electronic i www, care au dat new Internet - www was enormous.
un coninut nou Internetului, sunt exemple de aplicaii Indeed, the email and the www, that gave a
care nu au rezultat dintr-un obiectiv planificat, ci prin new content to the Internet, are examples of unplanned
deciziile spontane a mii i mii de utilizatori independeni. applications that resulted from spontaneous decisions
Nimeni nu a prezis apariia acestor aplicaii i, prin of thousands of independent users. No one has
aceasta, ceea ce va deveni i a i devenit Internetul. predicted the emergence of these applications and,
Fr ndoial, Internetul a fost i o invenie thus, of what the Internet became and will become.
social, deoarece el se-a nscris n mod firesc i ca un There is no doubt that the Internet was also a
instrument social. Este, de asemenea, evident c social invention because it became a social
Internetul, odat inventat, a devenit un proces de auto- instrument. It is also obvious that the Internet, once
organizare la scar global n cadrul societii invented, became a global self-organizing process
informaionale. Acest proces de autoorganizare va within the information society. This process of self-
continua i s-ar putea ca, n acest cadru, s apar organization will continue and new qualitative aspects

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 113


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

aspecte calitative noi ale societii informaionale. of information society might appear in this framework.
2.5. Societatea informaional [12] este o 2.5. Information Society [12] is a society
societate, care presupune utilizarea intensiv a which presupposes intensive use of information in all
informaiei n toate sferele activitii i existenei umane, spheres of human activities and existence, with a
cu impact uman, economic i social semnificativ. significant human, economic and social impact.
Caracteristicile societii informaionale sunt The characteristics of the information
urmtoarele: (1) Este o societate democratic, (2) Are un society are: (1) Is a democratic society, (2) Has a new
nou tip de economie, (3) Conduce la o societate bazat pe type of economy, (3) Leads to an knowledge based
cunoatere,(4) Asigur valorificarea inteligenei society, (4) Ensures individuals intelligence
individului, (5) Modific natura muncii i a relaiilor valorification, (5) Modifies the nature of work and
comerciale, (6) Ofer posibiliti de dezvoltare pentru trade relations, (6) Provides development opportunities
administraia public i (7) Ofer acces facil la educaie. for public administration, and (7) Provides easy access
Dimensiuni ale societii informaionale: (a) to education.
Tehnologic infrastructur, servicii, aplicaii; (b) Dimensions of the information society: (a)
Economic noua economie digital; (c) Politico- Technological infrastructure, services, applications;
administrativ guvernare electronic; (d) Social (b) Economic the new digital economy; (c) Politico -
calitatea vieii; (e) Cultural interaciunea cultur- administrative electronic governance; (d) Social
tehnologie; (f) Juridic legislaie specific. quality of life; (e) Cultural culture technology
Etapele de influen a societii informaionale interaction; (f) Legal specific legislation.
asupra individului [12] constituie o continuitate a The stages of the information society
influenelor, ncepnd de la contientizare spre influence on the individual [12] are the continuity of
abilitate i de acolo prin preferin i apoi prin the influences, starting with the awareness to
decizie, ca la finele influenei s se obin satisfacia. ability, then through preference, decision so that
Implementarea societii informaionale by the end of the influence to obtain satisfaction.
presupune convergena a trei factori: (A) tehnologia The implementation of the information
informaiei, (B) producia de MULTIMEDIA i (C) society assumes the convergence of three factors: (A)
tehnologia comunicrilor. information technology, (B) multimedia production
2.6. n era informaticii, sferele dimensionale de and (C) communications technology.
interaciune a societii informaionale i, n continuare, 2.6. In the Information Era, the interaction
a societii cunoaterii [Ros-06.2] sunt fr ambiguiti spheres of information society and knowledge society
urmtoarele: (A) Social se aplic asupra ngrijirii [Ros-06.2] unambiguous are the following: (A) Social
sntii i proteciei sociale, democraiei sociale (tele- applied on health care and social protection, social
medicina, tele-activiti, tele-lucru, tele-alegeri, tele- democracy (telemedicine, teleactivities, teleworking,
asigurare etc.); (B) Educaional dezvolt competena teleelection, teleassurance, etc.), (B) Educational
de concepie i de lucru n regim informatizat, develops conceptual and working skills in computerized
gestionarea inteligent a proceselor (educaie i regime, intelligent management of processes (distance
nvmnt la distan, biblioteci virtuale, e-Teaching, e- education and learning, virtual libraries, e-Teaching, e-
Learning); (C) Ambiental care are impact asupra Learning); (C) Environmental which impacts the use of
utilizrii resurselor i proteciei mediului nconjurtor; resources and environmental protection; D) Cultural
(D) Cultural care are impact asupra conservrii i which impacts on the heritage conservation and
dezvoltrii patrimoniului, dezvoltrii industriei (muzee, development, industry development (museums, art
galerii de arta pe internet,digitizarea informaiei: manuale galleries on the Internet digitizing information: digitizing
digitizate, digitizarea patrimoniului naional i books, digitizing national and international heritage); (E)
internaional); (E) Economic care dezvolt noi Economic which develops new paradigms of digital
paradigme ale economiei digitale i ale economiei bazat economy and knowledge based economy (e-commerce, e-
pe cunoatere (e-Comer, e-Banking, e-Learning, e- banking, e-learning, e-money, e-trading, Internet payment,
Money, e-Trading, achitare pe internet, afacere pe e-business, etc).
internet etc.). 2.7. Information Society is supported by
2.7. Societatea informaional, structural i structural and organizational computer based
organizatoric, este susinut de sisteme informatice information systems of information society (CBISIS)
computerizate (SICSI) compuse, n mare msur, din consisting largely of the following components: (1)
componentele: (1) Software, (2) Hardware, (3) Persoane, Software (2) Hardware (3) People, (4) Knowledge
(4) Knowledgeware, (5) Brainware i (6) Groupware. ware, (5) Brain ware and (6) Groupware. These
Aceste componente activeaz cu informaii, n principal, components are mainly involved with information in
n urmtoarele faze de evaluare a procesului the following evaluation phases of computerized
informaional computerizat: (a) Capturarea (dobndirea information process: (a) Data collection (gathering
i introducerea) informaiilor, (b) Stocarea informaiilor, and recording information) (b) Information storage,
(c) Procesarea informaiilor i (d) Distribuirea (c) Information processing and (d) Information

114 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

informaiilor. Schema general a unui sistem distribution. The general scheme of a computer
computerizat n societatea informaional este prezentat system in the information society is presented in the
n tabelul 1. table 1.

Tabelul 1 / Table 1
Sistemul informatic computerizat n societatea informaional (SICSI)/ Computer based information
system in the Information Society (CBISIS)

Faza SICSI /
CBISIS phase
versus Intrare / Stocare / Procesare / Ieire /
Componenta SICSI Input Storage Processing Output
/ CBISIS
component
Hardware Mouse, microfon/ RAM, Procesorul central. Printer,
Mouse, microphone Hard disc ntreinerea monitor /
produsului-program /
CPU, Product-
Program
Software Drivere a tastaturei, Codificarea Depanarea, digitizarea Driverele difuzorului,
mousului/ Drivers algoritmului / informaiei / printerului, camerei de
of keyboard, mouse Encoding the Debugging, digitizing filmat / Loudspeaker,
algorithm information printer, camera drivers
Oameni / People Formularea Documentarea Analiza rezultatelor, a
problemei / produsului-program / Produsului-program /
Problem Product Analysis of results, of
formulation documentation the product-program
Knowledgeware Formalizarea Biblioteci virtuale, Manuale digitizate, Galerii de art pe
(date/informaii) / problemei / muzee / Virtual imagini, internet / Art galleries
data/information Problem libraries, museums video-clipuri / on the Internet
formalization Digitized manuals,
images, video-chips
Brainware Telealegeri / Memorizarea Interpretarea Teleasigurare e-
(metode, module, Tele-Elections modulelor, resurselor, protecia Teaching, e-Learning /
algoritmi, proceduri) algoritmilor, mediului nconjurtor Tele ensurance,
/ methods, modules, produsului program / Interpretation of e-Teaching, e-Learning
algorithms, / Storage of product, resources,
procedures algorithm, modules, environmental
procedure protection
Groupware Pota electronic, Comutarea pachetelor World Wide Web. Internet, e-Trading,
(comunicaii)/ educaie i de date, e-Money/ e-Comer, e-Banking, distribuirea rezultatelor
communications nvmnt la Data packet e-Learning. produsului-program/
distan/ email, switching, e-Money. Internet, e-Trading,
distance learning distribution of the
and education program-product
results

La intersecia unei componente SICSI i a unei The intersection of a CBISIS phase and a CBISIS
faze de activitate, n tabelul 1, sunt prezentate activity component in table 1 are given examples of
exemple de activiti din sistemul computerizat al activities of computerized system of Information Society.
societii informaionale.
Conclusions
Concluzii The present work is an attempt to discuss
n acest articol, se face o ncercare de a discuta subjects concerning the materialization of the notions
subiectele legate de materializarea noiunilor de of information, conscience, conscience society,
contiin, societatea contiinei, sisteme inteligente i intelligent systems, their characteristics and functions.
a caracteristicilor i funciilor lor. Aceste noiuni au These notions have been adapted to the process of

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 115


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

fost adaptate procesului de creare a sistemelor creating intelligent information systems. It discusses
informatice inteligente. Este discutat evoluia noiunii the evolution of the notion of information in general
de informaie, n general, i, n contextul evoluiei ei, and in the framework of the phases of creating
la etapele de creare a sistemelor inteligente intelligent computer systems in Information Society.
computerizate n societatea informaional. The obtained results of the research will be
Rezultatele obinute vor fi extinse asupra extended in the process of creating Intelligent Information
procesului de creare a Sistemelor Informatice Inteligente Systems of Knowledge and Conscience based Societies.
n Societile Bazate pe Cunotine i Contiin. The results of this research were discussed
Rezultatele acestor investigaii au fost discutate during the annual Conference of ASEM in September
la Conferina anual din septembrie a ASEM [1]. 2012 [1].

Not. Aceast publicaie tiinific suport Note. This scientific paper is supporting the
aplicaia la Proiectul ASEM Crearea Societii application of ASEM Project Creating a Conscience
Contiinei evoluat n anii 2008 2018. Society which is being developed during 2008 2018.

