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Subiect management romana -engleza

*Procesele de producţie, desfăşurate in cadrul organizaţiei, se clasifică după


mai multe criterii şi anume:

1după implicarea lor in realizarea produsului finit

- procese de bază

- procese auxiliare

- procese de servire

2 • după modul de efectuare al acestora(al proceselor de productie )

- procese manuale

-procese manual-mecanice

-procese mecanice

procese automate, cibemetizate şi de aparatură

3 după gradul de continuitate in desfăşurarea lor

-procese continue -se derulează in orice perioadă fără intrerupere,

- procese discontinue, se desfăşoară de regulă pe schimburi

procese ciclice sau periodice -care se reiau după o anumită perioadă de timp si se desfasoara pe
faze

procese sezoniere- de regula cele din agricultura care se desfasoara intr-o anumita perioada a
anului

4după confinutul lor, acestea pot fi:

- procese de producţie constituite numai din procese de muncă;

- procese de producţie care cuprind numai procese naturale;

- procese de producţie mixtă.

*The production processes carried out within the organization are classified according to
several criteria, namely:
1 after their involvement in the production of the finished product
- basic processes
- auxiliary processes
- serving processes
2 • by how they are made (the production processes)
- manual processes
-Manual-mechanical processes
- Mechanical processes
-automated, cibemized and apparatus processes
3 by the degree of continuity in their deployment
-continuous processes - run at any time without interruption,
- discontinuous processes usually take place on exchanges
cyclic or periodic processes - which resume after a certain period of time and take place
in phases seasonal processes - usually those in agriculture that take place at a certain time
of the year
4For their limit, they can be:
- production processes created solely by working processes;
- production processes involving only natural processes;
- Mixed production processes.

*Functia si Ponderea ierarhică

posturilor cu aceleaşi atribuţii sau care prezintă


*Totalitatea
atribuţii asemănătoare desemnează o funcţie.
Funcţiile (exemplu: director sucursală, agent comercial, programator etc.), pot
fi:
- de conducere, care exercită funcţii ale managementului (previziune, organizare,
coordonare etc.) şi respectiv,
-de execuţie, care nu implică activitatea managerială.
The totality of positions with the same or similar duties designates a function.
Functions (example: branch manager, commercial agent, developer, etc.) can
be:
- management, which performs management functions (forecast, organization,
coordination, etc.) and, respectively,
- execution, which does not involve managerial activity.

*Ponderea ierarhică (norma de conducere)


reprezintă totalitatea posturilor aflate în
subordinea nemijlocită a unui manager.
Ponderea ierarhică reprezintă de asemenea un indicator care reflectă raţionalitatea
sistemului organizatoric. O deficienţă des intalnită este aceea de subdimensionare a ponderii
medii ierarhice, ceea ce se traduce printr-un număr nejustificat de mare de angajaţi cu funcţii de
conducere in raport cu cei incadraţi pe posturi de execuţie, generand o productivitate a muncii
scăzută. Pe de altă parte, supradimensionarea ponderii medii ierarhice poate avea ca efect
diluarea controlului managerial şi scăderea productivităţii in activitatea managerilor.
The hierarchical share (the management rule) represents the total of the positions in the
the direct subordination of a manager.
Hierarchical weight is also an indicator that reflects rationality organizational system. A
common shortcoming is the under-dimensioning of the average hierarchical weight, which
translates into an inadequately large number of employees with functions ofmanagement in
relation to those assigned to the execution stations, generating labor productivity low. On the
other hand, the overshadowing of the average hierarchical weight can result in the expansion
of managerial control and the decrease of productivity in the managers of the activity.

*Organizarea structurală presupune: 1) proiectarea tuturor compartimentelor


dintr-o organizaţie,2) definirea posturilor aflate în structura acestora, precum şi
3)reglementarea relaţiilor organizatorice stabilite între ele.

The structural organization involves: 1) the design of all departments in an organization, 2) the
definition of the positions in their structure, and 3) the regulation of the organizational relations
established between them.

*Stiluri de leadership:
 Leadership Autoritar (autocratic)
 Leadership Participativ (democratic)
 Leadership Delegativ (laissez-faire)
Leadership Styles:

• Authoritarian Leadership (Autocratic)

• Leadership Participative (democratic)

• Leadership Delegations (laissez-faire)

Management actions

Establishing the organization’s objectives

• Sizing the resources necessary to achieve these objectives

• Discovering resource sources

• Creating and modifying the organizational framework in which


resources will be used in order to achieve the objectives

• Establishing working relationships between the defined

organizational components

• Encouraging and motivating human resources in achieving

their set objectives

• Tracking and controlling the processes created to achieve the

objectives, in order to insure their efficiency and effectiveness

• Identifying problems, establishing possible solutions, choosing

the most viable of them and implementing them