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Cuvntul educaie este de origine latin, deriv din substantivul educatio care nseamn cretere, hrnire, cultivare.

Educaia are sarcina de a pregti omul ca element activ al vieii sociale. Educaia este: - un tip particular de aciune uman, o intervenie sau direcionare, o categorie fundamental a pedagogiei. -arta de a forma bunele deprinderi sau de a dezvolta aptitudinile native pentru virtute ale acelora care dispun de ele.- Platon. -o activitate de stimulare a seminelor tiinei, ale moralitii i religiozitii, i implicit, de conducere a procesului de umanizare; omul nu poate deveni om dect dac este educat, J. A. Comenius -n acelai timp intervenie i neintervenie : Educaia negativ presupune nlturarea oricrui obstacol din calea dezvoltrii fireti, totul trebuind lsat s se produc de la sine fr nici o intervenie, Jean-Jacques Rousseau -este o aciune exercitat de generaiile adulte asupra celor ce nu sunt coapte pentru viaa social.; are ca obiect s provoace i s dezvolte n copil un numr oarecare de stri fizice, intelectuale i morale, educaia const ntr-o socializare metodic a tinerei generaii mile Durkheim, sociolog francez Caracteristicile educaiei - pune accent pe oameni, - urmrete dezvoltarea unor caliti umane i explorarea orizonturilor, - este orientat predominant spre pregtirea pentru via, - are n vedere, cu precdere, ntrebri asupra existenei, - vizeaz cu precdere dezvoltarea unei stri sau a unei structuri atinse, - finalitatea n educaie mbin viziunea pe termen scurt cu cea pe termen lung; - activitatea educaional este dinamic i flexibil n acelai timp, - stimuleaz idealul fiinei umane exprimat prin a fi i a deveni; - difer de la o etap istoric la alta n funcie de condiiile materiale i spirituale ale societii (feudalism monopolul clerului; sec. XIX amploarea nvmntului elementar i afirmarea pedagogiei; secolul XX un secol al copilului; ). - element vital pentru dezvoltarea civilizaiei, culturii umanitii, pentru creterea gradului de ordine i raionalitate n viaa social, pentru cultivarea valorilor spirituale i conferirea n acest fel a unui statut elevat condiiei umane. Educaia SP - educaia trebuie s fie un obiect al supravegherii publice, iar nu particulare- Aristotel, n lucrarea sa Politica; - educaia cuprinde trei subdiviziuni: guvernarea, nvmntul (realizarea unor obiective specifice) i educaia moral - Johann Frederich Herbart, pedagog german. - n rndul nevoilor umane, educaia se regsete deopotriv n rndul nevoilor individuale (ca nevoie secundar) i ca nevoie general (cale de instruire ieducare a speciei umane, prin cultur, art, nvmnt) - "servicii publice sociale": serviciile publice care aveau ca obiect social unic domeniul educaiei: cree, grdinie, tabere colare etc.; dei este evident c obiectul unor asemenea servicii are caracter social, totui trebuie luate n considerare i celelalte dou criterii i anume, modul de finanare i modul de funcionare.

- nvmntul i cultura, alturi de transporturi, telecomunicaii, comer, turism, ocrotirea sntii etc. sunt parte a sectorului teriar, n clasificarea sectorial propus de Jean Fourastie (J. Fourastie, Le grand espoir du XX-ieme siecle, Gallimard, Paris 1963). - statistici recente arat c omajul este n relaie cu nivelul de educaie: ca rata de omaj in UE-25 n rndul celor cu educaie la nivel teriar (studii superioare) a fost de 4,6%, n comparaie cu 8,1% pentru cei cu educaie secundar superioar (postliceal), i 11,4% pentru cei cu educaie primar. n toate statele membre s-a remarcat un anumit grad de corelare pozitiv ntre rata omajului total i ratele de omaj din rndul celor cu un nivel slab de educaie. coal primar coal primar n aer liber, cu nvtor (poza) Secondary education In most contemporary educational systems of the world, secondary education consists of the second years of formal education that occur during adolescence. It is characterised by transition from the typically compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors to the optional, selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary or high schools, gymnasiums, lyceums, middle schools, colleges, or vocational schools. The exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education varies from country to country and even within them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of education. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. In the United Kingdom and Canada primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for either higher education or vocational education, or to train directly to a profession. Higher education Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage or post secondary education, often known as academia, is the non-compulsory educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher education includes teaching, research and social services activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Higher education in that country generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. Adult education Lifelong, or adult, education has become widespread in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often
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branded as adult learning or lifelong learning. Adult education takes on many forms, from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning. Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. The rise in computer ownership and internet access has given both adults and children greater access to both formal and informal education. In Scandinavia a unique approach to learning termed folkbildning has long been recognised as contributing to adult education through the use of learning circles. Mode of Education. 1-formal education, 2-informal education , 3-Non formal education. Formal Education: the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded education system, running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full time technical and professional training. Informal Education: The truly lifelong process whereby every individual acquires attitude, values, skills and knowledge form daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment from family and neighbors, from work and play, from the market place the library and the mass media. Non-Formal Education: any organized educational activity outside the established formal system- whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives. Alternative education Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term which may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). This may include both forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability) and forms of education designed for a general audience which employ alternative educational philosophies and/or methods. Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community. In certain places, especially in the United States, the term alternative may largely refer to forms of education catering to "at risk" students.

Clasificarea internaional standard a educaiei (ISCED 1997 ) v. lectura


nvmnt teriar (nivel ISCED 5* + 6**) nvmnt postsecundar (nivel ISCED 4) nvmnt secundar superior (nivel ISCED 3) nvmnt secundar inferior (nivel ISCED 2) nvmnt primar (nivel ISCED 1) nvmnt preprimar (nivel ISCED 0)

ISCED este un standard internaional de clasificare a educaiei dezvoltat de UNESCO (Organizaia Naiunilor unite pentru tiin, Educaie i Cultur). ISCED 5 corespunde studiilor superioare de licen - masterat. Exist categoriile ISCED 5A (studii superioare cu accent pe teorie ofera calificari pentru accederea in programe de cercetare sau in profesii cu cerinte foarte pretentioase (intended to provide sufficient qualifications for gaining entry into advanced research programmes and profession with high skills requirements)) si ISCED 5B (studii superioare mai aplecate spre practic si cu scopul declarat de a oferi o calificare bine-determinata pentru piata muncii). V. lectura! * ISCED 5: not leading directly to an advanced research qualification ** ISCED 6: leading to an advanced research qualification Ierarhia instituiilor colare i ordinea parcurgerii treptelor n nvmntul din Romnia
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Vrsta

teriar (superior) masterat doctorat nvmnt postsecundar (postliceale; de maitri) nvmnt secundar superior (liceu / coal profesional) nvmnt secundar inferior (clasele V-VIII) nvmnt primar (clasele I-IV) grdinia (nvmnt preprimar / precolar)

Funcii didactice i grade tiinifice n nvmntul superior din Romnia, obinute prin concurs i examen Grad Funcii/grade didactice Evoluie tiinific Profesor consultant (Prof.) Doctor Profesor universitar (Prof.) (dr.) Confereniar universitar (Conf.) Lector universitar (Lect.) / ef lucrri .l. Doctorand Asistent universitar (Asist.) (drd.) Preparator universitar (Prep.) Funcii administrative, eligibile pe perioade de patru ani Nivelul de conducere Funcia Evoluie Catedr: ef catedr Membru n Biroul de conducere Facultate (Facultatea de comer, de Decan exemplu): Prodecan Secretar tiinific / Cancelar Universitate (ASE): Rector Prorector Secretar tiinific / Cancelar