Bibliografie / Bibliography:
1. Mihalcea Radu, Roca Ion Gh, Todoroi Dumitru. Sisteme informatice n Societatea Contiinei. //
Analele ASEM, Ediia a VIII-a, Editura ASEM, 2010, p. 341 360.
2. Mihai Drgnescu, Contiina, frontier a tiinei, frontier a omenirii, comunicare la seziunea
Comitetului Romn pentru Istoria i Filosofia tiinei i Tehnicii, Academia Romn, 18 octombrie
2000, publicat n Revista de filosofie, XLVII, nr.1-2, 2000, p. 15-22.
http://www.racai.ro/~dragam/Constiinta.html
3. Mihai Drgnescu. Cultura i Societatea cunoaterii
http://www.racai.ro/~dragam/CULTURA&SC.pdf - - Cached
4. http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informa%C5%A3ie
5. Morals and Conscience in Society. http://lifeskills.endlex.com/article/morals_in_society.html
6. Cartier Dicionar Enciclopedic. Ed. IV. Cartier, 2002, 1696 pag. ISBN 9975-79-080-1
7. Stonier Tom. Information And The Internal Structure Of The Universe: An Exploration Into
Information Physics., 1997, http://www.flipkart.com/tom-stonier/02/07)
8. Todoroi D. Computer Science. The Adaptable Programming. The Basic Conceptions. ASEM Press,
Chisinau, 1992. 76 p.
9. Todoroi Dumitru, Todoroi Nicoleta, Micua Dumitru. Contiina: definiii, caracteristici, funcii,
modele, adaptabilitate. // Proc. of International conf. Modelare matematic, optimizare i tehnologii
informaionale, Ediia a II-a, Chiinu, Evrica, 24-26 martie 2010, pp.268-287
10. Stonier Tom. Information and Meaning: An Evolutionary Perspective.
http://www.amazon.com/Information-Meaning-Evolutionary-Tom-Stonier/dp/354076139X
11. Drgnescu Mihai. L'Universalit ontologique de l'information. (Ontological Universality of
Information), Prface et notes par Yves Kodratoff, prof., Universit de Paris-Sud, Directeur de
recherche au CNRS Bucharest, Editura Academiei, 1996 http://www.racai.ro/books/draganescu/
12. Roca Ion Gh., Ghilic-Micu Bogdan, Stoica Marian. Informatica. Societatea informaional. E-
serviciile. Editura Economic, 2006, Bucureti, 488 p.
13. Roca Ion Gh. Societatea cunoaterii. Editura Economic, 2006, Bucureti, 336 p.
14. Drgnescu Mihai. De la Societatea Informaional la Societatea Cunoaterii. Editura Tehnic,
2003, Bucureti, 244 p.
15. Micusa Diana, Todoroi Nicoleta. Subconscious in Conscience Pyramid, In Proc. Of the 35th Annual
Congress of ARA Science and Art in the Information Era, Timioara, July 6-11, 2011, Ed. Presses
Internationales POLITECHNIQUE, Montreal, Quebec, 2011, pp. 23-29.

116 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

UTILIZAREA TIC N EVALUAREA USING ICT FOR RESEARCH


CERCETRII TIINIFICE N EVALUATION IN THE
REPUBLICA MOLDOVA REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Drd. Igor COJOCARU, ASEM PhD candidate Igor COJOCARU, ASEM,
Institutul de Dezvoltare a Societii Information Society Development Institute
Informaionale
The research, development and innovation
Sistemul de cercetare-dezvoltare-inovare a rii system of a country requires continuous
necesit o evaluare multiaspectual continu. Un aport multidimensional evaluation. Information and
substanial la aceasta ar putea aduce utilizarea communication technologies could bring a
tehnologiilor infocomunicaionale. substantial contribution to this process. The article
Este caracterizat starea suportului informaional features the state of the ICT support for research
al evalurii cercetrii tiinifice la Academia de tiine a evaluation at the Academy of Sciences of Moldova,
Moldovei, Consiliul Naional pentru Acreditare i the National Council for Accreditation and
Atestare i Agenia de Stat pentru Proprietatea Attestation and the State Agency for Intellectual
Intelectual. Este descris reeaua ACADEMICA, Property. It describes the ACADEMICA network,
sistemul EXPERT online i IBN, ca elemente de e- EXPERT online and IBN systems, as elements of
infrastructur a evalurii cercetrii tiinifice n research evaluation infrastructure in Moldova. A
Republica Moldova. Este efectuat analiza SWOT a SWOT analysis of the status of scientific research
strii evalurii cercetrii. Se conchide necesitatea evaluation in the country is presented. The article
extinderii implementrii culturii digitale n organizaiile concludes the need to further extend the
din sfera cercetare-dezvoltare-inovare. implementation of digital culture in research-
Cuvinte-cheie: evaluare, cercetare tiinific, development-innovation organizations.
asigurare informaional, reeaua ACADEMICA, Keywords: evaluation, research, information
EXPERT online. support, ACADEMICA network, EXPERT online.

1. Introducere 1. Introduction
n prezent, tehnologia societii informaionale Nowadays, the information society technology
reprezint att un suport transversal pentru toate sectoarele is both a transversal support to all economy sectors,
economiei, ct i o industrie cu un dinamism extraordinar. as well as an industry with extraordinary dynamism.
Iniiativa i2010 O societate european informaional The i2010 initiative A European Information
pentru creterea economic i ocuparea forei de munc Society for Growth and Employment recommends
recomand statelor-membre ale UE dublarea cercetrii n Member States to double the ICT research [1, p 26]
domeniul TIC [1, p. 26] deziderat la care Republica a goal which Moldova is obliged to align to.
Moldova e obligat s se alinieze. Cercettorii moldoveni Moldovan researchers performed several analysis of
au efectuat mai multe analize ale sistemului naional de the national research, development and innovation
cercetare-dezvoltare-inovare (CDI) i a locului acestuia n (RDI) system and its place in the world, as well as in
lume, precum i n cadrul unor proiecte (FORMoldova, the framework of several projects (FORMoldova,
Expert-Grup, grupuri de experi europeni) [24]. O analiz Expert-Grup, European expert groups) [2-4]. Still, a
multiaspectual a sistemului CDI lipsete. De curnd, au multidimensional analysis of the RDI system in the
fost iniiate lucrrile de elaborare a Strategiei de cercetare- country is missing. The development of the
dezvoltare-inovare 2020 Moldova cunoaterii. O Research, Development and Innovation Strategy
component extrem de important, dictat de realitile 2020 Moldova of Knowledge has started recently.
spaiului virtual Cercetare-Dezvoltare-Inovare digital, A crucial component, dictated by the realities of
trebuie s i gseasc locul n acest document strategic. cyberspace, Digital Research, Development and
Economia UE este afectat de o penurie de personal Innovation, must find its place in this strategic
calificat n materie de TIC. Din acest motiv, este posibil ca, document. The EU economy is affected by a
n Europa, 700 000 de locuri de munc s nu poat fi shortage of skilled ICT staff. For this reason, it is
ocupate pn n 2015 [5, p. 94], care, sperm, la possible that, in Europe, 700 000 jobs cannot be
propunerea noastr, s se regseasc n acest document de filled by 2015 [5, 94], therefore, we hope our
importan strategic naional. proposal to be included in this important national
Pentru a ine pas progresului, guvernele acord o strategy document.
atenie sporit managementului activitii de CDI, In order to keep up with the progress,
precum i rezultatelor obinute. TIC devine un governments pay increased attention to the
instrument indispensabil pentru a acumula i stoca management of RDI activities and its results. ICT

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 117


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

informaia, a aduce mai aproape comunitile de has become an inevitable tool to gather and store
cercettori, cu cheltuieli minime de resurse, precum i a information, bringing researcher communities closer
pune la dispoziia contribuabililor i guvernanilor with minimal costs and providing taxpayers and
tehnologiile, cunotinele i alte rezultate obinute din government officers the technology, knowledge and
bani publici sau din alte surse de finanare. Necesitatea other outcomes resulting from the use of public
unei asemenea evaluri a evalurii sferei tiinei i funds or other funding sources. The need for such an
inovrii din R. Moldova se simte mai acut ca oricnd, evaluation of evaluation of the science and
innd cont de tendinele internaionale din domeniu, innovation in the country is felt more acutely than
precum i de racordarea procesului de evaluare la noile ever, taking into account international trends in the
tehnologii informaionale aspecte care pot fi msurate field, as well as connecting evaluation process to
prin intermediul indicatorilor infometrici, scientometrici, new information technologies aspects which can be
webometrici etc. Analiza SWOT, privind dezvoltarea measured by infometric, scientometric, webometric
TIC n CDI [6, p. 56-58], demonstreaz c domeniul indicators etc. The SWOT analysis on ICT
TIC are mari perspective n dezvoltarea tiinei, iar development in RDI [6, pp. 56-58] proves that ICT
Republica Moldova are anse de aliniere la standardele has great insights into the development of science
internaionale din domeniu. and Moldova is likely to align to international
2. Asigurarea informaional a Academiei de standards.
tiine a Moldovei 2. ICT resources of Academy of Sciences of
Academia de tiine a Moldovei (AM) a Moldova
declanat elaborarea suportului informaional pentru Academy of Sciences of Moldova (ASM)
sfera CDI nc la nceputul anului 2000. n 2010, n initiated the development of ICT resources for RDI
scopul dezvoltrii infrastructurii sistemului de informaii area in the beginning of year 2000. In 2010, in order
tiinifico-tehnologice a organizaiilor din sfera tiinei i to develop the infrastructure of scientific and
inovrii subordonate Academiei de tiine a Moldovei, technological information system, of the science and
alinierii la standardele europene i internaionale, innovation organizations subordinated to the
implementrii serviciilor i tehnologiilor informaionale Academy of Sciences, as well as in order to align to
i de comunicaii moderne i performante n activitatea European and international standards, and implement
de cercetare i dezvoltare, Consiliul Suprem pentru modern ICT services in the RDI area, the Supreme
tiin i Dezvoltare Tehnologic (CSDT) a decis Council for Science and Technological Development
crearea reelei ACADEMICA [7], administrate i (SCSTD) decided to establish the ACADEMICA
dezvoltate de ctre Institutul de Dezvoltare a Societii network [7], developed and managed by Information
Informaionale (IDSI). Argument al necesitii de Society Development Institute (ISDI). The external
consolidare a e-infrastructurii AM i organizaiilor audit report of this infrastructure was the main
subordonate a servit raportul de audit extern al acestei argument for the need to strengthen e-infrastructure
infrastructuri. Urmarea recomandrilor experilor i of the ASM and its subordinated organizations.
investiiile inteligente n TIC de ctre IDSI au permis ca Following the recommendations of experts and smart
pn la finele anului 2010 toate cele 19 instituii de investments in ICT performed by ISDI, enabled to
cercetare-membri instituionali ai AM, CSDT al connect to the metropolitan ACADEMICA network
AM, Agenia pentru Inovare i Transfer Tehnologic, by the of 2010, 19 research organizations
Biblioteca tiinific Central (BC) Andrei Lupan, institutional members of ASM, SCSTD of ASM, the
Centrul de Proiecte Internaionale, Liceul i Agency for Innovation and Technology Transfer,
Universitatea AM i IDSI s fie conectate n reeaua Central Scientific Library Andrei Lupan, the
metropolitan ACADEMICA. Paralel, n baza unui plan Centre for International Projects, ASM Lyceum and
sincronizat cu reparaiile i schimbarea oficiilor ASM University, as well as ISDI. In parallel, based
institutelor, a cercettorilor n alte edificii, pas cu pas se on a plan in phase with the repair works and change
soluioneaz problema de conectivitate ultima mil of organization offices, as well as of researchers in
pentru fiecare angajat din sfera CDI la infrastructura other buildings, the last mile connectivity issue to
creat n baza tehnologiei de reea cu viteza de 1 Gbps. the infrastructure created based on 1 Gbps network
Acumularea continu a experienei de utilizare a technology, is being solved step by step for each
tehnologiilor informaionale pentru perfecionarea employee in the RDI area.
proceselor de cercetare, a coninutului produciei Another goal of the countrys scientific
tiinifice i implicarea n colaborarea tiinific community is continuous accumulation of experience
internaional (alfabetizarea i incluziunea digital a using information technology, in order to improve
tuturor actorilor tiinifici) constituie un alt deziderat al research, the content of scientific production and
comunitii tiinifice din ar. n perioada 2008-2012, involvement in international scientific cooperation
au fost elaborate 33 de resurse informaionale academice (digital literacy and digital inclusion of all research
pentru organizaii i subdiviziuni, proiecte de cercetare, actors). During 2008-2012 were developed 33
reviste, evenimente sau personaliti (de ex., academic information resources for organizations

