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Universitatea Ovidius, Facultatea de Psihologie

Psihologie Manageriala

Roibu Luciana
Psihologie , anul III Sem I

MODELUL CONTINGENT (MODELUL SITUAIONAL INTERACIONAL)


Modelul contingent vizeaz o abordare primar a influenei asupra conducerii, considernd c situaia este cea care determin eficiena unui anumit tip de manager. Modelul contingent se bazeaz pe teoria psihologului austriac Fred Edward Fiedler, care arat c un stil de conducere este dependent de 4 variabile contingenionale: 1. puterea poziiei liderului (reprezint autoritatea formal, garantat de organizaie, de a dispune ce s fac alii; liderul aflat ntr-o poziie care i permite s recompenseze sau s sancioneze un subordonat - prin mustrri, prghii financiare, angajri sau concedieri - are mai mult putere, se afl ntr-o situaie favorabil de leadership i de exercitare a controlului) 2. structura grupului 3. sarcina (monoton, repetitiv sau dimpotriv, creativ; gradul de structurare - ridicat sau sczut - evalueaz msura n care sarcinile sunt clar determinate sau definite; cu ct sarcinile sunt mai bine structurate, cu att liderul va fi capabil s exercite o influen mai mare; atunci cnd obiectivele sunt precise, procedurile clare i liderul are posibilitatea de a evalua direct performana, capacitatea acestuia de a fixa standarde de performan i de a-i responsabiliza pe subordonai crete; n situaia n care sarcinile sau ndatoririle sunt vagi, neclare i nestructurate, liderul este pus ntr-o poziie necorespunztoare pentru a evalua munca subordonailor sau pentru a demonstra c abordarea sa este mai bun dect cea a membrilor grupului) 4. relaiile lider-subalterni (msoar gradul sau nivelul n care grupul sprijin liderul; un lider agreat, respectat, n relaii bune cu membrii grupului, se afl ntr-o situaie favorabil pentru exercitarea influenei; subordonaii i sunt loiali, l ajut, au ncredere n el i i urmeaz directivele; o relaie proast ntre lider i membrii grupului afecteaz influena liderului i poate duce la insubordonare i sabotaj) n realizarea modelului contingent, Fred Fielder pornete de la premiza c este mai uor s numeti ntr-o funcie un lider care se potrivete cu situaia dat, dect s adaptezi un lider dat

la situaia respectiv. Psihologul austriac arat c liderii pot s-i modifice stilul de conducere, s fie flexibili, pentru ca astfel stilul s fie n acord cu factorii situaionali. Din perspectiva sa, liderul este individul care trebuie s conduc i s coordoneze sarcinile grupului, sau persoana care este responsabil de realizarea acestora atunci cnd nu a fost desemnat nici un lider. Tabelul nr. 1. Modelul contingent Fielder Situaia Relaia manager-subordonat Structura sarcinilor Puterea managerului Stilul de manager eficient 1 B R M 2 B R m 3 B S M 4 B S m 5 P R M 6 P R m 7 P S M 8 P S m

Orientat spre Orientat spre relaii Orientat spre sarcini cu oamenii sarcini

B bune; P proaste; R ridicate; S- sczut; M mare; m mic. Teoria contingent-situaional a lui Fred Fielder propune drept factor principal al eficacitii grupului concordana dintre stilul liderului (trsturile de personalitate ale acestuia) i solicitrile concrete ale situaiei. Din perspectiva respectivului psiholog, principalul factor contingent n determinarea eficacitii unui lider este reprezentat de controlul situaional abilitatea liderului de a previziona ceea ce grupul urmeaz s fac. Fred Fielder consider c o conducere orientat spre sarcin ar putea fi eficient n diverse dezastre naturale, precum incendiile sau inundaiile. ntr-o situaie marcat de un grad mare de incertitudine relaiile dintre lider i membrii grupului sunt n general srccioase, sarcina este nestructurat iar puterea poziiei este slab. n aceste condiii, cel care i va asuma conducerea, va fi, de cele mai multe ori, o persoan care nu cunoate foarte bine grupul. ntr-o asemenea situaie, liderul orientat spre sarcin, care reuete s i ating obiectivele, este cel mai eficient. Un lider orientat spre relaiile cu ceilali ar pierde foarte mult timp cu aspecte legate de relaionare, situaiile putnd scpa de sub control, ceea ce ar implica, cel mai probabil, chiar i pierderea de viei.

