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Cursul 14

Cladiri inalte sustenabile


5 iunie 2012 Curs cladiri inalte master IC 1
Introducere
Dezvoltare sustenabila (sommet-ul de la Rio, 1992):
Development which meets the needs of the present generation
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs.
Biblio:
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Biblio:
[1] Mir M. Ali and Paul J. Armstrong, Overview of Sustainable Design Factors in
High-Rise Buildings, CTBUH 8th World Congress 2008.
[2] Mir M. Ali and Paul J. Armstrong, Strategies for Integrated Design of Sustainable
Tall Buildings, AIA Report on research, 2006.
[3] Will Pank, Herbert Girardet, Greg Cox, Tall Buildings and Sustainability, Report
for the corporation of London, 2002.
[4] Rovers Ronald, How Tall is a sustainable building?, XXIII UIA World Congress of
Architects, Torino, Italy 2008.
Ce face o cladire sa fie verde?
Cladirile verzi sunt proiectate ca sa indeplineasca anumite obiective, cum
ar fi protejarea sanatatii ocupantilor; imbunatatirea productivitatii angajatilor;
utilizarea energiei, apei si a altor resurse mai eficient; reducerea impactului
global asupra mediului
Care sunt beneficiile economice ale
cladirilor verzi?
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O cladire verde poate avea un cost initial mai mare, dar economiseste
prin costuri de functionare mai reduse pe timpul pierioadei de exploatare
a constructiei. Abordarea verde implica utilizarea unei analize a costului
pe durata de viata pentru a determina care este costul initial optim.
Care sunt elementele unei cladiri verzi?
Amplasament
Eficienta Energetica
Materiale Eficiente
Eficienta in folosirea apei
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Amplasament si utilizarea terenului
Accommodating the same number of people in a tall building of 50 storeys
as in a large building of 5 storeys requires roughly one tenth of the land [3].
Accommodate or die : To remain a major world city London must
accommodate significant growth within its existing boundaries. [Tall Buildings in
London: Vision of the Future or Victims of the Past? Development Securities PLC by Ricky Burdett,
Kathryn Firth, Tony Travers with Victoria Scalongne and Antonio Lipthay of the LSE Cities]
Exista si pareri contrare [4], argumentate de ex cu tabelul de mai jos:
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Exista si pareri contrare [4], argumentate de ex cu tabelul de mai jos:
Forma cladirii si utilizarea
The exterior shape and texture of large buildings make up the views that people
see of the City, and form many of the impressions they take away from it. Tall
buildings already punctuate Londons skyline while their services at street level
add texture to the grain of the City. [3]
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The average life of buildings in the UK is 50 years, whereas the average length of
occupancy is 7 years12. The majority of tall buildings in London are initially financed by
commercial developers and leased to the occupiers for a number of years. As the socio-
economic drivers change throughout the lifespan of a building, so the demands on the
building alter.
Designing new buildings for flexibility of use and the potential for future change helps
ensure their usefulness throughout their life.
Reusing a buildings structure and over-cladding allows improvements to be made to the
Forma cladirii si utilizarea
5 iunie 2012 Curs cladiri inalte master IC 7
Reusing a buildings structure and over-cladding allows improvements to be made to the
energy efficiency of towers with use of modern controlled heating and cooling systems
specially designed for the altered use of the building.
Structura cladirii
Impactul tipului de planseu
5 iunie 2012 Curs cladiri inalte master IC 8
Embodied Eco Distribution of
Building Materials
Embodied Ecopoints of Flooring Options
Structura cladirii
Stabilitate si eficienta structurala
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Comparatie intre structurile de otel [3] Comparatie intre structurile de beton [3]
Structura cladirii
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Relatia intre inaltime si greutate [4]
Fundatii
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Comparatie intre impactul asupra mediului al fundatiilor la cladiri inalte si de inaltime medie [3]
Energie inglobata in materiale
Intr-o cladire de birouri tipica, energia inlobata reprezinta 10-20 % din
energia totala consumata pe durata medie de viata de 50 de ani. [3]
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Energie inglobata in materialele de constructie in USA [3]
Energie inglobata in materiale
Concrete accounts for 5-7% of the worlds CO2 emissions.
1 tonne of cement:
uses 4000-7500 MJ energy
releases 1-1.2 tonnes CO2
Cement replacement materials can make concrete more sustainable:
Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) requires 150-400 MJ/tonne
Ground blast-furnace slag requires 700-1000MJ/tonne
Steel is used as the primary structure in 70 per cent of multi-storey buildings in the
UK. Energy consumption inproduction has reduced by 30 per cent over the past 30
years.
1 tonne of hot-rolled steel produced from iron ore requires 31000 MJ energy.
1 tonne of steel from recycled scrap requires 11000 MJ energy (SCI).
Recycled 86 per cent
Reused 13 per cent
Land-filled 1 per cent
Utilizarea energiei
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Utilizarea energiei in cladiri de birouri
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Utilizarea energiei in cladiri de birouri
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Dar consumul creste cu inaltimea
Utilizarea energiei in cladiri de birouri
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Utilizarea energiei in cladiri
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Ecology of the Building Geometry - Environmental performance of different building shapes ,
Andy van den Dobbelsteen, Simon Thijssen, Valentina Colaleo & Thomas Metz , paper at
CIB2007 congress
Extremele se ating cladirea turn si cladirea omida au acelasi index de eficienta!
Iluminatul
Issues for luminaires in tall buildings:
Integration with daylight
Building identification on flight paths
External lighting and the buildings visual appearance
Minimising external Light Spill and Light Pollution
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Transportul pe verticala
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External Lift and Stair Cores for the Lloyds
Register of Shipping Building
Apa si canal
Cateva metode pentru reducrerea consumului de apa::
- Rainwater Collection
- Low Flow Wash Hand Basins
- Dual Flow WCs
- Dry Urinals
- Grey water recycling
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Orientation on Plan: Daylight and Passive Solar Gain
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Tower 42 and Cluster of Existing Tall Buildings in the City
Building Shape and the Effects of Wind
The shape and profile of a tall
building determines its performance
in wind.
Shape not only affects the loading on
the structure, but also has an impact
on conditions in the surrounding
streets and buildings.
Good aerodynamic design has a
beneficial impact on the structural
frame of a tower in terms of
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frame of a tower in terms of
materials, and on the comfort of
pedestrians at ground level.
Building Shape and the Effects of Wind
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
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Flower Tower Plan
Faade Engineering
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Ventilated Double Skin Faade on the HSBC Headquarters
Towards the Sustainable Operation of Tall Buildings
Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
Photovoltaics
Wind turbines
Fuel Cells
Water Conservation
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Towards the Sustainable Operation of Tall Buildings
Potentialul fotovoltaic in diverse orase:
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