118 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

www.asm.md, www.idsi.md, www.akademos.asm.md, and subdivisions, research projects, journals, events


www.bsl.asm.md, www.cantemir.asm.md etc.). or personalities (e.g. www.asm.md, www.idsi.md,
Lansarea acestor servicii electronice pentru comunitatea www.akademos.asm.md, www.bsl.asm.md,
tiinific a devenit posibil avnd o mas critic de www.cantemir.asm.md, etc). These new electronic
cercettori cu conexiune calitativ la e-infrastructura services for the research community were due to the
academic i reelele locale ale instituiilor de cercetare critical mass of researchers with high-quality
consolidate n reeaua informaional metropolitan connection to e-infrastructure and local networks of
ACADEMICA. academic and research institutions reinforced in the
Resursele informaionale electronice, elaborate de metropolitan ACADEMICA network.
IDSI, pot servi drept surs de informare veridic pentru Electronic information resources developed by
experii-evaluatori de propuneri de proiecte. Vizibilitatea ISDI can serve as a reliable source of information for
activitii de cercetare-dezvoltare din Republica Moldova expert proposal evaluators. The visibility of
prin Internet, n baza statisticii resurselor informaionale Moldovas RDI activity over the Internet resources
elaborate de IDSI, a crescut pe parcursul a trei ani, increased during the last three years, resulting in half
rezultatul cifrndu-se anual la jumtate de milion de vizite, a million annual visits and over 243 000 unique
peste 243 de mii de vizitatori unici. Trecerea la o nou visitors, based on the statistics of information
etap a dezvoltrii acestei reele academice, de la resources compiled by ISDI. Moving to a new stage
consumator de servicii Internet la furnizor de informaie in the development of this academic network, from
tiinific, este o sarcin extrem de important. Acest lucru consumers of Internet services towards providers of
poate fi realizat prin completarea continu a siturilor deja scientific information, is a highly important task.
existente cu coninut, precum i prin utilizarea This can be achieved by continuously updating
instrumentelor informatice colaborative. Ca rezultat al existing sites with content and using collaborative
elaborrii sistemelor informatice, vizibilitatea activitii de tools. As a result of the development of information
cercetare-dezvoltare din Republica Moldova a crescut de la systems, the visibility of RDI activities in Moldova
235 285, n 2008, la 243 323, n 2009, 561 100, n 2010, i increased from 235,285 visits in 2008 to 243,323
565 054 vizite, n 2011, numrul de vizitatori unici fiind de visits in 2009, 561,100 in 2010 and 565,054 visits in
83 566, n 2008, 172 739, n 2009, 243 323, n 2010, i 2011, the number of unique visitors from 83,566 in
182 657, n 2011. Traficul extern de date al reelei 2008, 172,739 in 2009, 243,323 in 2010 to 182,657
ACADEMICA, n 2010, a fost de 28 TB, iar n 2011 a unique visitors in 2011. External data traffic of the
depit 56 TB. Din 2012, datorit implementrii de ctre ACADEMICA network was 28 TB in 2010 and
IDSI a unui plan de aciuni de cretere a vizibilitii sferei exceeded 56 TB in 2011. Since 2012, due to the
CDI, toate organizaiile din sfera tiinei i inovrii, implementation by ISDI of the action plan aiming to
membrii instituionali ai AM au fost inclui n increase the visibility of all RDI organizations, all
Clasamentul Internaional Webometrics, IDSI deinnd institutional members of ASM were included in the
ntietatea la compartimentul vizibilitate web. International Webometrics ranking, ISDI being the
EXPERT online (http://www.expert.asm.md/ro) este first in top in the country in terms of web visibility.
cel mai important sistem informatic elaborat de IDSI pentru EXPERT online (http://www.expert.asm.md/ro) is
suportul evalurii tiinifice n RM. Acest sistem, lansat n the most important information system developed by
2008, include Baza de date a Potenialului Uman din sfera ISDI to support scientific evaluation in RM. This
CDI, concursurile organizate de ctre AM pentru system, launched in 2008, includes the database of
finanarea proiectelor de cercetare din bani publici, human potential from the RDI area, the calls opened
propunerile de proiecte de cercetare, naintate de ctre by ASM to fund research projects with public funds,
instituiile acreditate i care urmeaz s fie finanate de la the research project proposals, submitted by
bugetul de stat, precum i rezultatele evalurii lor de ctre accredited institutions to be funded from the state
experi independeni. Evaluarea cercetrii tiinifice este la budget, as well as the results of project evaluations
ora actual una dintre cele mai importante probleme ale by independent experts. Research evaluation is
sferei CDI [8-11]. currently one of the most important problems of the
Puncte forte ale EXPERT online gestioneaz RDI area [8-11].
un enorm volum de informaie (3,39 GB, la 01.09.2012), EXPERT online strengths manages a vast
are rolul de a operaionaliza cadrul legal stabilit, de a amount of information (3.39 GB, on 01.09.2012),
asigura standardizarea documentelor utilizate (formulare aims to operationalize the established legal
de propuneri de proiecte, formulare de evaluare, framework, ensures standardization of the documents
formulare de raportare etc.), precum i accesul la (forms for proposals, evaluation forms, reporting
informaii i comunicarea reciproc ntre participanii forms, etc.), and provides access to the information
implicai. n 2010, cu concursul IDSI, au fost depuse i and communication between the involved
nregistrate, prin intermediul acestui sistem, 355 participants. In 2010, with ISDI support 355 project
propuneri de proiecte n cadrul a 4 concursuri de proposals with over 4000 participants were
proiecte cu peste 4 000 de executani. Activitatea de submitted and registered in the system for the 4

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 119


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

depunere a proiectelor este n permanent desfurare, announced calls. Project submission is constantly
baza de date completndu-se progresiv. ongoing, the database being gradually updated.
Puncte slabe ale EXPERT online dubleaz EXPERT online weaknesses doubles
procesul de depunere a propunerilor de proiecte: online i proposals submission: online and on paper. Until now,
fizic. Pn la ora actual, experii, n mare msur, nu the experts do not evaluate project proposals mostly
evalueaz online propunerile de proiecte, dei aceasta este online, even though it is one of the main objectives of
menirea prin definiie a sistemului. Baza de date rmne the system. The database remains incomplete with
incomplet: colaboratori ai instituiilor, date lips despre regard to: employees of institutions, lack of data about
serviciu, studii; brevete; articole; proiecte anterioare, employment, studies; patents; articles, previous
publicaii relevante etc. Pe site-ul sistemului, pe pagina projects; relevant publications, etc. The user page on
utilizatorului este deocamdat puin informaie util the system website doesnt provide much useful
(informaie care se raporteaz periodic). Instruirea information (information that is regularly reported).
angajailor CSSDT i ai institutelor, n vederea introducerii The training of SCSTD and institutes staff should
informaiei n sistem, trebuie s se produc periodic i cu have occurred regularly and responsibly, in order to
responsabilitate, astfel nct prin contribuia lor s se update information in the system, so that their
declaneze posibilitatea de raportare periodic a rezultatelor contribution could trigger the periodic reporting of
cercetrii, precum i a rapoartelor financiare. Dup ce va fi research results, as well as financial reporting. After
lansat cel de-al doilea serviciu de aceeai importan pentru the release of the second service of equal importance
comunitatea tiinific IBN (baz de date cu acces public to the scientific community IBN (publicly accessible
la lucrrile tiinifice articolele din reviste naionale database of scientific papers articles from national
acreditate [12; 13]) i interconectarea cu acesta, sistemul accredited journals [12, 13]) and its interconnection
EXPERT online ar putea contribui la sporirea calitii with the latter, EXPERT online system would be able
evalurii cercetrilor tiinifice. Nu n ultimul rnd, sistemul to contribute to improving the quality of research
va putea fi transformat n SSD (sistem suport decizii) i va evaluation. Eventually, the system can be transformed
putea fi utilizat n proiecte multilaterale pentru promovarea into DSS (decision support system) and be used in
peste hotare. multilateral projects for international promotion.
Puncte forte ale asigurrii informaionale a ASM ICT resources strengths besides
AM pe lng accesul direct ntre PC-urile conectate direct access from networked PCs (with speeds up to
n reea (cu viteza de pn la 1 Gbps) i infrastructur de 1 Gbps) and 70% communication infrastructure,
comunicaii proprie 70%, reeaua ACADEMICA ofer ACADEMICA network provides immediate
diseminarea imediat a informaiei i implementarea mai dissemination of information and faster
rapid a unor noi servicii informatice pentru mediul implementation of new services for academia. Such a
academic. O astfel de reea are avantajul de minimizare network has the advantage of minimizing the
a cheltuielilor de mentenan i dezvoltare, a consumului maintenance and development costs, as well as the
de energie electric a e-Infrastructurii. Instituiile nu electricity consumption of e-Infrastructure. The
achiziioneaz echipament de reea, cablaj, nici nu organizations do not purchase network equipment,
pltesc taxa de conectare a noilor angajai; se percepe wiring, pay no connection fee for new employees,
doar taxa pentru servicii. O important realizare este the fee is charged only for services. An important
micorarea numrului de personal de administrare a achievement is reducing the number of network
reelei de la 38 uniti, n 2007, la 5, n 2012 i a management personnel from 38 units in 2007 to 5 in
numrului de deranjamente (n medie pe lun, n 2012, 2012 and the number of faults (an average of 10
sunt doar 10 deranjamente). faults per month in 2012).
Puncte slabe ale asigurrii informaionale a ASM ICT resources weaknesses: a) the
AM: a) comunitatea tiinific din republic este n scientific community in the country is mostly elderly
mare parte de vrsta a treia [14], nu este suficient [14], it is not sufficiently trained in the use of ICT in
instruit n ceea ce privete utilizarea TIC n activitatea research activities, the mistrust for the security of
de cercetare, persistnd nencrederea n nivelul de information available through the network still
securitate a informaiei disponibile n reea; b) n unele persists, b) several organizations have ICT engineers
institute exist angajai care ocup funcii de inginer n who do not perform any activities related to ICT, c)
TIC, fr a desfura activiti aferente TIC; c) se atest several organizations are reluctant to provide truthful
reticena unor instituii de a oferi date veridice despre information about users connected to the network,
utilizatorii conectai la reea, ceea ce furnizeaz which results in incomplete and invalid information
informaie incomplet i neveridic despre utilizatorii about network users, d) some organizations
reelei; d) unele organizaii deconecteaz de la reea disconnect employee PCs from network to minimize
calculatoarele angajailor doar pentru a minimiza related costs, e) several network nodes do not
cheltuielile la acest articol; e) nu toate nodurile correspond to technical parameters necessary to
informaionale corespund parametrilor tehnici necesari guarantee the quality of service and efficient
pentru garantarea calitii serviciului, funcionarea equipment operation, f) there is a small number of