O situaie aparte poate fi ntlnit i n cazul aa numitelor gulere albastre (muncitori), care simt nevoia unor sarcini foarte bine structurate, care s le permit s tie foarte clar ceea ce au de fcut. Puterea poziiei liderului poate fi foarte ridicat n cazul n care conducerea i susine deciziile. n plus, chiar dac liderul nu este unul orientat ctre relaiile cu ceilali, relaiile lider grup vor fi foarte puternice dac acesta va reui s obin promovarea sau mririle salariale dorite de subordonai. i n acest caz, stilul orientat ctre sarcin este mai eficient dect cel orientat ctre relaii. n schimb, stilul orientat ctre relaii este de preferat n condiiile n care situaia este moderat favorabil sau sigur. Un asemenea context este cel n care relaiile lider-subordonai sunt bune, sarcina este nestructurat iar puterea poziiei este slab. Un exemplu concludent n acest sens poate fi oferit de situaia cercettorilor (a oamenilor de tiin), care prefer s dispun de libertate n a-i urma instinctul creatv n soluionarea problemelor, i nu s primeasc sarcini deja structurate de ctre superiori. Prin urmare, asemenea situaii pot fi coordonate mai eficient de liderii orientai ctre relaii, dect de cei orientai ctre sarcin.

1. Hangzhou, Dec 29th 2010 Xiaojuan Wang

Contingent model of Chinese leadership: Challenge of internationalization for Chinese leaders


2. Agenda 1 China: Tradition and Modernization 4 2 Chinese Culture: evidence from GLOBAL study 7 Prototype leadership of different cultures 10 Insights from global study 11 3 Contingent model of Chinese leadership 14 integrated theoretical model 16 Suggestions for the managers 19 3. Contingent model of Chinese leadership China: Tradition and Modernization 4. China: Tradition and Modernization China has enjoyed great economic prosperity and societal development since then in 1978 when Chinese government decided to develop its economy with reform and open policy . Along with the economic prosperity and societal development , internationalization and scientific advancement transform Chinese behavior and values. Specifically, the youth generation are socialized by the society values and practices. Extreme long history and profound influences of Confucius philosophies make China different from all the other countries in the sense that the basic values, beliefs and preferences here are very difficult to change completely. Guanxi, power distance, Confucius ethics, loyalty, et al. still determines the individual `s preference and behavior to a great extent than nobody can ignore it. 5. Most influential philosophies in China: Confucianism Personal development: Confucianism argue that there is no end for learning and advancement and stress the individual contribution to family and country. Interpersonal relationship: Confucianism stress Five relationship that deal with the norms and duties of five pivotal relationships in society: ruler-minister, father-son, elder-younger brother, et al. Mencius (372 BC-289 BC) Confucius(551 BC 479 BC) Tung Chung-shu, (179BC104 BC) 6. Potential leading generalization the Bird's Nest Generation the Bird's Nest Generation Volunteers of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games elegant and proficient in foreign languages, good communication, respect for the rules, strong sense of responsibility, advocate participation, with the characteristics of the era of reform and opening China daily,2008 The group, aged 10 to 29, accounts for about one third of China's 1.3 billion people . 7. Contingent model of Chinese leadership Chinese Culture: evidence from GLOBAL study 8. External adaption-empirical evidence a: significantly higher than the other countries c: significantly lower than the other countries (House,et al.,2004) Value training and development Emphasizing results more than people Rewards performance Value assertiveness, competitiveness Value bonus and financial rewards It is most cherished by all the cultures among the cultural dimensions Performance orientation assertiveness p v p v Confucian Asia 4.58a

