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Despre război și pace.

Povestea pădurilor românești din timpul ocupației sovietice


înregistrată de programul satelitar spion american Corona

Mihai Daniel Nita, Bogdan Candrea


Idei principale
 Al doilea razboi mondial

 Programul satelitar spion american Corona

 SfM (Structure from Motion)

 Rezultatele cercetarii
Al doilea razboi mondial (WWII)

"It was history's greatest catastrophe…. World War II remains


by far the most costly war of all time. As many as 50 million
people died, a majority of them in their teens and early
twenties. The destruction defies belief. In the summer of 1945,
General Dwight Eisenhower flew from Berlin to Moscow at
eight hundred feet, on a clear day. He could not see a single
building still standing."

Stephen E. Ambrose
WWII– efecte

Efecte imediate Efecte pe termen lung


Source: Wikipedia
WWII– efecte imediate

Source: Wikipedia
WWII– efecte pe termen lung

Source: Wikipedia
WWII– efecte pe termen lung

Source: Wikipedia
WWII– efecte
Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jugashvili

Source: Wikipedia
Intrebarea centrala?
Cum a afectat WWII pe termen lung ecosistemele forestiere?
Localizare, impact, interval de timp
Ce cunoastem?
Sub unitatile mixte Sovietice-Romanesti (SOVROM), Romania trebuia sa
plateasca 1 million de metri cubi de lemn catre Uniunea Sovietica (Banu,
2004; Bekes et al., 2015), plus alte resurse (e.g. petrol, gaze, uraniu), in
schimbul expertizei rusesti (Bancila, 2016; Ben-ner and Montias, 2015;
Constantinescu, 1953).
Ce cunoastem?
Intre 1949 and 1964,
taierile au depasit limita
sustenabila cu 47% la
nivel de tara, iar in
special in padurile de
conifere cu 104%
(Marea Adunare
Nationala, 1976)

Programul national pentru


conservarea si dezvoltarea
fondului forestier in perioada
1976-2010
Obiective

Explorarea efectelor razboaielor


si conflictelor asupra
ecosistemelor forestiere prin
stabilirea perturbarilor
forestiere din timpul si dupa
ocupatia Sovietica (1945 –
1956)

Source: Wikipedia
Premise – Razboiul rece
Programul satelitar spion American Corona

“CORONA was the nation's first photo


reconnaissance satellites, operating
from August 1960 until May 1972.
The program was declassified at the
request of the Central Intelligence
Agency in February 1995.”

Source: http://www.nro.gov/history/csnr/corona/sysinfo.html
Programul satelitar spion American Corona
Programul satelitar spion American Corona

Song et al. (2015), Use of Landsat and Corona data for mapping forest cover change from the mid-1960s to 2000s: Case studies
from the Eastern United States and Central Brazil, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Volume 103
Programul satelitar spion American Corona

Probleme in procesare
• ortorectificarea este un proces
complex si consumator de timp
• lipsa informatiilor legate de misiune
• diferente intre misiuni
• Nivel ridicat de distorsiune spatiala

http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue32/2/ - Casana et al. (2012) - Swords into Ploughshares: Archaeological Applications of CORONA
Satellite Imagery in the Near East
Material
SfM (Structure from Motion)

Source: Barnes et al. 2016


Structure from motion. Concept

Solutia matematica
ce cuantifica
perceptia ochiului
asupra obiectelor

http://www.tnt.uni-hannover.de/project/motionestimation/
Structure from motion. Concept

http://www.tnt.uni-hannover.de/project/motionestimation/
Aplicare geocorectii imaginilor Corona folosind SfM
SfM. Alinierea fotografiilor
Key descriptors
Detectors in photo set

Matching descriptors
Determining similar points seen
from multiple scenes
Detecteaza puncte in fotografiile sursa care sunt
stabile dpdv al unghiului de vizibilitate si variatiilor de
Scene adjustment
Estimating camera positions in a lumina.
singular reference system
Pentru aceste puncte se calculeaza descriptori care
sunt o descriere amanuntita a vecintatilor
Point cloud densification
Projecting the dense point cloud
in 3D scene
SfM. Alinierea fotografiilor
Key descriptors
Detectors in photo set

Matching descriptors
Determining similar points seen
from multiple scenes

Scene adjustment
Estimating camera positions in a
singular reference system

The Hamming distance between:


Point cloud densification •"karolin" and "kathrin" is 3.
Projecting the dense point cloud •"karolin" and "kerstin" is 3.
in 3D scene •1011101 and 1001001 is 2.
•2173896 and 2233796 is 3.
SfM. Alinierea fotografiilor. Descriptori
SfM. Alinierea fotografiilor. Descriptori
SfM. Georeferentierea norului de
puncte Se aproximeaza locatiile camerei care se
ajusteaza din aproape in aproape
Key descriptors
Detectors in photo set
Pe baza punctelor de legatura si a relatiilor cu
punctele de control se reajusteaza parametrii
interni ai sistemului ajungandu-se la o prima
Matching descriptors
solutie
Determining similar points seen
from multiple scenes

Scene adjustment
Estimating camera positions in a
singular reference system

Point cloud densification


Projecting the dense point cloud
in 3D scene

Etapa este repetitiva pana se ajunge la rezultatul tinta


SfM. Georeferentierea norului de
puncte
Key descriptors
Detectors in photo set

Matching descriptors
Determining similar points seen
from multiple scenes

Scene adjustment
Estimating camera positions in a
singular reference system

Point cloud densification


Projecting the dense point cloud
in 3D scene
Structure from motion. Densificare
Structure from motion. Densificare
SfM. Interpolarea DSM
Key descriptors
Detectors in photo set

Matching descriptors
Determining similar points seen
from multiple scenes

Scene adjustment
Estimating camera positions in a
singular reference system

Point cloud densification


Projecting the dense point cloud
in 3D scene
SfM. Produsul final - ortomozaic
Management silvic
Management silvic
Management silvic
Management silvic
Zone urbane
Zone urbane
R
e
z
o
l
u
t
i
a
Rezultate
1. Eficienta si acuratetea metodei

Timp mediu de orto-


georeferenţiere pentru
o pereche
stereografica 150
minutes
Rezultate
1. Eficienta si acuratetea metodei

Puncte de control analizate 934


Rezultate
1. Eficienta si acuratetea metodei
Rezultate
2. Cartarea perturbarilor din padure
Rezultate
2. Cartarea perturbarilor din padure

Corona 1964 Harta silvica 2014 Harta topgrafica ~1975


(DTM)
Rezultate
2. Cartarea perturbarilor din padure
Research results
2. Cartarea perturbarilor din padure
Research results
2. Cartarea perturbarilor din padure

Taierile rase si definitive


din perioada 1955-1965 au
reprezentat 8.7% din totalul
de suprafata impadurita, de
2.8 ori mai mare fata de
perioada autohtona care a
fost 3.1% inregistrata din
2004 to 2014 (Hansen)

Romania a pierdut mai


mult de 6 ha/ora de padure
batrana
Concluzii
Va multumesc pentru atentie!