120 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

eficient a echipamentului; f) un numr redus de servicii information services available on the network.
informaionale disponibile n reea. 3. NCAA ICT resources
3. Asigurarea informaional a CNAA An important role in RDI activities in
Un rol important n organizarea activitilor de Moldova is played by the National Council for
cercetare-dezvoltare n republic l are Consiliul Naional Accreditation and Attestation (NCAA,
pentru Acreditare i Atestare (CNAA, www.cnaa.md). El www.cnaa.md). It is due to the fact that only
este determinat de faptul c doar organizaiile acreditate de organizations accredited by this body can be granted
acest organism pot obine finanare de la bugetul de stat, iar funds from the state budget and on the other hand
pe de alt parte doar persoanelor evaluate de acesta li se the researchers evaluated by this body are awarded
acord grade i titluri tiinifice. scientific degrees and titles.
Puncte forte ale asigurrii informaionale a NCAA ICT resources strengths NCAA
CNAA situl CNAA conine informaii complete website holds complete information on the NCAA
privind structura i componena acestuia, toate actele structure and composition, as well as all laws and the
normative i deciziile aprobate .a. Evaluarea instituiilor approved decisions etc. The evaluation of
se face n baza raportului de autoevaluare a organizaiei organizations is based on the self-assessment report
i a lucrului pe teren al Comisiei de evaluare. Totui, provided by the organisation and the fieldwork
exist legtur ntre organizaiile acreditate i datele carried out by the evaluation committee. There is a
organizaiei privind specialitile la care are doctorat i link between accredited organizations and
afieaz anumite informaii, pe care le pot utiliza organization data regarding the specialities providing
evaluatorii. Mult mai bine este asigurat informaional doctorate studies, which displays information that
procesul de atestare a cadrelor tiinifice i tiinifico- can be used by evaluators. The process of scientific
didactice de nalt calificare, care are i o istorie mai and scientific-pedagogical personnel attestation is
veche i baze de date specializate ce se refer la better enhanced by use of ICT, due to its longer
persoanele care obin aceste grade i titluri. Sunt record and specialized databases of personnel
accesibile informaiile privind componena Comisiilor awarded with these degrees and titles. There is
de experi, a seminarelor de profil, a consiliilor tiinifice information on the composition of the expert
specializate, adic a tuturor celor implicai n procesul de committees, specialized seminars, specialized
evaluare a tezelor i dosarelor prezentate la CNAA. scientific councils, i.e. of the all factors involved in
Un element central, care leag toate componentele the evaluation of theses and dossiers submitted to
de atestare, este nomenclatorul specialitilor tiinifice. NCAA.
El include domeniile i specialitile tiinifice, pe care One of the main elements that connects all
accesndu-le se poate vedea paaportul fiecrei certification components is the classification of
specialiti, organizaiile care au dreptul s organizeze scientific specialities. It includes scientific fields and
doctorat la specialitatea respectiv, consiliile tiinifice specialties, which lead you further to the passport of
la care se pot susine tezele la specialitatea dat .a. Un each specialty, the organizations that area enabled to
lucru util este amplasarea tezelor de doctorat pe sit, care provide doctorate studies, the scientific councils
permite accesarea lor de ctre oricine. Cu regret, enabled to qualify the doctorate theses for certain
pstrrii versiunii electronice a acestora pe sit este de specilities etc. A useful feature is the accessibility of
circa trei-ase luni se plaseaz cu minim 30 de zile the doctorate theses on the website, for a certain
nainte de susinerea public i se retrage dup period. Unfortunately, the theses are kept on the
confirmarea deciziei de ctre Comisia de atestare pe website for about 3-6 months at least 30 days prior
perioada examinrii tezelor la CNAA. Ulterior, rmne to the public presentation and withdrawn after the
disponibil doar versiunea electronic a autoreferatului. decision confirmation by the Attestation committee
Tezele, de asemenea, sunt corelate cu nomenclatorul during the NCAA examination of the thesis.
specialitilor, cu organizaiile etc., astfel c se pot Subsequently, only the summary of the theses in its
obine date selective privind tezele ntr-un anumit electronic version is available on the website. The
domeniu, susinute n cadrul unei organizaii etc. theses are related to the classification of specialities,
Exist patru baze de date separate referitor la: organizations etc., so it is possible to select data on
conductorii de doctorat; deintorii de grade tiinifice; theses in a particular field, presented within an
doctoranzi; postdoctoranzi. Toate aceste elemente ale organization, etc.
atestrii personalului tiinific sunt legate organic ntre There are four separate databases on: PhD
ele, astfel nct se poate obine informaia dorit i supervisors, holders of scientific degrees, doctoral
naviga cu uurin de la un element la altul, urmrind un students, postdoctoral students. All these items are
anumit scop: verificarea unei anumite informaii sau related to scientific staff certification so you can get
obinerea unei informaii n procesul de evaluare. Acest the desired information and easily navigate from one
fapt face deosebit de utile informaiile plasate pe situl item to another, following a specific purpose:
CNAA la toate etapele de atestare i conferire a gradelor verifying or obtaining certain information for the
tiinifice i titlurilor tiinifice i tiinifico-didactice. evaluation process. Therefore the information on the

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 121


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

Puncte slabe ale asigurrii informaionale a NCAA website is useful at all stages of certification
CNAA: a) incapacitatea de a genera anumite rapoarte; and award of scientific degrees as well as scientific
b) lipsa unui instrument online de evaluare, ceea ce ar and scientific-didactic titles.
putea reduce n timp procesul anevoios de evaluare pe NCAA ICT resources weaknesses: a)
hrtie de ctre experi (CNAA avnd 23 de formulare inability to generate certain reports, b) lack of an
pentru atestarea cadrelor) i ar dinamiza lucrul online evaluation tool, which could reduce the long
Comisiilor de experi pe profil; c) lipsa posibilitii and arduous process of evaluation on paper (NCAA
transmiterii (video) online a susinerilor publice a tezelor has 23 forms for employees certification) and would
i a altor evenimente de interes public; d) lipsa boost the activity of profile expert commissions, c)
posibilitii de a prezenta teze n format HTML, adic no possibility to broadcast (video) online the public
dotat cu hyperlinkuri, care are facilitatea activitatea de presentation of theses and other public events, d)
verificare a CNAA n ceea ce privete accesul direct la lack of possibility to present theses in HTML format,
sursele consultate n tezele elaborate de ctre featuring hyperlinks that would facilitate the checkup
pretendenii la titluri tiinifice, accesul evaluatorilor i by NCAA regarding direct access to theses
al comunitii tiinifice n general la articolele publicate bibliography, the access of evaluators and of the
postate n format electronic etc.; e) lipsa unei conexiuni scientific community to published articles posted
directe (prin hyperlinkuri) cu proiectele de cercetare n electronically etc., e) lack of direct connection
cadrul crora au fost efectuate cercetrile i obinute (through hyperlinks) with research projects that
anumite rezultate sub form de publicaii (cele mai funded the research activities and publication of
multe fiind realizate n cadrul proiectelor instituionale results (most of which are carried out within
finanate din bani publici). institutional projects financed from public funds).
4. Asigurarea informaional a AGEPI 4. AGEPI ICT resources
Agenia de Stat pentru Proprietatea Intelectual a State Agency on Intellectual Property of the
Republicii Moldova (AGEPI, www.agepi.md) este Republic of Moldova (AGEPI www.agepi.md) is a
organul guvernamental specializat, nvestit cu dreptul de specialized governmental body, vested with the right
a acorda protecia obiectelor de proprietate intelectual, to grant protection of intellectual property rights, it
creat n baza Codului cu privire la tiin i inovare n was established based on the Code on Science and
2004 prin fuziunea Ageniei de Stat pentru Protecia Innovation in 2004 through the merger of the State
Proprietii Industriale i a Ageniei de Stat pentru Agency on Protection of Industrial Property and the
Drepturile de Autor, fiind succesorul lor de drepturi. State Agency for Copyright, succeeding their rights.
AGEPI elibereaz, n numele statului, titluri de protecie AGEPI issues on behalf of the state, government
a obiectelor de proprietate intelectual, receptioneaz i protection of intellectual property rights, it receives
supune expertizei cererile privind eliberarea titlurilor de and provides expertise requests for protection of
protecie pentru obiectele proprietii intelectuale; de intellectual property objects, it also manages the
asemenea, gestioneaz registrele naionale de cereri i national registers of applications and titles of
titluri de protecie pentru invenii (brevete), pentru noi protection for inventions (patents), for new plant
soiuri de plante, pentru mrci de produse i servicii, varieties, for product and service labels, for names of
pentru denumiri de origine ale produselor, pentru desene origin, for industrial designs, utility models,
i modele industriale, pentru modele de utilitate, pentru topographies of integrated circuits and other
topografii ale circuitelor integrate, pentru alte obiecte ale industrial property objects. To achieve its mission,
proprietii industriale. Pentru realizarea misiunii sale, AGEPI performs assessments in order to grant
AGEPI efectueaz evaluri n vederea acordrii titlurilor protection titles of inventions.
de protecie a inveniilor. AGEPI ICT resources strengths the
Puncte forte ale asigurrii informaionale a agency has 9 database: Scientific results, Plant
AGEPI AGEPI dispune de 9 baze de date: Rezultate varieties, Registered works, Control labels,
tiinifice, Soiuri de plante, Opere nregistrate, Geographical indications, Trademarks,
Marcaje de control, Indicaii geografice, Mrci, Inventions, Inventions (1963-1992) and
Invenii, Invenii (1963 1992) i Design Industrial Design. The database Scientific results
industrial. Baza de Date Rezultate tiinifice este cea includes the most important scientific results of the
mai important i atest rezultatele tiinifice obinute de research community in Moldova. It includes
comunitatea tiinific din RM. Ea conine informaie information about programs/projects in the science
despre programele/proiectele din sfera tiinei i inovrii and innovation area funded by the state, fact sheets
finanate de la bugetul de stat, fiele informative ale of intermediary and final scientific reports and the
rapoartelor tiinifice intermediare i finale, precum i management program. Database management system
programul de gestionare. Programul de gestiune a bazei Scientific results allows the user to get online
de date Rezultate tiinifice permite utilizatorului s se information on the ongoing projects, partner
informeze, n regim online, despre proiectele aflate n organizations, expected outcomes as well as
proces de executare, instituiile executoare, rezultatele intermediate and final results etc.

