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Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor in engleza

A) Gradul comparativ al adverbelor in limba engleza

 Comparativul de superioritate al adverbelor in engleza se formeaza cu ajutorul:

- sufixului –er in cazul adverbelor monosilabice (si a adverbului early):

fast -> faster (repede -> mai repede)

early -> earlier (devreme -> mai devreme)

- cuvantului more in cazul adverbelor bi- si plurisilabice:

quickly -> more quickly (rapid -> mai rapid)

carefully -> more carefully (cu atentie -> cu mai mare atentie)

 Comparativul de egalitate al adverbelor in engleza se formeaza cu ajutorul lui as… asShe plays piano
as beautifully as her mother. (Canta la pian la fel de frumos ca si mama sa)

 Comparativul de inferioritate al adverbelor in engleza se formeaza cu ajutorul lui not so/as..as sau
less … than:

She doesn't read as well as her classmates. (Nu citeste la fel de bine ca si colegii ei de clasa.)

He is less carefully than his wife. (El este mai putin grijuliu decat nevasta sa.)

B) Gradul superlativ al adverbelor in engleza

 Superlativul absolut se formeaza cu ajutorul unor adverbe ca very (foarte), quite (destul de), most
(cel mai) Aceste adverbe preced adverbul respectiv:

She writes most beautifully.

She writes very beautifully.

She writes quite beautifully.

 Superlativul relativ de superioritate este exprimat prin:

- (the) (adverb)+est in cazul adverbelor monosilabice si a adverbului early:

He runs (the) fastest (of all). (El fuge cel mai repede (dintre toti)).

- (the) most + adverb in cazul adverbelor bi- si plurisilabice:


He answers (the) most intelligently. (El raspunde cel mai intelligent).

 Superlativul relativ de inferioritate este exprimat prin (the) least + adverb:

She speaks Italian the least fluently in her family. (Vorbeste italiana cel mai putin fluent in familia ei.)

 Comparatia adverbelor apare numai la unele adverbe de mod, loc si imp. Ea are aceleasi caracteristici
ca si comparatia adjectivului.

 Comparatia neregulata in a adverbelor in limba engleza

In limba engleza exista adverbe care formeaza gradele de comparative in mod neregulat, adica isi schimba
radacina in momentul in care intra in structura unor grade de comparatie.

We are the best. (Noi suntem cei mai buni.)

Andrew plays the violin better than Jessyca. (Andrew canta mai bine decat Jessyca la vioara.)

Mary solved the exercise the worst of all. (Marina a rezolvat exercitiul cel mai rau dintre toti.)

o Lista celor mai utilizate adverbe care au comparatia neregulata:

well (bine)- better (mai bine)- the best (cel mai bine)

badly (rau)- worse (mai rau)- the worst (cel mai rau)

much (mult)- more (mai mult)- the most (cel mai mult)

little (putin)- less (mai putin) -the least (cel mai putin)

far (departe)- farther (mai departe) -the farthest (cel mai departe)

Scrieti in caiete:

She spells words (the) least correctly (of all). (Ea scrie cuvintele cel mai putin corect (dintre toti)).

I arrived to my destination more quickly than my brother. (Am ajuns la destinatie mai repede decat fratele
meu.)

They run more slowly than her. (Ei alearga mai incet decat ea.)

He dances quite beautifully. (El danseaza destul de frumos.)

We do everything we want but more carefully. (Noi facem tot ce vrem dar cu o mai mare atentie.)

She speaks Italian as fluently as her brother. (Vorbeste italiana la fel de fluent ca si fratele ei.)
Andrew plays the violin better than Jessyca. (Andrew canta mai bine decat Jessyca la vioara.)

Mary solved the exercise the worst of all. (Marina a rezolvat exercitiul cel mai rau dintre toti.)

He travelled farther than we thought. (El a calatorit mai departe decat am crezut.)

Julia slept more than yesterday. (Julia a dormit mai mult decat ieri.)

We are the best. (Noi suntem cei mai buni.)

a) Formarea adverbelor de mod-ortografie:

Acestea se formeaza plecand de la adjective.

- Daca adjectivul se termina in -y, acesta se va inlocui cu -i + -ly


easy - easily (cu usurinta),     angry - angrily (furios, cu furie),     lucky - luckily (norocos)
- Când avem un -le la sfarsit (-able, -ible, -le), dispare -e si este inlocuit cu -y.
probable - probably (probabil, cu probabilitate),     terrible - terribly (teribil),     gentle - gently
(delicat, cu delicatete)
- Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga -ally.
basic - basically (fundamental, bazic),     economic - economically (economic),     tragic - tragically
(tragic)
 Exceptie: public - publicly (public, in public)

- Forme neregulate
true - truly (intradevar, cu adevarat),     due - duly (cum trebuie, cum se cuvine),     whole - wholly (in
intregime)
good [adj.] (bun) - well [adverb] (bine, cum trebuie)

b) Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele

early,   fast,   hard,   high,   late,   near,   straight,   wrong

Comparati:
This is a hard exercise. (adjectiv) - Acesta e un exercitiu greu
He works hard. (adverb) - El munceste din greu
We saw many high buildings. (adjectiv) - Am vazut multe cladiri inalte
The bird flew high in the sky. (adverb) - Pasăre a zburat inalt (sus) spre cer

c) Unor adjective le corespund doua forme de adverb, cu sensuri diferite

Adjectiv Adverbe Exemplu


1. deep   (adanc) - He looked deep into her eyes.
(El a privit adanc in ochii ei.)
deep   (adanc)
2. deeply   (profund, pana peste - She is deeply in love.
cap) (Ea e profund indragostita.)
- You can dial New York direct.
1. direct   (in mod direct)
(Poti suna la New York in mod direct.)
direct   (direct)
- He went there directly.
2. directly   (direct, fara intarziere)
(El a plecat direct (fara intarziere) acolo.)
- My mother came in first.
1. first   (intai, primul)
(Mama a intrat intai (prima).)
first   (primul, prima) - Firstly, I would like to welcome you here.
2. firstly   (in primul rand, mai
(In primul rand, as dori sa va urez bun venit
intai)
aici.)
Alte adjective cu adverbe asemanatoare: hard, light, just, last, late, most, near, right, round, short,
wrong.

De retinut! Uneori most poate avea sensul de very (foarte):

We are most grateful for your help. - Suntem foarte recunoscători pentru ajutorul tău

I am most impressed by this application. - Sunt foarte impresionat de această cerere.

Tema:

Completati propozitiile cu adverbele formate de la adjectivele din paranteza:

She swims ___. (good)

The car moved ___. (slow)

He worked ___. (hard)

They ran ___. (quick)

She ___ left the house. (quiet)

It is ___ midnight. (near)

We are ___ out on Sundays. (most)

Take it ___! (easy)

He is ___ related to me. (close)

Some people thinks all ___. (economic)

We ___ saw an angel. (true)

David is ___ in love. (deep)

Rezolvati exercitiul A si scrieti-l in caiete dup ace va verificati raspunsurile!

https://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.asp?id=12634