5.53c 4.09 4.54a Southern Asia 4.33 5.99a 3.86c 4.65a China 4.45 5.67 3,79 5.44 Indonesia 4.41 5.72 3.87 4,72 Singapore 4.9 5.73 4.17 4.41 9. Internal integration-empirical evidence Power is seen as providing social order, relational harmony Information is localized Limited upward social mobility Different groups have different involvement Strong normative historical influences Formalize their interaction with others Be orderly, keep meticulous records Take more moderate calculated risks Show stronger resistance to change a: significantly higher than the other countries c: significantly lower than the other countries (House,et al.,2004) Power distance Uncertainty avoidance p v p v Confucian Asia 4.19a 4.0a 4.42 4.74 Southern Asia 4.41a 3.77a 4.1 5.16a China 5.04 3.1 4.94 5.28 Indonesia 5.18 2.69 4.17 5.23 Singapore 4.99 3.04 5.31 4.22 10. Prototype leadership of different cultures House et al.,(2004) found that the same leadership was evaluated differently in various cultural background +: positive correlation between the cultural dimension and leadership -: negative correlation between the cultural dimension and leadership 11. Insights from GLOBAL study Problem arises when evaluating the effectiveness of different types of leadership if thinking Chinese cultural pattern rather than focus on the single cultural dimension. Obviously, Chinese managers have no idea of what kind of leadership is most suitable for them since some types of leadership on the opposite side if considering the three cultural dimension at the same time. Chinese leaders should adopt charismatic leadership, team oriented leadership, human oriented leadership, self-protective leadership et al., in order to gain success according to GLOBAL study. 12. Insights from Global study The key to solving the problems lies in finding out the contextual factors or moderate variables that influence the effectiveness and practicality of different leadership. individual differences? organizational variables? relational factors? cultural background? 13. Contingent model of Chinese leadership Contingent model of Chinese leadership 14. Findings from western viewpoints Western researchers have already proposed the contingent theory of leadership since half a century ago. Fiedler (1962):Contingency model of leadership effectiveness House (1971):path-goal theory Vroom and Yetton (1973) argued that the organizational structure, the threat faced by leaders and the group, the degree of formalization of the situation, the sophistication of the subordinates will influence the decisionmaking style of the leaders. Fiedler (1962) House (1971) 15. Findings from eastern viewpoints Zheng (1995) and other Asian scholars proposed the paternalistic leadership based on the Asian culture. The leaders behave like a father, and they provide support and protection for the followers not only in work situations but also in life. The followers trust and show their loyalty to leaders. Morality, friendliness and authority characterize paternalistic leadership, which means that the leaders use an authoritarian style, derogate subordinate capacity, manage the image and teach the followers to gain respect, trust and fear from the followers. Paternalistic leadership has very close relationship with Chinese culture, especially the Confucius philosophy. 16. integrated theoretical model western scholars should examine the effectiveness of contingent leadership theory in China, where culture is significantly different. Chinese scholars should do more study in evaluating the paternalistic leadership in a new perspective, which means that they should take the response of youth generation, the internationalization and scientific development into consideration. A model including individual differences, organizational variables, relational factors and cultural background

17. integrated theoretical model individual differences power of leader sophistication of the subordinates organizational variables organizational structure Formalization of tasks Challenge of global competition relational factors In-group vs. out-group cultural background Power distance Performance orientation Relevant variables Dimension of the contingent model Reciprocity-focused Personal growth &Well-being Information sharing Trust building Performance-focused High standards Performance improvements Material rewards Statusfocused Clear hierarchy Role model Protection & loyalty 18. integrated theoretical model demands Reciprocity-focused Performance- focused Statusfocused resource power of leader organizational structure sophistication of subordinates In-group vs. out-group Power distance Performance orientation Challenge of global competition Formalization of tasks 19. Suggestions for the managers cultivate democratic atmosphere and reduce power distance in organizations progressively in organization. keep an open mind with learning orientation know the most recent developed managerial ideology or theory. be cautious when applying the newly developed managerial theory There is no perfect and universal theory or method whose effectiveness is guaranteed find out one`s owe leadership patterns which combine characteristics of several kinds of leadership take one`s position, working industry and environment issues in to consideration when decide whether take certain leadership or not. 20. Global Competence for Asian Leaders An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics. Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local coworkers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers accomplishments. The principal investigators of the project are Dr. Hora Tjitra, Dr. Hana Panggabean, and the research team of the the Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), Zhejiang University of Technology (Hangzhou, China) and the Atma Jaya Indonesia Catholic University (Jakarta, Indonesia). Hora Tjitra Hana Panggabean Juliana Murniati Quan HE Jiewei ZHENG Chaohui ZHANG Teng SHENTU Jia ZHOU Xiaojuan WANG Dan ZHAO Xixie ZHANG Sebastian Partogi Yuanbo LIU Tayyibah Mushtaq Research Partners: Funding Partner: Zhejiang University China www.zju.edu.cn Zhejiang University of Technology China www.zjut.edu.cn Atma Jaya Catholic University Indonesia www.atmajaya.ac.id Human Capital Leadership Institute Singapore www.smu.edu.sg