122 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

preconizate i cele intermediare i finale obinute etc. AGEPI ICT resources strengths
Puncte slabe ale asigurrii informaionale a weaknesses: a) there are no open access (online)
AGEPI: a) nu exist n acces deschis (online) la rapoartele i reports and publications of the projects, there is a
publicaiile realizate n cadrul proiectelor; exist doar raportul paper based report, and (currently) 3 summaries of
n format hrtie, precum i trei culegeri (deocamdat) ale research project results (published by AGEPI), b) the
rezumatelor privind rezultatele cercetrilor pe proiecte information about the projects is very brief and
(editate de AGEPI); b) informaia despre proiecte este extrem sometimes irrelevant, c) there is no interdependence
de sumar i uneori irelevant; c) nu exist interdependen between previously completed and ongoing projects,
ntre proiectele realizate anterior i cele n curs de there is no interoperability and interconnectivity, d)
desfurare, altfel spus, interoperabilitatea i there are no links for the important elements in the
interconectivitatea acestora; d) nu exist linkuri pe cele mai description, to redirect the user to organization
importante elemente ale descrierilor care s trimit website, project manager website, project website,
navigatorul ctre site-ul instituiei, site-ul conductorului, online publications, etc., e) there are internal links,
site-ul proiectului, linkul publicaiilor online etc.; e) exist but the number of external links is much smaller,
linkuri (legturi) per interior (interne), dar incomparabil mai especially on the key elements of the existing
puine linkuri externe, n special pe elementele-cheie ale database, f) if the storage and management of
BD existente etc.; f) dac aceast funcie de depozitare i projects final results would be performed by
gestionare a rezultatelor finale obinute n cadrul proiectelor EXPERT online (see above), it would complete the
ar reveni SI EXPERT online (a se vedea mai sus), s-ar ntregi logical life cycle of projects and research results
un lan logic al ciclului de via (inclusiv n format digital) al (including in the digital format), which would
proiectelor i rezultatelor tiinifice, fapt care ar contribui la contribute to improving the overall quality of the
sporirea calitii procesului de evaluare. evaluation process.
5. Analiza SWOT evaluarea cercetrii tiinifice 5. SWOT analysis research evaluation in
n Republica Moldova i a utilizrii TIC n domeniu the country and the use of ICT in this field

Puncte forte / Strengths Puncte slabe / Weaknesses


- Existena organismelor naionale n domeniul - Absena unui sistem informatic de evaluare de nivel
evalurii (Consiliul Consultativ de Expertiz al naional; / The absence of a national evaluation system;
AM, CNAA, AGEPI); / National evaluation - Lipsa unor studii de sintez cu privire la evaluarea
bodies in place (Expert Advisory Board of the cercetrilor tiinifice din RM; / Lack of synthetic studies
ASM, NCAA, AGEPI); on the research evaluation in RM;
- Antrenarea masiv n procesul de evaluare a - Lipsa unei echipe de management al sistemului
comunitii tiinifice; / Massive involvement of informatic de evaluare a cercetrilor tiinifice; / Lack of
the scientific community in the evaluation a management team for the research evaluation
process; information system;
- Contientizarea la nivelul sistemului CDI a - Lipsa unui depozit naional Open Access care s stocheze
necesitii unui proces de evaluare obiectiv i publicaiile tiinifice (sau doar articolele publicate n
transparent; / Awareness of the need for an reviste naionale recenzate); / Lack of a national Open
objective and transparent evaluation process in Access repository to store scientific publications (or only
the RDI system; reviewed articles published in national journals);
- Implicarea unor cercettori locali n calitate de - Subiectivismul experilor, cauzat de dificultatea de a evita
experi la nivel internaional; / Involvement of conflictele de interese ntr-o comunitate tiinific mic; /
local researchers as international experts; Subjectivity of experts, due to the difficulty to avoid
- Implementarea treptat a unor indicatori de conflicts of interest in a small scientific community;
evaluare compatibili cu cei utilizai la nivel - Influena factorilor de decizie asupra procesului de
internaional; / Gradual implementation of evaluare a performanei tiinifice i independena redus
evaluation indicators consistent with those used a experilor; / Influence of policy makers on the
internationally; scientific performance evaluation process and reduced
- Utilizarea acelorai indicatori n rapoartele anuale independence of experts;
ale AM i cele de evaluare/acreditare ale - Lipsa mecanismelor de monitorizare a rezultatelor i a
CNAA; / Use of the same indicators in ASM post-evalurii proiectelor; / Lack of results monitoring
annual reports and NCAA mechanisms and post-project evaluation;
evaluation/accreditation; - Prioritizarea slab a rezultatelor recunoscute internaional;
- Existena n legislaie a prevederilor c CDI se / Poor prioritization of internationally recognized
finaneaz doar n baz de concurs, iar publicarea results;
articolelor n reviste se face doar dup recenzare; - Influena slab a indicatorilor cantitativi i utilizarea nu
/ Legal provisions stipulating that RDI is funded ntotdeauna a celor mai adecvai, influena mare a
only on a competitive basis and the articles are criteriilor non-tiinifice; / Weak influence of

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 123


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

Continuare

published in journals only after review; quantitative indicators and the use of not always the
- Elaborarea de ctre IDSI a unor instrumente most appropriate indicators, the high impact of non-
informatice utile pentru procesul de evaluare, de scientific criteria;
ex., IBN); / Development of tools useful for the - Implicarea slab a experilor de peste hotare i lipsa
evaluation process, e.g.IBN by ISDI; experilor locali pentru evaluare n unele domenii; /
- Existena unui instrument specializat de depunere Weak involvement of experts from abroad and lack of
i evaluare online a propunerilor de proiecte CDI local experts for evaluation in several areas;
EXPERT online; / Specialized online system for - Grad ridicat de formalism al procesului de evaluare,
RDI proposals submission and evaluation neconcordane ntre formularele de aplicare i fiele de
EXPERT online; evaluare; / High degree of formality of the evaluation
- Capacitatea SI de a ingloba aspecte variate ale process, inconsistencies between application and
evalurii (proiecte, publicaii etc.) / The ability of evaluation forms;
the system to encompass various assessment - Mimarea procesului de recenzare la reviste i inflaia
aspects (projects, publications, etc.); acestora n unele domenii; / Imitation of the reviewing
- Capacitatea SI de a genera online rezultate output process for national journals and their inflation in some
(fie de evaluare completate, rapoarte de areas;
evaluare, indicatori etc.); / The ability of the - Lipsa de ncredere a comunitii academice n mediul
system to generate outputs online (completed online al cercetrii i n SI, i n eficiena procesului de
evaluation forms, evaluation reports, indicators evaluare (prin intermediul SI); / Lack of trust of the
etc.); academic community in online research and information
- Abonarea la BD internaionale; / Subscription to systems, as well as evaluation process efficiency (via
international scientific databases; information systems);
- Existena BC Andrei Lupan, a Bibliotecii - Slaba alfabetizare digital a reprezentanilor comunitii
Republicane Tehnico-tiinifice, a altor biblioteci tiinifice, n special a celor de vrsta a treia;
tiinifice; / Central Scientific Library Andrei nencrederea n necesitatea evalurii prin SI ca
Lupan, Scientific-technical Republican Library instrumente performante i eficiente; / Poor digital
and other scientific libraries in place; literacy of the representatives of the scientific
- Existena unei diaspore tiinifice care ar putea livra community, especially the elderly, the distrust in the
comunitii tiinifice din RM experi-evaluatori; / need to use ICT as efficient tools for research evaluation;
Scientific Diaspora that could provide national Lipsa unor instrumente de stimulare a cercetrilor de
scientific community with experts-evaluators. performan; / Lack of tools to foster excellence in
research.
Oportuniti / Opportunities Ameninri Riscuri / Threats
- Asocierea la PC7 i creterea nivelului de cooperare; - Lipsa unui organism naional independent (de cel de
/ Association to FP7 and increased cooperation; efectuare a cercetrilor) n domeniul evalurii
- Existena a peste 50 de acorduri de colaborare cu alte propunerilor de proiecte; / Lack of an independent
ri; / The existence of over 50 cooperation national body (from the RDI management body) in the
agreements with other countries; evaluation of proposals;
- Elaborarea unor noi acte normativ-legislative n - Predominarea opiniei c tiina n RM are specific local i
domeniu, care sunt n stadiu de proiect (Codul c experii strini nu pot fi implicai, deoarece nu cunosc
Educaiei, Nomenclatorul specialitilor tiinifice situaia; / Persistence of the opinion that the country has
etc.); / Development of new normative acts and its local specificities and foreign experts can not be
laws, several as drafts (Code on Education, involved, because they are not familiar with the
Scientific specialities classification etc.); situation;
- Crearea unei singure platforme academice a - Emigrarea celor mai competeni i obiectivi specialiti; /
proiectelor i publicaiilor naionale; / Creating a Migration of the most competent and objective experts;
single platform for academic projects and national - Lipsa unor progrese n procesul de recenzare i publicare
publications; n revistele din RM; / Lack of progress in reviewing and
- Implementarea IBN; / Implementation of IBN; publishing of scientific journals of RM;
- Perfecionarea EXPERT online; / Upgrade of - Dificultatea de a obliga editorii s respecte standarde
EXPERT online; editoriale unice, pentru a putea fi ncrcate i gestionate
Oferirea serviciilor de documentare, arhivare, pe o singur platform; / Difficulty to require publishers
stocare, prelucrare, descrcare, redactare etc. a to meet unique editorial standards, in order to load and
publicaiilor tiinifice; / Providing documentation, manage all publications on a single platform;
archiving, storage, processing, downloading and - Problema nesoluionat a dreptului de autor; alte
editing services for scientific publications; probleme generate de politicile Open Access. /

124 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

Continuare

Creterea vizibilitii i accesibilitii produciei Unresolved issues of copyright, other issues arising from
tiinifice la nivel internaional; / Increasing the Open Access policies.
visibility and accessibility of national scientific - Teama de vizibilitate online a cercettorilor din RM din
production at international level; cauza calitii necompetitive unor publicaii; / Fear of
- Obinuirea comunitii tiinifice cu noile forme de online visibility of RM researchers due to uncompetitive
activitate de cercetare online (e-incluziunea quality of some publications;
digital); / Training the scientific community in the - Eschivarea unei pri a comunitii de la procesul de
use of new technologies, online research (e- alfabetizare digital i pasarea acestor obligaiuni altor
inclusion); responsabili (mai tineri, mai abili, mai instruii digital) /
Posibilitatea de conexiune cu instrumente Avoidance of digital literacy by a group of the
informatice de nivel mondial i de integrare n community and passing these responsibilities to others
sisteme mai performante. / Possibility of connection (younger, more skilled, more digitally literate);
with world-class ICT tools and integration into - Persistena opiunii cercettorilor pentru publicarea n
high-quality systems. format tradiional, n detrimentul formatului interactiv,
cu legturi HTML. / Persistence of researchers to
publish in traditional format, instead of interactive
format, with HTML links.

6. Concluzii 6. Conclusions
Academia de tiine a Moldovei trebuie s extind The Academy of Sciences of Moldova should
implementarea elementelor de cultur digital n expand the implementation of digital culture
organizaiile din sfera CDI. Alfabetizarea i incluziunea elements in RDI organizations. Digital literacy and
digital a comunitii tiinifice ar trebui incluse n digital inclusion of the scientific community should
agenda unei Strategii a sferei CDI pe termen lung. be included in the agenda of a long-term RDI
Comunitatea are mai mult ca oricnd nevoie de strategy. The research community is more than ever
asemenea aciuni pentru a nltura reticena in need of such actions to decrease the reluctance of
cercettorilor fa de mediul online al cercetrii, care va researchers towards online research environment,
fi viitorul tiinei e-Science. Serviciile informatice n that is becoming the future of science e-Science.
domeniul TIC trebuie s ocupe o ni mult mai ICT services should get a more important niche on
important pe piaa tiinific. Competenele IDSI pentru the research market. ISDI skills for organization and
organizarea i asigurarea sistemului informaional i provision of ICT resources and information in the
informatic n domeniul CDI sunt de luat n calcul, fiind o RDI area are to be taken into account, as it is an
instituie abilitat cu dreptul de a realiza cercetri n institution vested with the right to carry out research
domeniul dezvoltrii societii informaionale, implicit a in the area of information society development,
TIC i a asigurrii informaionale a sferei CDI. AM therefore ICT resources for the RDI area. ASM
(prin reeaua Academica, EXPERT online i IBN), (through the ACADEMICA network, EXPERT
CNAA i AGEPI sunt cteva dintre cele mai importante online, IBN), NCAA and AGEPI are some of the
structuri ale sferei CDI, al cror suport informaional most important structures in the RDI area, whose
trebuie s beneficieze de extindere i promovare. ICT resources must be extended and promoted.

Bibliografie/Bibliography:
1. Strategia naional de cercetare, dezvoltare i inovare 2007-2013; http://uefiscdi.gov.ro/userfiles/file/
ROST/1188314177strategia%20ro.pdf
2. Popa A. Cercetare, dezvoltare i inovare n Republica Moldova: probleme i opiuni [studiu, elaborat n
cadrul proiectului Transformri economice: dezvoltarea abilitilor inovaionale i antreprenoriale
Chiinu: Expert Grup, 2011; http://www.expert-grup.org/library_upld/d308.pdf.
3. Popa A, Prohnichi V. Sectorul de cercetare, dezvoltare i inovare din Moldova: este oare necesar o
reform? Chiinu: Expert Grup, 2011; http://www.expert-grup.org/library_upld/d360.pdf
4. Rotaru A., Alexeeva S., Cujba R. Dezvoltarea capitatului uman n domeniul cercetrii-dezvoltrii din
Republica Moldova. n: Republica Moldova: 20 de ani de reforme economice: conf. t. intern., 23-24
sept. 2011. Chiinu, 2011. Vol. 1, p. 165-169.
5. Agenda Digital pentru Europa. Cadru general de aciune. Versiunea 2.0 din 24.10.2011;
http://www.fonduri-ue.ro/res/filepicker_users/cd25a597fd-62/Documente_Suport/Studii/
2_Studii_POSCCE/9_Agenda_Digitala.pdf,
6. Cojocaru I. Tehnologiile informaionale i de comunicaii, n: Akademos, nr. 1(12), febr. 2009, p. 56-
58.

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013 125


INFORMATIC / INFORMATICS

7. Hotrrea nr. 86 a Consiliului Suprem pentru tiin i Dezvoltare Tehnologic al Academiei de tiine
a Moldovei din 27 mai 2010 cu privire la reeaua informaional ACADEMICA
8. Duca Gh. Necesitatea evalurii cercetrii ntr-o societate bazat pe cunoatere, n: Akademos, 2009,
nr. 2(13), p. 3-4; http://www.akademos.asm.md/files/Academos__PDF.pdf.
9. urcan A. Racordarea evalurii statistice a activitii tiinifice la standardele europene, n:
Akademos, 2009, nr. 2(13), p. 5-7; http://www.akademos.asm.md/files/Academos__PDF.pdf
10. Rotaru A., Piscenco M.. The role of the system of evaluation and accreditation in organizing and
selforganizing of the modern science, n: Probleme actuale ale organizrii i autoorganizrii sistemului
de cercetare-dezvoltare n Republica Moldova: materialele conf. t., Chiinu, 8 apr. 2011. p. 161-164;
http://www.cnaa.md/i/education-news/conferinta-asm.pdf
11. Picenco M. Evaluarea i acreditarea organizaiilor tiinifice: aspecte sinergetice: (n baza
materialelor Consiliului Naional pentru Acreditare i Atestare): autoref. tezei de doct. n economie.
ASEM. Chiinu, 2011; http://www.cnaa.md/files/theses/2011/20681/marina_piscenco_abstract_ro.pdf
12. Cojocaru I., Cuciureanu Gh., Moraru O. Instrumentul bibliometic naional sistem informatic
performant, deschis, flexibil, scalabil, n: Intellectus, 2010, nr. 2, p. 44-55;
http://idsi.md/files/file/publicatii/IBN.pdf
13. Cojocaru I., Ungureanu E. Crearea instrumentelor de memorie digital pentru evaluarea tiinei:
imperative i impedimente, n: Intellectus, nr. 1, 2012, p. 57-66.
14. Rotaru A., Alexeeva S., Cujba R. Contribuii privind analiza dinamic a unor indicatori ai
potenialului tiinifico-tehnologic din Republica Moldova, n: Economica, 2010, nr.2, p. 9-16.

126 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr. 1 (83) 2013


RECENZII / REVIEW

RECENZIE REVIEW

la monografia Concepte i abordri metodologice monography Concepts and methodological


de evaluare i cretere a Calitii Vieii approaches to assessing and increasing the
Autor: dr. conf. univ. Svetlana Gorobievschi, Quality of Life, published at the Technical
Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei University of Moldova,
Autor: Ms Svetlana Gorobievschi
Lucrarea de fa este consacrat cercetrii
problemelor ce in de Calitatea Vieii, elementele care This paper is devoted to research issues related
compun acest concept complex, cutarea unor soluii de to the Quality of Life, the elements that compose this
msurare a nivelului Calitii Vieii i de cretere a complex concept, the search for solutions to measure
nivelului acesteia. the Quality of Life and to increase its level.
n condiiile actuale de stabilizare a relaiilor de In the present conditions of stabilizing market
pia i democratizare a societii, problema analizei i relations and society democratization, the issue of
cercetrii obiective a Calitii Vieii (CV) n ansamblu analysis and objective research in Quality of Life
devine din ce n ce mai actual. (QOL) as a whole is becoming increasingly topical.
Problemele ce intervin pornesc chiar de la Problems start with the "quality of life"
accepiunea noiunii Calitatea Vieii, care este un concept itself, which is complex, with multiple sides
concept complex, cu multiple laturi i se refer la and refers to the more or less "good" or
caracterul mai mult sau mai puin bun sau "satisfactory" characteristics of people's lives.
satisfctor al vieii oamenilor. Dei, e cunoscut n Although used in everyday life, until now no
viaa de zi cu zi, pn acum acest concept nu are o unanimous definition has been provided by
definiie unic a specialitilor, fiind folosit n numeroase specialists. It is used in many disciplines such as
discipline, precum: literatur, filosofie, geografie, literature, philosophy, geography, environmental
tiinele mediului, medicin, economie, advertising, sciences, medicine, economics, advertising,
psihologie, sociologie. Autorul, n prezenta monografie, psychology, sociology. The author of this
efectueaz analiza conceptului dat n evoluie, explicnd monography comes with her concept analysis in its
i propria viziune asupra acestui subiect. dynamics and her view of the subject.
Autorul susine c, paradigma ce caracterizeaz The author argues that the paradigm that
cercetrile ce in de Calitatea Vieii, indiferent de faptul characterizes the research related to Quality of Life,
dac se realizeaz din perspectiv interdisciplinar whether done from an interdisciplinary perspective
(sociologie, economie, psihologie, ecologie, medicin (sociology, economics, psychology, ecology,
etc.), sau aceste cercetri sunt axate pe un anumit demers medicine, etc.), or focused on a disciplinary
disciplinar, se refer la punerea n relaie a condiiilor de approach, is putting in relation the conditions of
existen cu percepiile i evalurile oamenilor, cu strile existence to perceptions and peoples assessment,
lor de spirit, de satisfacie/insatisfacie, fericire/ their moods, satisfaction/dissatisfaction,
frustrare. happiness/frustration.
n monografie, sunt tratate difereniat conceptul In the monography, the concept of economic
de cretere economic i cel de dezvoltare uman. growth differs from the concept of human
Principala deosebire dintre ele, consider autorul, development. The main difference, argues the author,
const n faptul c primul se concentreaz n is the fact that the first focuses exclusively on
exclusivitate asupra extinderii unei singure posibiliti expanding one possibility to get revenue , while
cea de a obine venituri, pe cnd cel de-al doilea the second requires consolidation of all possibilities
presupune consolidarea tuturor posibilitilor whether economic, social, cultural, psychological
economice, sociale, culturale, psihologice sau politice. or political.
Conceptul dezvoltrii umane este legat ntr-un The concept of human development is linked
mod compatibil i complementar de drepturile omului. compatibly and complementarily to human rights. If
Dac dezvoltarea uman vizeaz extinderea human development is about expanding
posibilitilor i libertilor de care beneficiaz membrii opportunities and freedoms enjoyed by members of a
unei comuniti, drepturile omului reprezint o condiie community, human rights is an essential condition
vital de perfecionare a structurilor sociale ce asigur for improving the social structures that provide these
aceste posibiliti i liberti. Alte domenii de alegere, opportunities and freedoms. Other areas of choice to
crora oamenii, de asemenea, le atribuie o valoare nalt, which people also assign a high value, are
constituie participarea la viaa social, securitatea, participation in social life, security, responsible and
guvernarea responsabil i sustenabilitatea. sustainable governance.
Informaiile analizate n prezenta monografie The information discussed in this monography
permit autorului s contureze o imagine care poate fi allows the author to shape an image that can be

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013 127


RECENZII / REVIEW

considerat a fi concludent, n legtur cu ceea ce considered conclusive about what we believe about
credem despre viaa noastr, dac avem n vedere our lives, if we consider the relatively long period of
perioada relativ mare de timp n care au fost realizate time over which the research was conducted.
cercetrile. As an overall assessment, we can state that the
Ca o evaluare general, putem susine c nivelul quality of life in Moldova is modest. This statement
Calitii Vieii n Republica Moldova este unul modest, is particularly valid in terms of living conditions
cu att mai mult fiind valabil aceast afirmaie pentru indices, starting with the economic standard,
indicatorii condiiilor de via, ncepnd cu standardul macroeconomic indices of living standard (GDP /
economic, de la indicatorii macroeconomici ai nivelului capita, consumer fund) to household income and
de trai (PIB/locuitor, fondul de consum al populaiei) la indices such as life expectancy at birth.
veniturile gospodriilor i pn la indicatori de tipul In economics and sociology, the concept of
sperana de via la natere. n tiina economic i Quality of Life plays an important role, revealing a
sociologic, conceptul de Calitate a Vieii are un rol new hypostasis of the human element in the context
important, dezvluind o nou ipostaz a elementului of economic and social change. In this respect stands
uman n contextul schimbrilor economice i sociale. n the need to improve the objective conditions of life
acest sens se distinge att necesitatea perfecionrii in the perspective of human needs and improvement
condiiilor obiective de via n perspectiva necesitilor of life styles and patterns that will lead to
umane, ct i perfecionarea stilurilor i modurilor de maximizing the quality of life in the conditions of a
via, care urmeaz s conduc spre maximizarea certain stage of human society development.
calitii vieii n condiiile existente ntr-o anumit etap The author proposes the use of a complex
a evoluiei societii umane. Autorul propune utilizarea system of Quality of Life indices, based on the needs
sistemului complex de indicatori ai Calitii Vieii, bazat and possibilities of the society in general and the
pe necesitile i posibilitile societii, n general, i a individual in particular, that allows to assess both
individului, n particular, care permite de a evalua att n objectively and subjectively the well-being level of
mod obiectiv, ct i subiectiv nivelul bunstrii societii society and population, to reflect the vital needs of
i a populaiei, de a reflecta necesitile vitale ale omului humans and the possibilities of meeting them, the
i posibilitile lui de satisfacere a acestora, tendinele i trends and factors which have an impact on living
factorii de influen asupra nivelului de trai, stilului i standards, style and standard of living.
standardului de via. The theme of the paper is divided into several
Tematica lucrrii este divizat n cteva pri. n parts. The first part contains conceptual approaches
prima parte, se conin abordri conceptuale ale Calitii to Quality of Life as a socio-economic category.
Vieii, ca o categorie social-economic. The second part refers to the study of human
A doua parte se refer la studierea metodologiei development assessment methodology at world level
evalurii dezvoltrii umane la nivel global i impactul ei and its impact on Quality of Life as a socio-
asupra Calitii Vieii, ca o categorie socio-economic; economic category; the Quality of Life assessment
metodologiei de evaluare a Calitii Vieii la nivel regional, methodology at the regional level, the EU example,
prin exemplul UE, i au fost determinate similitudinile i and the similarities and differences assessed in order
diferenele acestora ntru asigurarea continuitii i to ensure the continuity and comparability of Quality
comparabilitii Calitii Vieii n dinamic. of Life in its dynamics.
A treia parte red creterea economic i impactul The third part describes its impact on
acesteia asupra dezvoltrii umane n Republica economic growth and human development in the
Moldova; bunstarea i diferenierea social a populaiei Republic of Moldova; the welfare and social
Republicii Moldova una din principalele componente differences in Moldovan population as one of the
ale Calitii Vieii. main components of Quality of Life.
Partea a patra conine elaborarea metodologiei de Part four contains the design of a Quality of
evaluare a Calitii Vieii pentru rile n tranziie, Life assessment methodology for developing
pornind de la realizarea necesitilor umane; selectarea i countries, based on meeting human needs; selecting
argumentarea indicatorilor de evaluare a Calitii Vieii and explaining Quality of Life indices applied to
pe grupe de necesiti umane. Cu acest scop, a fost categories of human needs. For this purpose the Petri
utilizat tehnica managerial Petri n simularea animat managerial technique was used to vividly simulate
a proceselor de management al Calitii Vieii, n the management process of Quality of Life in the
condiiile Republicii Moldova; a fost evaluat Calitatea Republic of Moldova, the Quality of Life being
Vieii la nivel regional, din zonele Centru i Sud ale assessed on regions, the central and southern part of
Republicii Moldova, utiliznd metoda de sondaj public. Moldova, by using the public survey.
Studiul de fa prezint o nou direcie a This study presents a new research orientation
cercetrii n tiina economic autohton. Aspectele de for local economics. Fundamental research issues
cercetare, abordate fundamental, completeaz have been addressed to complete the knowledge of
cunotinele asupra conceptului Calitii Vieii, dar i the concept of Quality of Life, and the quantitative

128 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013


RECENZII / REVIEW

asupra unor indicatori cantitativi i calitativi de evaluare and qualitative indices for assessing its
a CV, la nivelurile macrostructural i regional. macrostructural and regional level. This monography
Monografia poate fi util att specialitilor interesai de can be useful to all professionals interested in this
acest domeniu, ct i studenilor i doctoranzilor, field, for example students and doctoral candidates
interesai de problemele vizate. interested in these problems.

Prof. univ. dr. hab. Ala COTELNIC, ASEM University Professor, Doctor Habilitate
Ala COTELNIC, AESM

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013 129


RECENZII / REVIEW

RECENZIE REVIEW

PRIMA MONOGRAFIE N REPUBLICA THE FIRST MONOGRAPH IN THE


MOLDOVA DESPRE MODELAREA REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA ON
ACCESULUI DESCHIS CA O NOU MODELING OPEN ACCESS AS A
FORM DE COMUNICARE A NEW FORM OF OF SCIENTIFIC
INFORMAIEI TIINIFICE INFORMATION COMMUNICATION
RECENZIE asupra lucrrii tiinifice URCAN, REVIEW of the scientific work of URCAN,
NELLY. Comunicarea tiinific n contextul NELLY. Comunicarea tiinific n contextul
Accesului Deschis la informaie. Chiinu: CEP USM, Accesului Deschis la informaie. Chiinu: CEP
2012. 324 p. ISBN USM, 2012. 324 p. ISBN

Cartea confereniarului universitar Nelly urcan Nelly urcans book is devoted to the scientific
este dedicat abordrii comunicrii tiinifice n condiiile communication approach under Open Access to
Accesului Deschis la informaie. Autoarea relev information. The author reveals the existing
contradicia care exist ntre sistemul tradiional de contradiction between the traditional scientific
comunicare tiinific i cerinele comunitii academice, communication and the needs of the academic
cele ale societii n ansamblu, privind cercetrile community, of the society in general regarding the
tiinifice i accesul la rezultatele cercettorilor. scientific research and the access to the researchers
Nelly urcan prezint o imagine de ansamblu a results.
conceptelor ce in de comunicarea tiinific: abordri Nelly urcan has given an overview of the
teoretice, tipologia comunicrii tiinifice, concepts related to the scientific communication: the
paradigmele comunicrii tiinifice, rezumnd aici theoretical approaches, the typology of scientific
muli ani de discuii cu privire la natura i esena communication, the scientific communication
comunicrii tiinifice i expunnd propria concepie paradigms, summarizing here the issues of many years
despre acest fenomen extrem de complex, cu multe of discussion about the nature and essence of scientific
faete. communication and presenting her own concept of this

130 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013


RECENZII / REVIEW

Generaliznd opiniile privind noiunea de extremely complex and multaspectual phenomenon.


comunicare tiinific i funciile realizate de Generalizing the views on the concept of
aceasta, autorul propune propriul su punct de vedere. "scientific communication" and the functions it
Termenul comunicarea tiinific este unul complex i performs, the author suggests her own point of view.
acoper dou dimensiuni ale comunicrii Scientific communication is a complex term that covers
comunicarea n tiin i comunicarea despre tiin. two dimensions of communication communication
Din aceast perspectiv, autoarea definete within science and communication about science. From
comunicarea tiinific ca o interaciune durabil a this perspective, the author defines scientific
actanilor procesului de circulaie a informaiei communication as a sustainable interaction of the
tiinifice n societate, care este asigurat de totalitatea vehicles of the scientific information flows in the
mijloacelor, filierelor, activitilor instituionale. society which is ensured by the multiple means,
Autoarea distinge dou nivele ale comunicrii channels and institutional activities. The author
tiinifice: (1) comunicarea tiinific intern, n care distinguishes two levels of scientific communication:
particip cercettorii, savanii dintr-un domeniu de (1) internal scientific communication, the participants
cercetare; (2) comunicarea tiinific extern care se of which are researchers, scholars from a research field
desfoar ntre comunitatea tiinific i societate. and (2) external scientific communication which is
Cu toate acestea, valoarea acestei cri nu carried out between the scientific community and the
const doar ntr-o revizuire a abordrilor existente i a society.
opiniilor cu privire la comunicare, nici mcar n faptul However, the value of this book is not only a
c avem n fa un text foarte bogat, n care realizrile review of the existing approaches and views on
mai multor cercettori sunt conectate la ntreaga communication, not even the fact that we face a very
doctrin a comunicrii. n opinia noastr, cel mai rich text, in which the achievements of many
valoros lucru realizat de Nelly urcan este redefinirea researchers are connected to the whole doctrine of
paradigmei comunicrii tiinifice, n condiiile communication. In our opinion, the most valuable thing
Accesului Deschis la informaie, care ar putea done by Nelly urcan, is redefining the paradigm of
fundamenta o baz comun pentru studierea scholar communication under Open Access to
comunicrii de ctre diverse tiine. information that could underpin a common basis for
Pregtirea fundamental a autoarei, cunoaterea studying communication by different sciences.
bun a domeniului infodocumentar, a sociologiei, The fundamental competence of the author, her
tehnologiei informaiei i a comunicrii i-a permis s good knowledge of the info-documentary field, of
ating scopul acestei lucrri. Autoarea mbin percepiile sociology, of the information and communication
intuitive i cunotinele existente i dezvolt abordri technology has allowed her to achieve the goal of this
integrative n demersul su tiinific de a studia paper. The author combines intuitive perceptions and
fenomenul de comunicare. Desigur, scopul crii este existing knowledge and develops integrative
atins, ns, suntem convini c, aceast monografie este approaches in its scientific approach to studying the
doar o realizare n drumul lung pentru dezvoltarea phenomenon of communication. Of course, the purpose
doctrine filozofice a comunicrii tiinifice. of the book is reached; however, we are convinced that
tiina progreseaz prin propriile sale legi, fiind this monograph is only an achievement on the long
ntotdeauna rezultatul unei activiti colective n cadrul path of developing a philosophical doctrine of
comunitii tiinifice. Biblioteca reprezint un scientific communication.
intermediar n sistemul de comunicare tiinific, avnd Science develops by its own laws, but it is
un rol important n asigurarea informaional a always the result of joint activities within the scientific
procesului de cercetare. Rezultatul tiinific, nregistrat de community. The library is an intermediary in the
Nelly urcan, s-a produs prin multiplele dezbateri interne scientific communication system, having an important
i externe, uneori foarte dure, dar aa se maturizeaz un role in providing with information for the research
savant, trecnd aceste labirinturi intelectuale, psihologice process. The scientific result, recorded by Nelly
i etice. Lucrrile tiinifice serioase ofer o examinare urcan, was produced by multiple internal and external
aprofundat a textelor tiinifice, a estimrilor fcute debates, sometimes very hard (but they mature a
anterior, prin compararea ideilor i viziunilor altor scientist) passing through the intellectual,
oameni de tiin. Cartea prezentat ilustreaz capacitatea psychological and ethical labyrinths. Serious scientific
autoarei s realizeze aceste lucruri. Monografia este un work provides thorough examination of scientific texts,
model de dezbatere academic, autoarea are un nivel with the previous estimates, comparing ideas and views
elevat de cultur intelectual, care nu este atins dect de of other scientists. The paper illustrates once again the
foarte puini oameni de tiin de azi din R. Moldova. ability of the author to achieve the above. The
Noi, reprezentanii domeniului infodocumentar, monograph is a model of academic debating, the author
trebuie s fim autocritici, i, prin urmare, este necesar has a high intellectual culture, which is achieved by
s spunem c ajungem rareori la nivelul de only a few scientists in the domain today.
generalizare tiinific, cu att mai important pentru We, the representatives of the info-documentary

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013 131


RECENZII / REVIEW

noi este s asimilm cunotinele dobndite de colega field, must be self-critical, and therefore, it is necessary
noastr, care se orienteaz perfect n problemele to say that we rarely reach the level of scientific
tiinei i n aparatul conceptual i metodologic al generalization, the more important for us is to
tiinei. Aceast carte, prin abstractizare i assimilate the knowledge acquired by our colleague,
generalizare, analiz structural i analiz funcional, who directs perfectly in matters of science and the
abordri sistemice confirm caracterul su profund conceptual and methodological apparatus of science.
tiinific. Monografia este o surs de cunoatere Abstraction and generalization, structural and
epistemologic, care, uneori, ne lipsete nou. functional analyses, the system approaches of this
Autoarea nu a putut evita nici modelarea book, confirm the scientific character of this
Accesului Deschis, ca form nou de comunicare a publication. The monograph is a source of
informaiilor. Refleciile generate din lectura acestei epistemological knowledge, which we sometimes lack.
cri, n fond, sunt legate de nelegerea modului n The author could not avoid modeling the Open
care respectiva cercetare va influena dezvoltarea n Access as a new form of reporting information. The
continuare a sistemului de comunicare tiinific. Sunt reflections generated from reading this book generally
un cititor harnic i un elev al acestei cri i ncerc s relate to understanding the module of how this research
gsesc rspunsuri la unele ntrebri, ns, am constatat will influence the further development of the scientific
c din prima lectur nu am neles toate sensurile communication system. Being a diligent reader and
cuprinse pe aceste pagini. Este un gen de publicaie student of the book, I tried to find answers to a number
academic, asemenea cri sunt rar editate de colegii of questions, but I found that the first reading does not
notri. Nelly urcan ntotdeauna se prezint ca un disclose all the meanings contained on these pages. It is
specialist i inovator, care mereu i mbuntete the kind of academic publication, rarely issued by our
competenele, care cut permanent contactul i colleagues. Nelly urcan always presents herself as a
raportul cu colegii si. Cartea este elaborat cu professional and an innovator, who continually
miestrie tiinific de acest cercettor experimentat i improves her skills, who constantly searches for
are un limbaj academic, convingtor, extrem de bogat contacts and interaction with her colleagues. The book
n terminologia profesional din tiine foarte diferite. is a skillful scientific work of an experienced
Prezentarea n aceast carte a politicilor, researcher disposing of a compelling academic
strategiilor i modelelor Accesului Deschis reprezint language, extremely rich in professional terms of very
o realizare notabil a autoarei. Cunoaterea i different sciences.
aplicarea modelelor Accesului Deschis vor impulsiona We consider the presentation in this book of the
dezvoltarea sistemului de comunicare tiinific din policies, strategies and models of Open Access as a
Republica Moldova, vor contribui la creterea notable achievement of the author. The knowledge and
vizibilitii cercetrilor tiinifice la nivel naional, application of Open Access models will boost the
precum i la nivel internaional. De asemenea, development of scientific communication in Moldova,
implementarea repozitoriilor instituionale i a will help increase the visibility of scientific research
revistelor cu acces deschis va contribui la creterea nationally and internationally. Furthermore, the
impactului asupra vizibilitii publicaiilor tiinifice implementation of institutional repositories and of
din spaiul virtual. Open Access journals will help increase the visibility
Concluziile n partea final a cercetrii se refer impact of scientific publications in cyberspace.
la necesitatea implementrii modelelor inovaionale de The research findings at the end of the book refer
comunicare tiinific, ce vor permite diseminarea i to the need of implementing the innovative models of
accesul nerestricionat la informaia tiinific. O alt scholar communication, that will enable the
concluzie important este c universitile, instituiile dissemination and unrestricted access to scientific
de cercetare i editurile trebuie s aprobe politicile information. Another important conclusion is that
instituionale privind accesul deschis la informaia universities, research institutions and publishing houses
obinut n procesul de cercetare tiinific. must approve institutional policies regarding the Open
n general, aceast monografie, la fel ca toate Access to information obtained from scientific
lucrrile scrise de Nelly urcan se disting prin research.
caracterul lor netrivial i valabilitatea gndirii, Loosely speaking, this monograph, like all Nelly
utilizarea bogat de surse documentare, integritatea de urcans works are distinguished by their nontrivial
analiz tiinific i citare; stil autentic al expunerii character and validity of thought, by the use of rich
tiinifice, i multe alte avantaje. Datorit acestor documentary sources, by the integrity of scientific
caliti, lucrarea Nelly urcan este una reprezentativ, analysis and citation; by her authentic style of scientific
coninnd informaii de noutate tiinific, reflectnd o expression and many other virtues. Therefore, Nelly
gam larg de probleme de actualitate. Monografia urcans work is representative, containing new
este o mare contribuie la studiul comunicrii scientific information, reflecting a wide range of
tiinifice din Republica Moldova. topical issues. I think, this monograph is the largest
contribution to the study of scientific communication,

132 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013


RECENZII / REVIEW

Accesul Deschis, acest nou model de acces la which has ever been developed in our country.
informaie i cunoatere constituie obiectivul strategic Open Access, this new model of access to
principal pentru urmtoarea perioad n Universitile information and knowledge, is the main strategic
Republicii Moldova. Bibliotecile universitare vor objective of Moldovan universities for the coming
organiza arhive instituionale (repozitorii) i reviste cu period. Academic libraries will organize institutional
acces deschis. Specialitii din bibliotec, n colaborare archives (repositories) and Open Access journals.
cu departamentele de tiin, vor convinge cercettorii, Library experts in collaboration with the science
cadrele didactice universitare s participe la departments will convince researchers and academic
constituirea arhivelor instituionale, vor informa staff to participate in setting up institutional archives,
comunitatea despre resurse informaionale noi privind will inform the community about new informational
informaia tiinific. Prin aceste demersuri, resources as to scientific information. By these efforts,
bibliotecile universitare vor contribui la dezvoltarea university libraries will contribute to the development
coninutului digital n Acces Deschis, prin of digital content in the popularization of Open Access
popularizarea produciei tiinifice i consolidarea scientific production and strengthening the image of
imaginii Universitii. the university.

Natalia Cheradi

Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013 133


RECENZII / REVIEW

Bun de tipar 04.04.13.


Coli de tipar 16.8. Coli editoriale 15,4.
Tirajul 85 ex.
Tipografia Departamentului Editorial-Poligrafic al ASEM
tel. 402-986

134 Revista / Journal ECONOMICA nr 1 (83) 2013